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Preliminary Water Audit: Estimation of Water LossesandStrategyforLossReduction

CityofKalol,Gujarat,India
Submittedto: PASProject CEPTUniversity

Preparedby: SapientTechnoConsultants InassociationwithMultiMediaConsultantsPvtLtd November2010

PreliminaryWaterAudit:EstimationofWater LossesandStrategyforLossReduction CityofKalol,Gujarat,India



CEPTUniversity November2010

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................ii . Abbreviations............................................................................................................................iii 1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................1 2. OverviewofWaterSupply.................................................................................................3 2.1 2.2 2.3 PopulationandWaterDemandoftheCity...........................................................3 WaterSupplyandDistributionSystem.................................................................4 . EstimatedCostofWaterandRevenueGeneration..............................................9

3. TheApproachtoWaterAudit...........................................................................................12 4. ResultsofBasicWaterAudit..............................................................................................15 5. SuggestionsforReducingWaterLossesandNonrevenueWater...............................20

ANNEXURES
Annexure1:DetailsofKalolMainWaterSupplyNetwork........................................................22 Annexure2:VolumetricMeasurement ..........................................................................................39 . Annexure3:ESRInletFlowDetails................................................................................................41 Annexure4:ESROutletFlowDetails.............................................................................................42 Annexure5:DetailsofBucketSurveyatConsumersEnd..........................................................43

LISTOFTABLES
Table1:Dailyaveragewatersupplyfromvarioussources..........................................................6 Table2:Waterdemandandpopulation...........................................................................................8 Table3:Ferrulesizewisenumberofauthorisedconnections.....................................................8 Table4:Detailsofpowercostaccordingtoborewell...................................................................10 Table5:Approximatecostofwaterproduction.............................................................................10 Table6:Detailsofrevenuedemand(FY200910)..........................................................................11 Table7:Wardwisedetailsofhouseholdsandconnections.........................................................17 Table8:StandardIWAwaterbalance..............................................................................................18

Acknowledgements ThisreportprovidesfindingsofthepreliminarywaterauditconductedbySapientTechno Consultants in association with Multi Media Consultants Pvt Ltd in Kalol Nagarpalika duringFebruaryMarch2010.FundingforthewaterauditwasprovidedbythePerformance Assessment System (PAS) Project initiated by Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology(CEPT)Universityinearly2009. The authors would also like to acknowledge the constant support, encouragement and assistancefromMrAmitbhaiPandya,ChiefOfficer,KalolNagarpalika,andthestaffofthe NagarpalikaincludingMrNarendraPatel,WaterWorksEngineer. Our work has benefited from the insights of a large number of resource persons. We particularlyacknowledgeconstantsupportandfeedbackfrommembersofthePASProject team,particularlyMsMeeraMehta,MrDineshMehta,MsChandanChawlaandMsJaladhi Vavaliya. We have also benefited from the suggestions made by participants at the NRW Expert Group meeting at the CEPT University in January 2009. The methodology and findings of the water audit were discussed extensively with the PAS Project team and Project Advisory Committee member. They have contributed significantly to the development of methodology and field processes. We would like to acknowledge the support of the entire team of PAS partners, particularly Mr M.C. Mehta from the Urban ManagementCentreandMrN.H.KusnurfromAllIndiaInstituteofLocalSelfGovernment. ThefindingsofthepreliminarywateraudithavebeensharedwiththeNagarpalikastaffand representatives of the elected body. We are highly grateful for their interest and for this opportunitytopresentthefindingsandcollectivelyworkoutimprovementmeasurestoaim towards higher efficiency in management of water resource in the city. As other cities in GujaratandMaharashtrabegintoexploresimilarstudies,lessonsandexperiencesfromthis pilotstudywillbevaluable.Weseethisasanevolvingpieceofworkthatwillbenefitfrom thisexperience. FinallywewouldliketothanktheprojectteammembersMrA.M.Patel,MrMiteshShah and other colleagues from Sapient and Multi Media who contributed very generously duringmeetingswithKalolNagarpalikastaffandfieldwork. RoshanShah ApurvaParikh SapientTechnoConsultants InassociationwithMultiMediaConsultantsPvtLtd

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Abbreviations
AIILSG CARL CPHEEO DMA ESR GWSSB hr ILI IWA km kW lpcd m
3

AllIndiaInstituteofLocalSelfGovernment Currentannualreallosses CentralPublicHealthandEnvironmentalEngineeringOrganisation Districtmeteredarea Elevatedservicereservoir GujaratWaterSupplyandSanitationBoard hour Infrastructureleakageindex InternationalWaterAssociation kilometre kiloWatts litrespercapitaperday cubicmetres minutesperday millionlitresperday millimetre Nonrevenuewater Operationandmaintenance Operatingzone PerformanceAssessmentSystem Polyvinylchloride Unavoidableannualreallosses Unaccountedforwater Undergroundservicereservoir Urbanlocalbody UrbanManagementCentre Waterdistributionstation Watertreatmentplant

min/day MLD mm NRW O&M OZ PAS PVC UARL UFW UGSR ULB UMC WDS WTP

Note:1lakh=100,000.

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1.Introduction
Access to water and sanitation services in urban India is widespread, but little is known about the quality and level of service, and coverage of the poor households. For new investments in the sector to be effective, it is important to assess the performance of the existingsystemandensureitssustainabilityandreachforthepoorandunserved. CentreforEnvironmentalPlanningandTechnology(CEPT)Universityhasreceivedamajor grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for developing and implementing a performanceassessmentsystemforurbanwaterandsanitationinGujaratandMaharashtra. Theaimofthisresearchprogrammeistodevelopbetterinformationonwaterandsanitation performance and to ensure its use by the cities for extending services to all, strive for financialviabilityandimprovereliabilityandqualityofservices. This research shall focus on the use of these performance indicators and benchmarks to facilitateconsistentreporting,monitoring,planning,budgetingandinvestinginwaterand sanitationservicesin400urbanareasofGujaratandMaharashtrastates. TheprojectisbeingimplementedbyCEPTUniversity,withtheUrbanManagementCentre (UMC) and the All India Institute of Local Self Governments (AIILSG). CEPT coordinates theproject,withtheUMCcarryingoutactivitiesinGujaratandtheAIILSGinMaharashtra. Withitspartners,CEPTUniversityisworkingwithstateandlocalgovernmentstodevelopa reliable and sustainable Performance Assessment System (PAS) for urban water and sanitationservices.ThePASenvisagedinthisprojectincludes:PerformanceMeasurement, PerformanceMonitoring,andPerformanceImprovement. Thekeyprojectobjectivesofthefiveyearprojectare:

Objective 1: To develop and implement a performance measurement system for regularandreliableurbanwatersupplyandsanitationinformation. Objective 2: To design and share results with urban local bodies (ULBs), state government agencies, other stakeholders and media through a performance monitoring and dissemination system for use in decision making, providing incentivesandinfluencingdemand. Objective3:TofacilitatedevelopmentofperformanceimprovementplansbyULBs withsupportfromstategovernment,nongovernmentalorganisationsandthe privatesector.

