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INTRODUCTION


Broadband Powerline communications are sets of equipment, software and
management services that when overlaid on the electric grid provides users with
communication means over existing power lines. The new technology operates in
the 1-30 MHz and can deliver data rates up to 200Mbps. The rationale behind
providing high bit-rate data services exploiting the power grid resides in the vast
infrastructure in place for power distribution, and the penetration of the service could
be much higher than any other wire line alternative. In spite of the renewed interest in
Power line communications, this technology still faces several technical challenges
and regulatory issues: the power line channel is extremely difficult to model; it is a
very noisy transmission medium; Power line cables in the 240V secondary
distribution systems are often unshielded, thus becoming both sources and targets of
electromagnetic interference (EMI); transformers can introduce severe distortion in
the absence of bypass couplers.

Since the power-line network is not designed for communications purposes, the
channel suffers from multipath fading and frequency selectivity. A transfer
characteristic model for the low voltage indoor power line based on the transmission
line theory is developed. To model the transfer characteristics of power lines,
basically there are two essential factors: the model parameters and the modeling
algorithms. These two factors determine the reliability and accuracy of the model.
From the ways the model parameters are obtained, the modeling technique can be
classified into two approaches: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach.
In the top-down approach, the model parameters are retrieved from measurements.
This approach requires little computation and is easy to implement. However, since
the parameters depend on the measurement results, the model is prone to
measurement errors. On the contrary, the bottom-up approach starts from theoretical
derivation of model parameters. Although this approach requires more computational
efforts comparing to the top-down approach, it however describes clearly the
relationship between the network behavior and the model parameters. Moreover, this
modeling approach is more versatile and flexible since all the parameters are
formulated, making it easy to predict the changes in the transfer function should there
be any change in the system configuration. The model described in this project adopts
this bottom-up approach. Depending on the modeling algorithms used, the above
approaches can be achieved in the time domain or the frequency domain. First
frequency domain modeling, using scattering matrix is used to obtain the transfer
function of the channel from which the attenuation in the signal strength and the delay
or phase distortion at different frequencies is calculated. Scattering matrix gives the
relationship of the incident (a) and reflected (b) waves. Broadband Power Line
Communication is only interested in the transfer function in the forward direction,
which is the ratio of the incident power into the receiver over the power injected by
the transmitter. This can readily be expressed by b
2
/ a
1
or S
21
in the scattering matrix.
Secondly, IFFT (Inverse fast Fourier transform) is used to calculate the impulse
response from the channel transfer function to know the multipath environment of the
power line channel in time domain modeling and an echo model is developed in
Simulink to represent this physical characteristics.
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Noise in LV power-line is characterized within two categories: background and
impulsive noise. Many electric appliances frequently cause man-made
electromagnetic noise on power-line channels. Such man-made noise produces an
impulsive distortion on channel causing a burst of noise. A large impulse often causes
the entire transmitted symbol to be corrupted and it can be devastating to the overall
system performance.

The well-known multicarrier technique, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM), is considered as the modulation scheme for Broadband Powerline
communications. By the application of OFDM, the most distinct property of power-
line channel, its frequency selectivity, can be easily coped with. Moreover, OFDM
can perform better than single carrier modulation in the presence of impulsive noise,
because it spreads the effect of impulsive noise over multiple sub carriers. Like other
communications systems, coding can improve the OFDM system performance but
because of the nature of this channel, the achieved improvements are usually very
restricted.

Since power line technology appears to be more mature for the indoor home-
networking scenario than for the outside broadband access one, focus here is on the
development of channel and noise model for indoor power line network and thus
designing of communication system for performance analysis of Broadband PLC
using block coding techniques using software simulation in MATLAB / Simulink. In
addition, network performance analysis of CORINEX Communication, Inc.
Broadband PLC equipments for indoor power line network using measurements of
different network characteristics parameters such as throughput and latency is
performed.

This project is organized as follows. Chapter 2 deals with channel modeling using
transmission line analysis of indoor powerline. Noise modeling is mentioned in
Chapter 3 while Broadband powerline communication system is designed in Chapter
4. Broadband PLC network performance parameters measurements are discussed in
Chapter 5 while conclusion and scope for future work are mentioned at the end.
















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CHANNEL MODELING

2.1 TRANSMISSION LINE ANALYSIS OF POWER LINE

The electromagnetic theory states that to achieve efficient point-to-point
transmission of power and information, the source energy must be guided. When
power lines are used to transmit high frequency communication signals, they can be
regarded as transmission lines, which guide the transverse electromagnetic (TEM)
waves along them. The cable under study in this project is the typical single-phase
house wirings commonly found in India. The cables are made up of stranded copper
conductors with PVC insulation. The three cables (live, neutral, and earth) are usually
laid inside PVC conduits that are embedded inside the concrete wall. Typically, the
live and neutral cables are used as the PLC transmission channel, which can be
approximated as a close form of the two-wire transmission line. According to
Electromagnetic theory, the two-wire transmission line must be a pair of parallel
conducting wires separated by a uniform distance. In the actual installation, the power
cables are simply pulled through the conduit and the separation between them is not
uniform at all. However, the conduit normally has small cross-sectional area and this
limits the variation of the separation between the cables. Hence, the assumption of
uniform separation is reasonable in this case. Based on the above consideration, the
paired power cables are regarded as a distributed parameter network, where voltages
and currents can vary in magnitude and phase over its length. Hence, it can be
described by circuit parameters that are distributed over its length as shown in Fig.2.1
below.



Fig. 2.1 Equivalent circuit of two-wire transmission line

The quantities v (z, t) and v (z +Az, t) denote the instantaneous voltages at location z
and z + Az, respectively. Similarly, i (z, t) and i (z +Az, t) denote the instantaneous
currents at z and z +Az, respectively. R defines the resistance per unit length for both
conductors (in O / m), L defines the inductance per unit length for both conductors (in
H/m), G is the conductance per unit length (in S/m), and C is the capacitance per unit
length (F/m).

