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Which of the following statements about the scientific method is NOT true?

A tentative explanation of a body of data is called a hypothesis. Theories are less likely than hypotheses to be correct. A hypothesis is strengthened if it successfully predicts the outcomes of new experiments. Theories are repeatedly tested even when most workers assume them to be correct. Humans have been on Earth for ___ of Earth's history. less than 1% approximately 50% more than 90% all The shape of the Earth is best described as a perfect sphere. near spherical with flattening at the equator and bulging at the poles. near spherical with bulging at the equator and flattening at the poles. flat. The ___ is the information preserved in rocks formed at various times throughout Earth history. geologic data geologic record geodynamic information geologic system The present is the key to the past best describes the concept known as the principle of uniformitarianism. the geologic record. the Earth system. evolution.

The temperature at which a rock melts generally ___________ with increasing pressure. increases remains the same decreases decreases, then increases What is the most abundant element in Earth's core? iron oxygen silicon aluminum What are the two most abundant elements (by weight) in the whole Earth? iron and oxygen oxygen and silicon silicon and iron oxygen and nitrogen The Mohorovicic discontinuity is a boundary that separates: the inner core from the outer core. the crust from the mantle. the mantle from the outer core. the crust from the outer core. Which of the following Earth systems is powered by solar energy? climate system geodynamic system plate tectonic system crustal system Which of the following statements about the lithosphere is NOT true? The lithosphere is cool and relatively brittle. The lithosphere includes the crust and uppermost mantle. The lithosphere is easily deformed, like a tube of toothpaste. The lithosphere is broken into a number of pieces.

The Earth's lithosphere is broken into approximately ___ large, rigid plates. 2 12 50 100 In a convecting system, like a pot of boiling water or the Earth's mantle, cool material rises. warm material rises. both cool and warm material rise. both cool and warm material sink.

Which of the following statements is correct? The Earth's asthenosphere is much stronger than the lithosphere. The Earth's asthenosphere is much weaker than the lithosphere. The Earth's asthenosphere and lithosphere are similar in strength. The Earths asthenosphere and lithosphere are both liquid and have no strength.

The Earth system is made up of three separate subsystems: biosphere system, atmosphere system, and hydrosphere system. lithosphere system, asthenosphere system, and deep mantle system. climate system, plate tectonic system, and geodynamo system. biosphere system, climate system, plate tectonic system. The geodynamo system is responsible for producing the Earths? magnetic field. convecting mantle. weather. weak lithosphere.

Rocks as old as ___ show evidence of erosion by water, indicating the operation of the ___ by that time? 3.8 billion years, plate tectonic system 3.8 million years, geodynamo system 3.8 billion years, climate system 3.8 million years, climate system In the plate tectonic system, the lithospheric plates ride on the hot, weak _____________ layer. asthenosphere deep mantle outer core crustal When did our solar system form? about 540 million years ago about 2.5 billion years ago about 4.6 billion years ago about 46 billion years ago Evidence in the rock record shows that there have been ___ major extinction events during Earths history. 10 5 2 no Which of the following would not be a component of the Earth system? Atlantic Ocean Mt. St. Helens volcano Earths outer core All of the above are components of the Earth system. The approximately spherical shape of Earth was: first determined by Columbus in 1492. known by the Greeks more than 2000 years ago. first proven by U.S. astronauts in the 1960s. None of the above, its still an unproven hypothesis.

Earths topography refers to? a graph showing Earths size. ground elevation above sea level. ground elevations above or below sea level. maps showing locations of the continents. Without accepting the principle of uniformitarianism, geologists could not? determine the salt content of sea water. measure the depth of the Marianas trench. determine the temperature at which water froze to ice 1 billion years ago. measure the velocity of an ocean wave. Study of Earths geologic record, as preserved in rock layers, indicates that: all changes to Earth occur very slowly over billions of years. no changes have occurred in the 6000 years of Earths existence. all major changes have been near instantaneousas in major earthquakes. changes, from near instantaneous to extremely slow, have been modifying Earth over its several-billion-year history. Detecting the layering of Earths interior was first made possible by the development of a machine to record: sound waves. seismic waves. ocean waves. light waves. Compressional seismic waves travel through solid, liquid, and gas, but shear waves will travel only through: solid and liquid. solid and gas. solid. liquid.