CEPTinitiatedstudiestomeetthefirstobjectivetodevelopandimplementthePerformance MeasurementSystem.Thepilotresultsfrom30citiesinGujaratandMaharashtrarevealthat thereareseriousgapsindataavailabilityrelatedtowaterproduced,distributedandlosses incurred in urban water supply system. There is a need to tackle this data gap and brainstorm on possible reliable methods for measuring efficiency of urban water supply provision. There is also a need to focus more on issues related to the operation and maintenance(O&M)ofwatersystems. Inresponsetothese,anexpertgroupmeetingwasorganisedbyCEPTinJanuary2010,the objectivebeingtounderstandandsharetheexperienceofspecialistsinthefieldandwater

studiesconductedinotherpartsofcountry,understandvariousmethodsandtechniquesof waterflow/quantitymeasurementandestimationofnonrevenuewater(NRW). Basedonthediscussionsduringthemeeting,itwasdecidedbyCEPTtoengageanexternal agency to carry out a basic water audit, to establish benchmark flow parameters and preliminaryestimationofNRW.TheinitialpilotstudywastakenupinKalolmunicipality. CEPThasdecidedtoappointus,thatis,MultimediaConsultantsPvtLtd,inassociationwith Sapient Techno Consultants,to carry out thesestudies on its behalf inKalol. Based on the experiencegainedfromKalol,furtherstudieswillbetakenupinothercities. This report discusses how the basic water audit approach has been applied to the distributionsysteminthecityofKalol,inthestateofGujaratinIndia.Kalolhasahighlevel ofNRWbutalsosuffersfromashortfallinitsownwaterresources,forcingthelocalbodyto augment supply with the addition of untreated water from ground water sources, forcing thelocalbodytoaugmentsupplywiththeadditionofuntreatedwaterfromgroundwater sources. The limited scope of the basic water audit does not permit a detailed estimation of all indicators.However,theattemptistoassessandmakeapreliminaryestimateoflossesby measuring the water produced, water supplied in the distribution network and water consumptionestimatebasedonasamplestudy.Itadaptstheinternationallyandnationally accepted methodology of the International Water Association (IWA) using a standardised waterbalanceforcalculatinglossesfromdistributionnetworks. TheresultsofthisstudydemonstratethehighNRWlevelsanditsbasiccomponentsusinga relatively cost effective method. Further support can be provided to the Kalol ULB to identifyareasoffocusaswellastodevelopastrategyforregularmeasurementofNRWand measures for its reduction. In addition, based on this experience, steps in carrying out a basicwaterauditwillalsobeidentified.

2.OverviewofWaterSupplyinKalol
Kalol is located in central Gujarat, about 20 km by road from the state capital and district headquarter of Gandhinagar, and about 30 km from Ahmedabad, in the western part of India. It has a population of approximately 150,000 (111,700 as per 2001 census) and is classifiedasAClassmunicipalitywithapopulationofmorethan1lakh. Whilethemajorityofthepopulationisdependentonfarmingandtradingoffarmproduce, rapidindustrialisationinGujarathasledtothesettingupofvariousmediumandlargescale industries in the fertiliser, engineering and pharmaceutical sectors, providing ample employment opportunities to the local population. This has also led to rapid urbanisation, migrationfromruralareasandriseinpopulationinandaroundthecityofKalol,whichis destined to become an important suburb of Ahmedabad. It is also emerging as a major educationcentre. Thishasoverburdenedtheexistingwatersupplyandseweragesystem,withthecityalready facing problem of scarce resources and lack of proper funds to create additional facilities; insufficientrevenuegenerationdoesnotpermittheassetstobecomeselfsustaining. So,inFebruary2010,CEPTawardedthecontractformeasuringandestimatingwaterlosses forthecityofKalol.ThiscontractwasforfourtosixweeksandwasundertakenbySapient Techno Consultants Pvt Ltd in association with Multi Media Consultants Pvt Ltd. The studies commenced on February 1, 2010, and were concluded on March 9, 2010, and includedmeasurementofflowatsourcetoestimatethesysteminput,flowmeasurementto estimatethesupplyinputtodistributionnetworkandassessthecombinedlossesintreated water mains and water distribution stations, and flow measurement at end user location (householdconnection)toestimateconsumptionandlossesinsupplynetwork. 2.1PopulationandWaterDemandofKalolCity Asper2001IndiaCensus,KalolCitywasestimatedtohaveapopulationofabout111,700 (0.112million).AspermunicipalofficialsofKalol,thepresentpopulationisestimatedtobe around150,000(0.15million)duetotherapidgrowththatthecityhaswitnessedinthelast fewyears. Considering135lpcd(litrespercapitaperday)supplyandallowingfor15percentlossesas pertheCentralPublicHealthandEnvironmentalEngineeringOrganisation(CPHEEO),the household consumer demand is estimated to be about 15.07 MLD (million litres per day), requiring production at source of 17.74 MLD (considering a population of 0.112million as perthe2001Census). However,assumingthatthepresentpopulationis0.15million,itwouldrequireabout20.25 MLD to meet household consumer demand, which would, in turn, require production at sourceof23.8MLD.

2.2TheKalolWaterSupplyandDistributionSystem ThecityofKalolreceivesitswaterfromtwodifferenttypesofsourcesSurfaceWaterand Ground Water Sources. This comprise of a total 22 different sources including one major source from Pratappura Water Treatment Plant based on Surface Water Source and rest twenty one Bore Hole sources within Kalol City, both together producing a total of 17.26 MLD.SchematicdiagramofKalolwatersupplysystemisgiveninfigure1. The major source is from Pratappura Water Treatment Plant set up by the Gujarat Water SupplyandSewerageBoard(GWSSB)thattakeswaterfromNarmadaCanal,aninitiativeby the Government of Gujarat to provide irrigation water and drinking water facilities to droughtproneregions.Thisplantislocatedabout4kmfromthecity.Thissourceprovides approximately12.5to13MLDwateratpresent.

Figure1:SchematicdiagramofKalolswatersupplysystem

Figure2:MapofKalolswatersupplysystem

Ofthe21boreholesources,theonelocatedinVankarvasisgenerallynotused,thatis,water is drawn only in case of stoppage of water treatment plant (WTP) water. Hence, the 20 differentboreholesourceswithinKalolcitytogetherproduceabout4.54MLD. Table 1 provides details of various sources and estimated production quantity at each source. Table9:Dailyaveragewatersupplyfromvarioussources
Sr no Sourcelocation Avginst flow (m3/hr) Avg working hr Avgdaily flow(m3) Avg daily flow (MLD) 753 17 12717 0 274 167 266 108 476 12.72 12.72 0.00 0.27 0.17 0.27 0.11 0.48
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(A) 1 (B) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Surfacewater(PratappuraWTP) Narmadawater(Pratappura) Subtotal(A) Groundwater(Tosump) Vankarvas bore (used only in absence ofWTPwater) Kalyanpurabore2 Kalyanpurabore3 Divadabore MayurHousingbore KumbharNiChalibore

35 61 33 76 36 68

0 4.5 5 3.5 3 7


Sr no Sourcelocation Avginst flow (m3/hr) 30 35 54 36 14 56 30 35 62 50 49 81 54 58 20 Avg working hr 2 6 21 1 3.5 5 1 2.5 3.5 6 3 4 3 0.45 0.45 Avgdaily flow(m3) Avg daily flow (MLD) 0.06 0.21 1.13 2.69 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.28 0.03 0.09 0.22 0.31 0.15 0.32 0.16 0.03 0.01 0.05