2.2 MODEL PARAMETERS.

Based on the lumped-element circuit of a two wire transmission line as shown above,
model parameters per unit length (m) are:
1.) Resistance R = 1/ taoo
c


c c
f o t / 1
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Where o= skin depth = and is a function of frequency f . This effect
causes an increase in the resistance of the cable and it worsens as the current
frequency increases.


2.) Inductance


3.) Conductance



4.) Capacitance



Where a = radius of the copper conductor,
D = distance between conductors,

c
= permeability of copper conductor,
o
d
=conductivity of the dielectric material,
and c
d
= permittivity of the dielectric material.

2.3 MODELING THE INDOOR POWERLINE

Here the indoor power cables are approximated to be a two-wire transmission line
with solid core conductor for the ease of implementation using software simulation as
shown in Fig.2.2. The dielectric material, between the cable conductors, is
inhomogeneous in both space (due to the round shape of the cable conductor) and
contents (mixture of insulation and air). But since the cables are of close proximity to
each other, the thickness of the insulationt is comparable with that of the air space
between the conductors. In this model, the dielectric is assumed to be just a mixed
content material and the effects of the inhomogeneous in space are neglected to keep
the model tractable.

Fig. 2.2 Approximate model of the power line

Here, distance between the two conductors (Live and Neutral) D= 2t + 2t + 2a
where t = thickness of insulation = 0.7 mm
a = radius of copper conductor = 0.63 mm
Therefore, D = 4.06 mm
Also, Conductivity of copper o
C
= 5.8 x 10
7
S/m
) 2 / cosh(
) 2 / cosh(
) 2 / cosh(
a D a
C
a D a
G
a D a L
d
d
c
tc
to
t

=
=
=
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Relative permittivity of dielectric [PVC (4) & air (1)] c
r
= 0.8

Conductivity of dielectric o
d
= 1 x 10
-5
S/m

The length of transmission line is taken to be S=5 m with shunt stub
terminated in an open circuit as shown in fig.2.3 considering the fact that, indoor
power lines are radial N-branched network as shown in fig.2.4 below.


Fig. 2.3 Configuration of simulated network



Fig. 2.4 A simplified indoor power line channel

In the above figure, port 1 is the transmitter from where the signal is sent, and
port 2 is the receiver where the signal strength is measured.

2.4 TRANSFER FUNCTION MODELING

There are three main types of attenuation for a wave propagating in the forward
direction. The first one is the line attenuation, which is caused by the heat loss and
radiations along the power line. This line attenuation is always present and it depends
on the length of the wave path and the frequency of the wave. The second type of
attenuation is caused by reflections arising from the points of impedance
discontinuities on the propagation channel. The reflected wave from the unmatched
points will interfere with the original incident wave. This kind of interferences may be
constructive or destructive, giving rise to attenuation if it is destructive. The last type
of attenuation is caused by the delayed version of the forward propagating wave
falling out of phase with the main incident forward wave, giving rise to destructive
interference and hence overall signal attenuation. Thus, frequency-domain modeling
approach using scattering matrix technique is used to account for all these reflected
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and delayed paths in the power network. Scattering matrix gives the relationship of
the incident (a) and reflected (b) waves as shown in the fig.2.5 below.


Fig. 2.5 Scattering parameters
Scattering parameters or S-parameters are properties used to describe the electrical
behavior of linear electrical networks when undergoing various steady state stimuli by
small signals.They are members of a family of similar parameters used in electronics
engineering, other examples being: Y-parameters, Z-parameters, H-parameters, T-
parameters or ABCD-parameters.They differ from these, in the sense that S-
parameters do not use open or short circuit conditions to characterize a linear
electrical network; instead matched and unmatched loads are used. Moreover, the
quantities are measured in terms of power. Although applicable at any frequency, S-
parameters are mostly used for networks operating at radio frequency (RF) and
microwave frequencies. S-parameters change with the measurement frequency so this
must be included for any S-parameter measurements stated, in addition to the
characteristic impedance or system impedance. S-parameters are readily represented
in matrix form and obey the rules of matrix algebra. The S-parameter matrix
describing an N-port network will be square of dimension 'N' and will therefore
contain N
2
elements. At the test frequency each element or S-parameter is represented
by a unitless complex number, thus representing magnitude and angle, or amplitude
and phase. For all ports the reflected power waves may be defined in terms of the S-
parameter matrix and the incident power waves by the following matrix equation:
[b] = [S] [a]
where S is an N x N matrix the elements of which can be indexed using conventional
matrix (mathematics) notation. The phase part of an S-parameter is the spatial phase
at the test frequency, not the temporal (time-related) phase.
The S-parameter matrix for the 2-port network is probably the most common and it
serves as the basic building block for generating the higher order matrices for larger
networks. In this case the relationship between the reflected, incident power waves
and the S-parameter matrix is given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
a
a
S S
S S
b
b

Expanding the matrices into equations gives:
and
2 22 1 21 2
2 12 1 11 1
a S a S b
a S a S b
+ =
+ =

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Each equation gives the relationship between the reflected and incident power waves
at each of the network ports, 1 and 2, in terms of the network's individual S-
parameters, S
11
, S
12
, S
21
and S
22
. If one considers an incident power wave at port 1
(a
1
) there may result from it waves exiting from either port 1 itself (b
1
) or port 2 (b
2
).
However if, according to the definition of S-parameters, port 2 is terminated in a load
identical to the system impedance (Z
0
) then, by the maximum power transfer theorem,
b
2
will be totally absorbed making a
2
equal to zero. Therefore
+

= =
1
1
1
1
11
V
V
a
b
S and
+

= =
1
2
1
2
21
V
V
a
b
S
Similarly, if port 1 is terminated in the system impedance then a
1
becomes zero,giving
+

= =
2
1
2
1
12
V
V
a
b
S and
+

= =
2
2
2
2
22
V
V
a
b
S
Each 2-port S-parameter has the following generic descriptions:
S
11
is the input port voltage reflection coefficient
S
12
is the reverse voltage gain
S
21
is the forward voltage gain
S
22
is the output port voltage reflection coefficient.
Here, S
21
gives the Network Transfer Function.

2.5 DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION

In order to find out the degree of signal degradation in the power line channel
between two access point, software simulation is done using MATLAB programming
to obtain the transfer function whose magnitude (dB) Vs frequency plot gives the
attenuation in the signal strength and angle (radian) Vs frequency plot gives the phase
distortion or delay. The MATLAB program is as given below.

