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Sample ESL Lesson Plans for Authentic Communication

This section includes the following topics:


Overview of Sample Lesson Plans Beginning Level Lessons Intermediate Level Lessons Multi-level Lessons

Overview of Sample Lesson Plans


This collection of sample lesson plans is designed for use with either beginning or intermediate level ESL students. In addition, some lessons are designed for use in classes that include students at mixed levels of ESL proficiency. These may be multi-level ESL classes or career technical classes that include ELLs. If you do not have classes with students at various levels of English proficiency, you can still use these activities in your beginning or intermediate level classrooms. While this guide provides ESL instructors with information on program and course planning, assessment and evaluation, no lesson plan can take the place of thoughtful planning by the classroom instructor. The sample lesson plans provided in this program guide are not a comprehensive collection. Rather, they are designed as examples that instructors can use as a model for creating their own lesson plans. All the lesson plans included here are designed to be used as culmination activities for instructional units that focus on a theme related to life skills, pre-employment, or employment skills. Ideally, instructors should select and modify lessons to fit the unit they are planning and the level of the students in the classroom. Most of these lessons could be modified to fit a variety of unit themes and used on a regular basis as part of a weekly, monthly or quarterly routine. Standards and Objectives Standards and objectives are included at the end of the lesson plans as a model for instructors as they develop their own plans. Lessons should be designed to address a specific standard, and the objective for the lesson should be made explicit to the students. Technology

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Several of the sample lessons and activities rely on the use of technology such as audio and video recording equipment as well as the Internet. Instructors may need to modify these activities according to the availability of technology at their centers. Texts and Core Materials There are many good textbook series and software programs that cover key grammar structures, functions and vocabulary. These series typically have teachers manuals with many suggested activities. The goal of the sample lesson plans in this section is to incorporate the use of authentic materials (items in print or video found in everyday life, which have not been modified for learners of the English language), create an interactive context for authentic communication, and provide opportunities for formal and informal assessment of students communicative competence. These lessons do not attempt to duplicate or replace what textbooks, computer programs, or conventional tests can provide. Instructors are expected to use their regular texts and core materials to teach the vocabulary, grammar, and language functions required by the sample lessons. The sample lessons listed below can be used as culminating activities after of unit of materials has been studied. The instructor should carefully review the lesson plan to be aware of any preparation, which must be carried out beforehand. The instructor can print out the lesson plans individually for easier use or print them all together and keep them in a binder for easier access.
A. Beginning Level

English language learners need to meet the prerequisite of basic literacy in order to have a positive learning experience during these three beginning-level sample lessons. 1. Color-Coordinated Quiz 2. Course of Events 3. Performing A Skit
B. Intermediate Level

These three sample lessons build on the foundation of grammar, thus far, and are more interactive in content. It is up to the instructor to make clear the expectations for the students at this level. 1. Interviewing 2. Something Im Good At 3. Video Segments
C. Multi-level

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These five sample lessons can be used in a classroom with students at various levels of English proficiency. It is up to the instructor to make clear the expectations for the students at various levels. 1. Extra! Extra! Read all about it. 2. Internet Scavenger Hunt 3. It's on the label 4. Raise Your Hand 5. Traveling Instructor

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A.1 Beginning Level


Color Coordinated Quiz This activity should be used as a culminating activity for reviewing vocabulary on clothing, colors, and adjectives. It may focus on attire for specific vocations or for clothing worn during different times of the years. By using photos from advertisements, students can chose to describe many aspects of the person pictured, provide as many details as possible and incorporate new vocabulary into those descriptions.
Objective: Students will use authentic materials, such as newspaper sales ads or catalogues, to demonstrate their knowledge of vocabulary and word order. This lesson will help students describe objects using adjectives. Topic: Shopping for clothing (furniture, appliances, tools, etc.) Stage of the Unit: Evaluation/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Present tense simple statements Examples: The jacket is blue. She has a purse; Present tense continuous statements Examples: He is wearing a blue jacket. She is carrying a purse Vocabulary: Adjectives (colors), Nouns (clothing, furniture, appliances, tools, etc.) Prerequisites: Familiarity with objects presented on the picture sheets and related vocabulary. Materials: Photos from newspaper ads or catalogues, scissors, glue, paper. Approximate time for activity: 15-30 minutes Before Class: 1. From multicolored department store advertising inserts in the Sunday newspaper or from supply catalogues or other industry catalogues, cut out 12 pictures of different items (e.g., articles of clothing). Choose items in a wide selection of colors that the students have studied. Try not to choose articles of clothing or objects with unusual colors or hard-to-describe designs (e.g., a paisley tie). 2. Depending on the size of pictures, glue 2 to 4 items each on six sheets of paper. Number the items from 1 to 12, or more if 4 on a sheet. If you have more than 6 students, then create a second set of picture sheets with items.

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STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. If your class has 6 students, then give each student a sheet with pictures, and ask the student to write a description of each item (e.g., A woman is wearing blue jeans and a red t-shirt) on a separate sheet of paper. Tell the student to pass the sheet of pictures on to the next person in class after finishing the descriptions. If there are fewer then 6 students, leave the extra sheets on another desk for students to retrieve after they finish with their initial sheet. If there are more than 6 students, then break the class into two groups using the 2 sets of quiz sheets. 2. Continue until everybody has had a chance to respond to all 12 items, and collect the students descriptions. Feedback and Scoring 1. Assess each response on accuracy of vocabulary, spelling, word order, content, or all of these features (depending on student level and lesson focus). 2. As a group activity, the instructor could write sentences created by various students on the board/overhead, and the class together could correct the sentences. Another option is to ask student volunteers to take turns writing a sentence on the board/overhead for the class to evaluate. 3. Then return responses to students and review the response sheets with the entire class, asking for volunteers to share their response for an item. Correct as necessary. Emphasize that there is more than one way to describe each picture and that detail and creativity are as valuable as correctness. Variations 1. Glue pictures to file folders (rather than paper) and laminate for reuse. Build up a collection of pictures over time to use as a resource for future instruction and review activities. 2. Have students work in pairs or small groups to revise incorrect or incomplete responses. This may be done in primary language pairs. 3. Depending on the level of the student and the pictures you select, you can ask the students to be more descriptive in their answers, or to exchange papers and suggest details to add to improve their partners descriptions. 4. If there are several students that are interested in the same trade, you can create a set of sheets particular to that vocation with work clothing, specific tools/equipment, and safety gear that might be used.
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5. This activity can be used by career technical instructors to assess the vocabulary comprehension of their ELL students with regard to work attire, tools/equipment, and safety gear. 6. Add new picture sheets that relate to the instructional units covered in class. Continue to include picture sheets from previous units to support vocabulary retention. 7. The exercise could include an oral component such as having each student taking the role of a television commentator and explaining the attire of the people in the pictures. There could be audience participation in commenting if the clothes are in style or not/suggesting what the person pictured might need to change about his/her attire for different jobs. 8. This activity could be modified for higher levels, by including accessories or focusing on uniforms for different occupations with specialized gear.
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON


Speaking / Writing (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Teaching others (Interpersonal skills) Organize and maintain information (Information)
TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 1, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in social settings: Students will interact in, through, and with spoken and written English for personal expression and enjoyment.

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A.2 Beginning Level


The Course of Events Whether Job Corps students are baking pastries in a culinary program or building a storage shed in the trades, they are following steps to finish a project. A series of events can also occur in the telling of a story (how a student applied for a job or came to the United States), as well as in academic subjects (e.g. literature, social studies, sciences, etc.). The purposed of this exercise is for students to review vocabulary they have learned and to examine the relationship between events. Instructors can use a story as short as a paragraph, as long as there is clear sequence of events, for this activity. Over time, as students build their vocabulary and grammar knowledge, the stories can get longer.
Objective: Students will develop their overall understanding of a story, process, or phenomenon by examining the relationships between events. This lesson will promote the students ability to synthesize information. Topic: Varies according to story, process or phenomenon. Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills/Pre-Employment Structures: Past tense (for Story Plot), present tense (for Steps in a Process or Phenomenon) Vocabulary: Approximately 10 terms related to the story, process or phenomenon, sequence words (e.g. first, second, next, last, etc.) Prerequisites: Beginning ESL literacy, familiarity with the context of the story or significance of the process or phenomenon being studied. Materials: Reading passage that includes a sequence of events, instructor made handout. Approximate time for activity: 45 minutes Tips for the Instructor: This activity works best when it follows lessons that teach sequencing concepts and vocabulary ahead of time, for example: what is sequence, chronological order, vocabulary such as first, after, next, etc. Before Class: 1. Analyze the story, process, or phenomenon your class is about to study, and make a list of the 11 most significant events. Incorporate visual materials when possible. 2. Type up your list with a blank line to the left of each item (for numbering). 3. Scramble the items by cutting and pasting them onto another document. (To reduce unconscious bias, you can arrange them from the shortest to the longest utterance.) 4. At the top of the paper, add a set of directions to guide students (e.g., Put the following events in order from first to last by numbering them from 1 to 11; see
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Sample Handout: The Coin).

STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Teach the story, process or phenomenon by using the 11 most significant events to describe how the story plot develops or process/phenomenon occurs. Use available texts and any visual materials you have collected/created beforehand to promote comprehension. 2. Hand out the activity sheet, and have the students complete it. 3. In your instruction and assessment, de-emphasize factual details and stress context and causal relationships. Feedback and Scoring 1. The purpose is to promote higher order thinking. Therefore, in your scoring stress comprehension of the context and logic of the story, process, or phenomenon. 2. Review the answers with the whole class and let students score their own papers. Another option is to have students exchange papers and score their partners paper as part of a whole class review activity. Special Note When executing a lesson requiring students to put events in sequence, Graphic Organizers (for example, Story String, Sequencing Chart or Beginning, Middle and End Chart) can be excellent tools for ESL students at all levels of proficiency. They help ESL students learn vocabulary and encourage students to think about information in new ways. They also help improve clarity in thinking, organizing, and especially sequencing. Most importantly they provide consistent scaffolding. In the classroom context it refers to the use of teacher assistance and intervention to enable learners towards greater independence. Variations Adapt this activity to focus on either reading comprehension or listening comprehension according to your students learning needs. 1. Use synonyms and paraphrases in the activity sheet (rather than exact wording) to increase task difficulty and discourage memorization. 2. This exercise is applicable to a wide variety of content areas (i.e., language arts, science, history, and specific trades). This activity can be used in career technical class to discuss a multi-step task or process, but should not be used merely to
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memorize a list of events. 3. To promote class interaction, copy the answer sheet onto an overhead transparency. After students have completed their answer sheets individually, ask volunteers to come to write their responses on the overhead. Allow the class to discuss and evaluate the responses collectively. 4. This exercise can be used as an individual activity or as part of a larger test. It can also be used as a cooperative learning tool. For example, instead of creating a worksheet, write the events in the story or process on eleven index cards. Give 11 students one index card each. Ask them to put the cards in order by forming a line at the front of the room. Have the whole class participate by negotiating the place of each event in the sequence. 5. To promote vocabulary development, choose a reading that is slightly above the comprehension level of the students. Have them work together in pairs or small groups to decipher the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases through context clues, or the use of various dictionaries.
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998) Sample Handout: The Coin

The Coin Directions: Put the following events in order from first to last by numbering them from 1 to 11. Later Marie got sick. The doctors couldnt help Marie. They only found three of the coins. She coughed a lot and couldnt speak. After dinner Maries family ate the cake. After she felt better, Marie still could not speak. She coughed up the coin from so many years ago. Maries mother put four coins into the cake for good luck. With the help of a special doctor, Marie learned to speak again. Twelve years later, Marie got a sore throat and began to cough.
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When Marie was thirteen years old, her mother made a special cake for dessert.
The story The Coin appears in the text True Stories in the News: A Beginning Reader By S. Heyer (1996), from Longman.

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON


Listening / Reading (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Sociability (Personal Qualities) Acquire and evaluate information (Information) Organize and maintain information (Information)
TESOL STANDARD ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 2, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form.

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A.3 Beginning to Intermediate Levels


Performing a Skit Group activities like performing a skit are problematic at some centers due to scheduling constraints. This activity requires that students depend on their group members to be present several days in a row. At many centers, students schedules change often and students are pulled out for various services without warning. At other centers, ESL students are segregated from the general program and spend weeks or months together in the ESL classroom. In such cases, group activities can break up the monotony of instructor directed instruction and individual or pair practice work. Consider your program context before attempting this activity. If the schedules of your students are predictable an activity like this might be used effectively in your class.
Objective: Students will perform a drama or skit, using authentic materials as props in the presentation to the class. Other students listen attentively, ask questions about the presentation, and fill out a brief critique. Topic: Topic of interest to the student. Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Varies depending on the topic of the presentation Vocabulary: Varies depending on the topic of presentation Prerequisites: Ability to give constructive feedback to peers Materials: Authentic materials to be used in skits (see examples in Sample of Structures below), instructor made handouts. Approximate time for the activity: Preparation time of approximately an hour; three class periods of 45 minutes over a three-day period. Tips for the Instructor: Some students can be very shy or reluctant to get up and perform in front of their peers. It is important to make this a fun and informal activity. Evaluate students based on participation to reduce anxiety. Students will need instruction and modeling on how to give feedback in constructive and appropriate ways. Sufficient instructional time should be devoted to establishing peer feedback norms prior to this lesson. Samples of Structures: #1 Students will perform a skit about buying a present for their boyfriend, girlfriend, or friend. Structures: Present tense simple statements/ Present continuous statements Vocabulary: Adjectives (colors, sizes, pretty, ugly, stylish, trendy, seasonal, sporty, well made, oversized, baggy, tight, big, small, etc.), Nouns (pants, shirt, blouse, shoes, etc.), Different modes of shopping (on-line, catalogs, home shopping channel, telephone order), Different modes of paying (credit card, debit card, cash, check, gift certificate). Materials: Store catalogues.
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#2 Students will perform a skit about ordering in a restaurant. Students will make polite requests using Modal Auxiliaries. Structures: Modal Auxiliaries Making polite requests using could, would, and please. Requesting permission using can, could, and may. Materials: Menu from restaurant (Chinese, Italian, Spanish, American, etc.), items commonly used in restaurants (water pitcher, utensils, plates, waiters notepad, etc.) #3 Students will perform a drama or skit using idioms at the Mall. Structure: Idioms Looking for, have in mind, total loss, look around, next door, cant afford it, hold on, too good to be true, take your pick. Materials: Items commonly found in a clothing store. Development: Instructor will explain that idioms are phrases that are used in a special way that may be different from their literal meaning. An idiom cant be understood by knowing the meaning of each word in the phrase. It must be learned as a whole. Instructor will explain the meaning of the idioms and give examples of how they can be used. Before Class #1: 1. You should try to get authentic materials, which may be used for skits. Materials can include: to-go menus from restaurants, pamphlet/brochures of local companies (from a job fair or from placement specialist on-center), local newspapers, and magazines (pop-culture, home decorating, cooking, etc.). Authentic materials are those that have not been tailored for ELLs and are examples of print materials from the real world. 2. Tell the class they will be putting on a skit for the rest of the class the following day and that they can include anything they like, including artwork, dancing, and music and any materials or props they want to bring in (magazines, pictures, etc.). Tell them to bring in those items for the following days class.

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Class #1: Planning the skit STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY:


Introduction (5 minutes) 1. Tell the students that they will be putting on a skit for the rest of the class and that they can include anything they like, including artwork, dancing, and music. 2. Place students in groups of 2-3 students. 3. Explain that the expected time for each skit will be 2 minutes times the number of member in the group. That is, each member of the group should speak for at least 2 minutes in the groups skit. For instance, if a group has three members, the total time for the skit will be approximately 6 minutes (2 minutes X 3 people= 6 minutes). 4. You can choose to provide a topic for the skit, for example: The first day at Job Corps At the workplace How to make (a food dish, a poster, a bookcase, etc.) The job interview The post office, supermarket, bank, restaurant, etc. 1. Have the students sit with their skit groups. 2. (15 minutes) Tell the students to discuss the theme of their skit and to give their skit group a name related to the theme (e.g., First-timers, Chef Rudy). 3. Be sure to check grammatical accuracy and word choice in the scenario and provide feedback while the groups are working. 4. (20 minutes) Have the students write and submit a 150 to 200-word summary of their skit. If the group has not finished the summary, assign as homework 5. For homework, tell the students to make a list of words in their skit (with their definitions) that might be difficult for the other students to understand. Students may need guidance on how to write a scenario for their skit. Present a mini-lesson that clarifies your expectations before they begin the activity for Class #1.

Preparation (35 minutes)

Caveat

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Class #2: Planning the skit STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY:


Review (5 minutes) 1. Recap the time expectation and need for props in the skit groups are creating. 2. Pass out the Skit Assessment Sheet (see Sample Handout A: Skit Assessment Sheet) to each group. Explain to the students that they will fill in each step in the sheet according to the schedule. 3. Have students read over their summary. Have students write out the scenario (setting, characters, stage directions, etc.). They do not have to write the dialogue down word for word. Instead each skit participant should try to speak naturally (rather than read from a prepared script). 1. Have the group assess its preparation of the skit using the space in the third column of the Skit Assessment Sheet (Sample Handout A: Skit Assessment Sheet). 2. Mention that the group will be assessed in its final performance using the same areas as in the rehearsal (Step 8 in the Skit Assessment Sheet: the scenario, grammatical correctness, pronunciation, language use and fluency, nonverbal expressions, and overall performance). Because the activity lasts several days, it is crucial for the students to record each step of the Skit Assessment Sheet.

