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Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus

Department of Decentralised Power Generation and Electrical Engineering in Power Plants

Power Generation and Electrical Engineering in Power Plants Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Contents Prof.

Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I

Contents

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Pfeiffer

LG 3

Walther-Pauer-Straße 5

03046 Cottbus

Phone: (0355) 69-4035 klaus.pfeiffer@tu-cottbus.de

February, 2009

1 Network connection of power plants

2 Basic circuits

3 Reliability requirements to the power plant auxiliaries system

4 Single-line diagrams

5 Low-voltage distributions

6 Auxiliary voltage supply

7 Parameter of the main electrical equipment

8 Selective protection in the auxiliaries system

Exercises

8 Selective protection in the auxiliaries system Exercises Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I

1. Network connection of power plants

Overview

English

German

A Direct generator bus connection

Sammelschienenschaltung

B Unit connection

Blockschaltung

C Group unit connection

Gruppenblockschaltung

C Group unit connection Gruppenblockschaltung Figure 1.1 : Direct generator bus connection Figure 1.2 :

Figure 1.1: Direct generator bus connection

Figure 1.1 : Direct generator bus connection Figure 1.2 : Unit connection Figure 1.3 : Group

Figure 1.2: Unit connection

Direct generator bus connection Figure 1.2 : Unit connection Figure 1.3 : Group unit connection Pfeiffer

Figure 1.3: Group unit connection

1.2 : Unit connection Figure 1.3 : Group unit connection Pfeiffer Department of Decentralised Power Generation

Pfeiffer

Department of Decentralised Power Generation and Electrical Engineering in Power Plants

Brandenburg University of Technology

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I

Application

Network connection type

Generator power P rG [MW]

A

Direct generator bus connection

50 … 100

B

Unit connection

> 100

C

Group unit connection

100 … 200

Properties

Advantage of the unit connection (B)

Disadvantage of the direct generator bus connection (A)

Faults doesn’t affect other generators in the power plant

1. For faults on

– the power plant busbar

– the transformer

– the line between transformer and grid switchgear all the generators will be switched off.

2. High short-circuit currents at power plant busbar.

Disadvantage of the group unit connection (C)

1. For faults on

– the power plant busbar

– the line between power plant busbar and grid switchgear all the generators will be switched off.

2. High short-circuit currents at power plant busbar.

System voltages at normal operation

U

n

U

n

[kV]

[kV]

MIN

MAX

110

100

123

220

200

245

380

360

420

100 123 220 200 245 380 360 420 Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Type of constructions

Electrical equipment

Type

 

Eng

Generator leads

A

Busbar of non-encapsulated type (indoor installation)

Ger

Generatorausleitung GAL

B, C

Busbar of encapsulated type

Eng

Power plant busbar

A

Busbar of non-encapsulated type (indoor installation)

Ger

Kraftwerks-Sammelschiene

C

Outdoor installation with switching devices in the generator branches

Eng

Line between

A

Cable or overhead line

- transformer and switchgear (A and B)

B

Overhead line or Cable inside the territory of the power plant, outside overhead line

- power plant busbar and grid switchgear (C)

Ger

Energieabführungsanlage (EAF)

C

Cable inside the territory of the power plant, outside overhead line

Eng

Transformer

A

Vector group Yd5 (to avoid zero sequence system on the generator side)

Ger

Transformator (T)

Eng

Unit transformer

B, C

Vector group Yd5 (to avoid zero sequence system on the generator side)

Ger

Blocktransformator (BT)

on the generator side) Ger Blocktransformator (BT) Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I

Circuit breakers

Terms

English

German

Generator circuit breaker

Generatorleistungsschalter (GLS)

Generator switch

Generatorlastschalter (GLaS)

Grid circuit breaker

Netzleistungsschalter (NLS)

Direct generator bus connection (A) and group unit connection (C):

Generator circuit breakers (one c.b. in every generator branch) are absolutely required for the commissioning and withdrawal from service of each generator separately.

and withdrawal from service of each generator separately. Figure 1.4 : Direct generator bus connection Figure

Figure 1.4: Direct generator bus connection

separately. Figure 1.4 : Direct generator bus connection Figure 1.5 : Group unit connection Generator circuit

Figure 1.5: Group unit connection

Generator circuit breakers are not urgently required for the unit connection type. There exist some older installations where generator circuit breakers are not existent.

where generator circuit breakers are not existent. Figure 1.6 : Unit connection Brandenburg University of

Figure 1.6: Unit connection

breakers are not existent. Figure 1.6 : Unit connection Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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2. Basic circuits

The basic circuits of power plants include the network connection and the circuits for the power plant auxiliaries system.