%Attenuation and Phase measurement
h=rfckt.twowire('EpsilonR',0.8,'Linelength',5,'Radius',0.63e-003,'separation',4.06e-
003,'sigmaCond',5.8e07,'sigmaDiel',1e-05,'stubmode','Shunt','termination','open');
freq=[1e6:1e6:3e7];
analyze(h,freq);
figure
plot(h,'s21','dB');
legend show
figure
plot(h,'s21','Angle (radians)');
legend show

Fig.2.6 obtained after running the program shows the presence of deep notches at
certain frequencies in the transfer function. These deep notches are resulted from
signal reflections and multipath propagations through the power line channel. For
communication to establish between two access points, the carrier frequency chosen
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must not fall at deep notches. For instance, the carrier frequency between 15 MHz and
20 MHz in the cable length of 5 m will not be chosen for transmission.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n

(
d
e
c
i
b
e
l
s
)
Freq [MHz]
S
21


Fig. 2.6 Attenuation measurement

Also, Fig.2.7 shows that when there is deep notch at certain frequency in the transfer
function, there is a discontinuity in the phase characteristics leading to phase
distortion or delay.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
A
n
g
l
e

(
r
a
d
i
a
n
s
)
Freq [MHz]
S
21


Fig. 2.7 Phase Characteristics



2.6 DETERMINATION OF IMPULSE RESPONSE

In addition to the frequency dependent attenuation that characterizes the powerline
channel, deep narrowband notches occur in the transfer function, which may be
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9
spread over the whole frequency range. These notches are caused by multiple
reflections at impedance discontinuities. The length of the impulse response and the
number of the occurred peaks can vary considerably depending on the environment.
This behaviour can be described by an echo model of the channel as illustrated in
fig.2.8 below.

Fig. 2.8 Echo model representing the multipath Broadband PLC channel model

Complying with the echo model, each transmitted signal reaches the receiver over N
different paths. Each path i is defined by a certain delay t
i
and a certain attenuation C
i
.
The Broadband PLC channel can be described by means of a discrete-time impulse
response h (t) as in equation given below:
i
f j
N
i
i i
N
i
i
e C f H t C t h
t t
t o
2
1 1
. ) ( ) ( . ) (

= =

= =


Here the impulse response is calculated from the transfer function i.e. the frequency
response by using Inverse Discrete Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT).

%Impulse response of powerline channel

G =[0.9981-0i 0.9978-0.0095i 0.9974-0.0191i 0.9969-0.0291i 0.9960-0.0397i 0.9948-0.0509i
0.9932-0.0633i 0.9909-0.0771i 0.9877-0.0929i 0.9831-0.1115i 0.9764-0.1341i 0.9660-0.1623i
0.9489-0.1992i 0.9182-0.2492i 0.8562-0.3189i 0.7118-0.4053i 0.3687-0.3819i
0.1671+0.1607i 0.5660+0.4316i 0.7984+0.3643i 0.8927+0.2830i 0.9361+0.2234i
0.9589+0.1803i 0.9722+0.1480i 0.9805+0.1227i 0.9860+0.1022i 0.9898+0.0851i
0.9925+0.0703i 0.9944+0.0572i 0.9958+0.0454i 0.9968+0.0345i];
w =[0:1e6:3e7];
Ts=pi/3e7;
datafr =idfrd(G,w,Ts);
datf =iddata (datafr);
dat =ifft (datf);
plot(dat)




Impulse response plot after running the program is as obtained below. In the impulse
response, the multiple propagation paths can be seen.

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x 10
-6
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Time (microseconds)
o
u
t
p
u
t

'
y
(
t
)
'
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x 10
-6
0
2
4
6
8
Time (microseconds)
i
n
p
u
t

'
u
(
t
)
'


Fig. 2.9 Impulse response plot at output and input, the multiple propagations paths can
be seen

The dominant paths of the impulse response are sufficiently covered by the simple
N=6 path model from which the attenuations and delays are calculated to develop a
six path echo model in SIMULINK as shown below. Impulsive noise is added in the
echo channel model which is explained in the later chapters.

Path Number Attenuation Cn Delay tn
1 0.875 0
2 0.1775 0.315e-6
3 0.07 0.579e-6
4 0.0525 1e-6
5 0.0375 1.3e-6
6 0.0375 1.8e-6


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Fig. 2.10 Echo model representing the multi-path channel model of Broadband PLC
developed in Simulink
























1
Out1
i mp
Si gnal From
Workspace
Product5
Product4
Product3
Product2
Product1
Product
z
-N
Del ay5
z
-N
Del ay4
z
-N
Del ay3
z
-N
Del ay2
z
-N
Del ay1
z
-N
Del ay
0.037
Constant5
0.037
Constant4
0.052
Constant3
0.07
Constant2
0.177
Constant1
0.875
Constant
Add
1
In1
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NOISE MODELING

3.1 NOISE DESCRIPTION

Since the power-line network is not designed for communications purposes, the
channel exhibits an unfavorable frequency selective transfer function. Furthermore,
this channel is distorted by impulsive noise and by severe narrowband interference.
Unlike many other communication channels, power-line channel does not represent
an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment. Noise in LV power-line is
characterized within two categories: background and impulsive noise. Many electric
appliances frequently cause man-made electromagnetic noise on power-line channels.
Such man-made noise produces an impulsive distortion on channel causing a burst of
noise. A large impulse often causes the entire transmitted symbol to be corrupted and
it can be devastating to the overall system performance. Background noise usually
consists of coloured background noise and narrowband noise. Here only coloured
background noise in residential environment is considered.

3.1.1 COLOURED BACKGROUND NOISE

Coloured background noise power spectral density (psd) is relatively lower and
decrease with frequency. This type of noise is mainly caused by a superposition of
noise sources of lower intensity. Contrary to the white noise, which is a random noise
having a continuous and uniform spectral density that is substantially independent of
the frequency over the specified frequency range; the coloured background noise
shows strong dependency on the considered frequency. The parameters of this noise
vary over time in terms of minutes and hours.

