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Contents

Chapter
1. 1.1 2. 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3. 4. 5. 5.1 5.2 6. 6.1 6.2 7. 8. 9.

Title
Introduction Why Recycle Paper Advances in Paper Recycling Recycling Paper recycling Paper recycling process The Development of the utilization of Recovered waste paper in Germany and in the International Contact Electricity generation and treatment of paper recycling wastewater using a microbial fuel cell Facilitating Paper Recycling Wastepaper recovery and reuse- global picture Minimizing Paper Consumption Maximizing Recycled Paper Content Cleaner Production of Paper Reducing Paper Consumption Maximizing Recycled Paper Content Responsible Virgin Fiber Sourcing Marketplace-driven achievements towards conservation of Endangered Forests Marketplace Leadership by Large Paper Purchasers Cleaner Production Emissions Influence of recycling and temperature on the swelling ability of paper Conclusion References Appendix

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2-5 5-6 7 7 8 8 8-9 9-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-17 18-20 21-26 27 27-29 30-36 37-39 40 41 42-45 46-49

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Paper has a long history of use with its invention credited to TsaiLun in China in 105. Since then it has been produced from a wide variety of raw materials, including cotton, linen, bark, hemp, jute, straw and wood. For many countries, the most important raw materials were rags so that there is a long tradition of Paper production from secondary materials, such as rags and old Paper. Many publications which today would be considered priceless have been lost because of recycling. The use of virgin resources, based on wood in this historical context, is thus relatively new, with no more than a century since its widespread adoption .Its use came about due to the explosion in demand for, as education became widespread in Europe and North America, with the resultant expansion in demand for printed products, which was also made possible by developing printing industry. As literacy increased, so did the demand for printed products. Secondary raw material could not supply sufficient fibers to meet this demand for printed products such as newspaper, books, journals etc. The introduction of wood as a raw material for paper allowed these demands to be met in the industrial. This was following by the use of paper in packaging since its use had many advantages over more traditional packaging materials, including wood. Based upon wood, a natural renewable resource, paper is both biodegradable and recyclable. It is made up of many fibers that are interlaced and compacted in a web-like fashion. Millions of tons of paper are produced each year. This is used for a wide variety of products and applications such as office paper, newspapers, envelopes, agricultural sacks, plasterboard and the packaging of all types of consumer, commercial and industrial goods.

During the first and second world war paper was a strategic products the transmittal of information was essential and most useful medium was paper. In many countries waste paper was collected and reused, following the historical tradition of recycling. However, paper quality was poor. After the Second World War ended, the pulp industry developed, in order
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The superior quality which resultant virgin based products meant that the high recycling rates

to improve pulping and to meet the continuing expansion in demand.

achieved during the war years fell sharply. However, in countries with limited wood resources, the only way a domestic industry could develop was to import basic virgin raw material and to recycle the products produced from these after they had been used. Hence, waste paper became an important raw material in Western Europe and Japan and recovery and collection system developed to meet this demand. As the paper industry was developing, fundamental changes were taking place in society. Life style changed especially as the woman`s traditional role in the home altered to reflect increased employment opportunities outside the home, which limited time available for food preparation, cooking etc. Semi processed foods became important fuelling the retail revolution, thus leading to increased demands for protective packaging during transport. As the Urban sprawl developed, waste disposal became an urgent issue, which was satisfied by the sprawl, such as clay, sand and gravel pits, quarries etc. as the consumer society matured dissatisfaction with materialistic lifestyle grew and in inevitably attention centered on resource consumption, with paper products being the groups that were specifically criticized. Although recycling was practiced for some boards grades, a highest recycling rate was promoted as a desirable environment policy in the 1970`s[1] criticism of consumerism increased through the 1970`s and 1980`s , with the strong condemnation of the paper industry from environment pressure groups gaining widespread media coverage from the mid 1980`s onwards. As information became available on the quantity of the paper in solid waste more emphasis was given to recycling to help reduce these volumes there are many examples of resource conservation attempted through legislation in the late 1980`s and early 1990`s[2-4], and so the motivating force for the use of waste paper ceased to be a economic , but instead has become an illustration (some would say illusion) of a socially progressive society. Increased demand for waste paper had profound effects on many parts of paper cycle including methods of waste paper collection, the structure of waste paper industry and waste paper used by paper and board industries-especially in countries which were and virgin fiber rich. In the USA for example waste paper recovery was less than 27% of consumption in 1985, but had increased to more than 38% in 1992 an increases of almost 12 million tones. For the past two decades, there have been great technology developments in the U.S. paper industry, which have accelerated in recent years. The mills have been continuously modernized, and sophisticated new technology has been applied to reduce environmental pollution and improve product quality. But with the recent solid waste issue, the greatest
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challenge facing industry towards the end of century will be to increase recycling of all papers products. The solid waste disposal in the united state is a relatively new but very important issue. An estimated 180 million metric tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated each year well over one-half metric ton capitaand the number is steadily rising. In 1988, only about 13% of all MSW in the U.S. was recycled and 14% was incinerated, while about 73% was sent to the landfills (EPA [12]). Paper recycling is crucial in solving the landfills crisis, as paper and paper board and the largest component and account for up to 38% of all MSW (by weight) in 1990 (table 1).As estimated by the U.S. EPA (EPA [11]), one thirds will no longer exist by the year 2000.In addition to the landfill problem, It is believed that paper recycling Paper & Paperboard Yard Wastes Metals Wood Plastics Food Wastes Glass Other 38% 18% 8% 6% 8% 7% 7% 8%

Total Weight = 178 million metric tons Table1. Estimated proportions of materials generated in MSW, U.S. EPA [12]. Can save trees and result in a larger forest inventory. Motivated largely by these concerns, government agencies and environmental groups have strongly supported paper recycling programs. Government has shown their willingness to work with private industry to increase collection of waste paper, to break down barriers to recycling and to promote development of markets for recovered paper. By the end of 1992, five states had passed laws to prohibit paper from being disposed in landfills. Eighteen states now offer tax incentives, usually in the form of tax credits, to firms and industries that invest in some aspect of recycling. As of December 1993, thirteen states had passed mandatory news print recycling legislation, while fifteen state have launched voluntary paper recycling programs (Alig[7]). However, the biggest
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boost for recycling in 1993 came from president Clinton`s Executive Order establishing