Preparation (30 minutes)

Self-Evaluation (10 minutes)

Special Note

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Class #3: Presenting the skit STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY:


Review (15 minutes) Presentation (30 minutes) 1. Review the list of the steps that all of the groups have completed. 2. Give students 10 minutes to rehearse their skit. Peer evaluation will take place during presentations. See below for more details. Ask for volunteers from the class. Let the first group perform. After their skit, collect the Comments sheets from the audience. Allow the second group to perform, and then collect Comments sheets. Continue with this process. 4. If time runs out, and not all groups have gone, tell the class the final groups will present the following day. 1. Pass out the Comments Sheet (see Sample Handout B: Peer Comment Sheet) at the time of the final performance. Make sure that there are sufficient comments sheets so that each student can comment on each group he or she sees. 2. Have the students write comments as the audience on the skit, language use, pronunciation, and general acting. 1. Collect the Skit Assessment Sheets from all the groups. 2. Use the Final Performance section to score the skit. 3. Include positive feedback from the Comments sheet in section 9 of the Skit Assessment sheet. 4. Return Skit Assessment sheets to all the groups after all groups have performed their skit. Students may need guidance on how to give constructive comments. Present a mini-lesson on peer feedback prior to the first presentation. Review the features of constructive comments before they begin the activity for Class #3.

Peer-Evaluation (during presentation)

Evaluation

Caveat

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Sample Handout A: Skit Assessment Sheet


Directions: Complete steps 1 7 as a group. Steps 8 and will be completed by the instructor after your performance.
Steps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Date Group Members Theme (goal of the skit) Title Summary Vocabulary list Scenario Final performance Signature

Use separate sheet. Use separate sheet. Use separate sheet. Language 1 2 3 Comments: Grammar 123 Pronunciation 1 2 3 Fluency 123 Nonverbal 123 Overall acting 123 1= Need more help 2= Good 3= Very good

Peer comments

Sample Handout B: Peer Comment Sheet


Name of Group: Title of Skit: 1. What did you like best about this skit? 2. What did the group do well? 3. Was there something that you didnt understand?
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

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SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Writing/ Speaking (Basic Skills) Creative Thinking (Thinking Skills) Team member participation/ Teaching others (Interpersonal skills) Organize and maintain information (Information)

TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 1, Standard 1: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to participate in social interactions. Goal 3, Standard 3: To use English in socially and culturally appropriate ways: Students will use appropriate learning strategies to extend their communicative competence.

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B.1 Intermediate Level


Interviewing
Part of the purpose of this activity is to bring native English speakers into the learning experience of ESL students and break down barriers to interaction with ELLs. The ESL instructor should let other staff know that this activity is being conducted. This activity takes place over two class periods, with an assignment for students to interview a native speaker on their own. If you feel that this portion of the activity may not be completed outside of class, you may want to complete it as a class session, if you have a small class of 46 students with visiting volunteers or students that are native English speakers pairing off with the ELLs. Students will be able to practice correct tenses in speaking and writing, will become confident as they execute proper procedures, will practice good social skills in an American context, will got feedback on their pronunciation by hearing themselves on tape, and will take notes on relevant information.

Objective: Students will speak with native speakers of English on center with increasing confidence. Students will conduct and audio-tape an interview with a native speaker. Students will take notes and write a list in response to the interview. Topic: Hobbies/ Life before Job Corps/ Hometown, etc. Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Open-ended questions (who, what, when, where, why and how). Vocabulary: Varies depending on the person being interview. Prerequisites: Ability to understand conversational English spoken at a slow pace. Materials: Audio-recording equipment for student use, instructor-made handouts Approximate time for activity: Two class periods of 45 minutes each. Tips for Instructors: Choose visitors for model interview who are willing to slow down their speech. Make sure visitors understand that you will be taping the model interview so that students can listen to it again. Students will need instruction on how to use tape recorders, ask for permission to tape record interviews, and use recorded data appropriately prior to this lesson.

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Before Class #1: 1. Arrange to have a Job Corps staff member, preferably a staff member that is not in the academic department and has not had regular interactions with students in the ESL class, visit the class for the purpose of being interviewed. A second choice is to have a Job Corps graduate or community volunteer visit the class. (Confirm in advance that the visitor agrees for the interview to be tape-recorded.) 2. Check to see if cassette records with cassette tapes are available for use by students. 3. Make enough copies of the Sample Interview Guide (see Sample Handout: Sample Interview Guide) to hand out to each student. Show students how to use a tape recorder in preparation for their individual interviews. Class #1 STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Introduce the activity to students, they will interview a person, take notes, and report back to the class. 2. Present possible interview topics: a hobby, life before Job Corps, (if they are a career technical instructor) trade/career/job, hometown, etc. 3. Explain how to conduct the interview: a. Length of the interview- can vary depending on level of ability (5 minutes for beginner, 10 minutes for intermediate/advanced) b. Types of questions to ask (where, when, how long, what type, what kind, etc.) c. The structure of the interview (an introduction, questions, and thank you) 4. Explain that you will demonstrate an interview for the class. Introduce the guest. The instructor should conduct an interview that takes 5 minutes and tape record the interview. This is a demonstration or model of what the student will do on his or her own. 5. Once the interview is over, thank your guest and allow him/her to leave. 6. Give students a Sample Handout: Interview Instructions and Sample Handout: Sample Interview Guide. Play back the audiotape of the interview. Point out the similarities to questions used in the mock interview. Point out the difference between an open-ended question and a yes/no question. Explain that open-ended questions are designed to draw out the interviewing and get him/her to talk more freely. 7. Explain what categories they will be graded on (e.g. fluency, grammar, vocational/trade vocabulary (if applicable to a prior lesson), social skills, and comprehensibility). 8. Explain that students are to conduct and audiotape (if available) an interview with a native speaker of English outside of class. The student can interview an instructor, a fellow trainee in their trade, a student trainee that lives with them in the dorms, or (for non-residential students) a native speaker they know. 9. Students should take notes of the responses from the person they are interviewing. Afterwards, they should write a list of three things to be turned in: (a) what they learned from interviewing the person, (b) one item that was a surprise to him/her, and (c) one thing they did not understand in the persons speech. 10. Set a date for turning in the tape and recording equipment back to you.
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Before Class#2: Collect the audiotapes from the students, if available. Class #2 STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Explain that in this lesson, students will learn about each other by interviewing each other. 2. Present possible interview topics: a hobby, life before Job Corps, their hometown or county they come from, etc. 3. Put students into pairs. Student A has 5 minutes to interview student B; the interviewer should take notes while he/she is asking questions. Afterwards, the students switch roles and spend another 5 minutes in an interview, with the interviewer taking notes. 4. Give the pairs about 5 minutes to organize their notes. 5. Ask for volunteers. Have the first pair come to the front of the room and have the students present each other and the information they gathered from the interview. 6. Afterwards, allow for 2 or 3 questions from the audience for the students. 7. Then pick another pair of students and repeat the process. Have as many pairs present as times allows. 8. At the end of class, collect students notes on their peer interviews. 9. Do not score student notes, but read them over for insight into students note taking skills. Consider presenting a follow-up lesson on note taking if needed.

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Scoring 1. Collect the audiotapes from the student trainees on the due date. 2. Grade the audiotapes according to the criteria on the scoring card (see Sample Scoring Card). Caveats 1. Review questions or discussion points to use in the interviews so that the students have an outline to follow. If you feel that 5 minutes is not enough for all the questions, you can have students focus on only one topic. 2. Let the students know what you are evaluating them on (i.e., the types of questions asked and their role as interviewer). 3. Write up a description of the activity and its purpose for the students to share with their interviewees prior to the interview. In the description, explain that the audiotapes will be used by the instructor only to evaluate the student interviewers oral communication skills. Variations 1. Before the activity, show students short video clips from T.V. interviews (Oprah, 60 Minutes, E!). Brainstorm the characteristics of a good interview. 2. Before the activity, have the students brainstorm questions and role-play how they think the discussion will go. 3. After interviews, students can make a presentation on the person they interviewed and what they learned. A question and answer period can follow. 4. As a follow-up writing activity, have students write an article on the person they interviewed for the center or class newsletter. 5. Talk with a career technical or academic instructor about allowing some of the native English students from his or her class to visit the ESL class. The visiting students would each be paired up with and ESL student in order for the ESL student to interviewing the native English speaker.