For the model of the coloured background noise psd, the measurements have shown
that a first-order exponential function is more adequate, as formulated by equation
given below;

1
/
1
.
f f
O CBN
e N N N

+ =

with N
o
the constant noise density, N
1
and f
1
are the parameters of the exponential
function, and the unit of psd is dBV/Hz
1/2
. The psd of coloured background noise in
residential environment according to [2] is given by following equation:

6 , 3 / ] [
. 35 35 ) (
MHz f
BN
e f N

+ = for residential environments

Matlab program for plot of coloured background noise is as given below:

%Equation for coloured background noise for resi. environment

function y = cbnpsd(f)
y = -35 + 35*exp (-(f/6));


%coloured background noise power spectral density
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f=[1:1:30];
a=cbnpsd(f);
plot(f,cbnpsd(f))
title('power spectral density');




Fig. 3.1 Power Spectral density of coloured background noise in residential
environment

3.1.2 IMPULSIVE NOISE

The impulsive noise class is composed of the periodic impulses that are synchronous
with the main frequency and the asynchronous impulsive noise. The measurements
taken in [2] show that this class is largely dominated by asynchronous impulsive
noise, whose impulses are mainly caused by switching transients in the networks.
These impulses have durations of some microseconds up to a few milliseconds with
an arbitrary interarrival time. Their power spectral density can reach value of more
than 50 dB above the level of the background noise, making them the principal cause
of error occurrences in the digital communication over PLC networks. One approach
to model these impulses is a pulse train with pulse width t
w
, pulse width A,
interarrival time t
a
and a generalized pulse function p (t / t
w)
with unit amplitude and
impulse width t
w
as given by equation below:

) ( . ) (
,
,
i w
i a
i
i imp
t
t t
p A t n

=

=


0 5 10 15 20 25 30
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
power spectral density
Frequency (MHz)
d
B
m
i
c
r
o
v
o
l
t

/

H
z

1
/

2
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Fig. 3.2 The impulse model used for impulsive noise class modeling

The parameters t
w,i,
A
i
and t
a,i
of impulse i are random variables, whose statistical
properties are measured and investigated in []. The measured impulses have shown
that 90% of their amplitudes are between 100 and 200mV. Only less than 1% exceeds
maximum amplitude of 2V. The measurements of the impulse width t
w
have also
shown that only about 1% of the measured impulses have a width exceeding 500s
and only 0.2% of them exceeded 1 ms. Finally, the interarrival time that separates two
successive impulses is below 200ms for more than 90% of the recorded impulses.

Based on the above formulation an impulsive noise is simulated using MATLAB
program which is then converted to a Simulink block and then added in the channel
model as shown in fig 2.10. Here, only impulsive noise is added to the channel model
since they are the principal cause for burst error, and the effect of coloured
background noise is neglected for the ease of software simulation

Matlab program for generation of impulsive noise is as given below:

% Impulsive noise plot

imp=rand(1,470);
n=1;
while n<470-250;
n=n+floor(249*rand(1))+5;
imp(n:n+4)=[100 120 80 60 150];
end
plot(imp)
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Fig. 3.3 Impulsive Noise Plot



























0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0
50
100
150
Time (ms)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

(
m
V
)
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BROADBAND PLC SYSTEM DESIGN

4.1 INTRODUCTION

A block diagram of general coded communication system is shown in fig. Forward
error correction (FEC) coding is done on the input data prior to transmission, to
provide some security. The data stream is converted by digital data modulator into a
signal suitable for transmission over the waveform channel. The demodulator
recovers its best estimate of the input data from the received signal which on power
line waveform channels is an attenuated, noisy and distorted version of input signal.
As a result bit errors occur during the detection process.

4.2 BLOCK CODING

In block coding, the data to be transmitted is segmented into blocks of a fixed length
k. To each block of the information message m, a certain amount of parity bits are
added. The information bits and the parity bits together form the code words c of
length n, as illustrated by fig.4.1, which shows a communications system coding the
original information before submitting them to the modulation. The rate of a (n,k)
block code is defined as r = k/n.




Fig. 4.1 General model of a block coded communication system

The block coding process is one to one i.e. the same dataword is always encoded as
the same codeword. An error detecting code can detect only the types of errors for
which it is designed, other types of errors may remain undetected. One of the central
Data
source
Block encoder
Modulator
Channel
Demodulator
Decoder Data sink
Noise
Information
vector
m
c
Channel codeword
^m
Estimate of m Received
vector
r
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concepts in coding for error control is the idea of the hamming distance. The
hamming distance between two words (of the same size) is the no. of differences
between the corresponding bits. The hamming distance can easily be found if we
apply the XOR operation on the words and count the no. of 1s in the result. The
measurement i.e. used for designing a code is the minimum hamming distance. The
minimum hamming distance is the smallest hamming distance between all possible
pairs in a set of words. To guarantee the detection of up to s errors in all cases, the
minimum hamming distance in a block code must be d
min
= s+1, so that the received
codeword does not match a valid codeword. To guarantee correction of up to t errors
in all cases, the minimum hamming distance in a bock code must be d
min
= 2t+1.
Almost all block codes belong to a subset called linear block codes. A linear block
code is a code in which XOR (addition modulo-2) of two valid codewords creates
another valid codeword. However, more formal definition requires the knowledge of
abstract algebra particularly that of Galois field. A Galois field is an algebraic field
that has a finite number of members. Galois fields having 2
m
members are used in
error-control coding and are denoted GF (2
m
). A primitive polynomial for GF(2
m
) is
the minimal polynomial of some primitive element (a cyclic generator of the group of
nonzero elements of GF(2
m
) i.e. every nonzero element of the field can be expressed
as the primitive element raised to some integer power) of GF(2
m
). That is, it is the
binary-coefficient polynomial of smallest nonzero degree having a certain primitive
element as a root in GF (2
m
). As a consequence, a primitive polynomial has degree m
and is irreducible.