Object of the power station auxiliaries:

To supply the technological process in the power plant with electrical energy.

Example: Coal-fired power station

– feed in of fuel, air, water

– disposal of flue gas and ash

(by coal-mills, induced-draught, forced draught, feed-water pumps)

o

flue gas cleaning system (desulphurisation)

o

ash filter

o

C0 2 -capturing

Furthermore the power plant auxiliaries system is needed for

– the start-up of power station units (before connecting the generator to the grid)

– the shut-down of power station units (after disconnecting the generator from the grid)

In the following we examine only generators in unit connection (because this is the most favoured type of network connection of power plants) and its corresponding auxiliaries system.

For the start-up or the shut-down process respectively the covering of the load demand of the power plant auxiliaries system is done by the unit auxiliary transformer or the visited network transformer (depends on the equipping with generator c.b.). The consumers (outgoing feeders) are connected to the unit distribution. The distribution for starting-up/shut- down can be coupled with the unit distribution.

down can be coupled with the unit distribution. Figure 2.1 : Overview Brandenburg University of Technology

Figure 2.1: Overview

be coupled with the unit distribution. Figure 2.1 : Overview Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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There are two possibilities for the equipping with switching devices:

1. Application of generator circuit breakers or generator switches (fig. 2.2.1)

2. Renunciation of generator circuit breaker (fig. 2.2.2)

2. Renunciation of generator circuit breaker (fig. 2.2.2) Figure 2.2.1 : Overview about the basic circuit

Figure 2.2.1: Overview about the basic circuit for the auxiliaries system with generator circuit breaker

for the auxiliaries system with generator circuit breaker Figure 2.2.2 : Overview about the basic circui

Figure 2.2.2: Overview about the basic circuit for the auxiliaries system without generator circuit breaker

for the auxiliaries system without generator circuit breaker Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Breaker position

 

GLS

NLS

ELS

KLS

Figure

GLS

Starting-up procedure

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

2.3

or

Normal operation after connecting the generator to the grid

ON

ON

ON

OFF

2.4

GLaS

Technological fault

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

2.5

GLS

Electrical fault

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

2.6

GLaS

Electrical fault

ON

OFF

OFF

ON

2.7

----

Starting-up procedure

----

OFF

OFF

ON

2.8

 

Normal operation after connecting the

         

----

generator to the grid

----

ON

ON

OFF

2.9

----

Technological fault

----

OFF

OFF

ON

2.10

----

Electrical fault

----

OFF

OFF

ON

2.10

Note:

Technological faults

disturbance in the boiler

(no short-circuit!)

disturbance in steam pipe

disturbance in the turbine

Electrical faults

all possible faults in the zone between generator and incoming feeder circuit breaker in the grid switchgear

Generator circuit breakers are very expensive and usually applied for unit capacities greater than 500 MW only. They must have a very high reliability.

Example: Power plant Jänschwalde (one generator: S rG = 588 MVA, U rG = 20 kV)

Terms

I rG = 17 kA

English

German

Unit auxiliary transformer

Blockeigenbedarfstransformator (BET)

Visited network transformer

Fremdnetztransformer (FNT)

Unit distribution

Blockverteilung (BV)

Distribution for starting-up/shut-down

Anfahr-/Abfahrverteilung (AV)

Bus coupler circuit breaker

Kuppelleistungsschalter (KLS)

Incoming feeder circuit breaker

Einspeiseleistungsschalter (ELS)

feeder circuit breaker Einspeiseleistungsschalter (ELS) Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 2.3 : Starting-up of a power plant unit with

Figure 2.3: Starting-up of a power plant unit with generator circuit breaker or generator switch

unit with gener ator circuit breaker or generator switch Figure 2.4 : Normal operation of a

Figure 2.4: Normal operation of a power plant unit with generator circuit breaker or generator switch

unit with generator circuit breaker or generator switch Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 2.5 : Breaker position after a technological fault (power

Figure 2.5: Breaker position after a technological fault (power plant unit with generator circuit breaker of generator switch)

unit with generator circuit breaker of generator switch) Figure 2.6 : Breaker position after an electrical