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Sample Handout: Interview Instructions


Steps for the Activity 1. Introduce yourself to the interviewee. 2. Explain that you would like to interview him or her for 5 to 10 minutes in order to practice interview skills. 3. Ask if he/she minds if you tape the interview. 4. Tell student the topic of the interview questions. 5. Ask the questions you have prepared: a. Open-ended questions b. Listen to the interviewees answers and modify your questions if you like 6. Take notes of the responses from the interviewee. 7. Thank the interviewee. Qualities of a good interview Fluency Good grammar Good social skills, and Comprehensibility (etc.) Assignment Write about these three things: 1. What you learned from interviewing the person 2. One item that was a surprise to you 3. One thing you did not understand in the persons speech Due Friday morning: Your interview audiotape, your notes, and the assignment.

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Sample Handout: Sample Interview Guide


Interviewer: (student name) Interviewee: (person being interviewed) I would like to ask you some questions about yourself. Do you have 5 minutes? [Hobby] 1. Do you have a hobby, some sort of activity that you like to do during your free time? 2. How long have you been doing this? 3. What do you enjoy about it? [Experience/Vocation] 1. What did you do before you came to work at Job Corps? 2. Did you enjoy that type of work? 3. Where did you learn to be a (plumber, computer technician, etc.)? [Hometown] 1. What is your hometown? 2. How long did you live there? 3. What is that town known for? 4. What county do you come from? 5. What kind of places do tourists visit there? 6. When is the best time to visit there? It looks like our time is up. Thank you for answering my questions and sharing some of your experience with me.

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Sample Scoring Card


Circle the appropriate number: 1 = no competency 2 = some competency 3 = competency 4 = above average competency 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4

Fluency (smoothness of speech, lack of significant pauses) Grammar (accuracy of grammar, especially structures taught in class) Vocational vocabulary (use of terms studied in class or in trade class) Social skills (appropriate levels of politeness, etc.) Comprehensibility (ability to make self understood) Grading: A= B= C= Fail = 16-20 11-15 6-10 5

Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON


Speaking / Listening / Writing (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Sociability (Personal Qualities) Acquire and evaluate information (Information) Organize and maintain information (Information)
TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 1, Standard 1: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to participate in social interactions Goal 3, Standard 3: To use English in socially and culturally appropriate ways: Students will use appropriate learning strategies to extend their communicative competence

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B.2 High Beginning and Intermediate Level


Something Im Good at Doing Presenting a topic in front of an audience can be difficult for anyone, whether a second language learner or native speaker. Because this activity allows students to share their knowledge of a topic that interests them with their peers, anxiety should be somewhat reduced. Preparation time is built into class time.
Objective: Students will use authentic materials to make a presentation to the class. Other students listen attentively, ask questions about the presentation, and fill out a brief critique. This lesson will promote student confidence with regard to public speaking. Topic: Topic of interest to the student. Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: First person present tense and past tense Vocabulary: Varies depending on the topic of presentation, sequence words (first, next, then, last, etc.) Prerequisites: Familiarity with the content to be presented. Materials: Authentic prop for model presentation, instructor-made handouts Approximate time for the activity: Two class periods of 45 minutes Before Class #1: 1. Print out enough copies of the Sample Oral Presentation Outline (see Sample Handout A: Oral Presentation Outline) to give one to each student. 2. Using the Sample Oral Presentation Outline, prepare a 5-minute presentation on something you are good at. 3. Keep in mind that you will need to bring in a prop or an example of your final product (if you are good at dancing, then you may want to bring in a CD with some of the music you like in order to demonstrate some steps).

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STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Give students a sample outline for organizing their thoughts into an oral presentation (see Sample Handout A: Oral Presentation Outline for an example). 2. Explain that each student is to prepare a 5- to 10-minute presentation on the topic Something Im Good at Doing. 3. Deliver such a presentation to the class yourself: 4. Provide an outline of key points you will cover in your presentation. Make it clear to the students that they will be doing a similar activity. 5. During your presentation, either give the students an example of the final product (freshly baked cookies) or do a demonstration (juggling). The students will be expected to do the same (provide props) in their presentations. 6. Make it clear that you allow questions during the presentation or after the presentation. Encourage students to write down their questions to ask for clarification and explanation. 7. You may provide students with ideas for topics to help them get started (e.g., dancing, singing, drawing, making things with their hands), though students can chose a topic other than those you list. 8. Give students class time to use the sample outline to organize their thoughts and at least one night to prepare their presentations. 9. Let students know that they will need to turn in their presentation outline to you the day of their presentation.

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Before Class #2: Print out enough copies of the Presentation Feedback Sheet (see Sample Handout B: Active Listening) to give one to each student. Class #2 STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Depending on the size of the class, you can use the first 10-15 minute as practice time for students to run through their presentation in pairs. The first student takes 5 minutes to practice the presentation, then the listener can give feedback for a 2 minutes. Then the second student spends 5 minutes practicing his or her presentation. The listener provides feedback for 2 minutes. 2. Next, before each presentation, have the student give you his/her outline of the presentation topic to you, but not to the other students. 3. Have the students take turns making their presentations to the class. You can chose by volunteers or use a random system, such as last name order, first name order, or where there are sitting. Ask the rest of the class to listen and to write down questions to ask after the presentation. 4. After each presentation, give the students a few minutes to fill out a simple, brief review of the presentation (see Sample Handout B: Active Listening). 5. Congratulate the speakers and collect the critiques. See what each student understood. Scoring As feedback, return all of the critiques to the student presenters. You may also want to grade their outlines or provide feedback on the presentation using the presentation review (Sample Handout B: Active Listening). Variations 1. This activity works best in a small class, 5-15 students is ideal. The activity can work in a larger class, but the presentations should be very brief and perhaps done in pairs or groups. 2. If you wish, spread the presentations out over a period of time (one or two per class over a week) so that each student has more of the spotlight and doesnt need to rush. 3. Repeat this presentation activity with more challenging topics as student proficiency and confidence increases. Other suitable topics include movie or book reviews, current events, or cultural events/history. 4. If it seems that this activity may be too intimidating for some students, consider putting students in pairs to present on a common interest- such as music, what they like to do in their spare time, etc. SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Speaking / Writing (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills)


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Teaching others (Interpersonal skills) Organize and maintain information (Information)


TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 1, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in social settings: Students will interact in, through, and with spoken and written English for personal expression and enjoyment.

Sample Handout A: Oral Presentation Outline


Topic: (Something I am good at doing) Im Good at Baking Cookies Prop to bring in to class: Two dozen chocolate chip cookies I. How did you get interested in this activity?

My mother wasnt a great cook, but my grandmother was. She loved to bake and so
II. How and when do you do this activity? I bake cookies every holiday season. I like to send boxes to my sisters each Christmas. It takes me a whole afternoon to making about 12 dozen cookies takes, about 5-6 hours III. Give a step-by-step description of your activity. First I buy the ingredients, and then I get out my pans and bowls. I mix everything by hand. I put together the dry ingredients first, and then add the liquid ones. I mix the items for about 5 minutes. I always add extra chocolate chips, because my family loves chocolate. I grease a baking sheet and put 1-inch balls of dough about 2 inches apart. I set the oven timer for 12 minutes. Each batch makes two dozen and takes about 20 minutes to make. IV. Demonstrate your activity or give out a sample product.

Here are the cookies I made for today. What do you think?
V. Ask the class if there are any questions. Does anyone have questions?

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Sample Handout B: Active Listening


1. Who is the student or speaker? 2. What is the topic (subject)? 3. When does the student (speaker) do this activity? 4. Why does the student (speaker) do this activity? 5. What was good about the presentation? 6. What could the student (speaker) improve about the presentation? Other comments:
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

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B.3 Intermediate Level


Video Segments This activity uses another authentic material, video segments, as a learning tool for English language learners. By using recorded video segments from English language media sources, students will have the opportunity to see and hear an authentic clip three times. Each time the student is exposed to the dialogue, he or she is able to focus on different aspects of the conversation, while reinforcing grammar points. Clips can be pulled from local news segments, which may be of interest to students, or from popular commercials or television shows. Consider your lesson objective and the proficiency level of your students carefully when selecting clips.
Objective: Students will watch short (30-60-second) video segments, focusing on recognizing key words and key details as they are linked in speech. This lesson will promote students ability to comprehend the speech of native speakers, to find main ideas and supporting details, and to make inferences from the information provided. Topic: Varies according to video clips selected, may be customized to fit a seasonal or thematic unit, (e.g., Martin Luther King, Jr.s Birthday, SST topics, cultural events on center or in the community). Stage of the Unit: Evaluation/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Varies according to video clips Vocabulary: Varies depending on the topic of the video clip Prerequisites: Basic comprehension of spoken English, basic familiarity with the content presented in the video clips. Materials: Video recording equipment, instructor-made handouts Approximate time for the activity: 45-minute class period and 15 minute review of clips the following class session. Tips for the Instructor: This activity works best if the video segments are very short. The intent is not to have students watch videos and answer questions about them, but rather to recognize key ideas from a small amount of oral language. Examples include: introductions to TV shows like Oprah, a news preview telling the viewers what is coming up, commercials that rely on oral language rather than visuals, short dialogues from TV dramas.