4.2.1 Hamming Encoder and Decoder:

It is a type of a linear block code. The Hamming Encoder block creates a Hamming
code with message length K and codeword length N. The number N must have the
form 2
m
-1, where m is an integer greater than or equal to 3. Then K equals N-m. The
input must contain exactly K elements. If it is frame-based, then it must be a column
vector. The output is a vector of length N. The coding scheme uses elements of the
finite field GF (2
m
). A default primitive polynomial is used. The algorithm uses
gfprimdf (m) as the primitive polynomial for GF (2
m
).

The Hamming Decoder block recovers a binary message vector from a binary
Hamming codeword vector. For proper decoding, the parameter values in this block
should match those in the corresponding Hamming Encoder block.

The fig.4.2 and fig.4.3 shows the settings used in the hamming encoder and decoder
block of the Simulink. Here, N = 255, m = 8 this implies K = 255 8 = 247.






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Fig. 4.2 Hamming Encoder settings



Fig. 4.3 Hamming Decoder settings

4.3 PUNCTURE AND INSERT ZERO BLOCK

The Puncture block creates an output vector by removing selected elements of the
input vector and preserving others. The input can be a real or complex vector of
length K. The block determines which elements to remove or preserve by using the
binary Puncture vector parameter. If Puncture vector (k) = 0, then the kth element of
the input vector does not become part of the output vector. If Puncture vector (k) = 1,
then the kth element of the input vector is preserved in the output vector.
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Here, k is between 1 and K. The preserved elements appear in the output vector in the
same order in which they appear in the input vector. The block can accept the data
types int8, uint8, int16, uint16, int32, uint32, Boolean, single, double, and fixed-
point. The data type of the output will be the same as that of the input signal. If the
input is frame-based, then both it and the Puncture vector parameter must be column
vectors. The length of the Puncture vector parameter must divide K. The block repeats
the puncturing pattern, if necessary, to cover all input elements.

The Insert Zero block constructs an output vector by inserting zeros among the
elements of the input vector. To implement punctured coding using the Puncture and
Insert Zero blocks, one should use the same vector for the Insert zero vector
parameter in this block and for the Puncture vector parameter in the Puncture block.
The settings used in the simulation are shown in fig.4.4 and fig.4.5 below:



Fig. 4.4 Puncture settings

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Fig. 4.5 Insert Zero settings

4.4 INTERLEAVING / DE-INTERLEAVING

The occasional deep fades in the frequency response of the transmission channel
cause some group of sub-carriers to be less reliable than other groups and hence cause
bit errors to occur in bursts rather than independently. Since channel coding schemes
are normally designed to deal with independent errors and not with error bursts, the
interleaving technique is used to guarantee this independence by effecting randomly
scattered errors. For this reason, in the transmitter and after the coding, the bits are
randomly permuted in such a way that adjacent bits are separated by several numbers
of bits. At the receiver side, before the decoding, the de-interleaving is performed in
order to get the original ordering of bits. The interleaving function can be realized by
block or convolution interleavers. Interleaver used here is Random Interleaver / de-
interleaver, a type of block interleaver.

4.4.1 Random Interleaver / De-Interleaver:

The Random Interleaver block rearranges the elements of its input vector using a
random permutation. The Number of elements parameter indicates how many
numbers are in the input vector. If the input is frame-based, then it must be a column
vector. The block can accept the data types int8, uint8, int16, uint16, int32, uint32,
Boolean, single, double, and fixed-point. The data type of this output will be the same
as that of the input signal. The Initial seed parameter initializes the random number
generator that the block uses to determine the permutation. The block is predictable
for a given seed, but different seeds produce different permutations.

The Random De-interleaver block rearranges the elements of its input vector using a
random permutation. If this block and the Random Interleaver block have the same
value for Initial seed, then the two blocks are inverses of each other. The settings used
in the blocks for simulation are shown in the fig.4.6 and fig.4.7 below:
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Fig. 4.6 Random Interleaver



Fig. 4.7 Random Deinterleaver

4.5 DIGITAL MODULATION

4.5.1 Introduction

Converting digital data to a bandpass analog signal is traditionally called digital to
analog conversion. It is the process of changing one of the characteristics of an analog
signal based on the information in digital data. Any of the three characteristics
(amplitude, frequency, or phase) can be altered giving at least three mechanisms for
modulating digital data into an analog signal like Amplitude shift keying (ASK),
Frequency shift keying (FSK), and Phase shift keying (PSK).

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In addition there is a fourth and better mechanism that combines changing both the
amplitude and phase, called Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). It is the most
efficient and commonly used.

4.5.2 M-ary Modulation Techniques

In an M-ary signaling scheme, one of M possible signals, s
1
(t), s
2
(t) s
M
(t), is sent
during each signaling interval of duration T. For almost all applications, the no. of
possible signals M = 2
n
, where n is an integer, and symbol duration T = nT
b
, where T
b

is the bit duration. These signals are generated by changing the amplitude, phase, or
frequency of a carrier in M discrete steps for M-ary ASK, M-ary PSK, and M-ary
FSK digital modulation respectively. Another way of generating M-ary signals is to
combine different methods of modulation into a hybrid form. One form of this hybrid
modulation, called M-ary QAM, has some attractive properties.

M-ary signaling schemes are preferred over binary signaling schemes for transmitting
digital information over band-pass channels when the requirement is to conserve
bandwidth at the expense of increased power. E.g. for transmitting information
consisting of binary sequence with bit duration T
b
using Binary PSK requires a
bandwidth inversely proportional to T
b
. However, for a block of n bits and using an
M-ary PSK scheme with M = 2
n
and symbol duration T = nT
b
, the bandwidth required
is inversely proportional to 1 / nT
b
.thus, it is seen that it enables a reduction in
transmission bandwidth by a factor n = log
2
M over Binary PSK.

4.5.3 Constellation diagram

Constellation diagram is useful when we are dealing with multilevel ASK, PSK or
QAM. In a constellation diagram, a signal element type is represented as a dot,
particularly helpful to define amplitude and phase of a signal element when using two
carriers (in phase and quadrature). The diagram has two axes, horizontal related to in-
phase carrier and vertical related to quadrature carrier. For each point on the diagram,
four pieces of information can be deduced. The projection of the point on the X axis
defines the peak amplitude of the quadrature component; the projection of the point
on the Y axis defines the peak amplitude of the quadrature component. The length of
the line (vector) that connects the point to the origin is the peak amplitude of the
signal element (combination of the X and Y components); the angle the line makes
with the X axis is the phase of the signal element.

