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The Denavit-Hartenberg Algorithm

Dr. Sallehuddin Mohamed Haris

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Any two neighbouring frames can be brought into coincidence by a prescribed sequence of at most two rotations and two translations.

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Any two neighbouring frames can be brought into coincidence by a prescribed sequence of at most two rotations and two translations. The D-H algorithm is a systematic matrix method based on Homogeneous Transformation Matrices to describe the position and orientation of each link or the tool tip with respect to its neighbouring link in a static situation.

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Steps to take when performing the D-H algorithm:

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Steps to take when performing the D-H algorithm: 1. Assign coordinate frames to all links and the tool tip.

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Steps to take when performing the D-H algorithm: 1. Assign coordinate frames to all links and the tool tip. 2. Derive 4 4 HTM to describe the position and orientation of each link or tool tip wrt its neighbouring link.

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Steps to take when performing the D-H algorithm: 1. Assign coordinate frames to all links and the tool tip. 2. Derive 4 4 HTM to describe the position and orientation of each link or tool tip wrt its neighbouring link. 3. Use the post-multiplication rule to compute the forward kinematics.

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Steps to take when performing the D-H algorithm: 1. Assign coordinate frames to all links and the tool tip. 2. Derive 4 4 HTM to describe the position and orientation of each link or tool tip wrt its neighbouring link. 3. Use the post-multiplication rule to compute the forward kinematics. 4. From the forward kinematic equation, determine the position and orientation of the end effector (tool tip).

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Arm Parameters

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Arm Parameters
q

Dene the robot base as link 0.

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Arm Parameters
q q

Dene the robot base as link 0. Number each link and the end effector consecutively in increasing order.

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Arm Parameters
q q

Dene the robot base as link 0. Number each link and the end effector consecutively in increasing order. Joint 1 connects link 0 to link 1.

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Arm Parameters
q q

Dene the robot base as link 0. Number each link and the end effector consecutively in increasing order. Joint 1 connects link 0 to link 1. Joint i connects link i 1 to link i.

q q

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Arm Parameters
q q

Dene the robot base as link 0. Number each link and the end effector consecutively in increasing order. Joint 1 connects link 0 to link 1. Joint i connects link i 1 to link i. Assign a Cartesian frame xi yi zi to each joint.

q q q

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Arm Parameter Assignment

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Arm Parameter Assignment


q

The zi axis is aligned with the axis of the rotary joint i + 1.

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Arm Parameter Assignment


q q

The zi axis is aligned with the axis of the rotary joint i + 1. The xi axis

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Arm Parameter Assignment


q q

The zi axis is aligned with the axis of the rotary joint i + 1. The xi axis
3

is normal to both the zi1 and zi axes.

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Arm Parameter Assignment


q q

The zi axis is aligned with the axis of the rotary joint i + 1. The xi axis
3 3

is normal to both the zi1 and zi axes. points from the intersection of the zi1 and xi axes

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Arm Parameter Assignment


q q

The zi axis is aligned with the axis of the rotary joint i + 1. The xi axis
3 3

is normal to both the zi1 and zi axes. points from the intersection of the zi1 and xi axes to the intersection of the zi and xi axes.

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Arm Parameter Assignment


q q

The zi axis is aligned with the axis of the rotary joint i + 1. The xi axis
3 3

is normal to both the zi1 and zi axes. points from the intersection of the zi1 and xi axes to the intersection of the zi and xi axes.

The yi axis is chosen from to form a right-handed xi yi zi frame.

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Link Parameters

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Link Parameters
q

ai (the link length) is the common normal between the zi1 and zi axes.

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Link Parameters
q

ai (the link length) is the common normal between the zi1 and zi axes. i (the twist angle) is the rotational angle of the zi1 axis about the xi axis such that the zi1 will be parallel to the xi axis after the rotation.

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Joint Parameters

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Joint Parameters
q

i (the joint angle) is the rotational angle of the xi1 axis about the zi1 axis such that the xi1 axis will be parallel to the xi axis after the rotation.

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Joint Parameters
q

i (the joint angle) is the rotational angle of the xi1 axis about the zi1 axis such that the xi1 axis will be parallel to the xi axis after the rotation. d (the joint distance) is the translational distance from oi1 (the origin of the xi1 yi1 zi1 frame) to bi (the intersection of the xi and zi1 axes).

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Arm Parameter Symbol Revolute Joint Joint angle variable Joint distance d constant Link length a constant Twist angle constant

Prismatic Joint constant variable constant constant

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HTMs

Ti =

cos i sin i sin i cos i 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

Tai =

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

ai 0 0 1

Tdi =

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 di 1

Ti =

1 0 0 0 cos i sin i 0 sin i cos i 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

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D-H Transformation Matrix


i Ti1 = Ti Tdi Tai Ti

Ci Ci Si Si Si aCi Si Ci Ci Si Ci aSi 0 Si Ci di 0 0 0 1

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