recycled content levels for Federal purchases of printing and writing paper. Within the industry, there has been much improvement in the economics of using recycled fiber. Young [10] points out that for some paper & paperboard grades, it is now cheaper or at least competitive to produce with recycled fiber rather than with virgin fiber, which has not been the case historically. In response to these developments, more and more recycled fiber has been used in recent years, and this trend will continue over the next decade. The U.S. paper industry has set the goals of 40% recovery for recycling by the year 1995 and 50% by the year 2000 (American Paper Institute [9] and American Forest & Paper Association [8]). To achieve these goals and to meet the increasing demand for recycled paper products, the industry will have to expand considerably the capacity of recycling processes technologies to maintain quality standards and machine run ability with recycled fiber in the furnish, and to constantly improve the profitability with recycling. To address these economic and social issues along with others, the USDA Forest Services, the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Forestry Canada have jointly developed and are still improving the North America Pulp and Paper (NAPAP) model. This paper explains the methodology employed in the NAPAP model and investigates the likely impacts of accelerated use of recovered paper on the U.S. pulp and paper sector, towards the year 2012. The next section consists of an overview of the North American pulp and paper sector to help better understand the industry structure. A mathematical formulation is the theme of the third section. The fourth section describes the model structure, including the regions, commodities and manufacturing processes. The data used n the model is also briefly explained in this section. The projection results of the NAPAP model are discussed in the fifth section. The final section presents the summary and conclusions.

1.1 Why recycle paper?


Paper and packaging make up huge proportions of most municipal and commercial waste streams and therefore the paper industry is the UK's largest recycler. However, almost 5 million tons of waste paper is still sent to landfill or incineration each year. This means that the industry has to import fiber to meet its needs, which does not make environmental or economic sense.
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According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, approximately 33 percent of the municipal solid waste stream (MSW) is made up of paper and paperboard products. Paper

makes up the largest portion of the municipal waste stream and is also one of the most recovered materials. Recycling produces numerous direct and indirect benefits: Conserves resources Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants Saves energy Supplies valuable raw materials to industry Creates jobs Stimulates the growth of greener technologies Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators

According to a 2007 AF&PA Community Survey, 268 million people (87 percent of the U.S.) have access to some form of community paper/paperboard recycling, either through curbside collection or drop-off programs. If measured by weight, more paper is recovered for recycling than all glass, plastic and aluminum combined. Not yet satisfied, the American Forest & Paper Association has set a goal of 60 percent recovery by the year 2012. It will take your help to get there.[14]

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CHAPTER 2 ADVANCES IN PAPER RECYCLING


To remain a sustainability leader, the industry has set a goal to further increase recovery for recycling to exceed 70 percent by 2020. Industry-led efforts to increase paper recovery for recycling are among the best examples of how we are protecting our environment and meeting our economic and social commitments. The paper industry has led the way by setting and achieving incremental paper

recovery goals since 1990. In the 20 years since, the recovery rate has nearly doubled. In 2011, 66.8 percent of the U.S. paper consumed was recovered. In 2010, 87 percent of the population had access to curbside and/or drop-off paper

recycling To help educate students and their families about the importance of paper recycling,

AF&PA carried out programs in conjunction with Kaleidoscope and Keep America Beautiful to deliver curricula straight to the classroom. Further, the annual AF&PA Recycling Awards recognize outstanding business, community and school paper recycling programs.[15]

2.1 Recycling
Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.[1][2] Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy. There are some ISO standards relating to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste such as food or garden waste is not typically considered recycling.[2] Materials to be
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cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.

recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted,

2.2 Paper recycling


Paper recycling is the process of turning waste paper into new paper products. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feed stocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.[1] Mill broke is paper trimmings and other paper scrap from the manufacture of paper, and is recycled internally in a paper mill. Preconsumer waste is material which left the paper mill but was discarded before it was ready for consumer use. Post-consumer waste is material discarded after consumer use, such as old corrugated containers (OCC), old magazines, old newspapers (ONP), office paper, old telephone directories, and residential mixed paper (RMP).[2] Paper suitable for recycling is called "scrap paper", often used to produce molded pulp packaging. The industrial process of removing printing ink from paperfibers of recycled paper to make deinked pulp is called deinking, an invention of the German jurist Justus Claproth.[17]

2.2.1 Paper recycling process


The process of paper recycling involves mixing used paper with water and chemicals to break it down. It is then chopped up and heated, which breaks it down further into strands of cellulose, a type of organic plant material; this resulting mixture is called pulp, or slurry. It is strained through screens, which remove any glue or plastic that may still be in the mixture then cleaned, de-inked, bleached, and mixed with water. Then it can be made into new paper.[3] The same fibers can be recycled about seven times, but they get shorter every time and eventually are strained out.[4]

2.3 The Development of the utilization of Recovered waste paper in Germany and in the International Contact
The utilization of used, post consumption material for the production of paper looks back on a long tradition. In a historical perspective the production of paper was based on rags and other used textile materials before fiber generated from wood first mechanically then by thermo chemical processes- became the dominant source for paper production. Since then the re-use of paper and board as a source for secondary is an old practice with paper industry. To produce certain grades of paper and board from secondary fiber is economically attractive as it avoids first of all the high energy costs for the production of certain primary fiber types.
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The big consumers play a pre-eminent role in the production of secondary fiber not least because of the high potential supply of used paper material. The re-use of fiber is especially advantages in those consumer countries which either have high energy prices and/or have small supply of primary fiber. A long term comparison of the relation between the supplies of waste paper and the production of new paper and board shows that Germany and Japan had a higher ratio than the US and average of fall countries. This was already true in the 1960`s and in the early 1970`s when no environmental regulation existed yet so that the use of secondary fiber in waste paper at that time was predominantly ruled by its cost advantages. At the beginning of the 1960`s Japan had the high ratio between the supply of domestic waste paper and the production of paper and board, followed by a period in which both Germany and Japan were the leading countries. Since the mid 1980`s Germany lone is in the lead, showing a doubling in the ratio from 30% to 60% over a period of 40 years (1961-2001) while in Japan the increase amounts to 20% points from 40% to 60%, over the same period. A comparable increase starting from a lower level can be observed in the US (which did pick up considerably in the last years), and in the rest of the world. The increase in the relation between the supply of waste paper and the production of paper and board can therefore be characterized as a worldwide phenomenon. The countries Japan and foremost Germany could sustain their leading position in this development, while the US picked up in recent years without closing the gap completely. A different indicator which measures the relation between supplies and usage of waste paper on the other hand are used depending on the special interest question. For an evaluation of the effectiveness of (national) collection systems it makes sense to define the recovery rate, which measures the relation between the amount of recovered waste paper and the total consumption of paper. The utilization rate is defined as the relation between utilization of waste paper and the production of new paper and board. It indicates to what extent secondary fiber is used for the paper production in country.

