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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODLOGY

3.0 Chapter overview

This chapter evaluates and considers the researcher methodological choices and justification. The chapter discusses the overall approach along with the philosophical choices made during the data collection methods followed by aftermath effects of the outcome based on the work presented within the type of research chosen. For the purpose of this dissertation the researcher has chosen to use deductive, positivism quantitative methodology where the

sampling population rests upon convenient sampling technique laid within the structure of British Petroleum. 3.1 Rationale for the research

Before discussing the actual methodological choices and their suitability it is important to re-present the works rationale. Feedback is seen as an integral part of growth within organisations, big, small, large or medium sized enterprises (Griffin and MoorHead, 2011). Feedback is the link that binds leaders and employees and potentially facilitates a working relationship that should enhance the productivity of an organisation (Undung, De, 2009). Job loss has been attributed to employees underperforming (Keller 2009), subsequently in order to reinstate and to build confidence within the potential employees 360-degree feedback as been used widely and in relation to this research used by BP to negate staff attrition, increase staff motivation and enhance productivity. BP believes that such measures align staff with corporate values and beliefs and bridges the gap between the employees experience and expectations (B.P, 2011). With the above in mind this research seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the 360 program in relation to its meeting the criteria as set out by BP and the central proposition that such objectives raise awareness among

employees (Leanne et al., 2007) and stimulating growth (Undung and Guzman, 2009). 3.2 Aim and Objectives

3.2.1 Aim

The Primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback from an employee perspective rather than a managerial approach, normally associated with this field, at British Petroleum, Cranford.

3.2.2 Objectives

1. To analyse the impact of 360 degree on employee performance while exploring those potential areas that needs considerable attention in terms of development and implementation within the British Petroleum.
2. Has 360 degree feedback mechanism met the standards set by British Petroleum in

bridging the gap between the employee expectations/performance based on revised theories proposed by Maslow, Hertzberg and Barnard towards their developmental activities.

3.3 Research question

1. Do past 360degree feedback affect the employee performance in developing their professional activities? 2. How far 360-degree feedback be held responsible for producing an attitudinal change within the employees based on Maslow, Hertzberg and Barnard theories in meeting British Petroleums goals and objectives developing their professional activities.

3.4 0 Overall approach

3.4.1 Inductive

Unlike deductive approach inductive is based on collecting empirical data within a given context and then making generalised statement to cover all situations (McMurray,

2004). Inductive method is normally used in qualitative method and takes a naturalistic approach within a given context where people are put to test noting their behavioural changes generally termed under ethnography (Paul G Nester 2011). Here observations are taken into consideration as a manner of arguments carried out in an informal manner (Ben Beiske, 2003). The greatest advantage of having an inductive method is its open ended, process oriented, does provide constant comparison and narrative description however on the down side it can be highly subjective as it does not consider general masses and theories during its research process.

3.4.2 Deductive

For the purpose of this study it is important to have the right approach in order to ensure that the data collected be interpreted within the given context. The former deals with more systematic logical approach based on calculations where a theory is built on accepted truths (Jon Curwin, 2008). Deductive unlike inductive begins with general and moves to more specifics where conclusion follows logically after premises. Here arguments are based on laws, regulations generally accepted and used in a more formal setting. The advantage of the deductive methods is that it is objective, questions are pre-qualified, outcome oriented and analysis is based on numerical or statistical inference (Aqil, 2008). Disadvantage is that it moves from too general as this does not represent the entire population at hand and may not represent the views of the entire community under research. 3.4.3. Justifiable reasons for choosing Deductive Method Quite often it is hard for the researcher to choose between qualitative and quantitative research designs which might swing from one thing to another depending upon the nature of

the research. However for the following research which rests on how the feedback has been perceived from an employee perspective based on quantitative method, deductive and positivism methodology. The reasons for choosing deductive in this case: follows a more general concept like 360-degree, tool that has been extensively used by various fortune companies in the world and implemented within their given context. Here it is BP which is a large corporation in itself using this technique to meet it desired end in terms of performance, to seek comments or advice for business expansion, to improve professional efficiency and to clarify its own aims and objectives aligning them with its roots. Secondly for BP is to enhance the professional development of the employees and supporting cultural ethos while building lasting relationships as perceived by the Managers including employee growth (BP, 2011).