7 8 9 (C) 1 2 (D) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (E)

Sardarbagbore Navjivanbore JyoteshNagarbore Subtotal(B) Groundwater(toESR) MayurHousingbore Tersaparubore Subtotal(C) Groundwater(Directtonetwork) CivilHospitalbore Sardarbagbore Navjivanbore IFFCObore BhavaniNagarbore Pavathibore AyojanNagarbore JyoteshNagar MahendraMillboreline1 MahendraMillboreline2 PumpfortankerfillingatSardarbag

60 210 1130 36 49 280 30 87 218 307 147 324 161 26 9

MayurHousingbore 36 1 36 0.04 Subtotal(D) 1.68 Ground water (To garden / hospital tank) 1 CivilHospitalbore 56 1 56 0.06 2 Sardarbag bore (garden water storage 30 1 30 0.03 tank) Subtotal(E) 0.09 Grandtotal(A+B+C+D) Auth. in MLD 17.17 billed Grandtotal(A+B+C+D+E) Tot. in MLD 17.26 auth. Source:ActualflowmeasurementusingportableflowmeteratKalol. Note: The water supply at (E) are for public utilities like garden and civil hospital which forms part of authorisedconsumptionbutshallnotbeapartofbilledconsumption.Weshallbeconsideringthissupplyfor thepurposeofwaterbalancechartonlyandisignoredforothercalculations.

While the water supply of 17.17 MLD is adequate to meet the water demand of the population(asper2001census),itcanbeestimatedthatthereisacurrentshortfallofwater of about 28 per cent considering the demand of 24 MLD for the present population (see Table2).

Table10:Waterdemandandpopulation
Populationasper Popula tion Demand @135 lpcd (MLD) Provisio nfor 15% losses (MLD) 2.02 3.57 Total demand (MLD) Actual water supply (MLD) Supply shortfall (MLD) % Shortfall of supply

2001Census

100,008

13.5 20.25

15.53 23.82

17.17 17.17

6.65

27.92%

Present 2010 150,000 (assumed)

Till a few years ago, Kalol was totally dependent on ground water sources. The water supply from the recently commissioned Pratappura WTP has helped Kalol reduce its relianceon,andexploitationof,groundwatersources,andalsoledtoimprovedqualityof water. The Kalol transmission main is about 9 km; the distribution system comprises asbestos cement, PVC and CI pipe work. There are approximately 17,874 service connections of varioussizesofinch,inchand1inchconnections.Asummaryoftheconnectionsizes andnumberofconnectionsofeachsizeisgiveninTable3. Table11:Ferrulesizewisenumberofauthorisedconnections
Sr no 1 2 3 Typeofconnection Domestic Commercial connections connections 17725 55 10 17790 58 3 23 84 Authorised connections 17783 58 33 17874

1/2inch 3/4inch 1inch Total

Source:Kalolpropertytaxdepartment.

A transmission main of Kalols water supply system is 850 mm diameter M.S. line linking the main source of water, the Pratappura WTP, and the town of Kalol in the newly developed water distribution station (WDS) at Civil Hospital Water Works campus. The treated mains supply water to TP46, Vankarvas and Town Hall WDS on way to Civil HospitalCampusthroughbranchlines. ThetreatedwatermainsbranchesoffbeforeTownHallWDSonwaytoCivilHospitalWDS to supply water up to Main Water Works WDS of Kalol City, which is the oldest supply system of Kalol through 500 mm, 450 mm and 400 mm size lines, and also feeds to KalyanpuraandDivadaWDSenroute. TheCivilHospitalWDSinturnsupplieswatertoSardaNagar,SardarbagandKumbharNi Chali (to be commissioned) WDS through one transmission main, and to Navjivan and
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Drainage WDS through another. Both these mains are interconnected and each is fed by a dedicatedsetofpumpingmachinery. TheseM.S.transmissionmainshavebeenlaidrecently.Problemsorlossesarethereforenot anticipatedinthem. However,thedistributionnetworkofKalolisacombinationofsomeveryoldandnewlines; thenetworkisinterconnectedandnorecords/drawingsareavailablewithKalolauthorities and pose a problem in determining both physical losses and nonphysical losses (mainly theft of water). The distribution network comprises a variety of pipe material including asbestoscementpipes,PVCpipesandcastironpipesofvarioussizeswhicharesuspectto leakage due to various factors including age/life of pipe, workmanship/quality, tampering for unauthorised connections, sections of pipes subjected to very high pressures to boost pressure before supply, illegal drawl of water by pumping machinery leading to low pressure/cavitationsofpipelines,etc. In absence of network drawings and records, the system was visually surveyed. Location wise sketches were prepared incorporating all the relevant details required to understand thesystem(seeAnnexure1fordetails). Supply to the city is intermittent, with supply hours varying from 0.75 to 1.5 hours; the averagesupplyhoursobservedarelessthanonehour.Theconnectionsareunmetered. 2.3EstimatedCostofWaterandRevenueDemandforKalol ThewatertariffchargedbytheGWSSBfortreatedwatersupplyfromthePratappuraWTP isRs4per1,000litres(perm3). The cost of power for operating bore wells was estimated by measuring the actual power consumedbyeachbore(exceptKalyanpuraborenumber3wherepowermeasurementwas notpossible).ThedetailsarepresentedinTable4. It should be noted that the measured values of actual current and power consumed were observed to be much higher than the rated bore well ratings furnished by the authorities duringdatacollection.Thisindicatesthateitherthepump/motorsetefficiencyisverylow, orthepumpmaynotbeoperatingatdutypointortheremaybehigherfrictionallossesdue to lower line size, etc. It should also be noted that the winding of the motor is not as per designed requirement or might have been changed during operation as it is observed to carrymuchhighercurrentthantheratedcurrentallowedasperpump/motorrating. BasedontheconnectedloadofborewellandassumingpowertariffofRs4.50perunit,the estimatedcostofoperatingborewellforaugmentingwatersupplytocityisexpectedtobe aroundRs21,918perdaywithconnectedloadtotallingtoabout650kW.

Table12:Detailsofpowercostaccordingtoborewell
Sr no Sourcelocation Avg Avg flow workin (m3/hr) ghrs Pump Current Actual Approx kW measure kW powercost ment (Rs) (Amp) 0 30 55.0 34.8 0

(A) 1

Groundwater(tosump) Vankarvas bore (used only in absenceofWTPwater)

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Kalyanpura bore 2 (in 61 4.5 compoundwall) 3 Kalyanpura bore 3 (o/s 33.5 5 compound wall) (current/kW not measured, so power is assumed) 4 Divadabore 76 3.5 5 MayurHousingbore 36 5 6 KumbharNiChalibore 68 7 7 Sardarbagbore 30 3 8 Navjivanbore 35 8.5 9 Tersaparubore 14 3.5 10 JyoteshNagarbore 53.8 24 11 CivilHospitalbore 56 5 12 IFFCObore 62.5 3.5 13 BhavaniNagarbore 50 6.15 14 Pavathibore 49 3 15 AyojanNagarbore 81 4 16 MahendraMillbore 58 0.9 Total Costperm3forproducing4,453.05m3waterperday(Rs) Note:Basedonmeasurementofactualpowerconsumption.

