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"Demographic overview of Qatar

Submitted to
Gujarat Technological University


(Asst. Professor)

Submitted By
ALPESH VAGELA 117020592044
KAMLESH PARMAR 117020592046
JIGNESH S. PATEL 117020592047
HARDIK K. RAKHOLIYA 117020592048
YEAR: 2011-2013

Anand Institute of Management
Affiliated to Gujarat Technological University Ahmedabad
September, 2012

Students Declaration

We, ____________________________________, hereby declare that the
report for global/Country Study Report entitled
Qatar is a result of our own work and our indebtedness to other work
publication, references, if any, have been duly acknowledged.

Date : ././ (PATEL JIGNESH S.)



1 Economic Overview of the Country

Demographic profile of the country
Economic Overview of the country
Overview of industries Trade and Commerce
Overview Different economic sectors of selected
Present Trade Relation and Business Volume of
different product with India/ Gujarat
PESTAL Analysis OR SWOT Analysis


The constitution stipulates that the state religion is Islam and national law
incorporates both secular legal traditions and Sharia (Islamic law). Sunni and
Shia Muslims practiced freely. Practitioners of other religions generally
worshipped in specially designated or private locations. The law prohibits
proselytizing by non-Muslims and restricts public worship, monitors peaceful
religious expression via the Internet, and requires formal registration of
religious groups that some found cumbersome. The law does not recognize
Hinduism, Buddhism, or the Bahai Faith. The government did not
demonstrate a trend towards either improvement or deterioration in respect
for and protection of the right to religious freedom. In practice, the government
generally enforced legal and policy protections of religious freedom.
Adherents of most major religions worshipped with limited government
interference, although there were restrictions.

There were few reports of societal abuses based on religious affiliation, belief,
or practice, and prominent leaders took positive steps to promote religious
freedom. However, there were some incidents of anti-Semitism in the media.
The U.S. government discussed religious freedom with the government as
part of its overall policy to promote human rights. U.S. embassy officials
continued to meet with representatives of religious communities and foreign
embassies to discuss religious freedom issues, including protection of the
interests of minority congregations. The embassy brought these concerns to
the attention of appropriate officials.

Religious Demography
Of the citizen population, which comprises approximately 13 percent of the
resident population, Sunni Muslims constitute the great majority while
estimates for Shia Muslims vary between 5 to 15 percent.

Most noncitizens are Sunni or Shia Muslims, Hindus, Christians, or Buddhists.
While the government does not release figures regarding religious affiliation,
some membership estimates for noncitizens are available from Christian
community groups and local embassies. The Hindu community, almost
exclusively from India and Nepal, comprises more than 30 percent of non-
citizens. Roman Catholics are International Religious Freedom Report for
2011 United States Department of State Bureau of Democracy, Human
Rights and Labor unofficially estimated at 20 percent of the noncitizen
population, while Buddhists, largely from South, Southeast, and East Asia, are
estimated at approximately 7 percent of noncitizens. Groups constituting less
than 5 percent of the population include Anglicans, Egyptian Copts, Greek
and other Eastern Orthodox, and Bahais of Iranian origin.


Qatar, officially State of Qatar, independent emirate (1995 est. pop. 534,000),
4,400 sq mi (11,400 sq km), on a largely barren peninsula in the Persian Gulf,
bordering Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (S). The capital is Doha.
The economy of Qatar is dominated by oil and natural gas, which accounts for
70% of export income. Oil and gas revenues have been used to diversify the
economy, including the development of chemicals, steel, cement, and fertilizer
industries and banking. A minority (20%) of the population is Qataris (Arabs of
the Wahhabi sect of Islam); the rest are largely other Arabs, Pakistanis,
Indians, and Iranians. Arabic is the official language, but English is also widely
spoken. The country is a monarchy.


Qatar was ruled by Bahrain from the 1700s until the mid-1800s, when Great
Britain and the Ottoman Empire began vying for control of the peninsula. It
was a British protectorate from 1916 until 1971, when it became independent.
In the 1980s and 90s Qatar had territorial disputes with Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia. These disputes were not completely settled until 2001.

During the Persian Gulf War (1991), international coalition forces were
deployed on Qatari soil. Palestinians were expelled from Qatar in retaliation
for the pro-Iraqi stance of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), but
since the war relations with the Palestinians have returned to normal. After the
Persian Gulf War, Iraq was still regarded as a threat to Qatars oil interests;
Qatar signed a defense pact with the United States but also restored relations
with Iraq. The present emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, came to
power in 1995 after ousting his father. In the late 1990s Sheikh Hamad eased
press censorship and promoted ties with Iran and Israel.
Since 2001 Qatar has allowed U.S. use of the Al Udeid air base, and the
headquarters for the U.S. invasion of Iraq (2003) were in the country.
The emir has moved steadily to democratize the nations government and
institute elections. In 2003 voters approved a constitution establishing a
largely elected advisory council with the power to pass laws, subject to the
emirs approval; women have the right to vote and hold office. The constitution
was endorsed by the emir in 2004 and came into force in 2005.


Qatar, a former pearl-fishing centre and once one of the poorest Gulf States,
is now one of the richest countries in the region, thanks to the exploitation of
large oil and gas fields since the 1940s.
Dominated by the Thani family for almost 150 years, the mainly barren
country was a British protectorate until 1971, when it declared its
independence after following suit with Bahrain and refusing to join the United
Arab Emirates.

Politics: Ruling monarch Sheikh Hamad - who became emir when he
ousted his father - advocates greater political openness
Economy: Qatar is one of the wealthiest countries in the region because of
oil; the government has encouraged diversification
International: Qatar is gaining in regional influence. It owns the forthright
satellite TV station Al-Jazeera which has attracted a growing audience as
well the displeasure of some neighbouring states
In 1995 Crown Prince Hamad bin Khalifa deposed his father to become emir
and since then he has introduced some liberal reforms.
Press freedom has been extended and the Qatari satellite TV station Al-
Jazeera has become one of the most important broadcasters in the Arab
Elections in 1999 for a 29-member municipal council were the first in which
Qatari women were allowed to vote and stand for office.
A constitution providing for limited democratic reforms came into force in
2005. The new basic law provided for a legislature - the Advisory Council -
with 30 elected members and 15 members appointed by the emir.
The emir says Qatar will hold its first national legislative elections in 2013.
The population is small. Foreigners - including labourers attracted by a
construction boom - outnumber natives. Oil money funds an all-embracing
welfare state, with many services being free or heavily subsidised.
Possessing more than 15% of the world's proven gas reserves, Qatar has
ambitions to become a global energy giant.
Qatar is active on the regional and world stage, having mediated in disputes
in the Middle East and Africa. It is pursuing an Afghan peace deal.

Fishermen prepare their traps Qatar, which has become a major oil state
Population size and its distribution as reflected by age and sex structures and
geographical distribution, together with the characteristics related to
educational and marital status are essential date for the setting up of
economic and social development plans.
This page contains data related to size and distribution of population by age
groups, sex as well as population density per zone and municipality as given
by 2004 census.
Historical population
Year Pop. %
1950 25,000
1960 47,000 +88.0%
1970 108,000 +129.8%
1980 222,000 +105.6%
1990 474,000 +113.5%
2000 591,000 +24.7%
2010 1,759,000 +197.6%
2010 1,951,591 +10.95%

The page also covers data related to education status, marital status and
distribution of manpower into economically active and inactive persons. The
down below links also covers data of handicapped persons.
The source of information presented in this page is the population and
housing census carried out by C.S.O. in March 2004 in comparison with
population census 1997.


Age group Male Female Total
0-14 years 21.8% 95,240 89,446 184,686
15-64 years 76.7% 460,673 189,914 650,587
65 years and
1.5% 7,311 5,432 12,743
Total 100% 563,224 284,792 848,016

Median age
Total: 30.8years Male: 32.9years Female: 25.5 years
(2011 est.)
Population growth rate
4.93% (2011 est.)
Birth rate
10.23 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate
1.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate
40.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Major cities population
DOHA (capital) 427,000 (2009)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 4.15 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.5 male(s)/female
total population: 3.29 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate
Male: 7.08 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 6.53 deaths/1,000 live births
Total: 6.81 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
Male: 78.09 years
Female: 76.11 years
Total: 80.12 years (2011 est.)
96% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization:
1.6% annual rate of change (2010-
15 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.93 children born/woman (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS deaths
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
noun: Qatari(s) adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groups
Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Male 89.1%
Female 88.6%
Total population 89% (2004 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Male 11 years
Female 14 years
Total population 12 years (2009)
Education expenditures
3.3% of GDP (2005)
Maternal mortality rate
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Health expenditures
2.5% of GDP (2009)
Physicians density
2.757 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Population By Municipality And Age Groups March 2004
Total Mesaieed
0 11555 101 39 79 14 70 203 598 867 4161 5423
1-4 46993 333 226 633 47 273 1357 2349 2765 17076 21934
5-9 56234 357 253 732 85 295 1510 2775 3167 20987 26073
10-14 52836 275 250 639 81 339 1323 2735 2876 19999 24319
15 19 42191 318 213 433 78 279 887 2457 2324 17086 18116
20 24 59567 1188 555 653 150 380 2345 2736 2471 25738 23351
25 29 84053 1642 1178 1131 361 554 4041 3684 3203 32665 35594
30 34 94809 2216 1132 1548 221 670 4380 4105 3584 35540 41413
35 39 85397 2061 970 1339 295 601 5076 3315 3068 29871 38801
40 44 75877 1769 646 1407 248 535 3707 2703 2764 27406 34692
45 49 59119 1113 547 734 221 352 3598 1596 1881 19244 29833
50 54 37353 765 333 512 181 270 1904 1151 1063 11347 19827
55 59 19875 425 197 239 94 125 665 505 599 5619 11407
60 64 9127 102 58 119 33 79 323 390 326 2793 4904
65 69 4309 0 41 49 19 52 116 232 224 1578 1998
70 74 2544 9 21 31 22 9 47 151 132 924 1198
75 79 1146 0 9 16 9 13 39 76 72 337 575
80 + 1044 0 10 9 0 19 26 47 55 489 389
Total 744029 12674 6678 10303 2159 4915 31547 31605 31441 272860 339847

