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Oleg Golberg

Cevas Theorem

December 15, 2007

Cevas Theorem
Oleg Golberg 1 Basics

Proposition 1. Let be a line and let A, B be points not lying on . Then for all points C = D [ACD] on the ratio [BCD] is constant. Proposition 2. Let ABC be a triangle and let D be a point on line BC. Then BD [ABD] AB sin BAD = = . DC [ADC] AC sin DAC Proposition 3 (Cevas Theorem). Let ABC be a triangle. Let A1 , B1 , C1 be points on lines BC, CA, AB respectively, dierent from A, B, C. Then lines AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent or parallel i AC1 BA1 CB1 = 1. C 1 B A1 C B 1 A Proposition 4 (Trigonometric form of Cevas Theorem). Let ABC be a triangle. Let A1 , B1 , C1 be points on lines BC, CA, AB respectively, dierent from A, B, C. Then lines AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent or parallel i sin (CA, CC1 ) sin (AB, AA1 ) sin (BC, BB1 ) = 1. sin (CC1 , CB) sin (AA1 , AC) sin (BB1 , CB)

Problems

Problem 1. Connect each vertex of a triangle to the point where its incircle is tangent to the opposite side. Prove that the three resulting segments have a common point. (It is called Gergonnes point.) Problem 2. Prove that the altitudes of a triangle have a common point. Problem 3. Let ABC be a triangle and let P be a point. Lines AP, BP, CP are reected across the bisectors of angles CAB, ABC, BCA respectively. Prove that the resulting lines have a common point (or are parallel). Their common point is called the isogonal conjugate of P. Problem 4. Points A1 , B1 , C1 are chosen on sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC respectively so that AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent. Let A2 be the reection of A1 across the midpoint of BC. Dene B2 , C2 similarly. Prove that AA2 , BB2 , CC2 are concurrent (or parallel). Their common point is called the isotomic conjugate of P. Problem 5. Points A1 , B1 , C1 are chosen on sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC respectively so that AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent. Let A2 , B2 , C2 be the midpoints of sides BC, CA, AB respectively. (a) Prove that the lines parallel to AA1 , BB1 , CC1 through A2 , B2 , C2 respectively are concurrent. (b) Prove the the lines connecting A2 , B2 , C2 with the midpoints of AA1 , BB1 , CC1 respectively are concurrent.

Oleg Golberg

Cevas Theorem

December 15, 2007

Problem 6. Let , , be angles such that the sum of any two of them does not exceed . Triangles ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1 are constructed on the interior of triangle ABC such that their angles at A, B, C are , , respectively. Prove that lines AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent. Problem 7. Let the tangents to the circumcircle of triangle ABC at B and C meet at A1 . Dene points B1 , C1 similarly. Prove that AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent. Their common point is called Lemoines point. Problem 8. Prove that Lemoines point of a triangle is the isogonal conjugate of its centroid. Problem 9. A circle intersects sides AB, BC, CA of triangle ABC at points C1 and C2 , A1 and A2 , B1 and B2 respectively. Prove that lines AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent i lines AA2 , BB2 , CC2 are concurrent. Problem 10. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral inscribed into a circle . Rays AB and DC meet at P. The tangents to at A and D meet at M and tangents to at B and C meet at N. Prove that P, M, N are collinear.

Oleg Golberg

Cevas Theorem

December 15, 2007

Homework Problems
Problem 1. Let the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral meet at A and B. Let the extensions of its diagonals meet line AB at C and D. Prove that AC CB BD = 1. DA

Problem 2. Prove that the segment connecting the midpoints of the two parallel sides of a trapezoid and its diagonals are concurrent. Problem 3. Prove that inside every triangle ABC there is a point P such that ABP = BCP = CAP.