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Before Class: 1. Locate three appropriate video clips, each 30-60- seconds long, from authentic sources (i.e., materials originally made for native speakers of English). Choose video clips that are short and focused rather than feature-length films. For example, a. Special television news reports, as the visuals set the context of the topic within seconds. Try to choose video clips that are on a subject the students have had exposure to in class or about a local event that they are most likely familiar with. b. Movies or scenes from television programs can work well, especially in a functional curriculum. Choose specific scenes for the contexts the students are studying (e.g., how to greet a customer, how to work with co-workers, appropriate topics for small talk at work). c. Commercials are short and must use language and visuals to create a scene or context within seconds. Choose commercials of products that students would likely be familiar with. 2. Prepare a listening assessment (see Sample Listening Handout) such that each video clip and the accompanying handout corresponds to one of the three main sets of skills: (1) recognizing key words and key details, (2) finding main ideas and supporting details, and (3) making inferences. STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: (First class session) Part 1- Video #1- Recognizing key words 1. Ask the students to sit where they can see the monitor and hear well; they should clear their desks. 2. Play the first video clip. Have the students watch and listen without taking notes. 3. Give students Part 1 of the listening handout. Read the instructions for Part 1 to the students. 4. Play the video clip once again. Have the students take notes on their listening handouts. 5. Ask the students to complete Part 1 of the handout, and collect it when they have finished. Allow 5 minutes to complete the exercise. Part 2- Video #2- Finding main ideas 1. Ask the students to sit where they can see the monitor and hear well; they should clear their desks. 2. Play the second video clip. Have the students watch and listen without taking notes. 3. Give students Part 2 of the listening handout. Read the instructions for Part 2 to the students. 4. Play the video clip once again. Have the students take notes on their listening handouts. 5. Ask the students to complete Part 2 of the handout, and collect it when they have finished. Allow 5-10 minutes to complete the exercise. Part 3- Video #3- Making inferences 1. Ask the students to sit where they can see the monitor and hear well; they should clear their desks. 2. Play the third video clip. Have the students watch and listen without taking notes. 3. Give students Part 3 of the listening assessment. Read the instructions for Part 3 to the students.
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4. Play the video clip once again. Have the students take notes on their listening handouts. 5. Ask the students to complete Part 3 of the handout, and collect it when they have finished. Allow 5 minutes to complete the exercise. The Next Class - - Review of Video Segments (second class session): 1. You should have scored the 3 handouts of students. 2. Return the handouts to students. Then play Video #1. Afterwards, review the answers. Answer any questions that come up. 3. Then play Video #2, review the answers, and answer any questions about that video. 4. Then play Video #3, review the answers, and answer any questions about that video. Feedback 1. Score Part 1-3 separately, and put all three scores and comments on a scoring sheet (see Sample Scoring Sheet) for the instructors notes. 2. Although the activity is designed to assess listening skills, you do not have to score it as you would a discrete point test. If you wish, break down the students proficiency assessment by scoring each skill separately, and add up the scores to arrive at one integrated listening score. 3. Hand back the scoring sheet to the students with the listening assessment. Special Considerations 1. Although it is natural for the students to feel that video clips played at natural speed are far too fast, once they are taught listening skills and strategies through this type of lesson, they will be able to listen both for the gist and for key information, thereby enabling them to communicate better with native speakers in real situations. 2. Rather than rewinding the videotape during the administration of the assessment, record each video segment for as many consecutive viewings as required. For example, record the first video clip two times in a row. Variations 1. If your center has the technological capability (digital video editing and file management software, headphones, etc.) store video segments on a computer and conduct this as a computer-based activity. 2. Once students are familiar with the format of this activity and the technology required, create follow-up lessons to be used by individuals or pairs at the computer.

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Sample Listening Handout


Part 1 The students watch a video clip featuring a woman and a travel agent discussing the womans itinerary. Instructions: Watch the video clip. Fill in the chart.

Day
Thursday

Time

Place

Action Visit the Great Wall

Hong Kong 7:30 a.m.

Sample Listening Handout


Part 2 The students watch the 2nd video clip from a news story called Sneaker Wars. Instructions: Watch the second video clip. Select the supporting detail from the right column that justifies the main idea in the left column. Write in the letter of supporting detail in the blank in front of the main idea. Main Idea _____ 1. Sneakers are popular with trendy teenagers. _____ 2. Sneakers appeal to many different types of people for different reasons. _____ 3. Nike and Reebok like to compete with one another. _____ 4. Nike is more serious about sports than Reebok. _____ 5. Fashion is a key element of sneaker sales. Supporting Details A. The colors and styles change every season. B. Nike and Reebok both have design teams. C: Women wear them to work, kids love to play soccer in them, and athletes wear them to compete. D. Both Nike and Reebok have testing centers to keep up with the latest technology. E. Nike promotes its products with professional team; Reebok with families or casual exercisers.

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Sample Listening Handout


Part 3 The students watch the third video clip of a man on the telephone with another man, named Bob (not pictured). They cannot hear Bobs end of the conversation. Instructions: Watch the third video clip. Answer the following questions in one or two words. 1. What is the topic of the conversation? 2. Is Bob indoors or outdoors? 3. Is Bob the boss or the caller?

Sample Instructor Scoring Sheet


Part (Video segments 1-3) 1. Recognizing key words 2. Finding main ideas. 3. Making inferences. Total Score ____/ ____ ____/ ____ ____/ ____ ____/ ____

Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Listening / Writing (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Organize and maintain information (Information)
TESOL STANDARD ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 2, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form.

C.1 Multi-Level
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Extra! Extra! Read All About It! The objective of the lesson is to provide a scaffolded activity that builds familiarity with the authentic text of the local newspaper. Authentic texts are those found in the real world and that are not designed with language learners in mind. Such materials are often confusing and overwhelming to ELLs at first. It is, therefore, the role of the ESL instructor to provide a targeted activity that assists students in locating relevant information from a challenging text. By providing an introduction to the way the text is organized and constructing thoughtful worksheets or questions, the instructor provides a scaffold for student learning and models good reading strategies. While simplified texts, such as ESL magazines and newsletters, are generally good supplemental materials, for this activity you should provide the students with an authentic local newspaper. Weekly delivery of class sets can often be obtained from the publisher at no cost to instructors. By incorporating the use of newspapers in the classroom on a regular basis, you model the practice of reading for information and provide students with access to an information resource that will be valuable to them long after they leave Job Corps.

Objective: Students will learn about how to find information in a newspaper by reading and answering questions about articles and ads from the local newspaper. Topic: Current Events Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application or Evaluation General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Varies depending upon article or feature. Vocabulary: Approximately 10 terms related to the section of the newspaper. Prerequisites: Beginning ESL literacy Materials: Class set of a local newspaper, instructor-made handout Approximate time for activity: 45 minutes Before class: 1. Order a class set of a daily newspaper. If your Center has a monthly newsletter, you could also use that for this activity. Make sure you have copies of the publication for yourself and the students in your class. 2. The newspaper has several sections (entertainment, sports, local news), chose sections that would be interesting to your students, containing stories that relate to their lives, or with a local slant. Focus on articles that will stimulate discussion. Prepare questions about the section that are appropriate to your students levels of proficiency. Print out the questions and make copies for all. (See the Sample Handout: Questions for Daily Newspaper Activity for sample questions). 3. Depending on the length of the articles and time required to read and answer questions, perhaps only 2 or 3 articles can be studied during a 45 minute class period.
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4. Select 10 words that students may need to know for the articles and find their definitions. You may want to write them ahead of time on the board, or put them on sheet a paper, to make copies for all students. STEPS FOR THIS ACTIVITY: 1. Place the students in groups of 2 or 3. 2. Pass out the handout of questions and review with the class to make sure student understand the questions. 3. Handout the newspapers or newsletters and have the students answer the questions individually. Students can work together and discuss the articles or ads with their groups. 4. Encourage students to underline new words and keep reading for the main idea (without stopping to look up definitions). 5. Have students write their names on their answer sheets and newspapers, and collect them. Scoring 1. Mark the incorrect responses on the answer sheets, but do not correct them. 2. Bring marked answer sheets to class for the next lesson, along with the newspapers, and elicit answers from the class. Have students identify the page where the article was found. Allow students to correct their own answers. Variations 1. You can narrow the focus of this activity by focusing the class session on a different aspect of the newspaper. For example, features of the newspaper (e.g., headlines, articles, captions, standings, graphs) or sections of the newspaper (e.g., the front page, local news, sports, entertainment, national news, international news, and the business section). 2. You can use the newspaper as the basis of a 1-month course of study. 3. If you are teaching this lesson to several classes on the same day, have students write their names on the answer sheet, and collect the newspapers/newsletters for the next class. 4. Give students time to explore sections of the newspaper that interest them. 5. Allow time for students to study the vocabulary they have underlined while reading. Vocabulary study can make a good follow-up or homework assignment. 6. Once the class has learned about the various sections, assess the students with questions based on that days entire paper that they must answer without the help of the group.