Economically Active Population (15 +) By Occupation And Economic Activity
March 2004
Craft &
& Sales
Clerks Technicians Professionals
Hunting And
5636 610 193 3183 64 113 33 366 2
Fishing 42 627 23 1105 26 0 0 0 2
Mining And
2110 1276 2757 0 931 2177 2999 5229 518
Manufacturing 4001 3751 22892 0 1473 2387 2586 2337 611
Electricity, Gas,
And Water
397 334 1063 0 126 688 880 822 54
Construction 31338 12926 55747 0 1937 3674 2915 6619 1893
Wholesale And
Retail Trade,
Repair Of Motor
Motorcycles And
Personal And
5330 4803 12020 0 15166 4668 5086 4380 2985
Hotels And
1049 648 546 0 6188 1000 220 440 189
Storage And
986 4787 1180 0 1737 2644 1789 1649 446
Financial 272 12 21 0 51 1768 386 1560 696
Real Estate,
Renting And
3406 1021 945 0 1354 1016 1197 2249 670
15905 2924 2629 0 5841 10040 7221 7029 1849
Education 1202 518 163 0 243 1441 1098 14362 850
Health And
Social Work
523 194 238 0 410 1458 4715 3841 175
Social And
2852 662 487 0 1640 886 1517 1856 230
33382 15470 530 0 3674 151 102 49 0
Regional And
And Bodies
24 77 0 0 77 456 33 160 344
Total 108455 50640 101434 4288 40938 34567 32777 52948 11514

Population (10 + ) By Educational Status And Age Groups
March 2004
EducationaI Status
University Diploma Secondary Preparatory Primary
10 - 14 52836 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3270 22811 26031 724
15 - 19 42191 0 0 0 0 0 157 7387 23381 8813 1671 782
20 - 24 59567 6 0 1 125 4797 1699 21232 12116 6288 9934 3369
25 - 29 84053 18 43 246 272 16292 3839 17012 13410 8069 19178 5674
30 - 34 94809 20 61 526 287 17798 4979 16552 13818 8710 24541 7517
35 - 39 85397 25 202 705 723 17303 4269 12411 11623 7180 21870 9086
40 - 44 75877 10 255 693 450 14201 3710 11184 9660 7570 19195 8949
45 - 49 59119 4 320 521 239 10328 2965 8271 7595 5953 14884 8039
50 - 54 37353 5 402 400 302 6247 1587 5092 4111 3316 9080 6811
55 - 59 19875 3 245 248 146 3279 822 2063 1820 1498 4739 5012
60 - 64 9127 1 104 122 66 1424 198 858 652 826 1829 3047
65 - 69 4309 0 26 2 3 362 64 291 133 381 798 2249
70 - 74 2544 0 3 0 2 245 6 92 57 94 448 1597
75 + 2190 1 31 0 1 16 24 130 46 69 382 1490
Total 629247 93 1692 3464 2616 92292 24319 102575 101692 81578 154580 64346

MARCH 1986- MARCH 1997- MARCH 2004
March 1986 March 1997 March 2004
Number % Number % Number %
Doha 217294 58.9 264009 50.6 339000 45.6
AL Rayyan 91996 24.9 169774 32.5 273000 36.7
AL Wakra 17245 4.7 24283 4.7 31000 4.2
Umm Slal 11161 3.0 18392 3.5 32000 4.3
AL Khor 8993 2.4 17793 3.4 32000 4.3
AL Shamal 4380 1.2 4059 0.8 5000 0.7
AL Ghuwiairiya 1629 0.4 1716 0.3 2000 0.3
AL Jemailiya 7217 2.0 9836 1.9 11000 1.4
Jaryan AL
2727 0.7 4521 0.9 7000 0.9
Mesaieed 6437 1.7 7640 1.5 12000 1.6
Total 369079 100.0 522023 100.0 744000 100.0

Economically Active Population (15 +) By Employment Status and Age
Groups March 2004
Age Groups
EmpIoyment Status
Total Other Employee
15 - 19 2304 0 2283 21 0
20 - 24 36035 0 35920 26 89
25 - 29 69757 24 69299 148 286
30 - 34 81836 10 81151 195 480
35 - 39 74483 26 73735 361 361
40 - 44 65486 19 64662 336 469
45 - 49 51351 19 50487 357 488
50 - 54 31556 24 31143 102 287
55 - 59 15720 0 15295 215 210
60 - 64 5967 19 5738 77 133
65 - 69 1818 0 1714 28 76
70 - 74 880 0 800 30 50
75 + 368 19 277 8 64
Total 437561 160 432504 1904 2993

Health Status Indicators

The quality of healthcare in Qatar is high, even by Western standards. Life
expectancy has risen sharply as healthcare provision has improved, reaching
74 years in 2002, compared with 53 in 1960. The Infant, Child and Maternal
Mortality rates are comparable to the industrialized countries. There are more
than 1,400 hospital beds, and further specialist hospitals are planned.
According to government figures, Qatar had 450 doctors in the public sector in
2000 and 1,475 nurses. As Government income increased in the wake of the
oil price boost, Qatar was able to provide free health care to all nationals and
expatriates. However, rising costs and increased pressure on the budget led
the Government in 1999 to require expatriates to purchase health cards. The
costs are still low and do not come close to meeting the actual cost of health
provision, but signal a shift in the policy of the Government. The country is
currently actively pursuing an alternate system of health care financing
through health insurance. This shift in the Governments attitude to the public
provision of health care is reflected in the establishment of several new
private hospitals.

Communicable diseases

The Department for Control of Communicable Diseases has identified the
following priority areas: sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS,
hepatitis and prevention and control of tuberculosis and surveillance of
communicable diseases. These priority areas are interrelated (except
tuberculosis) as far as the mode of transmission is concerned and are listed in
order of priority according to the case-load.4 The reporting system is
operational in all PHC centres. HIV/AIDS operates as a program with two
distinct arms; the clinical management is catered for by the Hamad Medical
Corporation whereas the logistics and counselling components are addressed
by the Ministry of Health. The current active case-load stands at 65 cases
which were detected as a result of active surveillance of high-risk groups. The
country has registered four major brands of retroviral drugs in its formulary
which are freely available to patients. Policies regarding safe blood
transfusion and compulsory screening are in place and awareness and
training programs for PHC physicians and the general public are regularly
carried out. Duplication of efforts and resources, however, between the
Ministry of Health and the Hamad Medical Corporation, sometimes occur
owing to the division of responsibilities and different components The national
strategy to fight tuberculosis is based on the three main goals of:
implementation of DOTS according to the WHO guidelines, revision and
updating of the medical faculties curricula in line with the recommendations of
the 2001 meeting of the managers of the national tuberculosis programs, and
improvement of tuberculosis laboratories through the establishment of a
multiple-drug resistance laboratory and usage of PCR techniques in

Non-communicable diseases

Non-communicable diseases have become a major cause of death. The
prevalence and incidence of non communicable diseases have increased
dramatically over the past 20 years. Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension,
diabetes and cancer account for significant levels of mortality and morbidity.
Stepwise surveillance for non-communicable diseases has not yet started.
The main causes of death (reported by the national authorities) are
cardiovascular diseases 20%, road traffic injuries 16.2%, endocrine disorders
(e.g. diabetes) 11.9% and cancer 9.1%. Due to changing lifestyles the
determinants of non communicable diseases and levels of risk factors have
risen. More than 37% of the adult male population smoke regularly. Tobacco
use among youths of school age (1315) is of great concern. Obesity is also
emerging as a major health problem due to recent dietary habits and
sedentary lifestyles.

Road traffic injuries are a major burden of disease. The emergency
department has a Road traffic injuries are a major burden of disease. The
emergency department has a national strategy for road traffic injuries and
better emergency services for the injured. Emergency medical services report
effective response of the services to client needs and the maximum reported
time in Doha for an ambulance to appear at the site of an accident to collect a
road accident victim is 9 minutes. For the country as a whole it is reported to
be 20 minutes.

Child health

Data from the Qatar Family Health Survey for 1998 and Vital Statistics
indicate that the State of Qatar has achieved tangible progress in meeting the
international goals stated in the World Declaration and the national goals
stated in the National Plan for Childhood for the year 1992.Reducing infant
mortality from 12.6 cases per 1000 live births in 1990 to 12.0 cases in 1996
and 10.3 cases per 1,000 live births in 1999. This success is due to the
effectiveness of health programs and the implementation of preventive and
therapeutic measures; the promotion of breast-feeding and the
implementation of health services offered to mother and child as well as
health education programs.