45 25

62.0

33.7 15.0

682 337

45 30 45 45 45 22 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 645

68.0 63.0 96.6 67.4 76.0 42.0 80.0 97.0 98.0 73.0 87.5 93.0 62.0

42.2 39.0 61.1 50.6 45.4 26.7 70.0 65.0 73.7 79.4 53.7 72.3 45.4

664 877 1925 683 1736 421 7560 1462 1161 2197 725 1301 184 21918 4.92

TheestimatedtotalcostofproductionperannumisthusexpectedtobeasperTable5. Table13:Approximatecostofwaterproduction
Sourceofwater PratappuraWTP Borewell Total(Rs/annum) Supply (m3/annum) 4,641,705 1,607,478 Cost(Rs/m3) 4.00 4.92 Totalcost (Rs/year) 18,566,820 7,908,793 26,475,613

Groundwaterextractioncost(Rs4.92perm3whichincludesonlyoperationalcost)ishigher thanNarmadabulkpurchasecost(Rs4perm3).Theoperationcostofborewellisassumed considering the power cost only and the actual cost shall be much higher after adding the costofmanpower,spares,etc,incurredaspartoftheO&Mschedule.Allthewatersupply connectionsinKalolareunmeteredandtheauthoritiestillnowleviedafixedchargebased
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on size and type of connection. Recently Kalol has also introduced a special water tax. Accordingly,theapproximateamountofrevenuedemandisasperTable6. Table14:Detailsofrevenuedemand(FY200910)
1 2 Sizeofconnections DOMESTIC Noofconnections Watercharges Subtotal(A) Watertax/connection Subtotal(B) TotalDomestic(A+B) COMMERCIAL Noofconnections Watercharges Subtotal(C) Watertax/connections Subtotal(D) TotalCommercial(C+D) Total Domestic Commercial + 7,486,260 61,860 104,760 58 600 34,800 120 6,960 41,760 17,725 300 5,317,500 120 2,127,000 7,444,500 3 1,800 5,400 120 360 5,760 1/2inch 55 900 49,500 120 6,600 56,100 23 3,600 82,800 120 2,760 85,560 3/4inch 10 1800 18,000 120 1,200 19,200 1inch

Grandtotal(Rs) 7,652,880 Source:Kalolpropertytaxdepartment.

Table6suggeststhattherevenuedemandisonlyaboutRs76.5lakhagainsttheestimated cost of production of about Rs 264.7, excluding the cost of manpower and maintenance incurredbyKalolmunicipality. It is worth noting that that the billed demand is only 50 per cent of estimated energy and raw water costs. Thus, Kalol municipality needs to initiate measures on all fronts to make the operation financially self sustaining through measures such as water conservation and improved distribution efficiency, and policy decisions for enhanced revenue generation to reducethisdeficit.Beforeresortingtotariffincreases,theULBneedstoreduceitscostsand increaseitsrevenuesasfaraspossible.OnekeyelementinthisistoreduceNRWwhichwill help to reduce need for new resource generation and reduce operating costs. It is for this purposethatabasicwaterauditwasconductedforKalolmunicipality.

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3.TheApproachtoWaterAuditinKalol
The water audit is a well established procedure that identifies productive uses and needlesswaste. If one knows where water is used and lost, a saving plan of water can be planned. By conductingawateraudit,onecantrackwaterusageandfocusonactivitiesthatcausewater lossandwhatthatlosscoststheutility.Identifyingandrepairingleakssavesasubstantial quantity of water, saving expenditure for the ULB and also avoiding the need to look for new water sources to meet the increase in water demand. Thus, a water audit can deliver expected results by identifying and fixing water problems and make a water utility financiallysustainable. The overall goal of a water audit should be to select and implement programmes that reduce water losses. By conducting a water audit, an assessment of the capacity of total water produced and actual quantity water distributed is worked out. This will help to computeestimationofwaterlossesinthesystem. In the case of Kalol, the study was limited to a basic water audit to make a preliminary assessmentofwaterlossesbymeasuringflowsatsource,intermediatelocationsinnetwork as permissible and at the consumers end (random sampling). The study was carried out over a period of one month. It focused on developing good estimates of total supply of waterandwaterreceivedattheconsumersend.Amoredetailedwaterauditwhichwould includedemarcationofdistrictmeteredareas(DMAs)alongwithhydraulicmodellingcould betakenuplateriftheresultsshowhighNRWlevels. Sketchesofimportantnodesofthenetworkwhichwerepreparedaftervisualinspection andwerebasedondataobtainedfromtheKalolNagarpalikaaregiveninAnnexure1. MethodologyAdoptedforConductingaBasicWaterAuditinKalol The studies were conducted in Kalol city over a month in February and March 2010. The majoraspectscoveredinthestudyinclude: BackgroundStudy: Understanding the supply system and familiarisation with existing distribution network.Astimeandotherconstraintsdidnotpermitundertakingdetailedsurvey and system mapping of the entire supply and distribution network of Kalol city, it was agreed to cover only major components of the system such as WTPs, underground storage reservoirs (UGSRs), elevated service reservoir (ESRs), etc, for thestudy. AmeetingwasconductedwithULBofficialstounderstandthewatersupplyscheme of Kalol city and obtain the maps of the supply network. Details for quantity and quality of supply, supply pattern, time of supply and other aspects were also discussed. Avisit/visualinspectionwascarriedoutatallmajorpointsofsupply,thatis,WTPs, UGSRs, ESRs, etc, to verify the data provided by the ULB and prepare an updated

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sketchofmajorpointsofthesupplysystem.Itwasalsostudiedtocheckpossibility formeasurementofflowandpressureinthesystem. Details of registered connections ofvarious sizes were collected from the ULB. The latestpopulationdatawerealsoobtained. QuantityMeasurement: Measurementofsupplyincluded: o System input, that is, flows at source (production) comprising supply from WTPs as well as measurement of ground water resource supply, that is, tube/bore wells. System input (water produced at source) was measured using portable ultrasonic flow meters. The source measurement comprised measuringflowsoftreatedwaterpumpsatWTPsandtube/borewellpumps withinKalolcity. The assessment of treated water mains feeding the treated water to various UGSRs was carried out by measuring the volume of water supplied from WTPs and reaching critical/last point UGSRs in the network. The WTP flow/volumeduringstudywasmonitoredwithportableflowmeterandthe watersupplyvolumeatUGSRswasmeasuredbyvolumetricmethod. The booster pump discharge provided in various UGSRs feeding water to associatedESRsaswellasflowonESRinletpipetoESR,wherepossibleas per site conditions, were assessed using portable flow meters. This would enablegettinganideaofthetotalwatersupplyfedtoESRsandalsoarough estimationofthevolume/capacityofESRs. ESR outlet discharge was measured (except for one very old ESR) to assess the quantity of water fed to the distribution system using portable flow meters.ThetotalsupplytothecitycomprisedESRoutletflowplustubewell supply fed into the network to boost pressure as well as direct supply to populationincertainpocketsofthecity.