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Sample Handout: Questions for Daily Newspaper Activity


General 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How much does the newspaper cost? What is the weather for today? How many sections are there in the newspaper? On what pages are the sports articles? What is the exchange rate for the dollar and the Japanese Yen today? What is the theme for todays editorial?

Skimming and Scanning Look at the advertisements and answer the questions. How much does the (select a sample item) cost? Where is (store) located? How much does it cost to fly to (international location)?

Vocabulary
Look at the headline () on page (number). Do not use a dictionary to answer these questions. (Note: Give the page numbers sometimes to help the students find the article. For skimming and scanning questions, do not give page numbers.) 1. The word () probably means a. (add meaning and distractors) b. c. 2. Read the article entitled (). Look for words that mean the same as the following words: (add synonyms and distractors) a. b.

Advice Column 1. Read the advice column. 2. Explain why you agree or disagree with the advice in one of the letters. 3. Read the first letter in the advice column. Why do you think that letter was put in first? 4. Write a letter of advice to the author.

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Entertainment Section 1. How many movies are reviewed? 2. Write the titles of the movies that are reviewed today. Which reviews are positive, negative or mixed? 3. When does (event) start? Where can I get tickets? How much does each ticket cost? Sports Look at the sports standings and answer the following questions: 1. Who is in first place in (sport)? 2. What was the score of the ________ game last night?

Summarizing Specific Articles Read the article entitled xxx and answer the following questions. 1. Who is the article about? 2. What happened? 3. When did it happen? 4. Where did the event take place? 5. What will happen as a result of the event? 6. Why is it important for us to know about this event? Customize these questions to fit the article(s) you have chosen. For example: 1. What organization needs a new building? 2. Whom does the organization help? 3. Where is the old building located? 4. Where will the new building be located? 5. How much will the new building cost? 6. Why is it important for this organization to have a new building? 1. 2. 3. 4. What young man and what old man died yesterday? How did each man die? What job did each man have? Why are each of their deaths important?

Editorial 1. What is the editorial item for today? 2. Read the editorial and write whether you agree or disagree with the writer.

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Imagination 1. Write a different headline for any article in the newspaper/newsletter. Also write the original title and page of the article. 2. Look at the picture on page X. Have the student write his or her own caption for the picture. 3. Look at the picture on page X. Have the student write a completely different story for the picture.
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Reading (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Acquire and evaluate information (Information) Organize and maintain information (Information)
TESOL STANDARD ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 2, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form.

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C.2 Multi-Level
Internet Scavenger Hunt
Using the Internet as a source of authentic materials is one way to incorporate technology in the ESL classroom. For English language learners, the Internet can be a way to learn new information through the use of key words, pictures, and audio files. Some students may not be familiar with using computers and therefore, this activity should be conducted only after all students have had some practice using a computer and are familiar with basic terminology and idioms (e.g. mouse, point and click, right click, drag, close screen, etc.). Most important for this activity is that students are to find websites as directed by the instructions, to look for information, and then to use the information to answer a question.

Objective: Students will use the Internet to search for information in English. Topic: Finding information online. Stage of the Lesson: Practice/Application Structures: Vary according to websites visited. Vocabulary: scavenger hunt, internet, website, search engine, URL, key word; content vocabulary varies according to the websites visited. Prerequisites: Basic familiarity with computers (i.e. using a mouse and accessing internet). Basic literacy in English. Tips for Instructors: This activity works well in a computer lab or classroom with sufficient computers for students to work in pairs. If you have only one or two computers available with Internet access, consider having pairs of students take turns doing this activity on different days. Materials: Computers with internet access, instructor-made handout Approximate time for activity: 45 minutes Before Class: 1. Make sure that you have enough computers so that students can pair up and do this scavenger hunt. The computers should have speakers so that students can listen to the audio component of some websites. Provide headphones if available. 2. Make enough copies of the scavenger list for all students (see Sample Handout: Internet Scavenger Hunt).

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STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Pass out copies of Internet Scavenger Hunt handout (see Sample Handout: Internet Scavenger Hunt) to all the students. 2. Group the students in pairs. If there is an odd number, have the student with the highest proficiency of written English work independently. 3. Explain to the students that today they will be using the computer as an informationgathering tool. They will work to find information and will write down the information they find on the handout. The can use the back of the sheet if necessary.

4. Explain that the computer is useful for finding information even if you dont know the exact site that has that information. For example, you can use search engines (e.g., www.google.com, www.yahoo.com , www.altavista.com , etc.) to search for information by using key words. If you want to find a bowling alley in your town or some other town, you might use the key words, bowling alley, name of city, and name of state. This search skill will be used in the Internet Scavenger Hunt. 5. Tell the students they should find at least 4 of the 8 items listed and they have 25 minutes to search for the information. Each student should write down the information gathered on his or her own copy of the handout. 6. While the students are searching for information, you should walk around to answer questions. 7. For the remaining time in the class go through the list of questions and ask for the name of the website they used and some of the information they found. Did students go to the same site for weather, etc.? Was one site more easy to use than another? 8. Collect the handouts.

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Feedback and Scoring 1. For this activity, you should constantly walk around the classroom and be available to answer questions. 2. Review the information students write by verifying the website; have them call you over when they are finished with an item and are ready to hunt for the next item. You can see the website they are using to gather their information and monitor their work. 3. Emphasize participation to the students by giving teamwork points. Participation translates into working together to use key words and find the information (not just writing the information found by someone else). As students work, walk around the room and encourage pairs to search for information together and talk about their answers. Encourage partners to take turns typing in search terms and using the mouse to navigate websites. Variations 1. This activity may be used repeatedly with different pairs of students focusing on certain internet functions or particular types of information. 2. For students at higher levels of proficiency, have them find information for all 8 items. 3. As students become more familiar with the Internet, create new scavenger hunt handouts to introduce them to web resources that support their learning goals and interests. 4. Customize new scavenger hunt handouts to fit particular units or themes in your class curriculum.

Sample Handout: Internet Scavenger Hunt


Use the Internet to find the information for at least 5 of the 8 items below. For each answer, please write the name of the website and URL where you found the information. What is the weather in X (instructor chooses major city nearby or in the world) today? What is the five-day forecast for the weather here? [You will need to visit a weather website.] Find directions between the Center and X (instructor chooses a community college, convention center, or job/career-related destination). Write the directions. [You will need to visit a map/directions website.] Visit this website: www.handsonbanking.org. Click on English and visit the page for Adults. Take the Site Tour. Start the introduction and listen to the different topics the adult section has. Make a list of those topics. If you have time, explore the Money in the Bank section. What does scavenger hunt, X, Y, and Z mean (instructor chooses 3-5 words)? [You will need to visit a dictionary website.] Look at the big news for a newspaper in your state. Read the headlines. What is the name of
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the newspaper and which events made the news today? [You will have to visit a newspaper website.] Imagine that you want are invited to a picnic, and you must bring a dish to share with everyone. Find a recipe for a salad or other dish that you might make, and list the ingredients. [You will need to visit a cooking or recipe website.] Visit this website: http://www.otan.us/webfarm/emailproject/folk.htm and select one short story to read. Where is the story from? Who is the story about? How does the story end? 8. Visit this website: http://a4esl.org and select one activity at your level. If you have time, try other activities until the rest of the class is finished with the scavenger hunt. Which activity did you like best?
Modeled after http://www.otan.us/webfarm/emailproject/hunt.htm

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SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON


Reading (Basic Skills) Problem solving / Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Acquire and evaluate information (Information) Applying technology (Technology)
TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 2, Standard 1: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to interact in the classroom Goal 2, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form

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C.3 Multi-Level
Its on the Label
Many Job Corps ESL instructors have incorporated fieldtrips related to Life Skills into their courses on a regular basis. This lesson is one way of connecting Life Skills taught in the ESL classroom to a real-life setting, a supermarket or department store. The fieldtrip should be used as a culmination activity where students demonstrate and apply what they have learned in class. Such trips will require special preparation (e.g. authorizations, forms, transportation arrangements, etc.) and a block of time to allow for travel to and from the site, in addition to the time spent in the structured language learning activity. Besides stores, good fieldtrip destinations include the library, post office, bank, or a restaurant. Bring authentic materials like directories, brochures, forms, applications, menus, and newspaper sale ads into class and use them in prior lessons to prepare students for completing the activity and conducting transactions at the fieldtrip site. Arrange in advance for the manager to come out and talk to students about careers. There may be many behind the scenes careers at supermarkets, department stores, and other locations that students are not aware of. This will also make the fieldtrip more interesting for intermediate/advanced students.