4.5.4 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

QAM, which combines ASK and PSK, is the dominant method of digital to analog
modulation. PSK is limited by the ability of the equipment to distinguish small
differences in phase which limits its potential bit rate. The idea of using two carriers,
one in phase and the other quadrature, with different amplitude levels for each carrier
is the concept behind quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). QAM has the same
advantage as PSK over ASK i.e. it is less susceptible to noise. Moreover, it is seen
that in an AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channel, M-ary QAM
outperforms the corresponding M-ary PSK in error performance for M>4.

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The Rectangular QAM Modulator Baseband block modulates using M-ary quadrature
amplitude modulation with a constellation on a rectangular lattice. The output is a
baseband representation of the modulated signal. The signal constellation has M
points, where M is the M-ary number parameter. M must have the form 2K for some
positive integer K. The block scales the signal constellation based on the setting of the
Normalization method parameter. Possible scaling conditions for value of
Normalization method parameter are:
Min. distance between symbols: The nearest pair of points in the constellation is
separated by the value of the Minimum distance parameter.
Average Power: The average power of the symbols in the constellation is the Average
power parameter.
Peak Power: The maximum power of the symbols in the constellation is the Peak
power parameter.

The input and output for this block are discrete-time signals. The Input type parameter
determines whether the block accepts integers between 0 and M-1, or binary
representations of integers. If Input type is set to Integer, then the block accepts
integers. The input can be either a scalar or a frame-based column vector, and can
accept the data types int8, uint8, int16, uint16, int32, uint32, single, and double. If
Input type is set to Bit, then the block accepts groups of K bits, called binary words.
The input can be either a vector of length K or a frame-based column vector whose
length is an integer multiple of K. For bit inputs, the block can accept int8, uint8,
int16, uint16, int32, uint32, boolean, single, and double. The Constellation ordering
parameter indicates how the block assigns binary words to points of the signal
constellation. Such assignments apply independently to the in-phase and quadrature
components of the input:
If Constellation ordering is set to Binary, then the block uses a natural binary-coded
constellation.
If Constellation ordering is set to Gray and K is even, then the block uses a Gray-
coded constellation.
If Constellation ordering is set to Gray and K is odd, then the block codes the
constellation so that pairs of nearest points differ in one or two bits.

The Rectangular QAM Demodulator Baseband block demodulates a signal that was
modulated using quadrature amplitude modulation with a constellation on a
rectangular lattice. The settings used are shown in the fig.4.8 and fig.4.9 below:

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Fig. 4.8 Rectangular QAM Modulator Baseband
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Fig. 4.9 Rectangular QAM Demodulator Baseband

4.6 OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)

4.6.1 Modulation Principles

MultiCarrier Modulation (MCM) is the principle of transmitting data by dividing the
stream into several parallel bit streams, each of which has a much lower bit rate, and
by using several carriers, called also subcarriers, to modulate these substreams.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a special form of MCM with densely
spaced subcarriers and overlapping spectra. To allow an error-free reception of
OFDM signals, the subcarriers waveforms are chosen to be orthogonal to each other.
In spite of its robustness against frequency selectivity, which is seen as an advantage
of OFDM, any time-varying character of the channel is known to pose limits to the
system performance. Time variations are known to deteriorate the orthogonality of the
subcarriers.



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4.6.2 Generation of OFDM Signals

The generation of the OFDM symbols is based on two principles. First, the data
stream is subdivided into a given number of substreams, where each one has to be
modulated over a separate carrier signal, called subcarrier. The resulting modulated
signals have to be then multiplexed before their transmission. Second, by allowing the
modulating subcarriers to be separated by the inverse of the signaling symbol
duration, independent separation of the frequency multiplexed subcarriers is possible.
This ensures that the spectra of individual subcarriers are zeros at other subcarrier
frequencies, consisting of the fundamental concept of orthogonality and the OFDM
realization. Fig. 4.10 shows the basic OFDM system. The data stream is subdivided
into N parallel data elements and are spaced by At = 1/f
s
, where f
s
is the desired
symbol rate. N serial elements modulate N subcarrier frequencies which are then
frequency division multiplexed. The symbol interval has now been increased to N At
which provides robustness to the delay spread caused by the channel. Each one of two
adjacent subcarrier frequencies is then spaced by the interval formulated by equation:

t N f A = A . / 1

This ensures that the subcarrier frequencies are separated by multiples of 1/T where T
in this phase is the OFDM symbol duration, so that the sub carriers are orthogonal
over symbol duration in the absence of distortions.



Fig. 4.10 Basic OFDM Transmitter

According to the basic OFDM realization, the transmitted signal s(t) can be expressed
by

( ) lT t k b t s
N
k l
k l
=

=
1
0
] [ ) (

with the pulse having the function p(t) and f
k
= k/T, each subcarrier can be formulated
by

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27
( ) ( )
t f j
k
k
e t p t
t

2
. =

The basis {
1 1 0
, ,
N
} is orthogonal, therefore

( ) ( )
k i if
k i if
dt t t
i
T
K
=
=
=
}
, 0
, 1
{
*
0


Then the transmitted signal can be expressed as

| | ( )
t f j
N
k l
l
k
e lT t p k b t s
t 2
1
0
. ) ( =

=


By sampling at a rate T
s
= T/N

| | | |
( )
S S
NT knT j
N
S S
N
k l
l
e lNT nT k b n x
/ 2
1
0
. ] [
t
[
=

=

=


| | | |
N kn j
N
k l N
l
e lN n k b n x
/ 2
1
0
. ] [
t
[

=
=

with | |
( )
otherwise
N l n lN for
lN n
N

+ s <
=
[
, 0
) 1 ( , 1
{

the signal can be presented in the form

| | | |
N kn j
N
K
l
l N
e k b lN n n x
/ 2
1
0
. ] [
t
[

=

=
=

| | ) , ( . ] [ n b IDFT lN n n x
l
l N
[

=
=

where IDFT is Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform.