Figure 2.6: Breaker position after an electrical fault (power plant unit with generator circuit breaker)

fault (power plant unit with generator circuit breaker) Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 2.7 : Breaker position after an electrical fault (power

Figure 2.7: Breaker position after an electrical fault (power plant unit with generator switch)

an electrical fault (power plant unit with generator switch) Figure 2.8 : Starting-up of a power

Figure 2.8: Starting-up of a power plant unit (power plant unit without generator switch)

plant unit (power plant unit without generator switch) Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 2.9 : Normal operation of a power plant unit

Figure 2.9: Normal operation of a power plant unit (power plant unit without generator switch)

plant unit (power plant unit without generator switch) Figure 2.10 : Breaker position after a technological

Figure 2.10: Breaker position after a technological or electrical fault (power plant unit without generator switch)

fault (power plant unit without generator switch) Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Power rating of the visited network transformer

Power plant unit with generator circuit breaker/generator switch

Visited network transformer has to supply only these drives and machines which are necessary for the shut-down of the generator unit after electrical faults Power rating of the visited network transformer according to the required power for the shut-down process

Power plant unit without generator circuit breaker/generator switch

Power rating of the visited network transformer according to the required power in the auxiliaries system for the starting-up/shut-down process of the generator

Changeover procedures between unit distribution and distribution for starting-up/shut-down

Eng

Instantaneous changeover

Ger

Sofortumschaltung

Eng

Slow changeover

Ger

Langsamumschaltung

Note:

– after technological faults (supply of the unit distribution via the distribution for starting- up/shut-down

– after connecting the generator to the grid (at the end of starting-up process)

– after electrical faults

The determination of the making time for slow changeover procedures has to consider different phase angles of the voltages at the unit distribution and at the distribution for starting-up/shut-down. The slow changeover has to be processed out in that time window where the phase angles of the voltages at the unit distribution and at the distribution for starting-up/shut-down are in such a range that unacceptable high currents at re-acceleration of the machines will not occur. Measures for a successful changeover:

– short-circuit power of the visited network must be sufficient to keep the voltage drop at motor re-acceleration after changeover inside the limit range

– switch-off of some machines before the changeover procedure to reduce the total power to be changed over simultaneously

to reduce the total power to be changed over simultaneously Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Faults in the transmission grid

Primary protection For faults in the transmission grid the grid circuit breaker performs the system decoupling. This means a sudden off-loading to the generator. Regardless of the availability of the generator circuit breaker or generator switch the generator output will be adjusted to the load demand of the auxiliaries system. The generator is only feeding into the distributions of the auxiliaries system. We speak about a generator in isolated operation. If the generator is incapable for the isolated operation, the unit has to be shutted-down, feeding the necessary drives and machines for the shut-down process over the visited network. Note:

The ability of a generator unit for the isolated operation depends on the technological process. In most cases the isolated operation is limited to a certain time period only.

Back-up protection The circuit breakers in the outgoing feeders of the grid switchgear have to be included into the back-up protection, if the grid circuit breaker fails. If no generator circuit breaker is existing and in case of a primary protection failure (grid circuit breaker fails) the generator would be remaining connected to the grid, if no back-up protection is available.

Unit distribution

All the consumers in the auxiliaries system (machines/drives) will be supplied from the unit distribution. The rating of the unit distribution is mostly done for a rated operational voltage of U e = 10 kV (rated voltage U r = 12 kV). The majority of the consumers have a rated voltage lower than 1 kV. Therefore the two low-voltage levels 690 V and 400 V were introduced (former 6 kV and 380 kV). The auxiliary voltage is formed from the low-voltage busbars (chapter 6).

voltage is formed from the low-voltage busbars (chapter 6). Figure 2.11 : Basic circuit of the

Figure 2.11: Basic circuit of the unit distribution

6). Figure 2.11 : Basic circuit of the unit distribution Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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3. Reliability requirements to the power plant auxiliaries system

General task of the auxiliaries system: Provide electrical energy for

– starting-up

– normal operation

– shut-down

of the power plant. Besides these general tasks the auxiliaries system has to meet the following requirements:

to guarantee the system function to ensure a high availability of the power plant

to ensure the safety function to avoid accidents with negative consequences (In case of an arbitrary breakdown or any other disturbance the necessary equipment for a safe shut-down of the power plant must be always available. Important for nuclear power plants: permanent availability of the circular pump of the first circulation.)