2.4 Electricity generation and treatment of paper recycling wastewater using a microbial fuel cell
With the continued increased consumption of paper products and other natural fiber
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products, the recycling and use of recovered paper is growing worldwide. The average

amount of recycling content in paper production was increased by 22% from 1990 to 1998. In 2005, 78% of paper and paperboard mills in America used some recovered paper, and 149 mills used only recovered paper. By 2012, it is projected that the paper industry will recover55% of all the paper Americans consume (Lens et al. 2002).The strength of wastewater in a paper recycling plant generally increases with the percent of recycled content. Thus, an increase in the relative proportion of recovered paper and an increase in the amount of paper produced will lead to increased energy demands for wastewater treatment using conventional treatment processes. In addition, this wastewater contains soluble organics and particulate matter such as cellulose which are not effectively degraded by traditional wastewater treatment technologies (Lens et al.2002). Many paper recycling industries therefore have an interest in reducing water use, finding more effective methods to treat their wastewater as well as decreasing costs for wastewater treatment. One new promising method for wastewater treatment is the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Bacteria in an MFC grow under anoxic conditions, which can benefit cellulose fermentation and degradation, with the added benefits of electricity generation rather than power consumption (Huang et al. 2008; Logan and Regan 2006). Several types of wastewaters have been successfully treated with simultaneous electricity generation, including municipal, food processing, brewery, and animal wastewaters which havebeen found to be biocatalysts for directly power generation and waste treatment in MFCs (Feng et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2004; Min et al. 2005; Min and Logan 2004; Oh and Logan 2005). Cellulose and chitin have been shown to be suitable substrates for electricity generation in laboratory MFCs under ideal conditions (Niessen et al. 2005; Ren et al. 2007; Rezaei et al. 2007; Rismani-Yazdi et al. 2007), but so far, actual cellulosic wastewaters from pulp or paper-processing plants have not been previously investigated. Of particular concern is the efficiency of an MFC to remove cellulose in the presence of other organic matter in the wastewater and the potential adverse effect of low conductivity of the wastewater. While the effect of solution conductivity on electricity generation is now well known in laboratory MFCs, it was recently demonstrated that low conductivity can have a detrimental effect on power production using a brewery wastewaters (Feng et al. 2008). We therefore wanted to determine to what extent it might be possible to treat a paper recycling wastewater (PRW)

In this study, we examined electricity generation using an unamended PRW and the same system with solution conductivity increased with a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Power

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under more optimal conditions compared to those for the actual (un amended) wastewater.

output was also examined as a function of wastewater strength, with treatment efficiency expressed in terms of removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), and cellulose.[16]

2.5 Facilitating Paper Recycling


Ecological imbalance from the accumulation of waste materials has grown slowly and undesirable consequences remain remote for most people (Pirages, 1973). Even simple programs for handling environmental problems rarely get widespread support. For example, voluntary recycling programs have been set up in many communities, but even the most effective projects reduce solid waste by less than 1% (Hall and Ackoff, 1972). In 1973, 130 million tons of refuse were collected in the United States ("U. S. Finds A Rich Resource: The Nation's Trash Pile", 1974). Although much of this materialcould have been reused, recycling requires a "reverse-distribution process", whereby the consumer becomes the first rather than the last link in the distribution process (Margulies, 1970). The present study was designed to study applications of behavior technology to initiate a paper recycling process. Since paper makes up about 50% of environmental litter (Finnie, 1973), paper-recycling programs both reuse waste paper and reduce litter. In an earlier application of reinforcement contingencies to promote paper recycling, residents of university dormitories were given a lottery coupon for delivering at least one sheet of paper to a collection room during a raffle contingency (Geller, Chaffee, and Ingram, 1975). For a contest condition, two dormitories were paired and the dormitory residents who collected the most paper in a week won $15 for their treasury. The amount of paper collected during the raffle and contest contingencies was equivalent and markedly greater than that collected during baseline conditions. Given apparent widespread concern for ecology among college students, prompting alone might significantly increase paper recycling. Geller et al. (1975) announced each contingency by means of posters displayed on the bulletin boards of each dorm floor. Thus, results of low participation in that study may have been due to ineffective prompting; perhaps few residents attended to bulletin-board announcements and, therefore, most were not aware of the recycling program. Hence, the low participation was possibly due to a lack of contingency

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A more comprehensive prompting procedure was implemented in the present study by

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awareness, rather than a lack of contingency effectiveness.

delivering written announcements of the recycling program to every dormitory room. In addition to comparing paper-recycling behaviors following prompting with those due to a procedure combining both prompting and reinforcement techniques, the present research also compared the behavior effects of two reinforcement methods: an individual contingency that provided a raffle coupon for each pound of paper delivered and a group contingency that provided $15 for the treasury of one of two dorms whose residents collected the most paper in a week. In the raffle condition of the Geller et al. study, a raffle ticket was given for each paper delivery, regardless of the amount of paper delivered. This resulted in individuals making numerous, repeated deliveries each day with small amounts of paper. The raffle contingency of the present study emphasized the quantity of paper delivered by offering the dorm resident one raffle coupon per pound of paper delivered. Thus, greater amounts of delivered paper but fewer deliveries were expected in the present study than were observed in the prior program. The present research examined proximity effects by recording the room numbers of residents making paper deliveries and comparing distances to the collection site.

2.6 Wastepaper recovery and reuse- global picture


In 1992, The total world apparent consumption of paper and board was 245.6 million tons, although pulp production was only 164 million tons, or 67% of the total production[6]. Much of the other third of the raw material was provided by waste paper; in 1992, the total world consumption was about 96 million tons. Pulp and waste paper inputs do not add up to total paper and board production, due to losses during production, from both pulp and waste paper, although the losses from waste paper are much highe. Table 1.1 illustrate how waste paper use has increased over the period from 1986 to 1992.

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Table 1.1 Global waste paper use [6]


Year Pulp and paper production(m tons) Wastepaper consumption (m tons) 1986 1990 1991 1992 2000 202 237 239 246 307 63 85 91 96 138 31 36 38 39 45 Apparent utilization rate (%)

2.7 Minimizing Paper Consumption


The first pillar of the Common Vision advocates for the responsible use of paper products and the elimination of excessive and wasteful consumption to reduce the many environmental and social impacts associated with paper production and disposal.

Consumption of paper and paperboard products has experienced significant decline in North America since 2007. This is attributable primarily to the aftermath of the financial crisis in the United States at the end of the decade. The poor economy motivated many companies to perform a close analysis of their paper use and inspired the adoption of innovative and more efficient systems. These new systems will remain in place into the economic recovery and likely have a lasting impact on printing and writing paper consumption. In addition, the shift

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apparently having an irreversible effect in some paper sectors such as newsprint.