Objective: This is a culminating application activity in which students will use authentic materials (signs, labels and product packaging) to demonstrate their vocabulary knowledge. Topic: Shopping Stage of the Unit: Evaluation/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills/Pre-Employment Skills Structures: Simple present tense verbs, (singular and plural), e.g. The can weighs 12 ounces, and present tense questions, e.g. How do you clean the jacket? Vocabulary: Varies according to type of store. For example, for grocery stores - - food and packaging. For department stores - - clothing, household goods, colors, etc. Prerequisites: Basic literacy, familiarity with field trip behavior expectations and consequences Materials: Authentic marketing materials from the store to be visited, instructor-made handout Approximate time for activity: Two class periods of 45 minutes each.

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Before Class #1: 1. The instructor will need to request use of a Job Corps shuttle to take a fieldtrip to a grocery store or department store. 2. The instructor will need to tell students where to meet and the time the shuttle will depart. 3. Assign students to groups of 2 or 3. 4. The instructor should print out enough copies of the Its on the Label worksheet for each student. Class #1 STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. This lesson requires a fieldtrip to the store with the instructor and students. If a community volunteer is available, include them in this activity. Tell the students that they are to look for a total of 5 items located in 5 different food aisles or in 5 different areas of the store. 2. Upon arrival at the store, pass out the worksheet for students to use for taking notes (see Sample Shopping Worksheet). Show students how to use the store aisle signs or department store directory to locate items. 3. When students find an item they like, they are to look at the labels/packaging of the items. Using the Its on the Label worksheet, they should write down information about the product. If the item is a food product, they can note the cost, how it is prepared, and the nutritional facts. If the item is clothing, they should note the cost, the type of fabric used, and how it is cleaned. If the item is an electronics product, they should note the cost and the features offered. 4. Walk around the store and assist students as needed. 5. Students should feel free to ask a store clerk for help in locating in item or about an items features. 6. At the end of the fieldtrip, collect the worksheets or tell students to bring their completed worksheet to class the next day.

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Class #2
STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Students bring their completed worksheets from Class #1 to class. 2. The students are put in new groups of 2 to 3 students. (Make sure none of the students worked together the day before.) Students talk about the details of their 5 items with their classmates. 3. Together, each group of students will make a chart (like the one below) to organize items into groups of words Types of categories for visit to grocery store: Dairy Yogurt Breads & Cereals Bagel International Food Curry Other Ski jacket

Types of categories for visit to department store: Clothing Item Jacket Electronics CD player Games Playing Cards Other Backpack

4. The instructor will need to decide 4 categories based on the store visited. 5. The students, in groups of 2 or 3, will role-play a scene where one student is giving advice about items s/he would recommend buying. The student can use 5 items from the chart or use other items they like. The other student(s) can ask questions about those products (e.g., where to buy it, how much it costs, how nutritious it is, how it is cleaned, and why it is a great product). 6. Then students switch roles, with the other student recommending. Each student has 5 minutes to make his or her recommendations. 7. The instructor will ask for a volunteer to make a recommendation on an item. The other students in the class ask questions about the item. If there is additional time, a different student will make a recommendation, with the rest of the class asking questions. Scoring 1. Use the lists to assess the students performance in a role-play in which one student is the customer and a second one, the clerk 2. Prepare a checklist of factors that you want to give feedback on, or use the Language Skills Checklist to give the students feedback. 3. Consider having the students evaluate each other using some variant of the checklist.

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Variations 1. Repeat this activity on a monthly basis to a different type of store (e.g., a hardware store, drugstore, office supply store, etc.). Encourage the students to ask the store clerks for assistance. During class time, rotate partners so students have to communicate with a different classmate each time. You can also incorporate other related Life Skills activities, such as applying for the grocery store rewards card, library card, or completing change of address forms. 2. Structure the shopping worksheet as a scavenger hunt. Give each student a different list of items to find in a given type of store. This forces students to look for products they may not already be familiar with and stimulates vocabulary development. 3. Ask the store manager to talk to the students about employment opportunities at the store or company. Set this up ahead of time and ask the manager to emphasize some of the behind the scenes jobs that students may not be aware of. 4. If the class is not able to take a fieldtrip together, students can use the Internet to visit the website of a major department store (e.g., Target, WalMart, Macys, etc.) to browse different categories of merchandise and get information on the product. Students should be given the URL to several department stores. Store catalogues can also be used to study the inventory of a store prior to the Internet activity. 5. Depending on the level of the class, the instructor could spend some time looking at product care labels on clothing. However, be aware that the pictures and terminology may need to be studied beforehand in order to not overwhelm students.

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Reading and Writing (Basic Skill) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Interprets and Communicates Information (Information) Organizes and Maintains Information (Information)
TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 1, Standard 1: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to participate in social interactions Goal 2, Standard 1: To use English to achieve academically in all content areas: Students will use English to interact in the classroom

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Sample Shopping Worksheet (with 2 examples)


Store Name: Safeway Name Oatmeal Ivory Aisle/Department 3 Breakfast Food Cereal 7 Health and Beauty Type of Store: Supermarket Description Hot cereal Facial soap Details Cooks in 3 minutes Lowers cholesterol Low in fat Moisturizes skin No artificial colors Economy pack

Language Skills Checklist Listening 1. Understands simple directions. 2. Understands simple yes-no questions. 3. Understands simple wh- questions (e.g., what, where, when, why). 4. Understands vocabulary related to the activity. 5. Understands contractions and common shortened forms. 6. Understands language of peers. Speaking 1. Pronounces vowel sounds correctly. 2. Pronounces consonant sounds correctly. 3. Pronounces blends correctly 4. Uses word stress correctly. 5. Produces simple yes-no questions. 6. Produces simple wh- questions (e.g., what, where, when. why). 7. Produces vocabulary related to the activity. 8. Uses peer-group language properly.
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)
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C.4 Multi-Level
Raise Your Hand and Be Counted This lesson promotes the participation of all students by having students focus on a goal, to collect items (colored paper or colored chips). Through this activity, students will build up their confidence to volunteer answers in other classes. The instructor will ask questions based on different degrees of difficulty. A variety of reading materials, such as magazine articles, pamphlets, newspapers, and poetry can be used for this activity. The goal is to create a routine of active participation in class.
Objective: Students will develop the confidence to become more active participants in academic and career technical classes. Topic: Reading a news article (section of a vocational manual, etc.) and participating in class discussion. Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application or Review General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Vary according to the content of the reading. Vocabulary: Approximately 10 words particular to the news article Prerequisites: Basic literacy Materials: Reading passage, squares of colored paper/poker chips/raffle tickets, instructor-made handout. Approximate time for activity: 45 minutes Tips for the Instructor: Many students may be uncomfortable raising their hand and speaking in front of the whole class. It is important to make this as fun and informal an activity as you can. Handing out slips of colored paper or colored chips as a reward for volunteering to be called on can be reinforcing and encourage participation. Raffling off a small item can stimulate student interest. Since some students may be more reluctant to raise their hands, a small group of the same students may tend to do most of the talking. For this reason it is important to recognize that this should be used as only one of many strategies for promoting participation.

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Before Class 1. Choose and read an article/chapter appropriate to the class level and interests. Prepare and copy a list of 1015 questions based on the information in the article. Make enough photocopies of the article and of the list of questions, so that each student receives a copy of each. 2. Cut out slips of colored paper large enough for a student to write his or her name. For every student, you should have 10 slips of paper (for example, for 10 students, you should have 100 slips). Alternatively, you can use colored index cards or colored chips. STEPS FOR THE ACTIVITY: 1. Pass out copies of the article/chapter and assign the reading to the class; provide at least 20 minutes for silent reading. After the students have finished the reading, distribute the prepared handout (created before class- see above) and tell the students to write the answers on the sheet. 2. Tell the students to review the article for 5 minutes or so. 3. Give the students the following information: a. After you ask a question on the handout, the first student to raise a hand will be given the chance to answer. (Once the instructor has called on a student, all others must remain silent. No points will be given to students who call out answers during anothers turn.) b. The students cannot read their answers from their handout. The handout is to be used only as a guide. c. When the student answers a question either correctly, give him/her a slip or paper worth 1 point. d. No point is given for an incorrect answer, but whether the student answers your question correctly or incorrectly, he/she must ask a follow-up question or make a comment about the article. The student will then be given a slip of paper that is worth 1 point. Ask the questions on the handout. Award each student with a slip of paper for the correct answers and/or for asking a question. Have the students write their names on the slips of paper. After all the questions have been asked, collect all the slips of paper.