3.5 Philosophical approach

3.5.1 Interpretivism

Unlike positivism in this process the researcher is passionately involved and might be influence the given situation and context using qualitative analysis. Here the research is being facilitated by an understanding of how things work however the down side is that due to passionate attachment of the researcher the data collection will take a longer time, uncertainties during the research process and finally seen as less credible (Robert, Kaplan, David Norton, 2007)

3.5.2 Positivism

Within this research positivism plays a vital role in recognizing and understanding the way relationships are interconnected while analysing the 360-degree feedback in a more scientific way. Unlike interpretivism focuses upon the human perceptions which could be subjective (Creswell, 2009, 35). In doing so the researchers views and opinions are not coloured by opinions based on data collected. In order to get as much closer analysis of data the researcher has used Maslow, Hertzberg and Barnards theories that confine to the desired results hence quantitative data is being used here. Thus it becomes easy for the researcher to collect, analyse and use the data as one is dispassionately separated during the analysis process. However the downside it is inflexible and hard to change.

3.5.3 Justification in choosing Positivism Positivism is the key in determining the objective interpretation of the raw data collected in reality from questionnaires examining them in the light of phenomenology (Veal, 2006). Though it is clear that phenomenology is associated with induction and qualitative methods. However for the purpose of this research conducted within sociological environment based on human relationships gives more control and opportunity for the researcher to work around the research process. It also gives clarity for the researcher in analysing the data collected or makes the process of data collection faster and economical. If any possible data available based on the previous research will help in testing the hypothesis in this research and keeps the researcher distanced from the research (Saunders et al., 2007). 3.6 Data collection As mentioned earlier that for the purpose of this research the data rests upon both primary and secondary data. Secondary data rests upon journals, articles, books, internet sources while primary data comprises of questionnaire survey within the British Petroleum.

During the data process all the confidentiality of the data is maintained at all times and one is free to withdraw at any time of the research process. No deception of any kind or misleading of information has been done.

3.6.1 Qualitative As mentioned earlier that there exists a close proximity between phenomenology and inductive methods commonly used in a qualitative research (Saunders et al., 2007). Qualitative research focuses upon the context in which behaviours are analysed and studied based on experiences and emotions while probing into the nature (Levent Altinary, 2008). Qualitative analysis gives an in-depth understating of the situation under study making adjustments for new concepts and theories developing along the way in a more natural way rather than artificial. It gives freedom to the researcher to develop as the research progresses in gathering the necessary information and is not restricted by pre determined values. On the down side the process is long, tedious and time consuming. It is hard to analyse the data and difficult to control the data process as it either progresses in multi directional manner and due to emerging of new concepts it is hard to determine its reliability. 3.6.2 Quantitative method Used

Quantitative method has its philosophical roots in naturalistic and positivistic approaches: the former deals with individual aspects in understanding the given problem while the latter focuses upon the common phenomenon upon which people agree based on values, behaviours within a given context (Family Health International, 2011). With the quantitative methods within this research the researcher uses questionnaires; followed by structures observation which are close ended. The data format for quantitative approach rests on numerical data. Unlike any other methods flexibility existing within this model which

allows the researcher to do a meaningful and comprehensive report based on the responses generated within the given context in particularly relating to British Petroleum. One can cite various advantages in following a philosophical approach that clarifies, refines guides the researcher to include the type of evidence needed and its interpretation based on the research questions. It also helps in identifying and utilizing appropriate methodologies knowing its limitations at an early stage. Finally it assists the researcher to go beyond the methods to explore ones creativity and innovativeness thinking beyond experience (Smith et al 2007).