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in the patterns of consumption of news and other media from print to digital formats is also

Total global consumption of paper is still rising, reaching 371 million tonnes in 2009. However, total paper consumption in North America has declined 24% between 2006 and 2009. Per capita consumption of paper in North America dropped from more than 652 lbs/year in 2005 to 504 lbs/year in 2009.1 North Americans still, however, consume almost 30 times more paper per capita than the average person in Africa and 6 times more than the average person in Asia. In 2009, total paper consumption in China eclipsed total North American consumption for the first time.[1]

2.8 Maximizing Recycled Paper Content


According to industry figures, recovery of paper for recycling continues to grow in North America, diverting it from the high environmental cost of its disposal in landfills. The United States paper recovery rate rose from 46% in 2000 to a record high 63.4% in 2009.[2] In Canada the reported paper recovery rate in 2009 was 66%.[3] Paper is the most commonly recycled product, and yet is still one of the largest single components of landfills in the United States, comprising over 16% of landfill deposits equaling 26 million tons annually.[4]This is down from 42 million tons in 2005 which represented 25% of the waste stream after recycling that year.[5] Indicator 2

independent research for this report, the operating rates and mill capacity to turn recovered

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stayed nearly flat over the decade, at about 36-37% of total pulp production. According to

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The percentage of total pulp produced in the United States from recycled paper fiber has

paper into deinked pulp for printing and writing grade papers were stressed by the economic downturn. However, these mills report they have recovered more quickly than virgin mills from the economic crisis; in 2010 they were operating at more than 90% of their capacity and producing about 1.7 million tons of deinked recycled pulp available for printing and writing paper (roughly equivalent to capacity and production in 2006). It is estimated that 35% of that output, or about 370,000 tons, goes to tissue and other sources.[6] Exports of recovered fiber from the United States to Asia have grown rapidly representing a nearly three-fold increase since 2002. These exports are primarily destined for China. In 2009, approximately 36% of fiber recovered in the United States was exported to Asia.7 If current trends hold, paper consumption will continue to decline in North America, demand for recycled paper will grow, and global competition for recovered fiber will intensify. If paper recovery rates do not increase, these dynamics will result in a stress on the supply of recovered fiber available in North America.

2.9 Cleaner Production of Paper


According to industry data, fossil fuel greenhouse gas emissions for the manufacture of pulp and paper in the United States and Canada decreased approximately 33% from 2000 to 2008.12 The paper industry attributes this apparent reduction to a rising proportion of energy from wood fuel and black liquor. Black liquor is a sludge of chemicals and lignin that is a byproduct of the pulping process. Emissions from these sources are currently excluded from measurements of greenhouse gases. However, this practice is extremely controversial and is currently being reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and others. The American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) reports that from 2002 to 2008 wood fuel and black liquor rose from 56% to 63% of the total energy consumed for manufacturing pulp and paper. 12, 13 The industry claims that all biomass fuel sources are 100%renewable and carbon-neutral.

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Indicator 3

However, a growing volume of recent scientific studies demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect, and is in fact a dangerous oversimplification. Ignoring the serious air pollution impacts from the combustion of these fuels hinders comprehensive progress towards sustainability. An important environmental indicator for gauging progress in energy efficiency in the industry is Total Energy Use Per Ton of Product. According to aggregated data reported by AF&PA member companies, there was no improvement on this measure over the last decade. In 2008, producing a ton of paper required on average approximately 24.[5] Million BTUs per Ton.[14] Not all pulp and paper mills are equal, however. Manufacturing recycled paper uses significantly less total energy per ton. Virgin fiber mills which use enhanced bleaching technologies that are totally chlorine free (TCF) or that substitute ozone or hydrogen peroxide for chlorine or chlorine dioxide as a brightening agent in the initial stages of the bleaching process (EECF), use comparatively less energy as well. There has been essentially no improvement in average paper industry water pollution between 2000 and 2008. Indicator 21 shows that for three critical indicators of water pollution total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and wastewater discharge per ton of product produced the discharge levels were virtually unchanged in this time period.[12] Air emissions in the form of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide have been reduced significantly since the mid 1970s. During the scope of this reports monitoring, AF&PA member companies report that since 2000, average sulfur dioxide emissions per ton of product have continued to decline but at a much slower pace.

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Average emissions of nitrogen dioxide per ton of product have also been reduced slightly over this period.12 Despite some significant challenges, there are encouraging signs of transformation and opportunities for further progress in the paper industry in the immediate future, including: Many more environmentally responsible printing and writing papers are available than there were even a few years ago; A significant and growing number of large end users are committed to responsible paper procurement; Marketplace driven campaign efforts have led to government action to secure legal protections for millions of acres in Canadas Great Bear Rainforest, Inland Temperate Rainforest and Canadas Northern Boreal Forest; Several major, unprecedented agreements have recently been reached between NGOs and the paper industry for working together on increased protection for forests in North America; Rapid growth in the market demand for Forest Stewardship Council certified products continues and millions of additional acres have been certified under this standard; There is increasing innovation and investment in agricultural residue papers; and, There is strong demand for recycled content paper and continuing growth in waste paper recovery. However, further progress is essential, including: Reducing paper consumption in North America by ending wasteful practices and inefficiency; Increasing the utilization of recycled fiber in printing and writing papers, where the greatest demand on the environment occurs; Halting the conversion and loss of natural forests to monoculture plantations; Preventing illegal and controversial fiber from controversial sources outside North America from entering the supply chain; Accurately measuring and reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from using forests for bio-energy; Accurately measuring and reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from loss of above ground and soil based carbon stocks entailed in harvesting natural forests and converting Eliminating all discharges of dioxin from the paper industry to the environment.

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natural forests to plantations;

CHAPTER 3 Reducing Paper Consumption


The first pillar of the Common Vision advocates for the responsible use of paper products and the elimination of excessive and wasteful paper consumption to reduce the many environmental impacts associated with paper production and disposal. The information presented in this section of the report provides some insight into paper consumption trends within North America in comparison to other regions of the world. From 2006 to 2009, total North American consumption of paper and paperboard declined by 24%. In 2009, total paper consumption in China eclipsed total North American consumption for the first time.[17]

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In 2009 the average North American consumed almost 5 times as much paper as the world average, 30 times as much paper as a person living in Africa, and almost 6 times as much as a person living in Asia. [17,19,20,21] Annual Paper Consumption Per Capita And in 2009, the United States and Canada together comprised about 5% of the global population and consumed 17% of the worlds paper.[ 17,19,20,21]

In 2009 newsprint consumption in the United States and Canada was approximately half the amount that was consumed in 2004, yet newsprint remains one of the largest paper grades by volume in North America.