Under-five measles cases declined from 132 cases in 1990 to 83 in 1995 and
28 cases in 1999 due to the effectiveness public health awareness and
immunization programs. Immunization coverage against major childhood
diseases (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles, Poliomyelitis, and
Tuberculosis) rose to 90% exceeding international.
Qatar Education Profile 2012
Along with the countrys free health care to every citizen, every child has free
education from kindergarten through college. Universities and colleges from
the United States and Canada have been opening satellite campuses, in the
country at Education City, Qatar, including Weill Medical College, Carnegie
Mellon University, Georgetown University, Virginia Commonwealth University,
Texas A&M University and College of the North Atlantic-Qatar.
The Supreme Education Council
Emir Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani created, by decree number 37, the Supreme
Education Council, which includes among its council members the Emirs
wife, Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al-Missnad. The council directs and controls
education for all levels from the pre-school level through the university level,
including the "Education for a New Era" Reform initiative.
Control of Education
Control of education is currently shared between the Ministry of Education
and the Supreme Education council. Funding to the Ministry of Education has
been reduced and many schools have been transferred to the Supreme
Education Council. The Supreme Education Council is trying to improve the
quality of secondary schools by creating Independent schools with greater
control over their own affairs.
International schools
There are a large number of private and international schools. Most
expatriates and some Qataris choose to send their children to these schools.
These schools include Qatar Academy, Doha College, American School of
Doha,The Gulf English School , Doha Academy, Doha English Speaking
School, The International School of Choueifat, The Cambridge School Doha,
Dukhan English School, Park HOuse English School and more.
Tradition & Lifestyle of Qatar
Arab countries have their own traditions and lifestyle. In the Gulf countries,
especially Qatar, these traditions have become An essential and permanent
part of their life. Even the Modernization and fast developments in the world
have not Changed the traditions of the Gulf people. For Qataris and Arabs in
general, these traditions represent bravery, generosity, self-confident and high
self-steem. These traditions are visible on religious and other occasions.
Qataris wear their national costume in their daily life called thoob, a long white
dress on top of white trouser, called serwal, and on their heads they wear
head cover, called Ghoutra, and on the top of this, they wear Eqal.

Women wear is usually black, long and broad dress called Abaya and some of
them cover their face with black fabric- Made cover called Khimar (Hijab).
Qatari dress is unique with its nicely tailored textile, each dress is a piece of
art by itself. the difference between mens white dress and womens black
dress demonstrates the uniqueness of each sex. However , the long dress for
both of them reflects likeness between them. On private Occasions and
traditional celebrations, Qataris wear Official dress tailored with golden and
silver threads and these traditional Qatari dress have become a source of
inspiration for renowned dress designers.
Ouod is considered as one of the main elements in the home Of the Gulf
people and part of their personality in general. It was preserved over the years
by them and has become an Essential part of their tradition and habits as it
represents the Arab hospitality.
Usually after food and coffee, a servant or one of the family Members (AI
Mudakhen), not the host himself, will perfume Guests with ouod
Qataris have always considered coffee as a symbol of Generosity, hospitality
and traditional purity . It is an ancient Qatari tradition to serve coffee on every
occasion. Qatari Coffee has its distinguish taste. When it is ready to be
served, It is poured into a golden color container, and a small cup will Be
offered with dates to all guests as soon as they arrive. The cup should not be
scratched or even slightly broken as this will Be considered inappropriate,
Guests will drink the coffee and Shake the cup when he finishes. The cup
should not be placed On the floor , it should only be given back to the person
who Offered it in the first place. Coffee should be offered to guests leader or
the oldest guest .

First and then to the people sitting on his right side regardless of their age or
importance. Coffee is generally served three times first soon after the Arrival
of guests , second time after serving fruits (called Fouallah) and the third time
after food. Coffee should not be served less than three times, it can be served
several times if Guests want.
The holy month of Ramadan has a unique place in the Qataris Iife. People of
Qatar are keen to live with the holy months Traditions which they inherit from
their ancestors. The spiritual Atmosphere of Ramadan is almost the same in
all Gulf Countries. However, Qatari dishes are unique and different From
those of other Gulf states. Qataris break their fast with a few dates, a little milk
and AI Harees considered as one of the most important dishes of Ramadan. It
is a mixture of wheat, minced beef, locally - made Ghee and cinnamon
powder. Thareed is another unique Qatari Main course dish which is a
combination of home made bread (Tanoor), meat soup and some
vegetables, Legimat and sago are the main Qatari sweets.

AI Grgaan is a Qatari and ancient Gulf tradition which families And children
celebrate on the 15th of Ramadan . The Celebration starts after Maghrib
prayer and lasts till mid-night. Children wear the national dress, carry bags
and baskets and Singing well-known traditional songs visit their relatives and
Neighbors in groups to fill their bags with AI Grgaan sweet.
There are a large number of mosques in Qatar which attract tourists attention
and reflect Islamic culture and tradition. These mosques have played a vital
role in educating the Nation long before schools were set up. They were major
Centers of teaching Quran , Arabic language as well as other Subjects such
as science and arts. Poetry, traditional songs as well as fur and hand-made
wool Tents are the main features of Qatari Bedouin culture which tourists
cannot miss while visiting Qatar.
Qatar's healthcare sector has come a long way since the country's first
hospital opened its doors almost 50 years ago. Today, the industry boasts the
most advanced medical equipment and highly qualified staff, a countrywide
network of hospitals and healthcare centers, as well as a cardiology
department that is referred to by outside specialists as "one of the best in the
world". And according to a report from the general secretariat of the GCC
ministers of health, Qatar enjoys the region's lowest maternal mortality rate.
Back in October 1957, Rumaillah Hospital opened as a 200-bed general
hospital with ambulance services and a large outpatient facility. With the
years, as the population's medical needs grew, the country decided that
something had to be done and Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) was born
to provide state-of the-art diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Since its establishment in October 1979, HMC has become Qatar's leading
non-profit healthcare provider through its network of Primary Health Care
Centers and four highly specialized hospitals in the capital, Doha.
At these HMC facilities, medical and dental treatment is free for Qatari's and
heavily state-subsidized for expatriates. Touse the facilities, residents and
visitors are required to apply for a QR100 health card, which allows them to
pay small charges for various tests and consultations as well as a nominal fee
for inpatient care.
Besides HMC, the Qatari government has also encouraged the private sector
to play a greater role in providing healthcare to the public. The country's first
private hospital opened in late 1999, and private practices and clinics (both
medical and dental) now offer a full range of medical services, from
rheumatology and dermatology to reflexology and home nursing care. Laws
governing private practice are strict, and licensing by the Ministry of Public
Health - which oversees all health services in the country - is mandatory for all
establishments and each of their medical and nursing staff.
Not with standing that, private medical service facilities have expanded to
represent 67% of al the country's health services providers, helping to ease
the burden on HMC and the Primary Health Care Centers.
Preventive Health Care Services
The Preventive Health Department is responsible for fighting contagious
diseases, carrying out vaccination, immunization, and food and quarantine
watch control at the airport and seaports, providing health education in the
field of mother and child care and insuring environmental health and safety.
Immunization against Hepatitis B was carried out in the context of the nation-
wide immunization campaigns against contagious diseases. A Childhood
Diseases Immunization system was entirely applied. A Pre-school
immunization program was adopted as a regular practice. Efforts continue to
virtually irradiate polio and measles, and Qatar was one of the first countries
to have added anti-influenza vaccine B to their newborns comprehensive
immunization programs.

Primary Health Car

Primary health care aims to realize social development by adopting health
programs that help citizens to become productive elements in society. The
programs implemented by the Primary Health care include health awareness,
maternity and childhood health care, immunization against childhood
diseases, diagnosing and treating chronic diseases, providing medicinal
drugs, healthy food and clean water and ambulance and medical emergency

Medical services at the health centers have been developed in order to
support the role of primary health care. Three extensions were added to the
most densely frequented health centers to cater for X-ray, maternity and
childhood, healthy woman clinics and early diagnosis of cancer. new clinics
including X-ray, eye, mother and child care, heart and ENT have been added
to Almuntazah health center at the cost of QR 1.3 million. The X-ray unit at
Madinat Khalifa health Center has been opened. Some clinics were opened
outside Doha as well, including eye, ENT, and minor injuries sections at Al-
Wakra, Al-Khor, Al-Shamal and AI-Shahaniya health centers. Currently a new
health center is under construction at Al-Matar AI-Qadim area.

Health Commission Services
The Health Commission Department carries out medical checks on everybody
arriving in the country for work or on a visit, and issues health certificates for
such categories as those who are about to get married and who are applying
for jobs, universities or popular houses. The services of this department have
improved considerably. Evening work hours have been extended and health
commission services for Qatari's have been transferred to the health centers
to expedite work on their behalf.