3.6. 2 Reasons for Chosen Quantitative Approach This dissertation is based on questionnaire survey chosen from a general population moving towards specific mainly produces results expressed through numbers and answers questions on a five scale has strong holdings upon the small business enterprises. The data collected are statistically reliable and the results are easily projectable to the given context utilizing 360-degree feedback. 3.7 Research design 3.7.1 Sampling Process This paper takes into consideration based on the framework given by Bryman and Bell (2003) on theoretical sampling in conjunction with literature review and analysis in choosing participants based on convenient sampling method. The primary purpose is to get a detailed analysis and answers based on quantitative analysis on the data collected through the research process. The questionnaire outlining the employees of the British Petroleum involving the following segments: Achievement focus, planning and decision making, creativity and skills, resource management, performance management and improvement, Relationships and

Change management in order to get a feedback of the employees based on professional developmental activities. Initial contact was done over the phone contacting the HRM of the BP and expressing the wish to conduct a research in response to which the letter was sent to me highlighting the purpose, procedures, expectations and the detailed outline expected in line with the ethics set by UWIC. There HRM took the responsibility to distribute the questionnaire to nearly 80 employees chosen on a convenient sampling method. Out of which 50 of them responded to participate within the research process. Then the questionnaires were sent for scrutiny to the HRM for approval once approved was distributed to the employees based on the segments mentioned above. The questionnaires were based on the those areas that requires considerable attention in terms of development within the BP secondly to bridge the gap existing between the employee expectations/performance based on revised theories proposed by Maslow, Hertzberg and Barnard towards their developmental activities.

3.7.2 Participant respondent The response rate depends upon the participants however for the time being 80 employees were being contacted and one 50 confirmed their interest in participating within the British Petroleum, Cranford branch .The population forms 80% of the total employee strength of the organization consisting of 40 sales assistants, 2 deputy managers, 3 duty managers and 1 store manager. These employees are segmented based on their age, gender, employment and relationships.

3.8 Actual data collection method

The primary objective of this questionnaire is to elicit the primary data of the participants views based on their professional development activities covering various areas as the topic relates to 360-degree overall enhancement of the employees within BP. Questionnaire is organized in a more sequential form starting from Age, Gender, Qualifications, Achievement focus, planning and decision making, creativity and skills, resource management, performance management and improvement, Relationships and Change management. The very purpose of the questionnaire is to check each of the areas mentioned above that enhances the overall 360-degree employee performance development from the perspective of the employees and secondly to illicit an attitudinal change within the employees while answering questions relating to Maslow, Hertzberg and Barnard theories in meeting British Petroleums goals and objectives developing their professional activities. Once the questionnaires are received and placed within the categories mentioned above are then represented with the aid of graphical chats using excel coding.

3.9 Data analysis The methodology employed here reflects the excel data matrix and coded and recorded using numerical codes which makes data entry substantially easy and reduces errors. Once the data has been collected

3.10 Reliability Reliability is associated with the quality of measurement instrument used in validating the data (Danie Mullis, 2004). In our context it is the measurement of scores at the end of the questionnaire measured within the given context at that particular time of testing and does not reflect the entire population. However in order to make reliability more concrete the

correlation analysis is being used making the data analysis more reliability coefficient ranging from 0 to 1 for zero represents 0% and one represents 100% reliability which is in close proximity might be hard to achieve. Hence anything beyond or close to 0.9% is quite acceptable and reliable. In order to calculate the reliability of the data collected SPSS (Statistical packages of Social Sciences) has been used while the standard five scales measurement has been taking into consideration here.

3.11 Validity

Validity refers to the accuracy of the data collected and interpreted on the basis of qualitative analysis (David Clark, 2010) based on the questionnaire conducted within the BP and the data observed. Reliability and validity go hand in hand for reliability rests upon validity for confirmation (Levent Altinary, 2008). In our context the validity rests upon the self-report data completed by the participant themselves and the process of the data collected and the variables used based on performance mentioned in 3.8 data collection method above utilizing Likert-scale and Taxonomy method that measures the variables in the form of Strongly agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly disagree. For the purpose of validity nearly 80 employees were approached out of which 50 responded using convenient random method where the analysis is based on 24 questions segmented under the following areas: Achievement focus, planning and decision making, creativity and skills, resource management, performance management and improvement, Relationships and Change management.