___________ and ____________ are by far the most plentiful elements in Earths crust? Oxygen, iron Iron, magnesium Oxygen, silicon Silicon, iron Seismic waves can be used to show that the only Earth layer that is completely liquid is the: inner core. outer core. mantle. crust. Going from Earths surface to Earths core: temperature increases and pressure increases. temperature increases and pressure decreases. temperature decreases and pressure decreases. temperature decreases and pressure increases. The mantles composition is dominated by what three elements? oxygen, iron, magnesium oxygen, silicon, iron silicon, iron, magnesium oxygen, silicon, magnesium The inner cores composition is dominated by what two elements? oxygen, iron iron, nickel oxygen, silicon iron, nickel Increased pressure causes ______________ of rock. increased density decreased density increased iron increased size

Earths core is denser than Earths crust as a result of? decreased pressure. increased pressure and increased iron content. increased pressure; iron content has no effect. decreased pressure and increased iron content. Earths mantle is very similar in composition to its crust, but has much more: aluminum. silicon. magnesium. calcium. The density of a material, such as rock, is determined by dividing its mass by: 2. width. length. volume.

The hydrosphere is part of the: climate system. plate tectonic system. geodynamic system. biosphere system. Deformation of continents to form mountains is driven by energy from: the Sun. internal Earth energy. the Sun and internal Earth energy. none of the above.

A greenhouse gas that plays an important role in regulating Earths climate is? oxygen. carbon dioxide. nitrogen. hydrogen. Mantle matter moves heat toward Earths surface by? convection. conduction. radiation. none of the above. The plate tectonic system describes? flow in the outer core, which causes Earths magnetic field. flow in the ice plate that covers Antarctica. flow of ocean currents, which move continents around. flow in the mantle and the movement of pieces of the outermost layer of Earths rock.

Earths magnetic field cannot be explained as caused by a huge solid iron bar in Earths core because? the core isnt rich enough in iron. the core is too cold, and magnetism disappears in cold material. the core is too hot; permanent magnets lose their magnetism at high temperatures. iron bar magnets dont occur in nature. Earth is older than the Moon. The Moon is now interpreted to have formed about: 100 million years ago. 100 million years after Earth formed. 100,000 years ago. 5000 years ago.

Approximately 542 million years ago: life first appeared on Earth. the first major extinction killed all life on Earth. all the dinosaurs disappeared, but humans survived. a much greater diversity of animals appeared, including many that grew shells.

A great extinction event 65 million years ago is now interpreted to have been caused by: the flu. impact of a large meteorite. a worldwide flood. a worldwide drought. Place the following major Earth events in the correct order: (1) humans appear; (2) oceans form; (3) Moon forms; (4) animals appear on continents. 1, 2, 3, 4 3, 2, 4, 1 3, 4, 2, 1 4, 2, 3, 1

Which of the following has not been credited as a cause of mass extinctions in the past? meteorite impacts massive volcanic eruptions global cooling with worldwide glaciations human intervention Our species, Homo sapiens, first appeared about _____________ years ago. 1,600,000,000 160,000,000 160,000 16,000

Earths volcanoes and earthquakes are driven by? Earths internally stored energy. Energy from the Sun. internally stored energy and energy from the Sun. gravitational pull by the Moon.

Earths lithosphere plates move at a rate of a few? meters per year. centimeters per year. kilometers per year. miles per year. The strong rocky outer shell of the solid Earth that comprises the crust and uppermost mantle is called the? asthenosphere. biosphere. cryosphere. lithosphere.

1. The central part of the Earth below a depth of 2900 km, comprising a liquid outer core and a solid inner core.

core
2. A specialized subsystem of the Earth system that encompasses specific types of terrestrial behavior.

geosystem
3. The general configuration of varying heights that gives shape to Earths surface.

topography
4. The region that forms the main bulk of the solid Earth, between the crust and the core, ranging from depths of about 40 km to 2900 km.

mantle
5. A geosystem that includes all parts of the Earth system and all the interactions among these components needed to describe how climate behaves in space and time.

climate system
6. A ground vibration produced by earthquakes or explosions.

seismic wave
7. The central part of the Earth from a depth of 5150 to 6370 km, composed of iron and nickel. A solid metallic sphere with a radius of 1220 km suspended within the liquid outer core.

inner core
8. The thin outer layer of the Earth, averaging about 8 km thick under the oceans to about 40 km thick under the continents, consisting of relatively light materials that melt at low temperatures.

crust
9. The region of influence of a magnetized body or an electric current.

magnetic field

10. A general research plan, based on methodical observations and experiments, by which scientists propose and test hypotheses that explain some aspect of how the universe works.

scientific method

11. All the parts of our planet and all their interactions, taken together.

earth system
12. Trace of an organism of past geologic ages that has been preserved in the crust.