Nursing Technical Secondary School
The Nursing Technical Secondary School was inaugurated in 1969. It had 20
students from Qatar and the Gulf Arab countries. In 1972 the first batch of
students graduated from the School, in which the term of study is three years.
The student gets a monthly allowance of QR 1800, school uniform for
theoretical and practical classes and free transportation and stationary. The
School works to qualify the Qatari cadres in the nursing profession and
provide qualified female nurses capable of practicing family and community
nursing services.
The certificate is equivalent to a high diploma and close to a bachelor's
degree in nursing.
The World Health Organization has appointed the director of nursing at
Hamad Medical Corporation as a consultant in nursing affairs at the
organization. This is Qatar's first international representation in the field of

Hamad Medical Corporation
Hamad Medical Corporation is considered to be one of the most outstanding
specialized medical establishments in the Arabian Gulf region. It was
established in 1982 after completing the merger of all hospitals belonging to
HMC into an integrated administrative body comprising Hamad General
Hospital, Rumailah Hospital and the Women's Hospital.
A study has recently been completed on a proposal project to affiliate health
centers to HMC so as to unify the management of health services in all
Hamad General Hospital
Hamad General Hospital extends
a highly specialized care to all the
people of Qatar through a modern
and well-equipped facility at
Rayyan Road. The hospital
opened in 1982 and has a total of
621 beds for inpatient care, a large
outpatient department providing 65
specialty clinics, an Accident and Emergency Department, five intensive care
units, eight operating theaters, and a pharmacy. Modern diagnostic facilities
consisting of Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and a
Department of Radiology support all therapeutic services. Continuous
upgrading of all equipment and protocols of care has kept Hamad General
abreast of new developments in all specialties.

The steady rise in the number of patients seeking care at Hamad General
Hospital has stimulated the expansion of services to meet the demand.
Demand for specialized care is the result of continuous population growth.

Hamad General Hospital is one of three hospitals managed by Hamad
Medical Corporation (HMC), the only health care corporation in the state. The
other hospitals are Rumailah Hospital, refurbished in 1977 and Womens
Hospital, opened in 1988.

Hamad General Hospital is located at Rayyan Road in the capital city of Doha
and is physically connected to Womens Hospital and by an access road to
Rumailah Hospital.

Rumailah Hospital

The Rumaillah Hospital is Qatars oldest health facility. Originally built in 1956,
Rumaillah Hospital opened in 1957 as a 200-bed general hospital with
ambulance services and a large outpatient facility.

Following the opening of Hamad Hospital in 1982, Rumaillah Hospital became
a rehabilitation center for disabled adults, elderly people and handicapped
children. With many of its units requiring major renovation, management
launched a 10-year program to rebuild the facility in three phases.

The completion of the renovation program for Rumaillah Hospital in 1997 was
a hallmark for the Corporation. Qatars oldest health care facility was
refurbished into a modern yet quiet hospital offering a 306-bed facility with a
spacious, clean and restful environment.

In addition to its current rehabilitative and therapeutic services, Plastic
Surgery, ENT Surgery, Ophthalmology, Day Care Surgery and a Stroke Unit
were added to Rumaillah. The Hospital will have seven operating theaters; a
laboratory and a diagnostic imaging facility with an MRI, ultrasound and bone
densitometry equipment.

Rumaillah Hospital is run by a team of experienced administrators and
The Women's Hospital
The State of Qatar provides highly specialized care to women and
infants. A well- quipped facility for women and babies was built at Rayyan
Road and opened in 1988. The Womens Hospital is one of three hospitals
managed by Hamad Medical Corporation.

The maternal facility is patronized by women of all nationalities in the state
and handles 1000-1200 deliveries per month. The hospital offers a total of 334
beds to women. The private wing offers 31 private rooms and 4 wings for the
newly born babies at the neonatal intensive care unit.

Womens Hospital has 334 beds in five upper floors. Most of the rooms are
twin-bedded with a bathroom. The rooms are grouped according to the type of
care required by the patient: They are antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and
high dependency areas.

The Hospital has highly furnished wing composed of 35 beds, on private hotel
quality level providing privacy, special menu food and cable programs.

The Womens Hospital provides a superb hospital service for pregnant women
and newborns. Most services are accessible to everyone with a minimal

AL Amal Oncology Hospital
With the opening of the QR 90
million AL Amal Oncology Hospital
in mid-2004, cancer patients in
Qatar now have a total cancer care
facility that compares with the best
in the world. The new hospital is a one-stop facility, with services including
early detection, therapy, counseling, rehabilitation, education forums and
The hospital is operated in collaboration with Germany's University Clinics of
Heidelberg (UCH), one of Europe's top institutions for cancer care and which
was treating radiotherapy patients from Qatar for a number of years.
AI Amal, which has an inpatient facility of over 70 beds, expects to receive
600 new cancer cases yearly and treat up to 4,500 patients suffering from
existing cancers annually. It aims to become the Middle East's premier facility
for cancer treatment, education and training

AI Ahli Hospital
AI Ahli Hospital looks set to be a major private hospital in Qatar. It opened
with limited services in December, and full operations are scheduled to be
launched in phases throughout the first half of 2005.

AI Emadl Hospital
Besides nursing patients back to health, the management at AI Emadi
Hospital aims to provide comprehensive healthcare education to its patients. It
believes in knowledge-sharing and planning with patients and their families.
Its wide range of specialty care includes treatment of obesity, general surgery,
plastic and reconstructive surgeries, dermatology, dental services and
emergency services. See page 218 for further details.

American Hospital Doha
Opened in mid October 1999, American Hospital Doha was Qatar's first
private hospital and has recently upgraded its equipment and facilities.

Doha Clinic Hospital
Doha Clinic started life as a polyclinic in 1994 and expanded over the years to
become a fully integrated hospital in 2001. It was renamed Doha Clinic

Qatari heritage, handed down from generation to generation, has always been
an integral part of the Arab Islamic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula.

It encompasses the features of the social fabric and the cultural peculiarity of
the Arab man who has lived on this land and dealt with it and its environment
in a give-and-take manner until his heritage has become a true reflection of
the people's lives and their adherence to their milieu.

Although most handicrafts and traditional industries have disappeared, some
managed to survive, thanks to the support rendered by the government.

This industry existed for centuries in Qatar and the Gulf region, but almost
disappeared following the discovery of oil in the early decades of the twentieth

It used to rely on materials imported from India, such as teak and pine wood
that resist humidity, certain types of cotton wicks, nails and oil extracted from
dolphins to be used as water insulator.
The carpentry tools used in shipbuilding were traditional too, like Al-Mejdah
(the drill), the adz and the saw. The ship-builder was called Al-Gallaf.

There used to be different types of ships and each type had a different name
such as Al-Bateel, Al-Mashuh and Al-Jalboot.

Today there is only one shipbuilding workshop in Qatar, the Emiri Shipbuilding

Al Sadu (warp industry)
Alsadu is a general term describing the traditional craft of hand spinning and
weaving. It is still practiced in the Bedouin desert communities, as it is closely
associated with the availability of raw materials such as sheep wool, camel
and goat hair and cotton.

The Sadu is exclusively a female activity. The same ancient tools are still in
use: the spindle, the loom and Al-minshazah. Sadu products include tents,
and other accessories used in Bedouin communities such as Al-Katea, Al-
Odul, As-sakayef and sacs.

Qatari heritage, handed down from generation to generation, has always been
an integral part of the Arab Islamic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. It
encompasses the features of the social fabric and the cultural peculiarity of
the Arab man, who has lived on this land and dealt with it and its environment
in a give-and-take manner until his heritage has become a true reflection of
the people's lives and their adherence to their milieu. Among these
handicrafts: Goldsmithery and trading in jewelry and precious stones. There
are families whose names have long been associated with these crafts,
mainly those who were able to invent and design new models
This is the art of embroidering mens and womens traditional clothes, and it is
one of the oldest professions in the region. A tailor works with a needle,
colored threads, silver and gold cane threads, using whats locally known as

Recently semi automatic and electric sewing machines were introduced.
Womens clothes like the jubbah, the robe, the shawl, the cloak are sewn as
well as mens clothes like cloaks, Ad-dakala and trousers.

In old times, Qatar was one of the well-known locations of fine clothes in
the Arabian Peninsula. Women garments are wide, loose and decent.
They are made of rich fabric and some are embroidered with silver
strands especially on the front, the bottom and on the wide-open sleeves
of the garment.
Qatari women's garments come in various models: al -darah'a, al-surwal,
al- hijab, al-iba'a and al-burgu' of the Bedouins; al-batoolah of the city
dwellers and thoub al-nashl, which is a loose garment used by women in
various occasions such as weddings and public occasions like eids. Al -
nashl garment is made of plain silk fabric with bright and appeali ng colors.
Usually the fabric is chiffon and transparent silk.Al -nashl garment is more
embroidered than other models. It's garnished with gold lines of
embroidery and sometimes it carries some ornamentation.

Gypsum Ornamentation
One can find gypsum ornamentations in many old houses. Gypsum was
locally produced and used instead of clay for coating the walls of houses,
forts, castles, towers and mosques because of its ability to withstand severe
climatic conditions.

It was also used for making architectural and plant ornament molds which
were used to decorate many traditional houses in Qatar. It is also used for
making censers which are still in high demand for decorative purposes.

Traditional architecture in Qatar falls into three categories:
Religious architecture like mosques.

Civil architecture like castles, palaces, houses and markets.

Military architecture like forts, towers and fencing walls.
The topography and climate of the country determined the style and the
shapes of various buildings. Thus materials such as non-polished stones that
were available in almost all parts of the country were used.

Clay was used as mortar to bond stones together or to coat surfaces of
external and internal walls and ceilings. Clay bricks were also used in areas
where stones were not available.
With the passage of time Qatari architects managed to adopt new and
modernistic building techniques, tools and materials. Gypsum replaced clay in
coating walls and wooden frames were used in ceilings.