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In 2009, containerboard comprised the largest share of all paper grades consumed in North America, followed by uncoated free sheet, followed by tissue.[21]

In the printing and writing sector, commercial printing applications consumed the most paper by volume, followed by office copy/ reprographic paper and paper for mailers and inserts.[21]

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CHAPTER 4
Maximizing Recycled Paper Content
The second pillar of the Common Vision is to maximize recycled content in pulp and paper products. The information presented in this section of the report reveals that despite a challenging economic environment, recycled paper production has performed strongly and demand is projected to increase for recycled content. According to industry figures, recovery of paper continues to grow in North America, helping to reduce the high environmental costs of disposing of paper in landfills. The U.S. paper recovery rate rose from 46% in 2000 to a record high 63.4% in 2009.7 In Canada, the reported paper recovery rate in 2009 was 66%.[24] In 2009, Europe recovered 72.2% of its paper.[30]

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Paper is the most commonly recycled product, and yet is still one of the largest single components of landfills in the US, comprising over 16% of landfill deposits equaling 26 million tons in 2009.[25] This is down from 42 million tons in 2005 which represented 25% of the waste stream after recycling in that year.

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The percentage of total pulp produced in the United States from recycled paper fiber has stayed nearly flat over the decade, at about 36-37% of total pulp production.

Indicator 8 Percent of Pulp Produced from Recovered Fiber United States

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In 2010, Conservatries completed an update to its periodic review of deinked pulp capacity in North America by surveying suppliers to determine the volume of available deinked pulp to producers of printing and writing paper grades. Their findings are summarized below.

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Indicator 9 North American Recovered Fiber Deinking Capacity Suitable for Printing and Writing Papers

Deinked pulp for production of recycled content printing and writing papers is currently running at nearly full capacity in North America at approximately the same level that was established in 2006. While the overall paper market has suffered during the recent economic downturn, there has been consistent demand for deinked pulp. Overall North American production of fine paper has dropped however there is a continued steady production of deinked pulp in North America. Consequently, there is a rising trend in the percentage of recycled pulp incorporated in printing and writing paper production.[23] 2010 production of deinked pulp suitable for fine paper production in North America was about 1.7 million short tons per year with most deinked pulp mills reported to be running at better than 90% capacity. This is the same level of output as reported in a capacity survey in 2006.11 It is estimated that 35% of that output, or about 370,000 tons, goes to tissue and other sources. However, as with the all sectors of the North American pulp and paper industry, with the exception of the tissue sector, no new construction of deinking capacity is expected. Although the market for deinked pulp continues to be robust, without new investment in deinking infrastructure it appears the capacity to produce deinked pulp for fine paper in North America is near its limit. Exports of recovered fiber from the United States to Asia, primarily destined for China, have grown nearly three-fold since 2002. In 2009, approximately 36% of fiber recovered in the
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United States was exported to Asia.[28] Indicator 10 Destination of Paper Recovered in the United States

[Fact]
Using 100% recycled copy paper in lieu of copy paper made from virgin tree fiber, on average, reduces net energy consumption by 31.3%, reduces net greenhouse gas emissions by 43.6%, reduces wastewater by 53.3%, reduces solid waste by 39.1% and reduces wood use by 100%.[29]

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CHAPTER 5
Responsible Virgin Fiber Sourcing
The third pillar of the Common Vision is the responsible sourcing of all virgin fiber. The paper industry supply chain has impacts on forests in every corner of the world, including some of the most threatened and endangered. In North America, the paper industry has maintained a major presence and influence on the health of forests; the U.S. South produces more paper than any other region in the world. However, significant change has occurred in the industry in the patterns of ownership of large tracts of forests in the United States. Vertically integrated paper companies have shed their vast forest landholdings, primarily to large timber investment management organizations.

5.1 Marketplace-driven achievements towards conservation of Endangered Forests


Transformation in the marketplace has been a driving force behind meaningful progress towards forest conservation goals in North America. In British Columbias Great Bear Rainforest, 5 million acres have been protected and transition to FSC certification in the region has begun. Several new collaboration agreements between the forest and paper industry and environmental NGOs, including the worlds largest conservation initiative the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement, are laying the foundation for unprecedented conservation achievements across North America. Even with the progress that has been achieved, today the conversion of diverse, natural forests to plantations, the logging of old-growth temperate rainforests and the harvesting of intact carbon rich Boreal Forest remain immediate threats to forests and their biodiversity and carbon-storage capacity. There are high-stakes for North Americas forests and the paper industry in the coming years. These historic agreements must be implemented successfully to achieve their full potential. Meanwhile, ongoing challenges remain from major companies that continue to practice business-as-usual and have not matched leadership commitments. This report focuses primarily on the forests and the paper product marketplace of the United

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industrial-scale paper production in the 21st century is multinational, and the supply chain is

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States and Canada, referred to in the report collectively as North America. However,

interconnected around the globe. Areas such as Indonesia, South America, southern Africa, and the Russian Far East are experiencing adverse social and environmental impacts from paper industry fiber sourcing expansion, and fiber sourcing in these areas directly influences the stability of the earths climate. In China, production and consumption are expanding, leading to sourcing of controversial fiber from controversial sources from the aforementioned regions. In addition, pulp and paper from these controversial sources is still coming directly into North American markets as well as being imported from China and other third party producers. This demand is helping drive deforestation and biodiversity loss, social conflict and climate pollution as well as undermining efforts to establish parallel environmental and social standards and a level playing field that enables industry improvement and reform.

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5.2 Marketplace Leadership by Large Paper Purchasers


According to a January 2011 survey of members of the Environmental Paper Network there were at least 645 large paper purchasers, including 24 Fortune 500 companies based in North America, with paper procurement policies or other environmental paper commitments that include one or more of the following important elements: protecting High Conservation Value Forests or Endangered Forests, maximizing high percentage postconsumer recycled content, giving preference to FSC-certified wood fiber, incorporating agricultural residues, or eliminating controversial sources or fiber from natural forest conversion in their supply chain. Many other large end users are also moving to more responsible paper, taking recognized steps without formal policies. For example, EPN member organization the Natural Resources Defense Council reports that it has been successful in helping to increase procurement of post-consumer recycled content paper products for organizations and events such as the Academy Awards, the GRAMMY Awards, the U.S Open (United States Tennis Association), Major League Baseball and its All-Star game, the National Basketball Association, and numerous franchises within each sport.

In addition, leadership companies have begun to support specific on the ground conservation efforts in collaboration with environmental NGOs and their wood fiber suppliers that leads directly to improved sourcing in their supply chains. For example, Staples is a co-founder of a conservation project called Carbon Canopy along with EPN member organizations Dogwood Alliance and Green Press Initiative. The project is working with landowners and forest products companies to develop high quality forest carbon offsets based on conservation and improved forest management with FSC certification in the heart of their fiber basket in the Southern Appalachian region of the United States. Likewise, Office Depot is working with NGOs to improve forest management and increase FSC certification of private landowners supplying a mill in Tennessee which produces Office Depots high-volume FSCcertified office paper.