3.12 Ethics

This study involves human considerations in terms of experimental procedures and it is important to ensure that no statutory rights of human beings be harmed in anyways either psychologically or physically. Following the guidelines provided by UWIC that the participant is free and willingly supports ones participation voluntarily without any external pressure as the content relates to motivational and employee performance developmental activities within the British Petroleum. No participant has been coerced and the questionnaire does not delve into personal and controversial topics that may offend the participant and is free to withdraw at any given stage of the research. A consent form has been signed by all participants to ensure that they have the ability to make informed decision and has been notified of any potential risks involved outlining the purpose and the objectives of the survey, identification of the researcher and an option to provide a copy of the research if applicable assuring that all data is treated with strict confidentiality and ensuring that the researcher has fulfilled all the ethical obligations as to how the data be collected, used and processed. However the study has been overseen by an external invigilator to ensure that confidentiality and the sensitive nature of the data is protected at all times under ethical considerations. All the participants are more than 18 years old and have voluntarily offered to be a part of this research process.

3.13 Limitation

Just like any other research methodological analysis even this dissertation is not devoid of limitation(s). Nevertheless the participation of the employees has been moderate and been carefully invited to take part within the research process on a volunteer basis. The sample population chosen is small and represents only a minute population and does not represent the

views of the entire British Petroleum. As this research is based on inductive method and there is no comparison being made in terms of deductive method. There were other limitation encountered with regards to time and resources as a single researcher it is hard to conduct interviews and surveys and engaging in complex techniques of sampling within the work frame work along with financial difficulties in getting the photocopies of the articles, books and printing.

3.8 Chapter Summary This chapter focused upon the type of research methods to be used in collecting the data in reaching the desired end of answering the research questions in line with aims and objectives. The methodology is a quantitative data are selected due to its flexibility based on human interactions. The next chapter focuses upon the results generated through research methods in line with aims and objectives of this dissertation in noting how far 360-degree has been beneficial or not to British Petroleum in comparison with the data generated with that of BP followed by discussions and interpretation of the data.

CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS

CHAPTER 4: DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS 4.0 Chapter Overview This chapter focuses upon the findings based on the survey questionnaire utilizing the transcripts found within the appendices. These findings reflect the concepts illustrated and discussed within the literature review chapter 2 of the dissertation followed by a sequential methodology based in chapter 3 using inductive interpretative where findings can be analysed. Since this dissertation is based on British Petroleum involving only employees and does not require any labelling except following a series of questions categorized under different segments: Achievement focus, planning and decision making, creativity and skills, resource management, performance management and improvement, Relationships and Change management. This questionnaire allows two types of feedback: Numerical indicating the extent in which the questions are agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree and Neutral by indicating the choice of responses either by ticking the relevant box secondly at the end of each section a small space is provided for any additional unstructured comments which might help the respondent to get as objective feedback as possible. 4.1 Importance of feedback analysis for British Petroleum Within the British Petroleum has been following annual appraisal process followed by four quarterly feedback given during supervisions is seen as a process of growth and development. In the process of implementing and following 360-degree appraisal a growth in professional developmental activities are being emphasised. The primary objective of the

appraisal management is to highlight the key performance indicators and award the employees for their outstanding performance while minimizing the risks of failure as much as possible. The researcher hopes that this analysis followed by a series of discussion will enable the British Petroleum looking at areas that needs considerable attention. For this purpose nearly 40 employees have been taken randomly using simple random method. Analysis is based on 24 questions segmented under the following areas: Achievement focus, planning and decision making, creativity and skills, resource management, performance management and improvement, Relationships and Change management. Before we venture further lets look at three other factors that might be helpful: Age, gender, educational qualifications and years at British Petroleum. 4.2 Age Respondents

Fig. 1.1

There were 6% respondents who belonged to the age group below 30 and there were 2% who belonged to the age group 30 to 41. There were 1% respondents who belonged to the

age group of 42 to 53, and there were 1% who belonged to the age group of 54-65 and none at or over 65. The percentages in Fig 1.1 depict that the average age group in the organization belongs to 25 and above. However Fig. 1.2 indicates that the questionnaire was filled equally by males and females.

4.3 Gender Respondents

Fig 1.2 Educational Qualification

Fig. 1.3 indicates that there were 17% GCSE, 25% respondents bachelor degree holders and there were 58% of the respondents who have master degree holders. Percentages depict that majority of the respondents in the organization is master degree holders. There seems to be a fair representation of the academic levels at British Petroleum. Years at British Petroleum

Fig 1.4 depicts there were 6% respondents have recently joined the batch being more than a year and 3% have been less than 5 years and 1% have been within the category of 5 to 10years while 1% more or less than 20 years. Fig 1.4 also indicates that they have new recruits every year is a sign of growth looking for fresh and new ideas.