The roofs were level and horizontal with parts of them protruding in the
facades to lessen the impact of heat on the insides of buildings.

To avoid glaring sunlight, windows were small compared to walls, and were
usually rectangular overlooking courtyards. In the sitting rooms and the upper
rooms, windows overlooked both the courtyard and the street. There were
also ventilation and lighting grills, called Badjirs, only in the upstairs rooms.
Fishing & Pearl Hunting
Since ancient times the sea has played a vital role in the daily life of the
citizens of the peninsula of Qatar. Fishing is thus one of the ancient trades
that the people of Qatar practiced to earn a living in the pre oil era. There
were different methods of fishing, such as Al-Maskar and Al-Hadhrah.
Al hadhrah is an enclosure made form palm fronds and robes made of plant
fiber. It was used in shallow waters to catch certain kinds of fish such as

Almaskar is a stone structure of various sizes in the sea.

Al maskar method relies on the tide movement. During an ebb an iron bar with
a sharp end called the Nira, or the Sahila which is a net fixed with two pieces
of wood on each side are used to catch fish entrapped in al maskar.
Pearl diving is one of the oldest professions in the Gulf region. It was one of
the main sources of income in the pre-oil era. There were two diving seasons:
the big dive, a two-month journey, and the small dive, a forty-day journey.

Both seasons fell between June and September. Among the tools the divers
used were the scuttle, Al-futam, Al-falakah and stones.

With the discovery of oil in the 1930s and the introduction of Japanese
artificial pearls, pearl diving became unprofitable and people turned to earn
their living from other less demanding activities.

Falconry is one of the most important hobbies of the Qatari people.
Obsession with falconry as a hobby, is passed on from fathers to sons as
people believe it encourages the values of chivalry, courage, patience and
diligence. This hobby is practiced in winter when people start hunting falcons
to train them at a later stage. Falcon hunting techniques differ from hunter to
hunter depending on experience.

Falcon raising and training is also done by the hunters themselves. Training is
carried out in various ways such as waving a mock prey or a rabbit tied to a
thread, or a pigeon tied to a thread and allowed to fly.
The most important tools of falconry are the veil that covers the birds face;
the leg tie and the gauntlet (Al-mankalah) on which the falcon sits while
carried by its trainer, and the feed bag in which all tools and preys are put.
The most famous types of falcons are the lanner, the peregrine and Al-wukri.

Popular games in Qatar
Unlike what many would think, ancient Qataris never forgot leisure and
recreation. They had games to play as adults and children. Children invested
the most insignificant objects with any form they pleased. Although the games
were mostly humble, they played an important role in stimulating, entertaining
and preserving the social relations among these people. They also reflected
the daily life of the Qataris at that time.
This heritage was handed over from generation to generation just as any
other custom. Experts say that there were some 100 types of games in
ancient Qatar played by both male and females, young and adults. These
games were practiced during appropriate times.
All areas in the country had their own popular games and although some of
them underwent some changes both in terms of governing rules and ways of
play, most of them preserved the same characteristics.
source : Qatarinfo.net

India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety
and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress
during the last 65 years of its Independence. India has become self-sufficient
in agricultural production and is now one of the top industrialized countries in
the world and one of the few nations to have gone into outer space to conquer
nature for the benefit of the people. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km,
extending from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain
forests of the south. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart
from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give
the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in
the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into
the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea
on the west.

A nuclear-armed state, it carried out tests in the 1970s and again in the 1990s
in defiance of world opinion. However, India is still tackling huge social,
economic and environmental problems.

The vast and diverse Indian sub-continent - from the mountainous Afghan
frontier to the jungles of Burma - was under foreign rule from the early 1800s
until the demise of the British Raj in 1947.

The subsequent partition of the sub-continent - into present-day India and
Pakistan - sowed the seeds for future conflict. There have been three wars
between India and its arch-rival Pakistan since 1947, two of them over the
disputed territory of Kashmir.

According to the World Bank, as of 2011, the Indian economy is nominally
worth US$1.848 trillion; it is the tenth-largest economy by market exchange
rates, and is, at US$4.457 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity,
or PPP. With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two
decades, and reaching 6.1% during 201112,

India is one of the world's
fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks 140th in the world in
nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP. Until 1991, all
Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by
socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely
walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments
crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalize its economy; since then it has
slowly moved towards a free-market system by emphasizing both foreign
trade and direct investment inflows. India's recent economic model is largely
capitalist. India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.


The world's largest democracy and second most populous country emerged
as a major power in the 1990s. It is militarily strong, has major cultural
influence and a fast-growing and powerful economy.
A nuclear-armed state, it carried out tests in the 1970s and again in the 1990s
in defiance of world opinion. However, India is still tackling huge social,
economic and environmental problems.
The vast and diverse Indian sub-continent - from the mountainous Afghan
frontier to the jungles of Burma - was under foreign rule from the early 1800s
until the demise of the British Raj in 1947.
The subsequent partition of the sub-continent - into present-day India and
Pakistan - sowed the seeds for future conflict. There have been three wars
between India and its arch-rival Pakistan since 1947, two of them over the
disputed territory of Kashmir.

Economy: Fast-growing economy; large, skilled workforce but widespread
Politics: 344m people voted in 2009 election - Congress-led alliance of PM
Manmohan Singh won second mandate
International: Ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir region; nuclear
weapons state; world's most prolific film industry - Bollywood
Country profiles compiled by BBC Monitoring
A peace process, which started in 2004, stayed on track despite tension over
Kashmir and several high-profile bombings until the Mumbai attacks of
November 2008, carried out by Islamist militants overwhelmingly from
Pakistan and organised by the Pakistani movement Lashkar-e-Taiba. India
announced that the process was on pause the following month.
Communal strife
With its many languages, cultures and religions, India is highly diverse. This is
also reflected in its federal political system, whereby power is shared between
the central government and 28 states.
However, communal, caste and regional tensions continue to haunt Indian
politics, sometimes threatening its long-standing democratic and secular
In 1984 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was gunned down by her Sikh
bodyguards after ordering troops to flush out Sikh militants from the Golden
Temple in Amritsar.
And in 1992, widespread Hindu-Muslim violence erupted after Hindu
extremists demolished the Babri mosque at Ayodhya.
Economic progress
Independent India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, dreamed of a
socialist society and created a vast public infrastructure, much of which
became a burden on the state.
From the late 1980s India began to open up to the outside world, encouraging
economic reform and foreign investment. It is now courted by the world's
leading economic and political powers, including its one-time foe China.
The country has a burgeoning urban middle class and has made great strides
in fields such as information technology. Its large, skilled workforce makes it a
popular choice for international companies seeking to outsource work.
But the vast mass of the rural population remains impoverished.
Their lives continue to be influenced by the ancient Hindu caste system, which
assigns each person a place in the social hierarchy. Discrimination on the
basis of caste is now illegal and various measures have been introduced to
empower disadvantaged groups and give them easier access to opportunities
- such as education and work.
Poverty alleviation and literacy campaigns are ongoing.
Nuclear tests carried out by India in May 1998 and similar tests by Pakistan
just weeks later provoked international condemnation and concern over the
stability of the region.
The US quickly imposed sanctions on India, but more recently the two
countries have improved their ties, and even agreed to share nuclear
India launches its own satellites and in 2008 sent its first spacecraft to the
moon. It also boasts a massive cinema industry, the products of which are
among the most widely-watched films in the world.

The Indian economy is fast-growing and diverse

The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most
populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census),
more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the
world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous
country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050.
Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking102nd in the world in 2010.
India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than
65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an
Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by
2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.
India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is
represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-
European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as
two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra
and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir).
Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this
population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the
continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the
nation of India.
Salient features
India occupies 2.4% of the world's land area and supports over 17.5% of the
world's population. Per the 2001 census, 72.2% of the population
lives in
about 638,000 villages and the remaining 27.8%

lives in more than 5,100
towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.
India's population exceeds that of the entire continent of Africa by 200 million

Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports over
15% of the world's population. Only China has a larger population. Almost
40% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age. About 70% of the people
live in more than 550,000 villages, and the remainder in more than 200 towns
and cities. Over thousands of years of its history, India has been invaded from
the Iranian plateau, Central Asia, Arabia, Afghanistan, and the West; Indian
people and culture have absorbed and changed these influences to produce a
remarkable racial and cultural synthesis.
Religion, caste, and language are major determinants of social and political
organization in India today. The government has recognized 18 languages as
official; Hindi is the most widely spoken.

Historical population
Year Pop. %
1951 361,088,000

1961 439,235,000 21.6%
1971 548,160,000 24.8%
1981 683,329,000 24.7%
1991 846,387,888 23.9%
2001 1,028,737,436 21.5%
2011 1,210,193,422 17.6%

Although 83% of the people are Hindu, India also is the home of more than
120 million Muslims--one of the world's largest Muslim populations. The
population also includes Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, and Parsis.