Companies working with EPN member organization Canopy have helped drive an increase of 53.7 million acres (21.7 million hectares) in Canadian FSC tenures, a 127% increase, from 2007 to 2011. Notably, Transcontinental, North Americas 4th largest printer and the largest printer in Canada used their purchasing power to encourage 21 forest companies to sign on to the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement.

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There has been rapid growth in the area of land certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). The number of acres certified by FSC in North America has grown by 66 million (26.7 million hectares) between January 2007 and January 2011. This represents a doubling of forests certified as well-managed by FSC for a total of 131 million acres (53 million hectares) certified in North America. Globally, FSC has certified almost 328 million acres (132.7 million hectares) as of January 1, 2011. [32] Indicator 12 Total Area under FSC Certification

The number of paper-related FSC Chain of Custody certificates has grown rapidly as well, reaching 3,369 certificates in January, 2011.16 An FSC Chain of Custody certificate is an important indicator of marketplace trends and a critical first step for mills to be able to sell

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FSC-certified products.[40]

As of early 2011, there were more than 770 FSC-certified papers available in North America. [34] For a complete list see: http://www.fsccanada.org/docs/fscpaperlist.pdf. Indicator 13 Total FSC Paper Related Chain of Custody Certificates in the United States caution

[Caution]
Purchasers can become confused that this chain of custody certificate means they will be assured to receive FSC certified products. A chain-of-custody certificate only means a facility has a third-party verified ability to track the origin of all fiber in any FSC certified products. By itself, it does not mean that all fiber in all products, or any fiber in any particular products, is certified FSC fiber. Purchasers must ask their vendor for FSC-certified paper and ask that products bear the FSC label in order to ensure the products are FSC-certified.

The EPN/Canopy Eco-Paper Database shows that as of January 2011 there were 121 papers

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system that designates leading environmental papers across multiple features.

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available in North America rated Environmentally Superior by the Paper Steps, a rating

This represents approximately twice the number of similar products in 2007.[33]

Indicator 14
Printing & Writing and Newsprint Papers Available in North America and Designated Superior by the EPNs hierarchy of environmental papers, The Paper Steps, or equivalent.

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[Note]: [To be designated Superior, 100% of a papers fiber must have environmental
attributes, which include pre-consumer recycled content post consumer recycled content, FSC-certified pure virgin fiber free of controversy, and/or agricultural residues. A minimum of 50% of that fiber must be postconsumer recycled content, and the paper must be bleached Processed Chlorine Free or Totally Chlorine Free.]

The choice and quality in agricultural residue papers available in North America is trending upward as well. Agricultural residues are non-wood fibers derived from waste left over after harvest from an existing agricultural land use. When a crop is purposely grown for the material otherwise defined as residue (e.g., if hemp is grown for the fiber), it is considered an intentional or on-purpose crop and does not qualify as an agricultural residue. Agricultural residues include: cereal straws like wheat straw, rice straw, seed flax straw, corn stalks, sorghum stalks, sugar cane bagasse, and rye seed grass straw.

Indicator 15
Agricultural Residue Papers Available in North America*

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Since 2007, imports of illegally harvested wood products to the United States, including paper, are estimated by Chatham House to have decreased by 24%.[35] This reversal of a trend towards increasing imports or illegally harvested wood products is in part due to the United States Lacey Act which was amended in 2008 and prohibits the importation of illegally harvested forest products. While the trend is encouraging, the challenge globally to curtail illegal logging and its devastating consequences for forests, communities and wildlife remains enormous. In many regions with poor governance and weak rule of law, declarations of legality and certifications are difficult to verify and subject to deep uncertainty.

Additionally, in many regions even pulp and papers that may be considered legal are highly controversial and driving adverse environmental and social impacts. They constitute a significant reputational risk for investors, manufacturers and customers. [41]

Indicator 16
Estimated Illegally Harvested Timber Entering the United States

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Genetically engineered trees are a fast growing threat to native forests and biodiversity. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has approved test plots at 28 secret sites across seven southern U.S states for 260,000 eucalyptus trees that have been genetically engineered to be more tolerant of cold temperatures in order to survive the local winters.[36] this experiment is currently delayed by legal challenges from conservation organizations.

Indicator 17
Number of North American field trials allowing flowering of genetically engineered trees for forest products or bio energy

260,000 cold tolerant Eucalyptus trees at

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southern U.S. states have

been

CHAPTER 6 Cleaner Production


The fourth pillar of the Common Vision is cleaner production in the paper industry. Pulp and paper manufacturing is chemically intensive and the paper industry is one of the largest industrial consumers of energy and freshwater in North America. According to industry data, Fossil fuel greenhouse gas emissions for the manufacture of pulp and paper in the United States and Canada decreased approximately 33% from 2000 to 2008. The paper industry attributes this apparent reduction to a rising proportion of energy from wood fuel and black liquor, a sludge of chemicals and lignin that is a byproduct of the pulping process. Emissions from the combustion of wood fuel and black liquor are excluded in these figures. This is not because there are no emissions, but rather because the industry calculates these emissions as carbon neutral. This assumption is misleading and inaccurate. However because a scientifically accurate methodology for accounting for these emissions has yet to be agreed, the industry has been able to maintain its assertions.[36]

Indicator 18
North American Pulp and Paper Industry Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Use of Fossil Fuels

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The American Forest & Paper Association reports that from 2002 to 2008, wood fuel and black liquor rose from 56% to 63% of the total energy consumed for manufacturing pulp and paper. The industry claims that all biomass fuel sources are 100% renewable and carbonneutral. [41]

Indicator 19
U.S. Pulp and Paper Mill Energy Sources

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However, a growing volume of recent scientific studies demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect, and is in fact a dangerous oversimplification. Ignoring the serious air pollution impacts from the combustion of these fuels hinders comprehensive progress towards sustainability by stakeholders. A landmark study published in the journal Science warns that failing to correct this false assumption in national carbon accounting systems would likely lead to massive deforestation and accelerated climate change.[37] This accounting error is similarly replicated in the industries failure to include loss of carbon stocks from soil and above ground carbon resulting from timber harvesting in their emissions calculations.

Until this accounting error is rectified, a good environmental indicator for gauging progress in energy efficiency in the industry is Total Energy Use Per Ton of Product. According to aggregated data reported by AF&PA member companies, there was no improvement on this measure over the last decade. In 2008, producing a ton of paper required on average approximately 24.5 million BTUs per Ton.[41] The data shown combines virgin tree fiber and recycled production data, and does not reflect that recycled paper production utilizes significantly less total energy than virgin fiber production per ton of product. [29] The paper industry is the third largest industrial consumer of energy in the United States according to the U.S. Department of Energy.

