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Lesson: Whats the Matter?

Second Grade 35-40 minutes Goals/Objectives


Students will identify and compare the three states of matter and make observations for each. Students will be able to explore and investigate the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

Standards The following lesson relates to the The Framework for K-12 Science Education. 1. Disciplinary Core Idea Dimension 3: Physical Sciences o Core Idea PS1: Matter and Its Interactions PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter 2. Crosscutting Concepts Energy and Matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation 3. Scientific Practices Asking questions; Analyzing and interpreting data; Constructing explanations; Engaging in argument from evidence; Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Based on the Science a Process Approach, students will practice the following: making observations; classifying objects; making predictions and inferences; communication skills. Materials

1 whiteboard easel and a few markers carbonated water 6 transparent plastic cups 5 helium balloons salt pennies uncooked rice orange juice scissors student data sheet Picture book: What Is the World Made Of? by Kathleen Zoehfeld

Classroom Arrangement and Management Issues 1. The lesson will take place in a small pod area outside of the classroom which will provide the teacher with a more quiet and private space to conduct the lesson. The six students intended for this lesson will be removed from the classroom, so they are not distracted by their classroom teachers instruction and the remaining students. Throughout the lesson, students will sit on tables (3 students per table), so they have enough space to work with their materials. Prior to starting the lesson, the teacher will set up the small whiteboard easel across from where the students will sit. 2. Students will be asked to take one pencil and eraser with them before going outside to the pod area for their lesson. The materials will be handed to the each group of students before the start of the activity. 3. Some management concerns might arise while students are working in groups. Conversations about subjects other than science might start to emerge as the teacher attends to others. The teacher might consider giving students extra work if they finish early and time the activity, so they are aware of the time constraint and stay focused on the task. The teacher might tell students that she will send them back if they dont stay on task.

Plan The Body (30 mins) Hook and Guided Practice (10 mins) 1. In todays lesson I will be asking you to think about matter. Who can tell me what are the three states of matter (ask a student to name one and so forth until we have the three). I am so glad you guys remember what the three states of matter are! Teacher will introduce gases if nobody mentions it. 2. This is good time for the teacher to make the distinction between the two definitions of matter. She may provide two examples of sentences that use the word in different contexts to deepen their understanding. She might pose the following two questions: whats the matter Tom? and what matter do you think this object is made of? Then she would explain how each one of those questions means different things. 2. As we do our investigation as scientists, I would like you to think about two things: How are the three states of matter similar? How are the three states of matter different? 3. We are going to have our own experiment with different states of matter. In the next part of the lesson, we are going to investigate differences among solids, liquids and gases. 4. First I am going to ask you what you observe when I pour this carbonated water in a cup. (If anybody doesnt know what carbonated water is I will explain it is like soda kind of bubbly and fizzy. All items on Earth can be placed into one of three groups: solid, liquid, gas. So, which group would you place this carbonated water in and WHY. Teacher will emphasize that as scientists we will need to prove our inferences by what is given to us. She will spend a few minutes talking about what it means to infer. She will record their responses on the board and then elaborate on them by facilitating discussion between her and the students. Independent Practice (20 mins) 1. Now, I am going to ask you to split into two groups. I will split you down the middle. Each group will get five balloons labeled 1 5. Everyone in the group must get a chance to feel the balloon, write down whether they believe the object is a solid, liquid, or gas, and talk about their inferences. We will discuss these together as a group afterwards.

2. Come back as a group and compare observations. I will record on the board. 3. Teacher will cut the knot of each balloon and pour the material in a transparent plastic cup. She will compare with the students responses and ask them to explain the reasoning behind their answers and compare it to others. She will conclude by asking: how can we tell a solid from a liquid? What sort of materials can I pick up with my hand? Which materials need to be held in the cup? Closure (10 mins) Teacher will close the lesson by restating the objective of the day and what they have learned. Today we looked at matter in all three states: solid, liquid, and gas. We made some observations and inferences about the characteristics of materials in each of those three categories. Scientists sort materials into categories based on COMMON CHARACTERISTICS. As scientists, we put our objects into three categories: solids, liquids, and gases. As you go on throughout the day, I want you to use your senses to group other objects and guess whether they are solid, liquid, or gas. Keep this in mind as we read our book What the World is Made of by Kathleen Zoefield. As I read, I want you to think about if you had any similar experiences observing objects in different states of matter as the main characters do. I want to thank everyone for being good listeners and observers. You all did a wonderful job, and I am so proud of everyone for participating. The teacher will then instruct the students to take their pencils with them and quietly return back to their classrooms. Assessment At the end of this lesson, it is important to know whether students have understood the three different states of matter and the properties that define them. The conversations that students have with their partners, their verbal and written responses, and the teachers observations during the lesson will all serve as evidence to assess students understanding. These different forms of evidence will be gathered primarily through active listening and making observations. The teacher will walk around as the students work in their groups to listen in on their conversations by paying close attention to how they describe the different objects and the kinds of inferences they make about the three different states. The evidence of student learning gathered during the lesson will help the teacher determine how well the students are progressing towards the goal for the lesson. Have they gained a basic understanding of the three states of matter? How well can they apply their thinking to their classmates explanations during the discussion? During the read aloud, the teacher will gauge their understanding of the three different states of matter by their responses to the questions posed in the book. Anticipating students responses and your possible responses 1. A potential issue that may arise during the activity is the students reliance on their group members to guess the answer and simply copy one anothers responses. If this seems to be happening, the teacher may ask students to take turns guessing, so everyone gets a chance to contribute. 2. Below you will find some possible teacher responses to some anticipated student responses that might come up during the lesson: a. Anticipated response 1: Its solid because its hard. Possible teacher response 1: Can you show me an example of a solid object that is not hard? How do you think thats different from the hard object? Can you explain a little bit more? b. Anticipated student response 2: Theres nothing in it because its empty. Possible teacher response 2: Well, what if I decide to open the bag and flatten it out, what do you think is in the bag now?

Accommodations 1. Accommodations for students who may find the work challenging can be considered by making sure they are grouped with students who can help/guide them through the task. 2. Questions such as How would you describe the three states of matter that you have identified? Can you write down some of their characteristics? What are some other things that you notice about them? Do all the solids look the same? can be posed to students who finish early to help extend their understanding.