Note:

To guarantee the safety function it is necessary to install two independent protection systems for the electrical circuits.

The process engineering of the power plant influences the design specifications of the auxiliaries systems, considering

– type

– capacity

– significance

of the power plant to ensure system and safety function. The result is the number of systems which have to be realised by the electrical engineering. The following design specifications will be applied:

– n-criterion

– (n+1)-criterion

– (n+2)-criterion

n is the minimum number of systems or subsystems which are required for a 100%-system function, e.g. 1 x 100% or 2 x 50%.

The (n+1)-criterion contains a redundancy (additional system function). In case of any random failure or disturbance the 100%-system function is still available. This criterion is also called individual failure criterion.

The n-criterion and the (n+1)-criterion is applied to conventional power plants.

the (n+1)-criterion is applied to conventional power plants. Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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The (n+2)-criterion considers random failures and additional the non-availability (outage) of equipment due to repair. This criterion is applied for the design of safety systems in nuclear power plants.

The determination of the number of systems is as follows:

Let n equal to 1 x 100%

n-criterion

1 system

(n+1)-criterion

2 systems

(n+2)-criterion

3 systems

Let n equal to 2 x 50%

n-criterion

2 systems

(n+1)-criterion

3 systems

(n+2)-criterion

4 systems

i.e. the following systems are existent:

n-criterion

2 x 50%

(n+1)-criterion

3 x 50%

(n+2)-criterion

4 x 50%

Important for the reliability of the auxiliaries system is also the number of independent (electrical) routes to a consumer (equipment). In figure 3.1 it is to be seen that the machines at the unit distributions A and B can be supplied either from the unit auxiliary transformer of from the visited network transformer.

transformer of from the visited network transformer. Figure 3.1 : Two-way supply (double circuit) (ger.:

Figure 3.1: Two-way supply (double circuit) (ger.: Zweisträngigkeit)

Variants:

n

= 2 x 50%

n-criterion

n

= 2 x 100%

(n+1)-criterion

In conventional power plants both of the criteria will be applied in one and the same power plant.

criteria will be applied in one and the same power plant. Brandenburg University of Technology Department

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Note:

The term “two-way supply” or “double circuit” respectively does not contain a definition of the availability or power output of the power plant during operation. If the equipment (consumers) is installed in the 2 x 50%-variant and one equipment fails, the power plant can only operate at reduced (half) power output.

plant can only operate at reduced (half) power output. Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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4. Single-line diagrams

Examples

in Power Plants I 4. Single-line diagrams Examples Figure 4.1 : Conventional coal-fired power plant with

Figure 4.1: Conventional coal-fired power plant with one generator unit Rated generator apparent power: S rG = (500 … 900) MVA

The distributions for the coal feeding are located in a distance (approx. 1000 m) from the plant building. For the supply of the distributions for the coal feeding exist sub-distributions. These sub-distributions are connected to the unit distributions.

In the following table the 10-kV-consumers in a real existing 800-MW-coal-fired power plant with two boilers are shown (connection to the unit distributions A – D).

Consumer type

number

Capacity

Unit distribution A

Distribution transformer

1

3,15 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

5

/ 2,5 / 2,5 MVA (10 / 0,73 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

3,15 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

2

2,5 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

2

2,0 MVA (10 / 0,42 kV)

Main condensate pump

2

2

/ 1 / 1 MVA (freq. converter transf.)

Coal mill (for boiler 1)

4

2

x 2 / 1,25 / 1,25 MVA (freq. converter transf.)

Feed-water pump

1

13,5 MW

Forced draught (for boiler 1)

1

4,1 MW

Intermediate cooling circuit pump

1

0,67 MW

Sub-distribution

1

 
pump 1 0,67 MW Sub-distribution 1   Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Unit distribution B

Distribution transformer

1

3,15 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

5

/ 2,5 / 2,5 MVA (10 / 0,73 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

3,15 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

2

2,5 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

2

2,0 MVA (10 / 0,42 kV)

Main condensate pump

2

2

/ 1 / 1 MVA (freq. converter transf.)

Coal mill (for boiler 2)

4

2

x 2 / 1,25 / 1,25 MVA (freq. converter transf.)