Indicator 21
United States Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater, BOD, and TSS Discharges

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6.1 Emissions
Emissions of sulfur dioxide & nitrogen oxide to the air have been reduced significantly since the mid 1970s. Aggregated data reported by AF&PA member companies shows that since 2000, sulfur dioxide emissions per ton of product have continued to decline but more slowly. Between 2006 and 2008, these releases decreased by 14.6%. [39] Emissions of nitrogen oxide per ton of product have also been reduced slightly over this period. [36] In the course of writing this section, it became clear that it is very difficult to assess pollution trends in the paper industry. AF&PA combines data in ways that make it difficult to interpret, such as combining pollution discharge statistics from mechanical pulp mills, Kraft pulp mills, and deinking mills. These types of facilities produce very different quantities of waste per ton of product, so combining statistics for them makes it difficult to determine what improvements have or have not occurred. When asked to provide data on individual mills or by mill type, or how many mills had adopted new clean production technology, such as oxygen delignification, AF&PA refuses. Greater transparency from the industry in North America is critical to advancing cleaner production technologies and reducing climate, air and water pollution.

Indicator 22
Pulp and Paper Mill Air Emissions

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6.2 Influence of recycling and temperature on the swelling ability of paper


The effect of recycling on the pulp properties depends on the unit operations in each cycle. Recycled fibers have inferior papermaking properties in relation to the corresponding virgin fibers. With increasing number of cycles, the fibers are damaged and change their properties. One of the declared changes in chemical pulps after recycling is the loss in fiber swelling (Jayme, 1944; Seth, 2001). Swelling is one of the mechanisms occurring during waterfiber interaction. Swelling mechanism for the delignified cell wall is based on the idea of cellulose lamellae displacement (Stone & Scallan, 1968). It has been found that most of the inaccessible water (gel water) is located in pores of the diameter between ten and a few hundred. When immersed in water, fibers become wet and subsequently water penetrates into the inter fiber space, lumens, cell wall capillaries, and the free spaces of amorphous regions of cell walls. Simultaneously, hydrogen bonds between cellulose surfaces are broken (Blaej & Krkoka, 1989). This allows an increase in the inter-molecular distance of the cellulose chains causing swelling. Fibers do not swell in their width but swelling causes an increase in the fiber wall thickness in the direction towards the fiber lumen (Lindstrom, 1980). The term hornification is a technical term used in wood pulp and paper research literature. It is used to describe all physical and chemical changes that reduce swelling and thus the ability of fibers to hold water and also the strength of papers made from these fibers (upon drying or water removal). Hornification has been recognized with fiber shrinkage and formation of internal hydrogen bonds. A significant portion of these effects is irreversible (Smook, 2001). Temperature plays an important role in hornification. A change from elastic to plastic deformation in the cellulose pore structure is encouraged by higher temperatures (Stone & Scallan, 1965). The rate and temperature of drying can influence the overall extent of hornification (Iyer et al., 1991; Young, 1986). Characteristic temperatures involving hornification range from 80C to 120C (Matsuda et al., 1994); however, it was observed also at lower temperatures. The intensity of drying influences the extent of the water retention value (WRV) loss (DeRuvo & Htun, 1983;Bawden & Kibblewhite, 1995). It was demonstrated that rapid drying results in a higher degree of hornification than slow drying in moderate environment (Iyer et al., 1991; Stone & Scallan, 1965).

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CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSIONS
The primary objective of this study has been to investigate the impacts of increased paper recycling on the U.S. pulp and paper sector. For this purpose, a dynamic linear programming model of the North American pulp and paper sector, NAPAP, was developed and used in forecasting the developments of the U.S. pulp and paper sector under alternative policy scenarios. The results from 1986 to 2012 indicated that

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(1) The minimum recycled content standards that is under consideration by EPA would have limited impacts on the U.S. pulp and paper sector; (2) a waste reduction policy leading to a reduction of the U.S. domestic paper and board consumption by 1% per year would have moderate impacts on the sector, although it would stabilize its consumption of pulpwood and reduce the tonnage of wastepaper disposed to landfills; and (3) the U.S. paper industry's goal of reusing and recycling 50% of all paper consumed by the year 2000 would likely be achieved even without government regulations. The results also suggest that it is critical to assess carefully the international trade equations employed in the model. The U.S. paper industry faces a worldwide, very competitive market. To represent the rest of the world in the same detail as North America is impractical and perhaps not necessary, but better econometric estimates of Pacific and Atlantic import demand and export supply should be sought. Still, the structure of the NAPAP model is already well suited to predict the impacts of international trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The results of the NAPAP model depend on the assumptions made regarding to GNP growth in the United States, Canada, and rest of the world, and the technical coefficients and costs of various manufacturing processes. GNP is the basic economic parameter used to forecast paper and board demand. Greater growth in GNP in Asian and Pacific countries will likely result in greater U.S. exports, which, in turn, will result in more production and stimulate capacity expansion in the U.S. In addition, higher manufacturing costs or lower output-input ratio for an old process relative to those of new processes would cause more capacity addition in new processes and faster depreciation of old processes. Therefore, the forecasts in this study must be viewed just as an example of possible market developments under different recycling policies. The usefulness of the NAPAP model lies in part in its capability to simulate in some detail technological developments in the pulp and paper industry, and to provide forecasts for a wide range of assumptions. In this paper, the model was used to study the impacts of paper recycling, but, it can also be used to investigate other important environmental issues in the pulp and paper sector, such as process-specific water effluents and air emissions. The Environmental Paper Networks 2011 State of the Industry Report has highlighted

mission to advance more sustainable and ethical patterns of production and consumption in the North American pulp and paper industry.

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noteworthy progress that has been achieved and the significant remaining challenges in the

The organizations of the Environmental Paper Network are continuing to work in a coordinated manner to advance the goals of the Common Vision, drive leadership in the marketplace and seek further progress in these indicators of transformation. Their hardearned individual achievements have led collectively to a remarkable wave of change for one of the worlds largest industries.