Age structure
Age group Male Female Total
0-14 years 29.7% 187,450,635 165,415,758 352866393
15-64 years 64.9% 398,757,331 372,719,379 771476710
65 years and
5.5% 30,831,190 33,998,613 64829803
Total 100% 617039156 572133750 1189172906

Median age
Male: 32.9years
Female: 25.5 years
Total: 30.8years
Population growth rate
1.312% (2011 est.)
Birth rate
20.6 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate
7.43 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization:
2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15
Major cities population
NEW DELHI (capital) 21.72 million; Mumbai 19.695 million; Kolkata 15.294
million; Chennai 7.416 million; Bangalore 7.079 million (2009)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate
Male: 44.71 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 47.59 deaths/1,000 live births
Total: 46.07 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
Male: 66.08 years
Female: 68.33 years
Total: 67.14 years (2011 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.58 children born/woman (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2.4 million (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS deaths
170,000 (2009 est.)
noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian
Ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%,
unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%,
Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%,
Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Male 73.4%
Female 47.8%
Total population 89% (2004 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Male 11 years
Female 10 years
Total population 10 years (2009)
Education expenditures
3.1% of GDP (2005)
Maternal mortality rate
230 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
43.5% (2006)
Health expenditures
2.4% of GDP (2009)
Physicians density
0.599 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: High
Food or waterborne
bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid
Vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese
encephalitis, and malaria
Animal contact disease: rabies
Water contact disease: leptospirosis

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this
country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among
US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
In INDIA different types of religion people are available they speck different
languages like Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil
5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%,
Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most
important language for national, political, and commercial communication;
Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the
people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil,
Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri,
Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken
widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)

List of States and Union territories by demographics

State or
Area mi
1 Uttar Pradesh 199,581,520 16.49% 131,658,339 34,539,582 240,928 828 93,022.8 2146 908
2 Maharashtra 112,372,972 9.29% 55,777,647 41,100,980 307,713 365 118,808.7 815 925
3 Bihar 103,804,637 8.58% 74,316,709 8,681,800 94,163 1,102 36,356.5 2,855 916
4 West Bengal 91,347,736 7.55% 57,748,946 22,427,251 88,752 1,030 34,267.3 2,666 947
5 Andhra Pradesh 84,665,533 7.00% 55,401,067 20,808,940 275,045 308 106,195.5 797 992
72,597,565 6.00% 44,380,878 15,967,145 308,245 236 119,014.1 610 930
7 Tamil Nadu 72,138,958 5.96% 34,921,681 27,483,998 130,058 555 50,215.7 1,437 995
8 Rajasthan 68,621,012 5.67% 43,292,813 13,214,375 342,239 201 132,139.2 519 926
9 Karnataka 61,130,704 5.05% 34,889,033 17,961,529 191,791 319 74,050.9 826 968
10 Gujarat 60,383,628 4.99% 31,740,767 18,930,250 196,024 308 75,685.3 798 918
11 Orissa 41,947,358 3.47% 31,287,422 5,517,238 155,707 269 60,118.8 698 978
12 Kerala 33,387,677 2.76% 23,574,449 8,266,925 38,863 859 15,005.1 2,225 1,084
State or
Area mi
13 Jharkhand 32,966,238 2.72% 20,952,088 5,993,741 79,714 414 30,777.7 1071 947
14 Assam 31,169,272 2.58% 23,216,288 3,439,240 78,438 397 30,285.1 1029 954
15 Punjab 27,704,236 2.29% 16,096,488 8,262,511 50,362 550 19,444.9 1,425 893
16 Chhattisgarh 25,540,196 2.11% 16,648,056 4,185,747 135,191 189 52,197.5 489 991
17 Haryana 25,353,081 2.09% 15,029,260 6,115,304 44,212 573 17,070.3 1,485 877
Jammu and
12,548,926 1.04% 7,627,062 2,516,638 222,236 56 85,805.8 146 883
19 Uttarakhand 10,116,752 0.84% 6,310,275 2,179,074 53,483 189 20,649.9 490 963
6,856,509 0.57% 5,482,319 595,581 55,673 123 21,495.5 319 974
21 Tripura 3,671,032 0.30% 2,653,453 545,750 10,486 350 4,048.7 907 921
22 Meghalaya 2,964,007 0.24% 1,864,711 454,111 22,429 132 8,659.9 342 986
23 Manipur 2,721,756 0.22% 1,590,820 575,968 22,327 122 8,620.5 316 987
24 Nagaland 1,980,602 0.16% 1,647,249 342,787 16,579 119 6,401.2 309 931
25 Goa 1,457,723 0.12% 677,091 670,577 3,702 394 1,429.4 1020 968
State or
Area mi
1,382,611 0.11% 870,087 227,881 83,743 17 32,333.4 43 920
27 Mizoram 1,091,014 0.09% 447,567 441,006 21,081 52 8,139.4 134 975
28 Sikkim 607,688 0.05% 480,981 59,870 7,096 86 2,739.8 222 889
UT1 Delhi 16,753,235 1.38% 944,727 12,905,780 11,297 9,340 572.6 29,258 866
UT2 Pondicherry 1,244,464 0.10% 325,726 648,619 479 2,598 184.9 6,730 1,038
UT3 Chandigarh 1,054,686 0.09% 92,120 808,515 114 9,252 44.0 23,970 818
Andaman and
Nicobar Islands
379,944 0.03% 239,954 116,198 8,249 46 3,185.0 119 878
Dadra and
Nagar Haveli
342,853 0.03% 170,027 50,463 491 698 189.6 1,808 775
UT6 Daman and Diu 242,911 0.02% 100,856 57,348 112 2,169 43.2 5,623 618
UT7 Lakshadweep 64,429 0.01% 33,683 26,967 32 2,013 12.4 5,196 946
Total India 1,210,193,422 100.00% 742,490,639 286,119,689 3,287,240 382 1,269,210.5 954 940

Rank India/State/UT No. of districts
in 2001
No. of Districts
in 2011
No. of Districts without any
geographical change
INDIA 593 640 464
01 Uttar Pradesh 71 75 47
02 Madhya Pradesh 45 50 36
03 Bihar 37 38 34
04 Maharashtra 35 35 31
05 Rajasthan 32 33 18
06 Tamil Nadu 30 32 25
08 Orissa 30 30 26
07 Karnataka 27 30 24
10 Gujarat 25 26 20
09 Assam 23 27 15
12 Andhra Pradesh 23 23 23
14 Haryana 19 21 17
11 Jharkhand 18 24 9
16 West Bengal 18 19 17
15 Punjab 17 20 8
17 Chattisgarh 16 18 14
13 Jammu & Kashmir 14 22 5
18 Kerala 14 14 14
19 Arunachal Pradesh 13 16 10
20 Uttarakhand 13 13 11
21 Himachal Pradesh 12 12 12
23 NCT of Delhi 9 9 9
24 Manipur 9 9 9
22 Nagaland 8 11 4
25 Mizoram 8 8 4
26 Meghalaya 7 7 4

27 Sikkim 4 4 4
28 Tripura 4 4 2
29 Pondicherry 4 4 4
30 Andaman & Nicobar
2 3 1
31 Goa 2 2 2
32 Daman & Diu 2 2 2
33 Dadra & Nagar
1 1 1
34 Chandigarh 1 1 1
35 Lakshadweep 1 1 1
India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu & Kashmir 2,008,642 1,080,662 434554
02 Himachal Pradesh 763,864 400,681 363,183
03 Punjab 2,941,570 1,593,262 1,348,308
04 Chandigarh 117,953 63,187 54,766
05 Uttarakhand 1,328,844 704,769 624,075
06 Haryana 3,297,724 1,802,047 1,495,677
07 NCT of Delhi 1,970,510 1,055,735 914,775
08 Rajasthan 10,504,916 5,580,212 4,924,704
09 Uttar Pradesh 29,728,235 15,653,175 14,075,060
10 Bihar 18,582,229 9,615,280 8,966,949
11 Sikkim 61,077 31,418 29,659
12 Arunachal Pradesh 202,759 103,430 99,329
13 Nagaland 285,981 147,111 138,870
14 Manipur 353,237 182,684 170,553
15 Mizoram 165,536 83,965 81,571
16 Tripura 444,055 227,354 216,701
17 Meghalaya 555,822 282,189 273,633
18 Assam 4,511,307 2,305,088 2,206,219
19 West Bengal 10,112,599 5,187,264 4,925,335
20 Jharkhand 5,237,582 2,695,921 2,541,661
21 Orissa 5,035,650 2,603,208 2,432,442
22 Chhattisgarh 3,584,028 1,824,987 1,759,041
23 Madhya Pradesh 10,548,295 5,516,957 5,031,338
24 Gujarat 7,494,176 3,974,286 3,519,890
25 Daman & Diu 25,880 13,556 12,324
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 49,196 25,575 23,621
27 Maharashtra 12,848,375 6,822,262 6,026,113
28 Andhra Pradesh 8,642,686 4,448,330 4,194,356
29 Karnataka 6,855,801 3,527,844 3,327,957
30 Goa 139,495 72,669 66,826
31 Lakshadweep 7,088 3,715 3,373
32 Kerala 3,322,247 1,695,935 1,626,312
33 Tamil Nadu 6,894,821 3,542,351 3,352,470
34 Pondicherry 127,610 64,932 62,678
35 Andaman & Nicobar
39,497 20,094 19,403
INDIA 158,789,287 82,952,135 75,837,152