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Feedback and Scoring 1. Assess the students ability to answer questions by counting the points as represented by the slips of paper. It makes the grading of students oral participation very easy and unbiased. 2. Emphasize participation to the students. Participation translates into points received for a correct answer, relevant question or comment. Points received translate into a better grade. Special Notes 1. Consider the proficiency levels of your students when selecting the reading and constructing the questions. Make sure there are at least four questions that every student can answer. Label the more difficult questions as Challenge questions and explain that only more advanced students are expected to answer those questions. 2. To keep students from guessing what the next question will be, do not ask the questions in the same order as they appear on the handout. Use this activity for a variety of reading materials, such as magazine articles, pamphlets, newspapers, and poetry. This will create a routine of active participation in class. Variations For classes that are very reluctant to speak up, consider calling on each student one at a time to answer questions and award points as described above. Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998) SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Reading / Writing / Listening / Speaking (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills) Acquire and evaluate information (Information)
TESOL STANDARD ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 2, Standard 1: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to interact in the classroom

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C.5 Multi-Level
The Traveling Instructor
Part of the purpose of a visiting speaker and questions session is to bring non-ESL staff into the ESL classroom and break down institutional barriers to their interaction with ELLs. The ESL instructor will need to provide visiting staff members with guidance on how to use visual aids and gestures, and modify their speech style and rate in order to increase comprehensibility for ELLs. The ESL instructors role includes training other center staff on how to work effectively with ELLs and shelter content in career technical and academic courses. This is not currently happening at most centers. One way to begin this cross-training effort is to invite career technical and academic instructors and other staff who are motivated to better serve ELLs into the ESL classroom.

Objective: Students will listen to a visiting instructor give a short talk. The activity presents students with an authentic approach to listening: a real instructor in a real classroom in a real teaching situation. Topic: Topic can vary from career-related to Job Corps-related. Stage of the Unit: Practice/Application General Skills Area: Life Skills Structures: Vary according to the presentation. Vocabulary: Varies depending on the topic of presentation (ask the visiting instructors for a list of 5 to 10 key terms) Prerequisites: Basic literacy Materials: Instructor-made handout for students, handout for the visiting instructor, Approximate time for the activity: Preparation time of approximately an hour; class time of 45 minutes. Tips for the Instructor: Talk to the speaker ahead of time to provide guidance, such as asking him/her to talk slowly, use visuals, and keep language at a simple level. Although you can use this format for any kind of speaker, consider focusing on bringing in center staff with whom students are likely to have contact later on, such as career technical instructors, academic instructors, career counselors, etc. That way, not only will ESL students have a good introduction to those center staff, but the center staff can also benefit by learning some skills in communicating with ELL students.

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Before Class: 1. The ESL instructor will set up a group of instructors (a minimum of two, the more the better), who will give talks in the ESL class. Detailed instructions for the instructor are provided as the end of this lesson, to be reviewed by you and presented to the instructor. 2. Try to set up this lesson to have the 2 instructors come in during the same week or to have one instructor to come in one week and the other instructor the following week.

STEPS TO THE ACTIVITY:


Introduction (20 minutes) 1. Set the scene: Today we have an instructor visiting our class to tell us about...(fill in depending on what the visiting instructor decides; see #5 on previous page). 2. Prepare the students for the exercise by informing them how the visiting instructor program works (the length of the talk, how many questions to answer on paper, asking additional questions after the talk, etc.) 3. Give the students the questions written by the instructor who will speak to them, and have them read the questions over. 4. Let them know that their goal is to answer the worksheet questions, identify key points, and ask questions after the talk. 5. Introduce the instructor briefly. For the visiting instructor: 1. Write your name on the blackboard in the classroom you are visiting. Give your talk, keeping in mind the questions you wrote and the length of time decided upon. Your index cards can help you in providing an outline. 2. Ask students if they have any questions about your talk. 1. When the talk is finished, give the students 5 minutes to write the answers to the questions. 2. The visiting instructor will go over the answers with the students for 5- 10 minutes. The visiting instructor may then return to his or her regular class. 3. Review the students answer sheets with them. Discuss any ideas that they did not understand or review some of the talk as necessary. 4. The ESL instructor will take up any outstanding questions or comments. Discuss the experience with your students. Ask them what it felt like to listen to another speaker. 1. This lesson should be used as a collaborative activity with career technical instructors or other center staff (e.g. Health and Wellness Nurse or
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Presentation (10 minutes)

Comprehens ion Check (10 minutes)

Evaluation (5 minutes)

Special Notes

Variations

Placement Specialist). It can be repeated multiple times over several months since the pool of instructors at the center is large. You can repeat for Class #2 in the same week or the following week, and then schedule 2 more sets of classes for the following month. 2. Though there may be some hesitation among career technical instructors and staff due to busy schedules, stress the importance of providing an opportunity for English language learners to interact with a variety of staff. It is also very important to emphasize to your visiting instructor that they need to do a little bit of planning for their short talk. Listing key terms and creating 5 questions provides structure for the students during the activity. The plan offers listening support for ELLs by teaching necessary vocabulary and discussing review questions before the lesson. When students can think about the questions beforehand, they are prepared to listen for keywords, phrases, and ideas. 1. As students become more familiar with the visiting instructor activity and advance in proficiency, add a participation element. Give students points for raising their hands to respond to the visitors questions (See the Raise Your Hand and Be Counted activity) or asking good questions related to the topic of the presentation. 2. Rather than having the visiting instructor prepare questions, the ESL instructor can create a handout for focused listening and note-taking skills development. 3. Job Corps often hires graduates as staff in various departments, from Human Resources and Finance to the Career Technical department. Some of these new staff were at one time in the ESL program. Invite these staff members to talk about their backgrounds. Learning about these graduates can be a way of setting goals and providing models of success for English language learners.
Modified from New Ways of Classroom Assessment, J. D. Brown (1998)

SCANS SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES RELATED TO THIS LESSON

Listening/ Speaking (Basic Skills) Reasoning (Thinking Skills)


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Organize and maintain information (Information)


TESOL STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY THIS LESSON

Goal 2, Standard 1: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to interact in the classroom Goal 2, Standard 3: To use English to communicate in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form.

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Directions for the Visiting Instructor


Objective: Students will listen to you give a short talk. The activity presents students with an authentic approach to listening: a non-ESL instructor talking about a topic of interest. The purpose of the lesson is to improve the students listening skills, therefore keep your discussion to the 5 or 10-minute limit.
Tips for the Talk: Be mindful to talk slowly; use visuals if possible, including a chalkboard or dry erase board, and keep language at a simple level. Have a good introduction and conclusion, and have specific information you want the students to remember. Preparing for the Talk:

1. Depending on the level English proficiency of the class, your talk should take between 5-10 minutes. The ESL instructor will inform you about the English level of the class. 2. Prepare your talk ahead of time. (You may want to use index cards provided by the ESL instructor) Create an outline and list the key terms you will use, as a tool for staying on track during the actual talk. 3. You can tell a story (funny, sad, or strange); relate a personal experience; or give an introduction to a trade or center service, a self-introduction, or an informal lecture on any topic (possibly related to center services, a vocation/trade or a past employment experience). Examples of topics used include, a drivers education instructor talking about using turn signals, a health occupation talking about how to use a walker, and career paths of former Job Corps graduates.

4. Provide the key terms to the ESL instructor at least one day before the visit, so that instructor can cover the terms with students prior to you visit. 5. Prepare 5 questions (fill-in, multiple-choice, or true-false) based on your talk. For example: Mr./Ms. ______ talked about__________________. What is the main idea of the talk? The instructor used the word [_______] several times in the talk. What do you think this word means? a. [] b. [] c. [] d. [] The speaker [] True or False The instructor used gestures several times. He/ she [describe the gesture]. What do you think this means? The instructor said, [exact phrase]. By this, he/she meant: a. [] b. [] c. []
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6. Give the list of questions to the ESL instructor at least a day before your talk. 7. Identify what type of talk this will be and let the ESL instructor know in advance: a story relating a personal experience; an introduction to a trade or center service; a self-introduction; or an informal lecture on any topic (possibly related to center services, a vocation/trade or a past employment experience) The Day of the Talk: 1. Write your name on the blackboard in the classroom you are visiting. Give your talk, keeping in mind the questions you wrote and the length of time decided upon. Your index cards or outline can help you in providing an outline. 2. When the talk is finished, ask students if they have any questions about your talk. 3. 4. Answer their questions and encourage dialogue about your topic. Then have the students answer the 5 questions you prepared beforehand.

5. Go over the answers with the students for 5- 10 minutes. The visiting instructor may then return to his or her regular class. (The ESL instructor will handle any remaining questions.)

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