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Hydraulically-bound Mixtures for Pavements

Glossary of terms Foreword 1. Introduction 2. Binder selection 3. Soil/aggregate selection 4. Site investigation and preliminary assessment 5. Mixture design 6. Construction 7. Testing References and further reading 2 3 4 9 13 16 19 28 51 55

Glossary of terms
ASS Air-cooled steel slag BS EN European Standard published by BSI CBM Cement-bound material CBR California Bearing Ratio Cement Portland cement to BS EN 197-1 E Modulus of elasticity (also termed elastic stiffness or element modulus/stiffness) EN European standard Fly ash Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) also known as coal y ash gbs(& GBS) Granulated blastfurnace slag ggbs Ground-granulated blastfurnace slag GPa Gigapascal HBM Hydraulically-bound mixture HRB Hydraulic road binder (factory blended hydraulic binder for road use) IBI Immediate bearing index (immediate CBR without surcharge rings) Lift Referring to layer, which depending on depth, can be constructed in one or more lifts Lime quick lime (CaO) or hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2] also known as slaked lime MCV moisture condition value MPa Megapascal (or N/mm2 or MN/m2) OMC Optimum moisture content PI Plasticity index of a clay (difference between the liquid and plastic limits) Rc Compressive strength (normally determined on cylinders with a slenderness ratio of 1 or cubes) Rimm The ratio of the strength of specimens cured unprotected in water after an initial period of sealed curing, to the strength of specimens cured totally in sealed conditions for the same total time period Rit Indirect tensile strength (also known as the Brazilian or cylinder splitting strength) S Sulfur SO4 Sulfate


This guide covers the stabilisation of naturally occurring soils or other materials to improve their mechanical properties and performance for use in capping layers, sub-bases and bases as shown in Figure 1. This document, to be in line with European standards and Highways Agency documents, covers treatment with cement and the full range of hydraulic combinations based on y ash, granulated blastfurnace slag, gypsum and lime. The resulting materials are known as hydraulically-bound mixtures (HBM).
Figure 1
Construction layers (highlighted in blue) where hydraulically-bound mixtures are used (diagrammatic only)

After the introduction, which describes HBM and what they do, the guide describes the following aspects of HBM: binder selection soil/aggregate selection site investigation and preliminary assessment mixture design production and construction construction control. Each part is designed to be stand-alone and self-contained. Thus for example, should the reader be familiar with the capabilities of the various hydraulic and pozzolanic materials, the rst part can be glossed over, or, if guidance is sought solely on construction, then reference need only be made to the fth and sixth parts. A construction summary is also included in chapter 6 where time does not permit digestion of the whole construction section. Intentionally, the guide does not cover thickness design and specication, but should provide the background for the formulation of such application documents. Much of what follows is of direct relevance to the treatment of contaminated materials where a process called stabilisation and solidication can be used to immobilise contaminated materials as well as improving their engineering properties. Similarly, much is of direct relevance to pavement recycling work. However, these techniques are not the subject of this publication.