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CHAPTER 8 References
[1]. Thomas, C. (1997) the Paper Chain, Earth Resources Research Ltd, London. [2]. Clinton, W. (1993) Executive Order on Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention, Federal Registrar, 20th October 1993. [3]. Anon (1990) Verordnung uber die Verordnung der Bundesregierung. Bundesrat, Drucksache 817/90 vom 14.11.1990, verlag Hans Heger, Bonn. [4]. Japanese Resources Recovery and Recycling Act, 1992. [5]. Anon (1992) Recovered Paper Statistical Highlights, 1992. American Forest and Paper Association, Washinngton. [6]. Anon (1993) Pulp and Paper international-Annual Review, July 1993. [7] J.T. Alig, 1993 Overview of the States: State legislators focus on market development, Recycled Paper News 1(1994)1-6. [8] American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA), News Release, American Forest & Paper Association, New York, Dec. 8, 1993. [9] American Paper Institute, News Release, American Paper Institute, New York, Feb. 13, 1990. [10] American Paper Institute, Paper, Paperboard & Wood Pulp Capacity, American Paper Institute, New York, 1990. [11] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, The solid waste dilemma: An agenda for action, Office of Solid Waste, Washington, DC, 1988 [12] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Characterization of municipal solid waste in the United States: 1990 update, EPA/530-SW-90-042, Washington, DC, 1990. [13] "PM's advisor hails recycling as climate change action.". Letsrecycle.com. 2006-11-08 Retrieved 2010_06-19. [14] http://earth911.com/recycling/paper/why-is-it-important-to-recycle-paper/. [15] http://www.paperrecycles.org/paper_environment/index.html. [16] Liping Huang & Bruce E. Logan Published online: 10 June 2008 [Indicator 11] Marketplace-driven achievements towards conservation of Endangered Forests [Indicator 1] - Global Consumption by Region 2000-2009 [17] www.wikipedia.org/paperrecycling/

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[18]. RISI. Annual Historical Data - World Pulp. 2010. [Indicator 2] - 2009 Per Capita Paper and Paperboard Consumption RISI. Annual Historical Data - World Pulp. (2010) [19]. United Nations. United Nations Population Information Network. Retrieved December 2010. http://www.un.org/popin/ [20]. U.S. Census Bureau. State and Country Quickfacts. Retrieved December 2010 http://quickfacts.census.gov/ [21]. Statistics Canada. Canada Yearbook Historical Collection. Retrieved December 2010. http://www65.statcan.gc.ca/acyb_r000-eng.htm [Indicator 3] - North American Paper Consumption By Grade 2000-2009 [22]. RISI. Annual Historical Data - North American Graphic Paper. 2010. [Indicator 4] North American Paper Consumption By Grade, 2009 RISI. Annual Historical Data - North American Graphic Paper. 2010. [Indicator 5] United States Printing and Writing Paper Consumption, by End Use (2009) [23]. American Forest & Paper Association. 2009 Statistics. June 2010. [Indicator 6] - Canadian and U.S. Paper Recovery Rates [24]. American Forest & Paper Association. 2010. http://www.paperrecycles.org [25]. Paper Recycling Association. Overview of the Recycling Industry. Retrieved December 2010. http://www.pppc.org/en/2_0/2_4.html The State of the Paper Industry: 2011 [Indicator 7] Paper Recovery and the Landfill [26]. Environmental Protection Agency. Municipal Solid Waste in the United States Facts and Figures 2009. http://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/municipal/ pubs/msw2009rpt.pdf [27]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Municipal solid waste in the United States: 2005 facts and figures. 2005. http://www.epa.gov/msw/msw99.htm [Indicator 8] Percent of Pulp Produced from Recovered Fiber - United States American Forest & Paper Association. 2009 Statistics. June 2010. [Indicator 9] North American High Grade Recovered Fiber Deinking Capacity Suitable for Fine Papers [28]. Conservatree. Deinking Capacity Study, 2001, 2006, 2010. [29]. RISI. Annual Historical Data - World Recovered Paper. 2010. RISI. Annual Historical Data - World Recovered Paper. 2010. [Indicator 10] Destination of Paper Recovered in the

[30]. Environmental Defense Fund et al. PaperCalculator.org. Accessed October 30, 2012. [31]. Confederation of European Paper Industries. Key Statistics 2009 European Pulp and

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United States RISI. Annual Historical Data - World Recovered Paper. 2010.

PaperIndustry.Rep.2009.(http://www.cepi.org/docshare/docs/2/EBAKDHEBDIAKDBBGDL CKAPFHPDBG4CHB4AV9V66OQL6C/CEPI/docs/DLS/2009_Key_Statistics_FINAL2010 0624-00015-01-E.pdf) [31]. Environmental Paper Network. Survey of EPN Members. Completed January 2011. [Indicator 12] - Total Area under FSC Certification [32]. Forest Stewardship Council - United States. 2010. [Indicator 13] - Total FSC CoC Certificates in the U.S. Forest Stewardship Council - United States. 2010. [Indicator 14] - Number of Environmentally Superior Papers Available in North America [33]. Canopy. 2010. http://www.canopyplanet.org/EPD/index.php [34]. Forest Stewardship Council Canada. Accessed January23, 2011. http://www.fscus.org/images/documents/FSC%20certified%20papers.pdf [Indicator 15] - Number of Agricultural Residue Papers Available in North America [excluding cotton] Canopy. 2010. http://www.canopyplanet.org/EPD/index.php [Indicator 16] - U.S. Imports of Illegal Wood Products [35]. Chatham House, Illegal Logging and Related Trade: Indicators of the Global Response. July 2010. http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/ publications/x/view/-/id/911/ [Indicator 17] - Use of Genetically Engineered Trees in North America [36]. Center for Biological Diversity. Press Release: Lawsuit Filed to Halt Release of Genetically Engineered Eucalyptus Trees across the American South. July 1, 2010 http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/news/press_releases/2010/ eucalyptus-07-01-2010.html [37]. Searchinger, Timother D. et al. Fixing a Critical Climate Accounting Error. Science 23 October 2009: 326 (5952), 527-528. [DOI:10.1126/science.1178797] [Indicator 18] - Pulp and Paper Industry Fossil Fuel GHG Emissions North America [38]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Annex I Greenhouse Gas Inventories. 2010.http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/items/2715.php [39]. American Forest & Paper Association. 2010 AF&PA Sustainability Report. http://www.afandpa.org/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=1402 [Exact figures were requested but not made available, charts in this report are reproduced

Mill Energy Sources, 2002, 2008 American Forest & Paper Association. 2010 AF&PA sustainabilityReport.

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based on charts in AF&PA report and presentations] [Indicator 19] - U.S. Pulp and Paper

http://www.afandpa.org/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=1402 [40]. American Forest & Paper Association. 2002 Statistics, Estimated Fuel and Energy Used, year 2000r, page 55 via http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/

forest/pdfs/doe_bandwidth.pdf [Indicator 20] - Total Energy Use Per Ton of Product [41]. American Forest & Paper Association. Presentation. Washington, D.C. December 8, 2010. [Indicator 21] - United States Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Discharge and BOD Intensity American Forest & Paper Association.2010 AF&PA Sustainability Report. http://www.afandpa.org/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=1402

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