Feed-water pump

1

13,5 MW

Forced draught (for boiler 2)

1

4,1 MW

Intermediate cooling circuit pump

1

0,67 MW

Boiler circulating pump

1

1,0 MW

Sub-distribution

1

 

Unit distribution C

Distribution transformer

3

2,5 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

2,0 MVA (10 / 0,42 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

6,4 / 3,2 / 3,2 MVA (10 / 0,73 / 0,73 kV)

Absorbing pump

4

0,7 MW

Induced draught

1

9,5 MW

Oxi-Blower

1

0,6 MW

Main cooling-water pump

1

3,5 MW

Sub-distribution

1

 

Sub-distribution

1

 

Unit distribution D

Distribution transformer

3

2,5 MVA (10 / 0,73 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

2,0 MVA (10 / 0,42 kV)

Distribution transformer

1

6,4 / 3,2 / 3,2 MVA (10 / 0,73 / 0,73 kV)

Absorbing pump

4

0,7 MW

Induced draught

1

9,5 MW

Oxi-Blower

1

0,6 MW

Main cooling-water pump

1

3,5 MW

Sub-distribution

1

 

Sub-distribution

1

 

For comparison: examples for the 10-kV-drives in a 500-MW-coal-fired power plant

   

P

rM

number

[MW]

Feed-water pump

1

6,0

Cooling-water pump

1

3,5

Condensate pump

2

0,6

Coal mill

6

0,8

Induced draught

1

3,2

Forced draught

2

2,0

Induced draught 1 3,2 Forced draught 2 2,0 Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 4.2 : Conventional coal-fired power plant with two generator

Figure 4.2: Conventional coal-fired power plant with two generator units (A and B)

coal-fired power plant with two generator units (A and B) Figure 4.3 : Nuclear power plant

Figure 4.3: Nuclear power plant approx. rated generator apparent power: S rG = 1300 MVA

Security relevant consumers connected to the unit sub-distributions:

after-cooler pumps, emergency feeder pumps

after-cooler pumps, emergency feeder pumps Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 4.4 : Combined cycle power plant AU: automatic changeover

Figure 4.4: Combined cycle power plant

AU:

automatic changeover facility

U

changeover facility

automatic changeover facility U changeover facility Figure 4.5 : Biomass power plant U changeover facility

Figure 4.5: Biomass power plant

U changeover facility

Figure 4.5 : Biomass power plant U changeover facility Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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5. Low-voltage distributions

Principles for the low-voltage distributions:

1. Each low-voltage distribution has its own transformer infeed. Two neighbouring low- voltage distributions can be coupled.

2. The maximum power demand (total of the power of all the consumers connected to one low-voltage distribution does not exceed the half of the transformer capacity of the infeeding transformer.

S r consumer 0,5 · S rT

3. In case of a failure of the transformer infeed an automatic changeover (ger.:

automatische Umschaltung AU) to the neighbouring distribution will be executed. The transformer of the remaining transformer infeed can supply the coupled distribution without any problems due to principle 2 (German term: Halbschienenbauweise).

4. The two transformers are not connected to the same upstream unit distribution.

These principles can be realised by means of two variants (fig. 5.1 and 5.2).

can be realised by means of two variants (fig. 5.1 and 5.2). Figure 5.1 : Supply

Figure 5.1: Supply of low-voltage distributions; variant 1: with coupling

of low-voltage distributions; variant 1: with coupling Figure 5.2 : Supply of low-voltage distributions; variant 2:

Figure 5.2: Supply of low-voltage distributions; variant 2: without coupling

of low-voltage distributions; variant 2: without coupling Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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A comparison of variant 1 and variant 2 is to be seen in the following table and in figure 5.3. Criteria for the comparison are

– Selective protection

– Costs for the circuit breakers

– Switching capacity of the circuit breakers

 

Variant 1

Variant 2

Max. power demand of the low-voltage distribution

S r consumer / S rT 0,5

S r consumer / S rT 0,5

 

Incoming feeder circuit breaker:

Incoming feeder circuit breaker 1:

Failure of one transformer infeed

OFF

OFF

Bus coupler circuit breaker:

Incoming feeder circuit breaker 2:

 

ON

ON

 

Incoming feeder circuit breaker:

All circuit breakers:

Max. continuous current I Umax of circuit breaker

I Umax / I rT = 1

I Umax / I rT = 0,5

Bus coupler circuit breaker:

 

I Umax / I rT = 0,5

Number of circuit breaker

3

4

Number of grading steps (for selective protection)