fossil
13. The strong, rigid outer shell of the Earth that encases the asthenosphere and contains the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle down to an average depth of about 100 km and forms the rigid plates.

lithosphere
14. A geosystem that includes all parts of the Earth system and all the interactions among these components needed to describe how plate tectonics works in space and time.

plate tectonic system


15. A liquid zonecomposed of iron, nickel, and minor amounts of some lighter element, such as oxygen or sulfurbelow the mantle, from a depth of 2890 to 5190 km, that surrounds a solid ironnickel inner core.

outer core
16. The geosystem that sustains Earths magnetic field, driven by convection in the outer core.

geodynamo
17. The weak layer of soft but solid rock comprising the lower part of the upper mantle (below the lithosphere) and over which the plates slide. Movement in the asthenosphere occurs by plastic deformation.

asthenosphere
18. The principle that the geologic processes we see in action today have worked in much the same way throughout geologic time; that is, the present is the key to the past.

principle of uniformitarianism

Which of the following statements regarding the scientific method is FALSE? A. A tentative explanation of a body of data is called a hypothesis. B. Theories are less likely to be correct than hypotheses. C. A hypothesis is strengthened if it successfully predicts the outcomes of new experiments. 2. Humans have been on Earth for _____ of Earth's history. A. less than 1% B. approximately 50% C. more than 90 3. What are the two most abundant elements in our Sun? A. Helium and oxygen B. Hydrogen and silicon C. Hydrogen and helium 4. Which of the following planets is composed mostly of rocky material? A. Jupiter B. Neptune C. Venus 5. When did our solar system form? A. About 540 million years ago. B. About 2.5 billion years ago. C. About 4.6 billion years ago.

6. How old are the oldest moon rocks? A. Approximately 0.5 billion years old. B. Approximately 2.5 billion years old. C. Approximately 4.5 billion years old. 7. Which of the following mechanisms did NOT cause the early Earth to heat up? A. Plate tectonics B. Disintegration of radioactive elements C. collision of planetesimals with primitive Earth 8. The temperature at which a rock melts generally_____ with increasing pressure. A. increases B. remains the same C. decreases 9. What is the most abundant element in Earth's core? A. Iron B. Oxygen C. Silicon 10. What is the most abundant element (by weight) in the whole Earth? A. Iron B. Oxygen C. Silicon 11. Which of the following gases is NOT expelled from volcanoes today? A. Carbon dioxide B. Water vapor C. Oxygen

12. Which of the following planets has a heavy, hot atmosphere? A. Mars B. Mercury C. Venus 13. Which of the following statements about the Moon is correct? A. The Moon formed from material ejected from Earth by large volcanic eruptions. B. The Moon formed from the debris of a giant bolide that impacted Earth. C. The Moon is a small planet that was captured by Earth's gravitational field. 14. When did Earth's Heavy Bombardment period end? A. About 1 billion years ago B. About 2 billion years ago C. About 4 billion years ago. 15. Which of the following Earth systems is powered by solar energy? A. Climate system B. Geodynamo system C. Plate tectonic system 16. Which of the following statements about the lithosphere is FALSE? A. The lithosphere is cool and relatively brittle. B. The lithosphere includes the crust and uppermost mantle. C. The lithosphere is easily deformed, like a tube of toothpaste. 17.The Earth's lithosphere is broken into approximately _____ large, rigid plates. A. 2 B. 12 C. 50

18. In a convecting system, like a pot of boiling water or the Earth's mantle, __________. A. cool material rises. B. warm material rises. C. both cool and warm material rise. 19. Which of the following statements is correct? A. The Earth's asthenosphere is much stronger than the lithosphere. B. The Earth's asthenosphere is much weaker than the lithosphere. C. The Earth's asthenosphere and lithosphere have similar strength. 19. Which of the following compounds is a product of photosynthesis? A. Carbon dioxide B. Oxygen C. Water

1- A hypothesis that has accumulated a considerable body of support is called - A principle - A proved hypothesis - A theory - The scientific method

2- Which of the following statements best describes current scientific thinking about the beginning of the universe ? - Matter existed as dust and clouds that began to solidify on their own about 4.5 billion years ago. - A superdense point of matter and energy exploded between 15 and 20 billion years ago, expanding into what we know as the universe. - Several points of superdense matter and energy that existed throughout space exploded simultaneously, filling the universe with dust and clouds. - Matter in our solar system was drawn into outer space as the result of gravitational attraction.

