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2/14/2007

The Advent of Rome

Overview of the periods of Roman history; the question of Imperialems; areas of expansion; Rome and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

Phases of Roman History


The Monarchy of Rome (753510 B.C.) The Republic (50927 B.C)
Early Republic, Romes expansion in Italy (509264 B.C.) Middle Republic, Romes expansion in the Mediterranean (264133 B.C.) Late Republic, period of civil war and upheaval (13327 B.C.)

The Augustan Age, peace and prosperity restored (27 B.C.A.D. 14) The Empire (A.D.14235) The Late Empire (A.D. 235476)

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15. Advent of Rome

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The Question of Imperialism


Definitions
The creation, maintenance, or extension of empire; controlling many nations and areas Exploitation of inferior states through military and political pressures A system of imperial government, esp. government by an emperor

Roman context
Imperium: supreme authority, power to command; dominion or realm (territory under Roman command) Rome, of course, had an empire long before she had an emperor!
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Motives for Roman Expansion


Ancient
Roman prayer: Subdue to the Latins and extend the imperium of the Roman people Polybius: defensive imperialism

Modern
Accidental, Rome stumbled into empire, drawn in by entangling alliances and commitments Preemptive, defensive; concerned about balance of power and potential enemies Economic Desire for power, glory, and opportunity (individual and collective)
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Sources
Livy, 2145 Augustan age historiographer Ab urbe condita Polybius, 1549 Second century B.C. historiographer Plutarch 2nd century A.D. biographer Flamininus, Cato Maior, Aemilius Paullus [major Roman conquerers] Appian Early 2nd century A.D. historiographer Macedonica, Syriaca, Iberica, Libyca [histories organized by theater]
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The Punic Wars against Carthage


Made Rome a great power in the Mediterranean World
Transformed her into a sea power Gave Rome her first overseas provinces

I Punic (264-241 B.C.): Sicily, first provinces


Sardinia and Corsica gained shortly thereafter

II Punic War (218-201 B.C.): Spain, two provinces


Carthage defeated after a desperate struggle in Italy following Hannibals invasion

III Punic War (149-146 B.C.): North Africa


Carthage itself besieged and destroyed

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15. Advent of Rome

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Punic Wars: the Battles and the Territory

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The Roman West

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15. Advent of Rome

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The Eastern Kingdoms Fall . . .

Above: Macedonia, after fighting four wars, became a Roman province along with Greece. Right: the Seleucid Empire lost most of Asia Minor to Roman provinces and clients. Upper right: The last king of Pergamum left his kingdom to the Roman people; it became the province of Asia.
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The Balance of Power in the East

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Supremacy of Roman Power in the East


After weakening the Seleucid kingdom, Rome intervenes only to maintain a balance of power Antiochus IV Ephiphanes tries to reinvigorate Seleucid Syria Rome thwarts Antiochus expansion into Ptolemaic Egypt C. Popillius Laenas forces Antiochus to break off siege of Alexandria with a circle in the sand (Liv. 45.12 = Mellor, 347) Rome supports the Maccabean revolt in Judea, leading to the Hasmonean Jewish state Egypt effectively becomes a Roman protectorate Rome intervenes in dynastic disputes, ensures royal wills, maintains kings

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Roman Administration
Inside Italy
Full citizens (civitas optimo iure) Half citizens (civitas sine suffragio), numbers declining as more gain full citizenship Socii (including Latin colonies with special rights)

Outside Italy
Provinces In Faith allies with moral obligations (Rome had helped previously, dependant upon Roman support) Client Kingdoms Free states (amicitia, or friendship alliances)

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Provincial Administration
Patchwork quilt of allies, subjects, and statuses Provincia
From provincere to conquer, a governors sphere of military responsibility

Civitates foderatae (treaty states)


Independent with treaties with Rome, but within governors sphere

Civitates liberae et immunes (free and tax-free) Civitates stipendaria (tibutary states)
Subject to land and poll tax

All states self-governing, all pay tariffs and tolls


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Provincial Governors
Praetors, propraetors, proconsuls no new praetors elected after Sicily, Sardinia-Corsica, and the Spains Duties Defend province Apply jurisdiction
Between communities When Roman citizen involved Increasingly heard appeals

Administration Quaestor (largely financial) Legati (lieutenants) Assessors Household servants and staff!
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Administrative Abuses
Governor supreme
No checks and balances as in Rome Lacked colleague, comitiae, plebeian tribunes, etc.