Consumption (or supply at the consumers end) was measured by studying the demographyandnumberofconnectionsofvarioussizesandfinalisingthelocation and number of samples to be studied in consultation with CEPT. A survey was conductedanddetailswereobtainedforthesupplyhours.Theteamwasdeputedto theselectedlocations/householdsduringthesupplyhourstomeasurethequantityof water received and also get an idea of the residual pressure at connection with respect to ground level. The flow was measured using bucket method, wherein graduated buckets of 12litre capacity were used; twothree measurements were carried out at each location during supply hours, and supply timings were also observed to derive average quantity of water received by the household. Data regarding the number of members served by the connection under measurement werealsoobtainedincaseofindividualhouseholdsandforcommonconnectionto flats, average five members per flat for total number of flats served by the connection.

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AsagreedwithCEPT,measurementsweretobecarriedoutaspersiteconditionin existingsystemonlywithoutanymodificationorpunctureinthepipeline/system.

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4.ResultsofBasicWaterAuditforKalol
The basic water audit for Kalol comprised five main steps. The results for each step are describedhere. Step1:EstimatingWaterSupplyperDay The system input, that is, water produced at source, was measured and found to be 17.26 MLD(17.17MLDexcludingpublicutilities)withaveragewatersupplyof12.72MLDfrom WTPs, and rest 4.54 MLD from ground water sources at various locations, as indicated in Table1. The supply to public use/utilities in Kalol is observed to be maintained separately by the ULB, which is about 0.09 MLD as indicated in (E) of Table 1. No standposts are provided/maintainedbytheULBasperrecords.However,watersupplyof0.05MLDfedby tankersisconsideredbyusasper(D)11ofTable1insysteminput ItisfurtherobservedthattheaveragepumpcapacityofWTPsis750m3/hrwithanaverage 17hoursofdailypumping,therebyprovidingdailysupplyofabout12.513MLDtoKalol. ThereispermanentflowmeasurementfacilityonKalolwatermainsandlogbooksatWTPs wereobservedtobemaintainedproperly.ThebillingdataoftheGWSSBtotheULBwere alsocheckedandverified. Theremaining4.54MLDsupplyofthecityismetbygroundwatersources,fromabout20 tube wells, with one to 24 hours of working. While the working hours of tube wells have beenreduced,itisobservedthattheULBcannotdoawaywithtubewellsinmanylocations forthefollowingreasons: Beinganintermittentsupply,usedinfillingboosterpumpstomaintainpressurein line CertainpocketsoftheULBarestilldependentononlygroundwatersourcesasthe requirednetworktofeedtheWTPwaterdoesnotexist. TubewellsactasadditionalsourcesNarmada(WTP)waterreceivedisinsufficientat agivenlocation.

Step2:EstimatingWaterSupplyfromTreatedWaterMains AscanbeseenfromthenetworksketchesinAnnexure1,theWTPfeedswatertothecity throughtwomajorbranchesoftreatedwatermains:oneuptothemainwaterworkssump andtheothertotheCivilHospitalsump.Asisapparentfromthenetworkscheme,theWTP suppliestreatedwaterto11UGSRslocatedinvariouspartsofKalolcity. Themeasurementofflowreachinguptomainwaterworkssumpalongwithothersumps enrouteinonebranchandflowatCivilHospitalsumpforthesecondbranchwascarried outwithvolumetricmethodinparalleltomeasurementofflowvolumedischargedfromthe WTP during the same time duration, and the results were compared as indicated in Annexure2. As observed from the study, the flow variation ranges from 0.03 per cent to 5.75 per cent duringthreedifferentstudies,andconsideringmeterinaccuracyaswellasinaccuracyofup to5percentassociatedwithvolumetricmeasurement,theresultofthestudyforassessment
15

of treated water mains are observed to be satisfactory. We presume the losses in treated watermainsasnegligibleornearthepermissiblelimitof1percentaspernorms,andwe believethesameasthislineisnewandlaidrecentlywiththecommissioningoftheWTP. Step3:EstimatingTreatedWaterConveyanceESR+Direct The supply to the distribution network is through 12 ESRs and 11 bore wells feeding the network directly. Out of 12 ESRs, 11 are fed by booster pumps provided in associated UGSRs and one ESR is being filled directly by a bore well. The details are elaborated in Annexures3and4. ThesupplytotheESRfromtheUGSRanddirectsupplyfromgroundwatersourceswere measured using portable flow meter. For main water works, the data were taken as per detailsfurnishedbyULBstaffasmeasurementsattheselocations,eithervolumetricorwith flowmeter,wasnotpossible.Theflowsweremeasuredindividuallyateachlocation,with supplyderivedbyassessingflowandtimeofpumpoperation. As can be observed from the measurements as per Annexure 3, the total treated water conveyancefromUGSR/directbyborewellwasobservedtobe15.58MLDasagainstsupply of17.17MLD(excludingpublicutilitysupply),whichindicatesalossofabout9.26percent whichincludesmeasurementinaccuracyofupto5percent. In addition, the ESR outlet flows were measured during the supply hours at the outlet of eachESR(exceptmainW/W)usingportableflowmeter.Thetotalsupplytothedistribution network from ESRs plus direct bore well supply was observed to be 14.97 MLD against system input of 17.17 MLD representing a variation/loss of about 12.81 per cent, which includesmeasurementinaccuracyofupto5percent,errorduetowaterbalanceatUGSRs asthemeasurementmethodspannedoverafewdaysandactualloss. ItcanbepresumedthatthelossfromWTPsupplyuptothepointofinputtodistribution network can be 35 per cent, mainly resulting from water seepage from UGSRs, leaking treatedwaterconveyancelines,minortoheavyleakagesinESRs,pump/valveandpipejoint leakages,etc. Step4:MeasurementofConsumption As per the details obtained from the ULB, the city has 17,874 authorised water supply connections comprising 17,783 inch connections, 58 inch connections and 33 1inch connections.Thisincludesbothdomesticaswellascommercial.(SeeTable3fordetails.) The distribution of connections is concentrated towards residential properties; also within eacharea,theconcentrationofinchconnectionsismore.Toarriveatreliableestimateswe need to consider two aspects. In the first place we should identify a sample size which is statistically reliable to provide meaningful estimates at a municipality level with a certain precision.Thesecondstepistomakesurethatthesampleisallocatedacrossthepopulation sothatitrepresentsalltheunitswithinthepopulation. ItwasagreedjointlywithCEPTtocarryoutmeasurementofabout39samples.Thissample sizewillprovidereliableestimatesata90percentconfidencelevel.Ideallyonewouldneed to take about 137 samples for a 95 per cent confidence level. The shortage of time and resourcesdictatedthata90percentconfidencelevelcouldbeconsideredadequate.