India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu & Kashmir 10,540,284 5,584,889 4,955,385
02 Himachal Pradesh 6,092,645 3,073,211 3,019,434
03 Punjab 24,762,666 13,041,557 11,721,109
04 Chandigarh 936,733 517,095 419,638
05 Uttarakhand 8,787,908 4,449,409 4,338,499
06 Haryana 22,055,357 11,703,083 10,352,274
07 NCT of Delhi 14,782,725 7,920,675 6,862,050
08 Rajasthan 58,116,096 30,039,874 28,076,222
09 Uttar Pradesh 169,853,242 88,943,240 80,910,002
10 Bihar 85,222,408 44,570,067 40,652,341
11 Sikkim 546,611 290,243 256,368
12 Arunachal Pradesh 1,179,852 616,802 563,050
13 Nagaland 1,694,621 878,596 816,025
14 Manipur 2,368,519 1,187,080 1,181,439
15 Mizoram 925,478 468,374 457,104
16 Tripura 3,226,977 1,644,513 1,582,464
17 Meghalaya 2,408,185 1,210,479 1,197,706
18 Assam 26,657,965 13,649,839 13,008,126
19 West Bengal 81,235,137 41,740,125 39,495,012
20 Jharkhand 27,728,656 14,235,767 13,492,889
21 Orissa 36,911,708 18,598,470 18,313,238
22 Chattisgarh 21,956,168 11,002,928 10,953,240
23 Madhya Pradesh 62,049,270 32,095,963 29,953,307
24 Gujarat 52,889,452 27,507,996 25,381,456
25 Daman & Diu 217,031 136,544 80,487
26 Dadra & Nagar
293,657 167,603 126,054
27 Maharashtra 99,524,597 51,539,135 47,985,462
28 Andhra Pradesh 76,022,847 38,061,551 37,961,296
29 Karnataka 54,274,903 27,529,898 26,745,005
30 Goa 1,318,228 668,042 650,186
31 Lakshadweep 57,341 29,391 27,950
32 Kerala 30,065,430 14,325,355 15,740,075
33 Tamil Nadu 65,244,137 32,616,520 32,627,617
34 Pondicherry 1,116,854 545,553 571,301
35 Andaman &
Nicobar Islands
340,447 182,236 158,211
INDIA 1,051,404,135 540,772,113 510,632,022


India/State/UT Literate
Persons (%)
01 Jammu & Kashmir 68.74 78.26 58.01
02 Himachal Pradesh 83.78 90.83 76.60
03 Punjab 76.68 81.48 71.34
04 Chandigarh 86.43 90.54 81.38
05 Uttarakhand 79.63 88.33 70.70
06 Haryana 76.64 85.38 66.77
07 NCT of Delhi 86.34 91.03 80.93
08 Rajasthan 67.06 80.51 52.66
09 Uttar Pradesh 69.72 79.24 59.26
10 Bihar 63.82 73.39 53.33
11 Sikkim 82.20 87.29 76.43
12 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95 73.69 59.57
13 Nagaland 80.11 83.29 76.69
14 Manipur 79.85 86.49 73.17
15 Mizoram 91.58 93.72 89.40
16 Tripura 87.75 92.18 83.15
17 Meghalaya 75.48 77.17 73.78
18 Assam 73.18 78.81 67.27
19 West Bengal 77.08 82.67 71.16
20 Jharkhand 67.63 78.45 56.21
21 Orissa 73.45 82.40 64.36
22 Chattisgarh 71.04 81.45 60.59
23 Madhya Pradesh 70.63 80.53 60.02
24 Gujarat 79.31 87.23 70.73
25 Daman & Diu 87.07 91.48 79.59
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 77.65 86.46 65.93
27 Maharashtra 82.91 89.82 75.48
28 Andhra Pradesh 67.66 75.56 59.74
29 Karnataka 75.60 82.85 68.13
30 Goa 87.40 92.81 81.84
31 Lakshadweep 92.28 96.11 88.25
32 Kerala 93.91 96.02 91.98
33 Tamil Nadu 80.33 86.81 73.86
34 Pondicherry 86.55 92.12 81.22
35 Andaman & Nicobar
86.27 90.11 81.84
INDIA 74.04 82.14 65.46


Largest cities or towns of India
Census India

Pop. Ra
City name State/U
1 Mumbai Mahara
11 Lucknow Uttar

2 Delhi Delhi 11,007,
12 Kanpur Uttar
3 Bengal
13 Nagpur Mahara
4 Hydera
14 Indore Madhya
5 Ahmed
Gujarat 5,570,5
15 Thane Mahara
6 Chenna
16 Bhopal Madhya
7 Kolkata West 4,486,6 17 Visakhapa Andhra 1,730,
Bengal 79 tnam Pradesh 320
8 Surat Gujarat 4,462,0
18 Pimpri-
9 Pune Mahara
19 Patna Bihar 1,683,
10 Jaipur Rajasth
20 Ludhiana Punjab 1,613,


Live births
per year
per year
per year





6,904,000 43.3 25.5 17.
5.90 165.

8,295,000 42.1 22.7 19.
5.90 153.

9,728,000 40.4 19.8 20.
5.82 140.

39.2 17.2 22.
5.69 128.

37.5 15.0 22.
5.26 118.

36.3 13.0 23.
4.89 106.

34.5 11.8 22.
4.47 95.0

32.5 10.9 21.
4.11 85.1

30.0 10.2 19.
3.72 76.4

27.2 9.4 17.
3.31 68.9

24.8 8.7 16.
2.96 60.7

23.1 8.3 14.
2.73 52.9


Census information for 2001
Composition Hindus Muslims Christians Sikhs Buddhist Jains Others
40.4 31.3 39.7 37.7 40.6 32.9 48.4
Urban sex
922 907 1026 886 944 941 966
Rural sex
944 953 1001 895 958 937 995
No. of
males. (avg.
= 944)
935 940 1009 895 955 940 1000
Literacy rate
(71.7% for
Age 7 &
75.5 60.0 90.3 70.4 73.0 95.0 50.0
Child sex
ratio (06
925 950 964 786 942 870 976
Growth %
(est '91'01)
20.3% 29.5% 22.6% 18.2% 24.5% 26.0% 103.1%
% total of
80.5% 13.4% 2.3% 1.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
The term culture refers to a state of intellectual development or manners. The
social and political forces that influence the growth of a human being is
defined as culture.
Indian culture is rich and diverse and as a result unique in its very own way.
Our manners, way of communicating with one another, etc are one of the
important components of our culture. Even though we have accepted modern
means of living, improved our lifestyle, our values and beliefs still remain
unchanged. A person can change his way of clothing, way of eating and living
but the rich values in a person always remains unchanged because they are
deeply rooted within our hearts, mind, body and soul which we receive from
our culture.
Indian culture treats guests as god and serves them and takes care of them
as if they are a part and parcel of the family itself. Even though we dont have
anything to eat, the guests are never left hungry and are always looked after
by the members of the family. Elders and the respect for elders is a major
component in Indian culture. Elders are the driving force for any family and
hence the love and respect for elders comes from within and is not artificial.
An individual takes blessings from his elders by touching their feet. Elders drill
and pass on the Indian culture within us as we grow.
Respect one another is another lesson that is taught from the books of
Indian culture. All people are alike and respecting one another is ones duty. In
foreign countries the relation between the boss and the employee is like a
master and slave and is purely monetary whereas in Indian culture the
relation between the boss and the employee is more like homely relations
unlike foreign countries.
Helpful nature is another striking feature in our Indian culture. Right from our
early days of childhood we are taught to help one another in need of help and
distress. If not monetary then at least in kind or non-monetary ways. Indian
culture tells us to multiply and distribute joy and happiness and share sadness
and pain. It tells us that by all this we can develop co-operation and better
living amongst ourselves and subsequently make this world a better place to
live in.
Even though India is a country of various religions and caste our culture tells
us just one thing 'phir bhi dil hai Hindustani '.
The History of India's culture:
Ancient civilization in India reveals marvelous facts about our heritage. It is a
eye opener as to how kingdoms ruled and how people went about life in a
logical way. Though medieval, it is actually amazing to find how people
transacted and went about building dams and tended to the chief occupation
which was agriculture. Dance and rituals were always a part of Indian culture
and this was the chief mode of entertainment.

Indian culture is also about respecting elders, honoring heroes and cherishing
love. It is a land of aspirations, achievements and self reliance. Indian culture
has a very high level of tolerance and hence the advent of so many external
cultures was not restricted. Adaptation to any culture or embracing a religion
was always the democratic culture. Indian history is about war heroes during
Indus valley civilization and the initial time when currency was coined. Indian
history talks a lot about self reliance especially in terms of food and
agricultural produce. This was the great effort put in by the farmers and
support received through irrigation. The modern agriculture also shows a lot of
indigenous methods of preserving the produce. The Chola dynasty, the great
King Emperor Ashoka and the secular era of Emperor Akbar will always be
green in our memory. Several books are written on the rich Indian culture
wherein the saints preserved the Vedas and scriptures.
There are shlokas and mantras i.e. chants that can evoke positive energy and
revoke enthusiasm in life. The rich culture of yoga as a part of life and the
goodness of ayurveda has now got an universal lifestyle approach. Our roots
are strong and despite the westernization and access to technology, the
distinct Indianness is still maintained whilst celebrating Diwali or observing the
Shravan fast. This is also believed to be a land of Lord Rama which is
Ayodhya or the birthplace of Sri Krishna is considered as Mathura. The birth
of Sikh religion and the reverence felt by all Indians is still intact. Indians are
extremely secular and especially in the metros there is seamless blending of
Indians during Xmas and Id.