Achievement focus a) Does 360 Degree feedback helps in generating high level of motivation in achieving goals?

Fig 1.5 affirms that nearly 84% of the respondents strongly agree that 360 degree does generate high levels of motivation as opposed to 2% who disagree, 3% were neutral, 1% strongly disagree irrespective of their personal level of motivation. However the general understanding of percentages indicate that nearly 80%+ agree that 360 degree has been highly beneficial in retaining their levels of motivation and achieving their best performance. b) Does feedback help you to make better and tough decisions and sound judgment?

Fig 1.6 clearly affirms that nearly 64% of the respondents felt that 360 degree does not help them in making sound decisions among the employees as it relates largely to managers and management. However there was a certain level of mixed feelings as to the agreement and disagreements 44% strongly agreed that it does help them, 40% agreed and 4% were neutral and 60% disagreed.

c) Feedback helps in confronting problems and solving them promptly?

Fig 1.7 confirms that 360-degree has been highly beneficial in confronting problems and solving them by knowing their own strengths and weaknesses. There seems to be an anonymous agreement among the employees that 360% has been beneficial amounting towards 86% and 4% were neutral and again anonymous disagreement of 10% that it does not help in resolving problems.

d) Do you get a new perspective of analysing a demanding and unforeseen situations and adapting newer approaches?

Fig 1.8 shows that majority of the employees 64% strongly agree that 360-degree does provide them with newer approaches, perspectives in achieving their end and nearly 20% disagree while 54% strongly agree that it does help them looking at a situation from a different perspective while only a small percentage less that 10% strongly disagree that it does not help and 2% were neutral. Planning and decision making a) Does it help in monitoring ones own performance and meeting the targets

Fig 1.9 Witnesses to the fact that 360-degree feedback does help one to monitor performance and meeting their targets set by the British Petroleum nearly 84% strongly agreed and 64% agreed while 2% stayed neutral and 2% disagreed and 1% strongly disagreed.

b) Looking back with your experience working with Cranford has your levels of expertise grown?

Fig 1.10 assures that there seems to be an enormous growth within the level of expertise based on experience nearly 94% of the respondents does agree that they

have acquired various levels of skills working within the BP, 90% agree, 1% remained neutral, 10% disagree and 5% strongly disagreed.

c) Does company recognize and provide constant trainings and skill developmental

activities to grow in career prospects?

Fig 1.11 shows that nearly all of the employees do agree and strongly agree that BP does recognize its employees hard work, determination and provides them with constant trainings and skills needed to achieve their career prospects of which 86% strongly agreed, 84% agreed, 1% was neutral, 3% disagreed and 3% strongly disagreed.

d) Has

feedback

helped

one

in

effectively

use

of

Time

and

prioritize

assignments/projects?

Fig 1.12 There seems to be a mixed feeling as to the time management and prioritizing the assignments as most employees nearly 80% strongly agree that they had their tasks completed and 30% disagreed that they were able to manage time but could not finish their tasks, 78% agreed that they were able to manage time and 10% strongly disagreed to stick to their tasks.

e) Do you require constant supervision and a serious of follow ups in order to meet the targets?

Fig 1.13 Majority of the employees 98% did agree and strongly agree that they needed constant supervision and serious follow ups in order to meet the targets and to motivate them to keep them growing of which 4% were neutral, 5% disagreed and 1% strongly disagreed. Creativity and skills a) Does management assists in handling personal and professional issues affecting productivity?

Fig. 1.14 Key interest of the management in solving their personal problems has indeed increased their levels of productivity enhancing their skills. Nearly 90% of the respondents did agree that solving personal problems free them from taking up major responsibility of the family commitments and focus upon the work ahead of them

b) Over all needs are meet such as financial, careers, employment, emotionally and psychologically.

Fig 1.15 indicates that BP does takes into account financial, careers, employment, emotional and psychological needs of its employees. Nearly 90% agree and strongly agreed that BP has been outstanding in its care for its employees however only 30% disagree and 5% strongly disagree that BP does not help them in their levels of needs either financially or psychologically.