3- As the proto-Sun began to form, which of the following changes took place ? - Only certain elements were drawn into its interior by selective gravitational attraction. - Nuclear fusion, resulting from extremely high temperatures and pressures, transformed hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. - Material was thrown out immediately because of the liquid nature of the hydrogen present. - All the mass imploded into the proto-Sun.

4- Which of the following statements best describes the composition of the inner and outer planets of our solar system ? - The inner planets are small and rocky because they formed close to the Sun, where conditions were so hot that gases could not be retained. - The inner planets and outer planets have the same basic composition. - The giant outer planets have cores composed of gases. - The outer planets are larger, implying that their composition is different.

5- Which statement regarding Earth's accretion is false? - A giant impact created debris, which later formed into the earth - A giant impact sped-up Earth's rotation - A giant impact tilted Earth's orbital plane to 45 degrees - None of the above

6- The lithosphere can be characterized as? - Composed of partially molten rock and supporting the asthenosphere - Having a thickness of more than 200 km - Being solid and riding atop the asthenosphere - A continuous shell that surrounds the outermost shell of the Earth 7- Earth's lithospheric plates move because ? - Convection allows hot matter to rise and cool matter to sink - They float atop the world's oceans - They float on Earth's liquid mantle - The asthenosphere is cooler than the mantle

8- The climate system is driven by _________ and the plate tectonic system is driven by ________ ? - The Sun; Earth's internal heat

- Earth's internal heat; the Sun - Volcanoes; earthquakes - Floods; volcanoes

9- The book's description of the origin and early evolution of Earth is ? - A proved fact - A theory - A hypothesis - Pure guesswork

10- Global warming in which carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infrared radiation from Earth's surface and radiate it back to the surface is known as ________ ? - The Greenhouse Effect - Photosynthesis - Convection - The Climate System 1. Which of the following statements regarding the scientific method is FALSE? A. A tentative explanation of a body of data is called a hypothesis. B. Theories are less likely to be correct than hypotheses. C. A hypothesis is strengthened if it successfully predicts the outcomes of new experiments. 2. Humans have been on Earth for _____ of Earth's history. A. less than 1% B. approximately 50% C. more than 90%

3. Which of the following planets is composed mostly of hydrogen and helium? A. Sun B. Venus C. Jupiter 4. What are the two most abundant elements in nebulae (gas clouds) in the universe? A. helium and oxygen B. hydrogen and silicon C. hydrogen and helium 5. Which of the following statements about the lithosphere is false? A. The lithosphere is cool and relatively brittle. B. The lithosphere includes the crust and uppermost mantle. C. The lithosphere is easily deformed, like a tube of toothpaste. 6. The Earth's lithosphere is broken into approximately _____ large, rigid plates. A. 2 B. 12 C. 50 7. Which of the following mechanisms did NOT cause the early Earth to heat up? A. plate tectonics B. disintegration of radioactive elements C. collision of planetesimals with primitive Earth 8. Which of the following features is not associated with a divergent plate boundary? A. a mid-ocean ridge B. earthquakes C. a deep-sea trench

9. Earthquakes are associated with which of the following types of plate boundaries? A. divergent boundaries B. convergent boundaries C. both A and B 10. What is the most abundant element (by weight) in the whole Earth? A. Iron B. Oxygen C. Silicon 11. Which of the following gases is NOT expelled from volcanoes today? A. Carbon dioxide B. Water vapor C. Oxygen 12. Which of the following planets has a heavy, hot atmosphere? A. Mars B. Mercury C. Venus 13. What type of plate boundary is the San Andreas fault? A. a divergent plate boundary B. a convergent plate boundary C. a transform-fault plate boundary 14. What is the name of the large supercontinent that existed 200 million years ago when all of the continents were together? A. San Andreas B. Pangaea C. Nebulae

15. Which of the following human activities releases greenhouse gases? A. burning of coal B. destruction of forests C. both A and B

1. A theory precedes a hypothesis in the Scientific Method. True or False? 2. Approximately how old is the moon? 3. About 90% of Earth consists of these four elements______ _____ ______ _____? 4. What process removed carbon dioxide and added oxygen to Earth's primitive atmosphere about 2.5 billion years ago? 5. ______ ______ energizes the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere components of the Earth System. 6. Even though Earth's surface has been heavily bombarded by asteroids, meteoroids, and comets, there are relatively few craters on its surface. Explain why. 7. What was the first crater on Earth to be recognized as an impact crater? 8. Give two examples of disturbances that might have caused the original nebula from which our solar system evolved to begin collapsing. 9. About how long do scientists believe it took for the original nebula to collapse? 10. From the evidence we have so far, do most stars occur as pairs (binary systems) or as solitary stars like our Sun?