Attires in Indian culture:
Ethnic charm is exuded in simple outfits in India. The tropical climate is well
adapted to the range of muslins and cottons. The mixed variety in cotton goes
from viscose, polycot and also cotton silk which has a sheen of its own. Attires
are very much about the region and climate. The Himalayan costume is suited
for the environment where the dress is a blanket wrap in red and black
secured with a ethnic pin. The ornaments or jewelry is a festive adornment
with a big red bindi to complete the outfit.

The sari happens to be the most versatile drape with its amazing styles of
draping and design. The sari is the traditional dress of India which also
modifies as per material, drape and style with each region. This has also gone
up to international drape style followed by ranking designers on the ramp
shows. The chungari sari of the south has the tie and dye pattern that finds its
counterpart in the bandhi print of Gujarat. There are embroidery types that
seem to be the intrinsic talent of certain regions.

The cardigans and shawls are hand-woven from the North especially the
Himachal and Arunchal belt. This displays the rich handicraft culture of India.
The modernization in winter wear is seen with details like pockets, zippers,
blends of fabrics and easy feel wear. The gota work of Rajashtan and Punjab
is skilled golden zari strips woven or fixed on to the main garment like a sari or
the dupatta. The most comfortable dress is the salwar kameez that radiates
Indianness and is also comfortable.

The south Indian Kerala set-saree is the beautiful print in cream and golden
which can be teamed with colored blouses. The navvari sari or the nine yard
drape of Mahrasthra is usually found in leaf green color that is symbolic of the
newly married bride. The colors also seem to be in mauve, red or blues and
the sarees happen as Narayan peth, paithani and various other Belgaum

The padavai is the ghagra choli for young girls in the south that is incomplete
without the gold jewelry especially the kaashi gold chain and jhumki earrings.
This is also modified as ghagra choli is simple cottons for daily wear in the
villages and designed as the lehenga choli in designer wear in the metros.

Values in India:
Tradition in India is about values that transcend down generations
automatically. These are genetic traits and simplicity is the main ingredient.
Ancient culture believed in a lot of dogmas and rituals that can be termed as
false beliefs and Indians are an intelligent lot to traverse these paths and
modify the social requirements. Indians are highly flexible in the sense they
would like to imbibe the changes dictated by western influence and yet clearly
affirm their belief in traditions.

It is customary to respect elders and touch their feet as to seek their
blessings. Occasions or festivals demand a lot of participation in terms of
rangoli drawing, diyas and an array of yummy treats made in the authentic
variety as per the caste and geography. Hindu rituals are a lot about song and
dance and each family has a natural way to adjust to these formats. It is a
ritual to pray to the Goddess of learning Ma Saraswathi to achieve success.
Similarly business people always insist on drawing the Swastika which marks
prosperity and worship the Goddess of wealth.

With the advent of technology and women emancipation there is a trend to
mingle free with the western concepts of dress, belief, work and also get into
a secular concept. But one can feel a distinct Indianness and most of our
brethren abroad miss their homeland. Indians all over the world are known for
their hospitality and high level of tolerance. Their adaptation power is high and
hence they are able to scale heights in the international arena. Putting oneself
on the global map, Indians are seeking new vistas of communicating their
beliefs and tradition. The gift of health and well being through yoga and
meditation is a great source of Vedas in the rich Hindu tradition which has
actually benefited the world.

The values in India is about living life with a zest and observing the belief that
there is one God prevailing despite so many religions.
Respecting elders, understanding cross culture traditions, free mingling to
accommodate tolerance, staying interested in rural welfare are the values of
India. The artifacts, cuisine handicrafts, attire and lifestyle of the rural folks is
still followed and preserved by Indians.

Family Culture of India:
Family is about joy and sharing. In India, the family culture is all about love
and patience. A girl weds into a family and adjusts herself seamlessly to the
rituals, routine and cuisine. Of late, one can see a lot of love marriages i.e.
cross border mingling which is also being accepted by the elders in the family.
Association with religious beliefs and sects is also followed by families as
many families believe in a particular Guru or saint who guides them in their
spiritual path. Families are also getting nuclear owing to independent lifestyle
preference and also the concept where in both husband and wife is working
and has demanding careers. This is quite common in metros where families
are independent in their upbringing and yet love and respect the elders who
reside separately. The earlier homes housed themselves together in very
large families where one can actually see three or four generations put up

Certain families observe a matriarchal concept i.e. the groom resides in the
house of the bride or also follows a tradition as per the brides ancestors.
Generally India is patriarchal in the sense the children get the surname of the
father and the wife changes her surname to follow that of the husbands. It is
also a tradition in certain families that the wife changes her maiden name but
again this concept is also changing. Indian families are very accommodating
and willing to accept change. It is a concept to observe the karva chauth or
the raksha bandhan with great aplomb. There is an occasion for gifting and
seeking the blessings of elders. It is important to respect and hold certain
family traditions which are unique in terms of cooking, rituals and beliefs.
Families give a lot of importance to lighting the diya in the evening and also
each person in family has a habit of doing the puja in his own way.

Metros are also seeing a lot of family value in celebrating birthdays and
anniversaries by observing the rituals and also entertaining outdoors. The
Indian culture has imbibed the right mix of western influence and yet
maintaining the ethnic family tradition. There is more love in every family while
blowing candles on the birthday cake and also lighting the diya to observe an
Aarti for the birthday person.


India is credibly the only country with the
largest and most diverse mixture of races. A
spell-binding country where people of unlike
communities and religions live together in
oneness. India is a very culturally diverse
country. People speak hundreds of different
languages (18 major languages, with English and Hindi as the official
languages). But the beauty lies in the fact that despite all the differences,
people live with full harmony and love depicting their varied cultures, traditions
and dressing styles.

In a country as dissimilar and complex as India, it is not astonishing to find
that people here depict the rich glories of the past, the culture, traditions and
values proportional to geographic locations and the various distinctive
manners, habits and food that will always continue to be purely Indian.
According to our rich past, a country like India has been invaded by armies,
traders and migrants who brought with them their own habits, faiths, practices
and honoring which have all added to the rich feel of Indian life and living.

From the gigantic Himalayas to the naturalized land of south, from the arid
deserts of the west to the oozy deltas of the east, from the dry heat and cold
of the central Plateau to the cool forest hills,
Indian lifestyles clearly exalt the topography of
its region. The food, clothing and habits of an
Indian differ in accordance to the place of

Indian dressing is majorly influenced by the
background and culture of the past. Indians are well-known for their dressing
style and stylish apparels worn by men and women both. With the
advancement in pace, and culture, Indian women have altered themselves to
be more modernistic and help. Earlier women used to wear traditional dresses
and cover their heads with veil but with the advancement they have also
grown mature and changed themselves according to time. The traditional
Indian dress is the Sari which can be worn in many ways. Indian dresses
consist of several beautiful designs, which are also worn by women of other
national groups. The Salwar Kameej is the second most popular dress and is
attaining popularity fast with the younger generation. Women also wear
lehanga cholis etc.

However, men in villages are still more comfortable in traditional attire like
kurtas, lungis, dhotis and pyjamas. Indian fashion includes a wide range of
designs for women, men, and children. The men in cities wear shirts and
pants and live in a modernized manner.

However the dressing style of Indians has been influenced by the western. Yet
they are purely Indian from inside. They have some traditional values which
cannot be surpassed by anyone. Now too, the surname of an Indian is based
on his caste or place of origin or his family occupation. Men are still believed
to be the head of a family and are referred for all decisions though they no
longer continue to be a single earner. Parents are looked upon with respect
and regard. The values they have inculcated in their children can be exhibited
the way they show respect and love towards their parents. Children are
financially supported by their parents throughout their education. Inspite of
being so westernized Indians believe that some lines should never be




Emir: Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifah Al

President: Pranab Mukherjee
1,951,591 1,205,073,612
Age Structure
04years: 21.8%(male92,896/female87,201)
(2008 est.)
0-14 years: 29.7% (male
187,450,635/female 165,415,758)
15-64 years: 64.9% (male
398,757,331/female 372,719,379)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male
30,831,190/female 33,998,613) (2011
Birth Rate
15.69 births/1,000 population (2008 est.) 20.6 births/1,000 population (2011est.)
2.47 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.) 7.43deaths/1,000 opulation(July2011)
Life Expectancy
78.090 years 67.140 years
Capital City
Doha New Delhi
Largest city
Doha (population: 344,939) Mumbai (population: 12,691,800)
Literacy Rate
89% 61%
Definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 89%
male: 89.1%
female: 88.6% (2008 est.)
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61%
male: 73.4%
female: 47.8% (2001 census)
Percentage of Women in Parliament
0% 9.2%
Wealthiest Citizens
NA Mukesh Ambani ($19.5bn US)
Death Penalty
Legal Legal
Political System
emirate federal republic
Independence date
3 September 1971 (from UK) 15 August 1947 (from UK)
Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other
14% (2004 census)
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%,
Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001
Major Industries
liquefied natural gas, crude oil
production and refining, ammonia,
fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel
reinforcing bars, cement, commercial
ship repair

Agriculture, Retail-sector, real estate, Software
service, petroleum, oil and lubricant, Natural
Gas, Banking,insurance and financial
services,cement,FMCG, Telecommunications

Middle East, peninsula bordering the
Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and
the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and
11,586 km sq 3,287,263 km sq
563 km 7,000 km
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot,
humid summers
varies from tropical monsoon in south to
temperate in north
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a
second language
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%,
Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%,
Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%,
Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%,
Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%,
Assamese 1.3%, Punjabi 2.8%,
Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%