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The final task is to distribute the sample across wards and type of connections so that all wardsandalltypesofconnectionsarerepresented.Anestimatedwardwisedistributionof populationandhouseholdsisgivenintable7.Thereare17,874watersupplyconnectionsof inchandinchconnections. Table15:Wardwisedetailsofhouseholdsandconnections
Wardno 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Total 2009projectedpopulation 9,908 9,309 9,323 9,643 10,192 9,340 8,533 9,926 9,014 9,232 8,768 10,001 9,219 8,454 130,862 2009 households 2,583 2,428 2,431 2,514 2,658 2,435 2,225 2,589 2,351 2,408 2,286 2,608 2,403 2,205 34,124 projected Connections 1,350 1,269 1,271 1,314 1,390 1,273 1,163 1,354 1,229 1,259 1,195 1,365 1,256 1,153 17841 Zone2 Zone3 Zone2 Zone1 Zone

Astheconnectionsareunmetered,consumptionwasmeasuredthroughindirectmeans:12 litrecapacitybucketswereusedtomeasuretheflowrate.Twotothreemeasurementswere madeduringthesupplytimeateachlocationtoobtainanaverageflowrateandusingthe totaltimeofsupplythetotalsupplytoeachconnectionwasderived.Hereanassumptionis madethatallthewatersuppliedatthetapisconsumed.RefertoAnnexure5fordetails. AsperthemeasurementsindicatedinAnnexure5,thetotalsupplyconsumedwasobserved tobe9.26MLDasagainstasysteminputof17.17MLD. Step5:AnalysisofDataandComputationofNRW ThemeasurementofNRWwasdoneusingtheIWAwaterbalancechart,throughninetasks asdepictedinTable8.DetailsaregiveninAnnexes2to5. Task1:SystemInputVolume:ThesysteminputvolumeforKalolis6,299ML/annumbased on17257.05m3/day(17.26MLD)supply. Task 2: Billed Metered and Billed Unmetered Consumption: Kalol does not have any metered consumption. The billed unmetered consumption is estimated to be 3,381 ML/annum. Task 3: Calculate the Volume of Nonrevenue water: The volume of nonrevenue water worksoutto2,918ML/annum.

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Task 4: Calculate the Unbilled Authorised Consumption: The unbilled authorised consumption is observed to be 33 ML/annum considering authorised supply of 86,000 litres/dayforpublicutilities. Table16:StandardIWAwaterbalance
Billedmeteredconsumption Billedauthorised Revenuewater 0.0 consumption (53.7%) (53.7%) Billedunmeteredconsumption(53.7%) 3,381 3,381(Task2) 3,381 Unbilled authorised consumption (0.5%) 33(Task4) Apparentlosses (16.8%) 1,058(Task7) Unbilledmeteredconsumption 0 Unbilledunmeteredconsumption (0.5%) 33 Unauthorisedconsumption(16.8%) 1,058

Authorised consumption (54.2%) 3,414(Task5)

System input volume 6,299 (Task1)

Nonrevenue Consumermeteringinaccuracies water,NRW 0 (46.3%) Leakageonserviceconnectionsupto 2,918(Task3) Waterlosses pointofcustomermetering(15.6%) (45.8%) 980(Task9) 2,885(Task6) Reallosses(29%) Leakageontransmissionmains(9.9%) 1,827(Task8) 624(Task9) Leakageandoverflowsatutilitys storagetanks(3.5%) 223(Task9)

Source:Basedonactualflowmeasurementusingportableultrasonicflowmeterandbucketsurveymethodat theconsumersend.

Task 5: Calculate Authorised Consumption: The total authorised consumption is observed tobe3,414ML/annum(BilledNonmetered+UnbilledAuthorised). Task6:CalculateWaterLosses(NRW): Waterloss=SysteminputAuthorisedconsumption Accordingly,waterlossisobservedtobe2,885ML/annum. Task 7 Calculate Apparent Losses: As the scope of study did not involve the total survey and mapping of network and also the leak detection programme, it was not possible to identify and calculate the apparent and real losses. But an estimate of apparent losses has beenmadefromthebucketsurveyandotherdetailsofwaterconnectionsinslumareasthat are not paying the special water tax. Around 6,000 connections are estimated to be 1,058 ML/annum(2.9MLD). Task8:CalculateRealLosses: Reallosses=WaterlossesApparentlosses Accordingly,reallossesarecalculatedtobe1,827ML/annumwhichis29percentofsystem inputvolume.
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Task9:KalolWaterBalanceCalculation:Basedonthisanalysis,NRWinKalolisobserved tobe46percent.TheNRWfiguresforKalolcityareobservedtobehighandsimilartothe figures arrived at by various authorities after conducting water studies in various cities of the country and as associated with intermittent supply system prevailing in most parts of country. There is considerable scope for improvement in the efficiency of the delivery system.

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5.SuggestionsforReducingNonrevenueWater
Based on the observations made during the basic water audit and its results, a few key suggestions for improved measurement of NRW as well as for its reduction have been identified.Thefirstsetofsuggestionsincludesthosethatcanbetakenimmediatelyandat relatively lower costs by the Kalol municipality. A second set of suggestions for more detailed studies is also identified for further diagnostic to reduce NRW and improve efficiencyinserviceprovision. Urgent/immediatestepsforNRWmeasurementandreduction: Repair ESRs and leaking valves, and reduce overflow of tanks: From the standard IWA water balance (Table 8), it is noticed that 3.5 per cent water losses are at the WDS level. These are mainly due to leakage in valves and storage tanks and also their overflow. Field studies and results showed that Kalyanpura, Divada, Sarda Nagar, Sardarbag and Navjivan ESRs are leaking heavily and require immediate repair. Maintenanceofvalvesandfittingssuchastighteningloosebolts,positioninggland packing,replacingdamagedpartsofvalvesandfittings,etc,areneededtoreduceor stopleakagefromvalvesandfittings. Staffsawarenessisneededtoreduceoverflowofstoragetanks. Identify and regularise illegal connections: Illegal withdrawal of water from distributionlinesisoneofthereasonsresultinginloworevennegativepressure.To overcome this, Kalol municipality needs to undertake steps to detect and then regularise illegal connections to reduce NRW. This will also avoid illegal use of booster pumps and result in improved performance of the water distribution network. There is also a need to introduce a simpler and special procedure for giving connectionstoslumhouseholds.Apropertytaxbillisrequiredasproofofresidence whenapplyingforawaterconnection.Slumpropertiesareoftennotassessedandso donothavepropertytaxbills.Therefore,slumhouseholdsarenoteligibletoapply for water connections. There is a need to provide a property tax bill for slum householdsandthuseasetheprocessofgivingconnectionstoslumhouseholds. Establishwaterquantitydatarecordingandprocessingsystemtoregularlymonitor andreducewaterlosses.Thereisnodatarecordingsystematpresentwhichresults in nonavailability of data for records to assess the performance at various levels. Creating awareness and training the staff is needed for maintaining proper log books. It is also necessary to set up a system to report the hours of pumping to concernedofficersofthewatersupplydepartment.Thisinformationshouldthenbe usedwiththecalibratedpumpdischargefromthebasicwateraudit,tocalculatethe water quantity supplied from various sources and WDS. This will help improve reliability of data and measure NRW on a regular basis. Ideally, the ULB needs to install bulk flow meters and pressure gauges to measure flow and pressure in the linesatallpumpdischargesandcriticalpointsinthenetwork.