Extortion, violence, arbitrariness Galba acquitted by Senate for Spanish action


Led to establishment of a standing court, quaestio de rebus repentundae, to deal with provincial misconduct, especially extortion Jury still composed largely of senators!

Financial exactions and abuses


Publicani or tax farming corporations

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Mithridates and the Pontic Threat


Taking advantage of the Social War in Italy (9188 B.C.), Mithridates, King of Pontus, seized Cappadocia and Bithynia in 88 B.C. A Roman envoy forced him to withdraw, but he subsequently invaded the province of Asia as well Pontic invasion of Greece followed Throughout the East, oppressed provincials welcomed Mithridates as a liberator
Romans and Italians massacred

Sulla brutally retakes Greece (8786 B.C.) Treaty of Dardanus with Mithridates (85 B.C.)
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Togate Roman versus Hellenistic Nude


Left: Honorific statue of a municipal aristocrat, c. 80 B.C. Right: Roman general depicted as a Hellenistic king, c. 150 B.C. Glorification of the individual: first equestrian statue commissioned by the Senate of Sulla (now lost; see Zanker 3-4)

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Realistic, and individualized, portraiture

Left to right: Now-anonymous man from Sardinia; M. Licinius Crassus; C. Iulius Caesar

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Rise of Pompey
71 B.C., M. Licinius Crassus defeats Spartacus
Pompey returns from Spain as Crassus is mopping up Tension between two resolved by decision to run for joint consulship

70 B.C., Consulship of Crassus and Pompey


Consulship is Pompeys first office!

67 B.C., lex Gabinia gives Pompey imperium maius against pirates


Destruction of Seleucid and then Rhodian naval power had left a vacuum on the seas A resurgent Mithridates and his son-in-law Tigranes encouraged piracy

66 B.C., lex Manilia gives Pompey Lucullus Mithridatic command


Lucullus has already driven Mithridates into hiding; vulture comment

64 B.C. Pompey in Syria


Dismissal of Antiochus XIII Asiaticus and Philip II Philoromaeus ends Seleucid dynasty

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Grand Pretensions: Pompeys imitation


of Alexander the Great

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Rome and Parthia


Parthian, a central Asian people who had took some of the Iranian highlands from the Seleucids
The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Iran from 248 B.C. until their overthrow by the Persian Sassanid Dynasty in A.D. 224 In 139 B.C. Mithridates I captured Demetrius II Nicator and occupied Mesopotamia Ctesiphon, across from Seleucia-on-Tigris, became their Western capital
Do not forget about the large Babylonian Jewish community!

The annexation of Syria brought the Roman frontier in contact with the Parthian Empire
Parthian strengthtwo types of cavalry: the heavily-armed and armoured cataphracts and lightly armed but highly-mobile mounted archers (cf. Roman heavy infantry) Parthian weaknesseslittle skill in siege warfare, had difficulty occupying and administering territory (tended to be feudal)

Battle of Carrhae (53 B.C.)


Crassus, trying to imitate or outdo Pompey, invaded Mesopotamia Roman army wiped out, Pompey killed
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Caesar: Civil War and Dictatorship


The die is cast Invaded Italy in 49 B.C. when political opponents threatened him Dictator I
Civil War in Greece

Victory over Pompey at Pharsalus (red circle) Flight of Pompey to Egypt, his death
Alexandrian War

Intervention into Ptolemaic dynastic struggle puts Cleopatra VII on throne as sole ruler (green circle) Caesars affair and son
47 B.C., Caesar dictator II

46 B.C., Caesar dictator III (against Numidian allies of optimates) and consul III Reforms begin 45 B.C., Caesar dictator IV (dicator rei publicae constituendae causa) for ten years, consul IV Exceptional honors begin March 15, 44 B.C. Assassinated

Defeats Pharnaces at Zela: Veni, vidi, vici (blue circle)


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