Resource management a) Does management got ability to manage its resources efficiently?

Fig 1.16 All of the employees does agree that Management manages its resources quite efficiently.

b) Does BP manages and redeploys resources in meeting the changing demands and challenges by setting its priorities in todays context?

Fig 1.17 Nearly 80% of them agree that BP does redeploys its resources and as indicated in Fig 1.2 that it has got more vibrant dynamic talents within the age group and are competent in meeting its changing demands and challenges in todays context of which 4% disagree and 3% strongly disagree.

c) Does the management see wider spectrum of the umbrella before making any decisions and its impact upon the employee performance?

Fig 1.18 the figures are quite clear to affirm that 360-degree does help in looking at a wider spectrum of the management before making any major decisions and does consult the employees growth and concerns of which 84% strongly agree, 82% agree and 6% disagree and strongly disagree while 1% remains neutral.

Performance management and improvement a) Does BP has clear focus upon its aims and objectives and ensures that all its needs are met responding to its feedback promptly?

Fig 1.19 nearly 98% agree that BP does have a clear cut idea of its aims and objectives and 82% agree that they respond very quickly however 2% do disagrees and less that 1 % strongly disagree.
b) Ensures quality assurance in place so that each employee is of productive nature?

Fig 1.20 indicates that they have a very high standard of quality assurance in order to maintain high level of productivity reaching 80% of them strongly agreed that BP does maintain high level of quality.

c) Effectively monitors performance and uses it for an ongoing developmental change?

Fig 1.21 98% agree that BP does monitor its performance on a regular basis and 35% disagree that at times it lack the tenacity to move forward largely depends upon the management and very small percentage disagrees strongly. Relationships a) Does 360-feedback help you in making valuable contributions to the tasks involved and build great team relationships?

Fig 1.22 the graphs itself testifies that 360-degee does help one in building greater relationships and working within the team making valuable contributions. Nearly 90%

strongly agree that it does help, 92% agree, 5% were neutral, 10% disagreed and 12% strongly disagreed.

b) As a team were you able to contribute and provide candid feedback without offending/patronizing?

Fig 1.23 indicated that nearly 90% strongly agreed and 92% agreed that feedbacks have been without bias and authentic helps in growth while 5% remained neutral, 10% disagreed and 12% strongly disagreed.

c) Does 360-degree feedback help one to address conflicting relationships without personality clashes?

Fig 1.24 depicted that nearly 90% agreed that 360 degree does address conflicting issues in a more professional manner backed up with 80% who agreed to it. There seems to be mixed feelings shown in terms of agreement and disagreement nearly 30% disagree and 23% strongly disagree while 4% remained neutral.

Change Management a) Do employees accept feedback as a constructive criticism and learn from it and grow further?

Fig 1.25 indicates that majority of them welcome feedbacks however it is not easy to accept feedback from a subordinate who has just joined the job or has been promoted recently to a higher position. b) Does feedback addresses other employees feelings and respects their needs and wishes

Fig 1.26 confirms that management/employees deal with sensitive issues and respects others needs and wishes.

Summary of the Correlation results between variables analysed within the questionnaire. Fig 1.28 Growt h/Ach ievem ent Planning and Decision Making Perfor mance Manag ement Relations Change hips Manageme nt

360 feed back 360 feedback Growth/Achi evement 1 0.75 5636 268

Creativit Resource y and Manage skills ment

Planning and 0.89 Decision 7077 Making 2 Creativity and skills Resource Management Performance Management 0.92 1732 471 0.72 3908 378 0.89 4567 378 0.89 7077 2 0.75 5636 268

0.891 94783 3 0.963 49121 7 0.991 30580 1 0.932 34198 7 0.891 94783 3 0.897 0772

1 0.6346441 83 0.7959700 69 0.7898731 09 0.9323419 87 0.7239083 78

1 0.929406 889 1 1 0.982734 0.943625 727 678 0.9827 0.789873 0.795970 34727 109 069 0.7898 0.897077 0.897077 73109 2 2 1

Relationships Change Management

0.897077 1 2

4.4 Looking at the Research Questions: Analysis 1) Does past 360degree feedback affect the employee performance in developing their

professional activities? 2) How far 360-degree feedback be held responsible for producing an attitudinal change

within the employees based on Maslow, Hertzberg and Barnard theories in meeting British Petroleums goals and objectives developing their professional activities. In order to address the effectiveness of employee performance in developing their developmental activities has been set up within the frame work of three major theories:
A) Maslows revised need hierarchy theory: has been used to measure the Growth or

achievement, planning and decision making and the element of measuring creativity and skills as explained in 4.4.1.