20

Furtherstudiestoimprovesystemperformance: Carry out energy audit: From field studies it is observed that pumps are running inefficiently.Toidentifyreplacementandrehabilitationofpumpingmachineries,itis necessary to carry out energy audits and implement suggestions resulting from them.Thiswillhelpreducebothenergyusageandthehighexpenditureonenergy. Prepare system/network map and connections information: At present, Kalol municipalitydoesnothavepropermapsofthedistributionnetwork.Asurveyofthe completedistributionsystemneedstobecarriedoutbytheULBtoprepareaseries of system maps. This should also include housetohouse surveys to obtain details about the actual connections, authorised and unauthorised, as well as household detailscateredtobytheseconnections. HydraulicmodellingandcreationofDMAs:AsreportedinAnnexure6,thepressure atgroundlevelforeachmeasurementconnectioninvariousareaswasverylowwith negative pressure at several places against the desired minimum 7 m to 12 m pressure for satisfactory delivery. A hydraulic study of the present network is requiredtocheckitsadequacy,toidentifywhetheranyreplacementsorupgradation is required or whether new lines are required to be laid to ensure proper service deliveryincludingrequiredpressureateachnode.Thiswouldalsohelpinreducing, toagreatextent,theproblemofinequitableflowdistributioninKalol. Demarcation of supply zones and formation of DMAs should be carried out with necessary isolation of each zone and metering of input to each supply zone, DMA andothercriticalnodes.Thiswouldhelpbringawarenessaboutthesupplytoeach locality including leakages, if any, with followup corrective actions by the ULB including leak detection. In addition, the supply can be staggered to enable supply withadequatepressure. Metering:Kalolmunicipalityalsoneedstoexplorethepossibilityofmeasuringflow and pressure in the lines at all pump discharge and critical points in network. For this, the ULB needs to adopt metering of supply of water. This will also require creatingawarenessamongthepublicandcreatingpoliticalwillbyassuringeveryone about the benefits of continuous supply as against intermittent supply system. Proper steps taken by the ULB in this direction can lead to improved system efficiencyandservicedelivery. DevelopabankableprojecttoreduceNRW:GiventhehighNRW,thereisscopefor introducingaperformancebasedmanagementcontractbythemunicipalcouncilto reduce NRW levels over time. This will require an assessment of capacity and interestofpotentialcontractorstoundertakesuchacontract.Todevelopthis,abetter and more reliable set of data will be needed as discussed earlier. A detailed risk assessmentanalysiswillalsobeneededtodevelopariskmanagementplanforsuch acontract.

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Annexure1:DetailsofKalolMainWaterSupplyNetwork

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28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

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Annexure2:VolumetricMeasurement
PipelineWTPtoMainWaterWorks(Divada/Kalyanpura/MainWaterWorks) Timeofmeasurement:2:40to3:00pm
Sr no Location/de scription Time duration ofmeas. (hr) Areaof sump (m2) Level rise (m) UGSR fill volume asper level rise(m3) 2.16 1.83 89.61 Booster pump status Booster pump flow cap (m3/hr) 145 213 0 Booster pump correcti on volume (m3) 48 71 0 Total fill volum eof UGSR (m3) 50.49 72.83 89.61 212.94 226.00 5.78%

Divada 0.333 216.05 0.01 UGSR 2 Kalyanpura 0.333 183.28 0.01 UGSR 3 Main W/W 0.333 256.04 0.35 UGSR TotalmeasuredvolumeatUGSR(m3) PratappuraWTPvolumereadingattotaliser %variation

on on off

PipelineWTPtoMainWaterWorks(Vankarvas/Kalyanpura/MainWaterWorks) Timeofmeasurement:10:30to10:50am
Sr no Location/De scription Time duration ofmeas. (hr) Areaof sump (m2) Level rise (m) UGSR fill volume asper level rise(m3) 23.01 29.32 94.73 Booster pump status Booster pump flow cap (m3/hr) 0 213 0 Booster pump correcti on volume (m3) 0 71 0 Total fill volum eof UGSR (m3) 23.01 100.32 94.73 218.07 218.00 0.03%

Vankarvas 0.333 121.09 0.19 Kalyanpura 0.333 183.28 0.16 UGSR 3 Main W/W 0.333 256.04 0.37 UGSR TotalmeasuredvolumeatUGSR(m3) PratappuraWTPvolumereadingattotaliser %variation

1 2

off on off


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PipelineWTPtoCivilHospitalSump Timeofmeasurement:7:00to7:30pm
Sr no Location/D escription Time duration ofmeas. (hr) Areaof sump (m2) Level rise (m) UGSR fill volume asper level rise(m3) 447.65 Booster pump status Booster pump flow cap (m3/hr) Booster pump correcti on volume (m3) 0 Total fill volum eof UGSR (m3) 447.65 447.65 466.00 3.94%

Civil Hospital 0.500 1243.47 0.36 Sump TotalmeasuredvolumeatUGSR(m3) PratappuraWTPvolumereadingattotaliser %variation

OFF

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Annexure3:ESRInletFlowDetails
A. ESRInletFlow(UGSRboosterpumptoESR)
Sr no Boosterpump/ESRlocation Pump discharge flow (m3/hr) 140 124 213 145 110 36 101 149 177 203 196 14 Avg working hrs 7 3 14 10.5 9.5 3 6.75 9.75 7 3 14 3.5 Avgdaily flow(m3) Avgdaily flow(MLD)

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

TP46 Vankarvas Kalyanpura Divada Main Water Works (2W Pumps) (VolumetricEstimationofESRflow as flow measurement on pump dischargenotpossible) MayurHousing(BoretoESR) TownHall SardaNagar Sardarbag Navjivan Drainage Tersaparu(BoretoESR) Subtotal(A)

980 372 2,982 1,522.5 1,045 108 681.75 1,452.75 1,239 609 2,744 49

0.98 0.37 2.98 1.52 1.05 0.11 0.68 1.45 1.24 0.61 2.74 0.05 13.79

B. DirectGroundWaterFlowtoDistributionNetwork
Sr no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sourcelocation Avginst flow (m3/hr) 56 30 35 62.5 50 49 81 53.8 58 20 68 Avg workinghrs 5 1 2.5 3.5 6.15 3 4 3 0.45 0.45 3 Avgdaily flow(m3) 280 30 87.5 218.75 307.5 147 324 161.4 26.1 9 204 Avgdaily flow(MLD) 0.28 0.03 0.09 0.22 0.31 0.15 0.32 0.16 0.03 0.01 0.20 1.80 15.58

CivilHospitalbore Sardarbagbore Navjivanbore IFFCObore BhavaniNagarbore Pavathibore AyojanNagarbore JyoteshNagar MahendraMillboreline1 MahendraMillboreline2 KumbharNiChali(WTP+ground water by booster pump direct to n/w) Subtotal(B) Grandtotal(A+B)


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Annexure4:ESROutletFlowDetails
A. ESROutletFlowtoDistributionNetwork
Sr no 1 2 3 4 5 ESRlocation Totalflow reading (m3/hr) 633 274 531 559 149 475 381 534 279 14 Supplyhrs Avgdaily quantity (m3) 1,266 548 2,389.5 1118 1,045 298 950 1,143 1,068 558 2,744 49 Avgdaily quantity (MLD) 1.27 0.55 2.39 1.12 1.05 0.30 0.95 1.14 1.07 0.56 2.74 0.05 13.18

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

TP46 Vankarvas Kalyanpura Divada Main Water Works (2W Pumps) (ESR inflow taken as ESR outflow asflowisnotmeasurable) MayurHousing(boretoESR) TownHall SardaNagar Sardarbag Navjivan Drainage(ESRinflowtakenasESR outflowasflowisnotmeasurable) Tersaparu(boretoESR) Subtotal(A)