2

1

Interruption of short-circuit currents (fig. 5.3)

Incoming feeder circuit breaker:

Incoming feeder circuit breaker:

I kN

I kN + I kM

Incoming feeder circuit breaker: I kN I kN + I kM Figure 5.3 : Interruption of

Figure 5.3: Interruption of short-circuit currents Switching status: one transformer supplies two low-voltage distributions

one transformer supplies two low-voltage distributions Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Three-winding transformers will be applied instead of two-winding transformers to save costs (fig. 5.4). A reduction of reliability or availability is not to be expected because transformer failures are very rare. The reason for a changeover in the low-voltage level (coupling of two low-voltage distributions) is in most cases a power outage at the unit distribution.

is in most cases a power outage at the unit distribution. Figure 5.4 : Supply of

Figure 5.4: Supply of low-voltage distributions with three-winding transformers

of low-voltage distributions with three-winding transformers Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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6. Auxiliary voltage supply

Auxiliary supply voltages are

– 220 V DC

– 400 V AC

They are needed for the voltage supply of the following functions:

– actuation

– protection

– control

– signalling

– interlocking

Figure 6.1 presents the circuit for the generation of the auxiliary voltages.

the circuit for the generation of the auxiliary voltages. Figure 6.1 : Auxiliary voltage supply Figure

Figure 6.1: Auxiliary voltage supply

auxiliary voltages. Figure 6.1 : Auxiliary voltage supply Figure 6.2 : Battery room The 220-V-DC busbar

Figure 6.2: Battery room

The 220-V-DC busbar can be supplied either from the rectifier or from the battery. The

battery is feeding the 220-V-DC busbar in case of rectifier failure or an outage of the

400 V AC supply of the upstream switchgear . The duration depends on the capacity of the

battery. In the second stage an inverter generates from 220 V DC the output voltage of

400 V AC (busbar ). Due to the battery back-up the 400-V-AC busbar is called safe

busbar or busbar of uninteruptable power supply (UPS).

safe busbar or busbar of uninteruptable power supply (UPS). Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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The electronic transfer switch (German: Elektronische Umschalteinheit EUE) is a thyristor switch which connects busbar and directly. The thyristor switches on in case of

– overload of the inverter

– fault in the connection between battery and inverter

– outage of the inverter

In case of maintenance work at the inverter or at the electronic transfer switch the double- throw switch will be switched manually into position 2 (connecting upstream 400-V-AC switchgear with the safe busbar).

The basic scheme for the auxiliary voltage supply according to figure 6.1 is multiple existent in the power plant due to

– redundancy concept

– covering the load demand of the necessary consumers

Other auxiliary voltage levels, e.g. 24 V DC will be generated locally by means of DC/DC- transformers.

Examples:

220

V DC

Low-voltage switchgears:

 

Actuation of ACB’s (supply voltage of the trip coil)

Supply of the protection relays ( in some cases 24 V DC are needed for some electronic protection relays)

400

V AC

Process I&C

 

Substation automation (M.V. and L.V.)

Tolerance band for the auxiliary voltages:

(0,85 … 1,1) U

Tolerance band for the auxiliary voltages: (0,85 … 1,1) U Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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7. Parameter of the main electrical equipment

7.1

Generator

Parameters

Table 7.1 presents guidance values for

– rated (active) generator power

– rated generator voltage

– rated generator current

P

U

rG

rG

I rG

The table also contains the initial three-phase short-circuit current for terminal fault, roughly

calculated from the subtransient generator reactance

The generator resistance can be neglected in most cases.

x′′ .

d

P

rG

[MW]

U

rG

[kV]

I

rG

[kA]

I′′

k

[kA]

x′′

d

[%]

25

6,3

 

3

30

10

50

10,5

 

4

35

11

100

10,5

 

7

60

12

200

15,75

 

9

60

15

500

20

 

17

70

24

800

27

 

21

85

26

Table 7.1: Guidance values for generator parameters

The rated power output of the generator must be possible at continuous operation at

– rated voltage

U rG ±5%

– rated frequency

f rG ±2%

At f = 47,5 Hz an immediate shutdown of the generator will be executed.