From the above derivation, it can be deduced that for the generation of the OFDM
signals x[n] an IDFT block processing is required. The OFDM signal generation can
be further optimized by calculating the IDFT of the original signals by the mean of
the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT).

The blocks used in Simulink for OFDM Transmitter and OFDM Receiver are shown
in fig.4.11 and fig.4.12 respectively.

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1
Out
Zero pad
for OFDM
Zero pad for OFDM
Uni pol ar to
Bi pol ar
Converter
PN Sequence
Generator
PN Sequence
Generator
Sel ect
Rows
Mul ti port
Sel ector
Vert Cat
Matri x
Concatenati on
IFFT
IFFT
-1
0+0i U U(E)
Add Cycl i c
Prefi x
1
In

Fig. 4.11 OFDM Transmitter


2
PIl ots
1
Data
U U(E)
Remove Cycl i c
Prefi x
Sel ect
Rows
Remove
Pi l ots
U U(E)
Remove
zero-paddi ng
and
reorder
To
Frame
Frame Status
Conversi on
FFT
FFT
1
Recei ved si gnal
Data
Pilots

Fig. 4.12 OFDM Receiver

4.7 DATA SOURCE

4.7.1 Bernoulli Binary Random Generator

The Bernoulli Binary Generator block generates random binary numbers using a
Bernoulli distribution. The Bernoulli distribution with parameter p produces zero with
probability p and one with probability 1-p. The Bernoulli distribution has mean value
1-p and variance p(1-p). The Probability of a zero parameter specifies p, and can be
any real number between zero and one. The number of elements in the Initial seed and
Probability of a zero parameters becomes the number of columns in a frame-based
output or the number of elements in a sample-based vector output. The settings used
for simulation are shown in fig.4.13 below:

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Fig. 4.13 Bernoulli Random Binary Generator

4.8 DATA SINK

4.8.1 Error Rate Calculation

The Error Rate Calculation block compares input data from a transmitter with input
data from a receiver. It calculates the error rate as a running statistic, by dividing the
total number of unequal pairs of data elements by the total number of input data
elements from one source. This block can be used to compute either symbol or bit
error rate, because it does not consider the magnitude of the difference between input
data elements. If the inputs are bits, then the block computes the bit error rate. If the
inputs are symbols, then it computes the symbol error rate. This block inherits the
sample time of its inputs.
This block produces a vector of length three, whose entries correspond to:
- The error rate.
- The total number of errors, that is, comparisons between unequal elements.
- The total number of comparisons that the block made.
The Receive delay and Computation delay parameters implement two different types
of delays for this block. One is useful when part of the model causes a lag in the
received data, and the other is useful when one want to ignore the transient behavior
of both input signals:
- The Receive delay parameter is the number of samples by which the received
data lags behind the transmitted data. This parameter tells the block which
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samples "correspond" to each other and should be compared. The receive
delay persists throughout the simulation.
- The Computation delay parameter tells the block to ignore the specified
number of samples at the beginning of the comparison.
The settings used in the simulation are as shown in fig. 4.14 below.



Fig. 4.14 Error Rate Calculation settings

4.8.2 DISPLAY

The Display block shows the value of its input on its icon. The amount of data
displayed and the time steps at which the data is displayed are determined by block
parameters:
- The Decimation parameter enables to display data at every nth sample, where
n is the decimation factor. The default decimation, 1, displays data at every
time step.
- The Sample time parameter enables to specify a sampling interval at which to
display points. This parameter is useful when using a variable-step solver
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where the interval between time steps might not be the same. The default
value of -1 causes the block to ignore the sampling interval when determining
the points to display.

The settings used are:



Fig. 4.15 Display block settings.

4.9 SIMULATION AND RESULTS

Communication system is designed in Simulink with each block simulated as a
different subprogram as shown in fig.4.16 below.

Uni pol ar to
Bi pol ar
Converter
Uni pol ar to
Bi pol ar
Converter
Termi nator
Rectangul ar
QAM
Rectangul ar QAM
Modul ator
Baseband
Rectangul ar
QAM
Rectangul ar QAM
Demodul ator
Baseband
Random
Interl eaver
Random
Interl eaver
Random
Dei nterl eaver
Random
Dei nterl eaver
I
n
1
O
u
t
1
PLC Channel
Puncture
P2 Puncture
OFDM
Transmi tter
OFDM
Recei ver
pi l ots
Insert Zero
Insert Zero
Hammi ng en
Hammi ng Encoder
Hammi ng de
Hammi ng Decoder
sRef
sDel
delay
Fi nd
Del ay
Fi nd Del ay
Error Rate
Cal cul ati on
Tx
Rx
0
Di spl ay1
0
Bernoul l i
Bi nary
Bernoul l i Random
Bi nary Generator
BR
BR

Fig.4.16 Simulink model of the Broadband powerline communication system.
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The display block showed the following bit error rate as shown in fig.4.17 below
obtained after running the model i.e. when both channel multipath effect and the
effect of impulsive noise is considered.

Fig.4.17 Bit Error Rate when the effect of both multipath and impulsive noise is
considered.

Now, when the effect of impulsive noise is neglected from the model than the bit error
rate obtained is as shown in fig.4.18 below:


Fig.4.18 Bit Error Rate when effect of only multipath effect is considered.

From the above figures it is seen that both impulsive noise and multipath effect have a
very adverse effect on the BER. Moreover it is also seen that BER caused by
multipath effect almost does not change even when the effect of application of
impulsive noise is neglected. Thus, it can be concluded that the main obstacle to
achieve the good BER performance of the OFDM system is the multipath effect.
The plot of BER versus SNR is drawn using bertool in MATLAB under the
effect of both multipath effect and impulsive noise as shown below in fig.4.19. An
almost constant BER is obtained up to SNR of 10 dB.



