B) Utilizing Herzbergs and revised motivation hygiene theory has been utilized in

noting the impact it has upon the Performance Management, Change management within the British Petroleum as elaborated in 4.4.2.
C) Having Barnards cooperative system enables the employees and management in

accomplishing the goals and objectives contributing towards the overall enhancement of the BP and its effective way of managing resources based on relationships noted in 4.4.3.

4.4.1 Maslows and Revised need Hierarchy Theory Fig 1.1 till fig 1.15 indicates a series of growth being made within the employees at BP in meeting their needs physical, psychological and emotional needs that enables one to focus upon the productivity of the company.

4.4.2 Herzbergs and revised motivation hygiene theory Fig 1.19-1.21 and 1.25 and 1.26 highlights the need for change within the BP has been constantly contributing towards the needs of its employees increasing the levels of skills and motivation. 4.4.3 Barnards cooperative system Fig 1.22 1.24 relationships are the key towards achieving the goals and objectives set by BP which is vital to its success. 4.5 Discussion

The summary presented in Fig 1.27 testifies to the fact that 360-degree feedback is indeed one of the most common Performance appraisal used in evaluating the assessment of employee performance in light of predetermined standards. A common human resource management tool, performance appraisal is used in British Petroleum for various administrative purposes including making personnel decisions, such as those regarding promotion, tenure, termination, and salary determination. Additional uses of performance appraisal include organizational planning, employee development and employee feedback. As such, performance appraisal is a common practice in most organizations. Job satisfaction is about people and their jobs, and when organization promotes job satisfaction, it will gain the benefits of increased employee commitment, performance, and retention as well as reduced absenteeism and attrition. Job satisfaction, commitment, and organizational performance are critically important in the organization, and the organizational outcomes had a significant relationship with leadership style especially transformational leadership. According to the managers of this organization, list of factors in which employees might satisfy with their job are: managerial competence, technical competence, autonomy, job security, innovation and creativity, challenging tasks, sense of dedicated service, and lifestyle. Experts of the organization disagree to some extent, and satisfaction varies among different groups of employees. Defining job satisfaction from a career enhancement perspective, when the employees are satisfied, they would not seek alternative employment opportunities. Job satisfaction is simply considering motivation factors with regard to the job. Employee satisfaction and happiness in organizations would lead to increased organizational performance. An employee would perform up to potential, produce outstanding results, and give his or her services to the organization wholeheartedly when he or she feels satisfied and positive toward leaders, managers and fellow workers.

The responses from the managers, customers, and employees of British Petroleum have provided the result that 360-degree feedback system must be used by the company for increasing the professional development of the employees as well as performance of the employees. This is possible only by employing the accurate PMS system in the organization by assessing the accurate performance of the employees the company provides the best solution to that. Those solutions help the employees in transmuting their weaknesses into strengths and this not only improves the employees performances but also the overall performance of the organization. The customers get the satisfactory services from the company and this leads to organizational growth and prosperity. The responses depict that feedback performance management system not only improves the organizational performance but also it helps in improving the employees performances. 360-degree feedback implementation not only improves the organizational growth but also the productivity of the BP. Job satisfaction is a subjective belief that an employee has regarding the employment conditions with regard to the relationship between the employee and the employer. It is difficult to measure the overall degree of satisfaction that employees feel about their jobs. 4.6 Summary of the Chapter Data findings have been discussed with respect to the research questions taking into account the three major theories: Maslows revised need hierarchy theory, Herzbergs revised Motivation hygiene theory and Barnards revised cooperative system and how it has been beneficial to British Petroleum. The next chapter will determine and confirm the whether the aims and objectives of this dissertation has been met in the light of the findings and highlights any new insights

derived or issues that needs further attentions without forgoing the limitations existing within the dissertation itself.