2 2 4.5 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3.5

B. DirectGroundWaterFlowtoDistributionNetwork
Sr no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sourcelocation Avginst flow (m3/hr) 56 30 35 62.5 50 49 81 53.8 58 20 68 Avg workinghrs 5 1 2.5 3.5 6.15 3 4 3 0.45 0.45 3 Avgdaily flow(m3) 280 30 87.5 218.75 307.5 147 324 161.4 26.1 9 204 Avgdaily flow(MLD) 0.28 0.03 0.09 0.22 0.31 0.15 0.32 0.16 0.03 0.01 0.20 1.80 14.97

CivilHospitalbore Sardarbagbore Navjivanbore IFFCObore BhavaniNagarbore Pavathibore AyojanNagarbore JyoteshNagar MahendraMillboreline1 MahendraMillboreline2 KumbharNiChali(WTP+ground water by booster pump direct to network Subtotal(B) Grandtotal(A+B)

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Annexure5:DetailsofBucketSurveyatConsumersEnd
A. Volumetric Bucket Method: inch and inch Connection Supply Measurement
Measured Measured Timeof Average apptime Avg Avg Locationof Househol timeof Avg. supplyas flow ofsupply pressure water sample d supplyat LPCD perULB measured atlocation, fromGL available, measurement members location supply (min/day) (LPM) (min/suppl (m) (lit/day) (min/day) y) Zone1 TP46 (Patel 1 Colony) TP46 2 (Talavadi) Shakti Vijay 3 Society 4 Tersaparu TP46 (St 5 Xaviers) TP46 (Ayojan 6 pura) Average(Zone1) 1 Vaghrivas Railway East 2 Area 3 BhavaniNagar 4 Drainage Swadesini 5 Chali Navjivan Mill NiChali Vakharia Char 7 Rasta 8 Fatepura 6 9 Pandyavas 4 6 5 6 4 8 4 5 15 10 6 5 7 4 5 7 4 3 6 4 7 4 45 45 90 45 45 45 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 45 210 90 90 4.97 3.08 4.77 24.83 20.77 14.55 10.54 13.85 14.03 5.85 17.42 1.89 2.66 5.9 13.27 6.52 6.46 7.38 12 56 60 18 25 39 75 Zone2 20 30 25 22 30 30 15 20 30 30 38 15 210 20 30 56.00 60.00 36 25.00 39.00 75.00 40 60 50 44.00 60 60 30 40 60 60 76.00 30 210 40 60 0.35 0.95 1.58 4.50 0.35 1.24 2 0.76 1 0.18 0 3 0.08 0.92 0 0 2.2 0 0.04 0.5 0.73 1.15 278 185 172 621 810 0 413 421 831 701 258 0 1045 57 106 0 354 1009 0 195 1356 295 720 69.52 30.77 34.33 103.45 202.54 0.00 88 105.37 166.15 46.76 25.76 Motor operated

Sr no

Remarks

Hand 0.00 pump/moto roperated

209.05 8.11 26.6

10 Motinagar 11 SardaNagar Nathji Ni 12 Wadi Juni Hadka Mill 14 IFFCONagar Mahendra Mill 15 NiChali 16 Navjivan Mill 13

Hand 0.00 pump/moto roperated 50.57 252.17 Hand 0 pump/moto roperated 32.58 339.01 42.17 180 43


Measured Measured Timeof Average apptime Avg Avg Locationof Househol timeof Avg. supplyas flow ofsupply pressure water sample d supplyat LPCD fromGL available, perULB measured atlocation, measurement members location supply (min/day) (LPM) (min/suppl (m) (lit/day) (min/day) y) NiChali Average(Zone2) Somanath Society Gay No Tekro Ambika Nagar BarotVas Rajnagar Society AmrutKunj Zone3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Dwarkesh Apartment Vardhaman Nagar JainWadi Taluka Vikas Officer Kacheri Nano Thakorvas Vallabhnagar Society Jai Bhavani Nagar 3 4 4 5 5 90 10 6 45 90 90 45 90 90 90 90 90 6.64 17.7 5.65 5.6 13.84 15.65 8.57 20 30 30 15 20 25 30 30 20 60 60 30 40 50 60 60 0.70 2.41 2 1.52 0.5 0 2.7 3.20 3.025 0 133 1062 0 339 168 0 1107 783 514 0 44.24 265.50 84.71 33.6 0 12.3 78.26 85.71 Hand pump/moto roperated Commercial hand pump/moto roperated 565 114

Sr no

Remarks

11 12

8 4

90 90

3.99

30 20

60 40

0.95 0

239 0

29.93 0

13

45

20

0 543

Average(Zone3)

Hand pump/Moto roperated Hand 0.00 pump/moto roperated 79

Zone 1 2 3 Total

Noofregistered connections 5,204 7,632 5,005 17,841

Averagesupplyper connection(litre) 413 565 543

Averagesupplyper day(litre) 2,149,445 4,314,416 2,718,364 9,182,225

Totalsupply (MLD) 2.15 4.31 2.72 9.18


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B. VolumetricBucketMethod:1inchConnectionSupplyMeasurement
Srno Locationof sample measurement Househol Timeof Averageflow Measured Measured Avg Avgwater d measured apptime timeof pressure available supplyas members perULB (LPM) ofsupply supplyat fromGL (lit/day) (min/day) at location (m) location (min/day) (min/sup ply) 120 90 159 20 40 6.00 6360 90 5 4 219 90 90 90 53 9 15.31 20 20 30 40 40 60 0.50 2.54 3.05 2120 360 918.6 2,439.65 Avg. LPCD Supply

1 2 3 4

Ganesh Apartment ParkAvenue Jyoteshvar Mahadev KashibaNivas

106 47 72 229.65 114

Noof registered connections 33 Averagesupplyper connection(litre) 2,440 Averagesupply perday(litre) 80,508 Total supply (MLD) 0.08

C. SummaryStatementofTotalSupplytoKalolCity
Typeofconnection No of registered connections 17,841 33 17,874 Totalsupply (lit/day) 9,182,225 80,508 9,262,733 MLD % Totalsupply (MLD) 9.18 0.08 9.26 17.26 7.99 46.32%

inchandinchconnection 1inchconnection Totalbilledconsumption Systeminput Nonrevenuewater(NRW) NRW

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ThePerformanceAssessmentSystem(PAS)Project The PAS Project aims to develop appropriate methods and tools to measure, monitor and improvedeliveryofwaterandsanitationincitiesandtownsinIndia.ThePASProjectincludes three major components of performance measurement, performance monitoring and performance improvement. It covers all the 400+ urban local governments in Gujarat and Maharashtra. CEPTUniversityhasreceivedagrantfromtheBillandMelindaGatesFoundationforthePAS Project. It is being implemented by CEPT University with support of Urban Management Centre (UMC) in Gujarat and All India Institute of Local SelfGovernment(AIILSG) in Maharashtra.

PASProject
CEPTUniversity

Kasturbhai Lalbhai Campus, University Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 Gujarat, India Tel:+917926302470 Fax:917926302075 www.pas.org.in