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Fig.4.19 BER under the effect of both impulsive noise and multipath effect


























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BROADBAND PLC NETWORK PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
MEASUREMENT

5.1 BROADBAND PLC EQUIPMENTS

Head End (HE): Communication infrastructure module for injection of PLC signal
over Low voltage electrical network.
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE): Ethernet Bridge switch 10/100 Mbps by
PLC, designed for connection of end-user multimedia devices through any power
outlets.
The Broadband PLC equipments used for performance analysis network are of
CORINEX Communications, Inc. The Corinex AV200 Powerline Adapter can be
configured both as a Head End as well as a Customer Premises Equipment by
changing settings in its configuration files in the firmware.
It enables users to connect individual PCs or other devices with Ethernet
communications links into a local area network through existing electric power lines
(Powerline). After successful installation, the AV Powerline network behaves like a
traditional LAN for computers. The Corinex AV200 Powerline Adapter supports up
to 200 Mbps network speed.

Front Panel Description



Fig 5.1: Corinex AV200 Powerline Adapter front view


LED Definitions (LEDs from left to right)

1. POWER Green On: Power on
Off: Power off
2. PLC Green On: Powerline activity
Off: No Powerline activity
Blinking: Receiving/Transmitting data
3. ETHERNET Green On: Link on LAN
Off: No link on LAN
Blinking: receiving/transmitting data
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Rear Panel Description


Fig 5.2: Corinex AV200 Powerline Adapter rear view

Connector Definitions (Connectors from left to right)

1. LAN: 1x RJ-45 LAN10/100 Ethernet port
2. Power cord: Power supply & Powerline connector

Specifications:

Standards Compliance: IEEE 802.3u
Speed: Up to 200 Mbps on physical layer
AC Plug Type: US, EU, UK and AUS
LED Status Lights: Power, PLC Link/Activity, Ethernet Link
Interface: 10/100BaseT Fast Ethernet, Powerline
Frequency Range used: 2 34 MHz
Power Input: 85 to 265 V AC, 50/60 Hz
Dimensions: 148 mm L x 106 mm W x 47 mm H
Transmitted Power spectral density: -56 dBm/Hz
Power Consumption: 5W
Safety & EMI:UL/EN 60950, FCC Part 15, EN 55022 EMC limits

5.2 BROADBAND PLC NETWORK

Network performance analysis of CORINEX Communication, Inc. Broadband PLC
equipments for indoor power line network using measurements of different network
characteristics parameters such as throughput and latency is conducted for the
network as shown in fig.5.3 below:


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Fig.5.3 SCADA Lab Broadband PLC network.

The throughput is a measure of how fast the data can be sent through the network. It
is different from the bandwidth in the sense that a link may have bandwidth of B bps,
but only T bps can be sent through this link with T always less than B. Bandwidth is a
potential measurement of a link. The measurements obtained for different CPEs
(Customer Premises Equipment) both in uplink (i.e. from the CPE to the Head End)
and the downlink (i.e. from the Head End to the CPE) direction is as measured below.


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Fig.5.4 Telnet screen showing throughput.


The latency or delay defines how long it takes for an entire message to completely
arrive at the destination from the time the first bit is sent out from the source. It is
made up of four components: propagation time (time required for a bit to travel from
the source to the destination equal to the distance divided by the propagation speed),
transmission time (depends upon the message size divided by the bandwidth), queuing
time (time needed for each intermediate or end device to hold the message before it
can be processed, it is not a fixed factor, it changes with the load imposed on the
network) and processing delay. It is calculated by using the ping program.














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Measurement of throughput and latency for different CPEs is shown in Table 5.1 in
tabular form as shown below:

TABLE 5.1: Measurement of Throughput and Latency

Customer
premises
Equipment
(CPE) no.
Transfer speed
[ Mbps ]

Latency
[ ms ]
Distance with
respect to Head
End (HE)
DL UL
A 50 55 7 ~ 14 < 15 m
B 65 66 -do- < 15 m
C 101 63 -do- > 15 m

It is seen that broadband plc promises high bit rate in terms of throughput. Latency
measured using ping program almost remains same with distance. However,
throughput for CPE C almost doubles due to straight wire connection with respect to
other CPEs which belong to a branched network of the SCADA Lab.
























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39
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

Bit Error Rate (BER) of the OFDM system under both impulsive noise and multipath
effect is calculated & it is seen that they have a very adverse effect on the BER.
Moreover it is also seen that BER caused by multipath effect almost does not change
with the application of impulsive noise. Thus, it can be concluded that the main
obstacle to achieve the good BER performance of the OFDM system is the multipath
effect.
It is seen that broadband plc promises high bit rate with measurements taken
on a real Broadband PLC network. Latency measured using ping program almost
remains same with distance. However, throughput for CPE C almost doubles due to
straight wire connection with respect to other CPEs which belong to a branched
network.
The main purpose of this work was the designing of the Broadband powerline
communication system using software simulation and to do performance analysis in
terms of bit error rate and as well as to test the real system in terms of their network
performance parameters. However, for future work performance enhancement of the
system can be done in terms of the bit error rate and the real system can be used for
different utility applications like automatic meter reading (AMR), transformer
monitoring, etc.





























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40
REFERENCES

[1] C W Gellings and K George, Broadband over power lines 2004: Technology and
Prospects", Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI),USA, Oct 2004.
[2] H. Hrasnica, A. Haidine, and R.Lehnert, Broadband Powerline Communications.
London, U.K.: Wiley, 2004.
[3] H. Meng, S. Chen, Y. L. Guan, C. L. Law, P. L. So, E. Gunawan, and T.T. Lie,
"Modeling of transfer characteristics for the broadband power line communication
channel, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 19, no.3, Jul. 2004, pp. 10571064.
[4] Ludwig, Reinhold and Pavel Bretchko, RF Circuit Design: Theory and
Applications, Prentice-Hall, 2000.
[5] P Amirshahi, S M Navidpour and M Kavehrad, Performance Analysis of
uncoded & coded OFDM Broadband transmission over low voltage power line
channels with impulsive noise, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no.4, Oct. 2006, pp.
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[6] S. Galli and T. Banwell, A novel approach to the modeling of the indoor power
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[7] V C Gungor and F C Lambert, A survey on communication networks for Electric
system automation, ELSEVIER Journal of computer networks 50(2006), pp 877-
897.
[8] Y H Ma, P L So and E Gunawan, Performance analysis of OFDM systems for
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IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 2, Apr. 2005, pp. 674-682.