Hz an immediate shutdown of the generator will be executed. Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Equivalent circuit

Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Equivalent circuit Figure 7.1 : Equivalent circuit and corresponding phasor

Figure 7.1: Equivalent circuit and corresponding phasor diagram

X

h

direct-axis magnetizing reactance

(Hauptfeldreaktanz)

X

σ

stator leakage reactance

(Ständerstreureaktanz)

U

p

synchronous generated voltage (synchronous internal voltage)

(Polradspannung)

E

armature voltage

(Ankerspannung)

U

terminal voltage

(Klemmenspannung)

ϕ

phase angle

(Phasenwinkel)

ϑ

angular displacement

(Polradwinkel)

Synchronous reactance:

(Ger.: synchrone Reaktanz, Ankerreaktanz)

X

d

= X + X

h

σ

Generator resistance:

R << X

d

X d = X + X h σ Generator resistance: R << X d Figure 7.2

Figure 7.2: Simplified equivalent circuit and corresponding phasor diagram

U

S

S

p

=

U

+

j X

d

=

3

U

I

=− 3

j

*

=

2

U

X

d

I

3

U

U

j

⎜ ⎛

⎜ ⎝

-

j

U

X

d

*

p

1

X

d

I = j

1

X

d

(

U

* *

U

p

⎟ ⎞ ⎟

)

(

U

U

p

)

j 1 X d ( U * * − U p ⋅ ⎟ ⎞ ⎟ ⎠

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U

*

p =

U

p

∠− =

ϑ U

p

(cosϑ

j sinϑ)

S = 3

U U

X

d

p

sin

ϑ

U U

X

d

+ j

p

cos

ϑ

2

U

X

d

⎟ ⎞

⎟ ⎠

 

U

U

Active power:

 

P

= sinϑ

3

p

 
 

X

d

Reactive power:

Q

3

= ⋅

⎛ ⎜ U U

p

cos

ϑ

U

2

X

d

   

X

d

Dependencies:

 

P ~ P turb ~ U q ~ I w ~ ϑ

for U, U p = const.

Q ~ I f ~ U l ~ I b ~ U p

for U, ϑ = const.

P turb

I f

turbine power output

(Turbinenleistung)

excitation current

(Erregerstrom)

The equation for active and reactive power is presented in figure 7.3:

for active and reactive power is presented in figure 7.3: Figure 7.3 : Power – angle

Figure 7.3: Power – angle characteristic of the synchronous generator

From figure 7.3 the following is to be seen:

– The stationary operation is characterized by the balance between turbine power output (mechanical power output) and electrical power output of the generator (operating point A).

– The maximum active power output (pull-out power; Ger.: Kippleistung)

P

=

3

U

U

p

X

d

is achieved for ϑ = 90°. This angle is called pullout rotor angle.

– Reactive power output (infeed of inductive reactive power into the grid) is only

possible for U p > U (overexcitation). The reactive power output is decreasing with

increasing active power output (increase of ϑ).

with increasing active power output (increase of ϑ ). Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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The capability curve of the generator can be drawn by means of the equation for the apparent power.

be drawn by means of the equation for the apparent power. Figure 7.4 : Capability curve

Figure 7.4: Capability curve of a synchronous generator

From the capability curve the permissible operating area is to be seen (fig. 7.5).

the permissible operating area is to be seen (fig. 7.5). Legend: overexcited infeed of inductive reactive

Legend:

overexcited

infeed of inductive reactive power

underexcited

consumption of inductive reactive power

section A

power limitation due to maximum turbine power output

section B

power limitation due to temperature rise of the stator

section C

power limitation due to limiting temperature rise of the rotor

section D

reverse power protection

section E

minimum excitation

section F

power limit due to stability (maximum angular displacement ϑ)

Figure 7.5: Operating area of a synchronous generator

ϑ ) Figure 7.5 : Operating area of a synchronous generator Brandenburg University of Technology Department

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Parameter for short-circuit calculation

Subtransient reactance

2

X ′′ = x′′ ⋅10

d

d

U

2

rG

S rG

Resistances according to

VDE 0102

Impedance

U

rG

[kV]

S

rG

[MVA]

R G /

X′′

d

> 1

100

0,05

> 1

< 100

0,07

1

 

0,15

Z

G

= R + jX′′

G

d

Correction factors k G according to VDE 0102 must be

considered.

Subtransient three-phase short-

circuit current (neglecting

resistance)

Subtransient electromotive

force (e.m.f.)

Peak short-circuit current

= k ⋅ R + jX′′ ( ) d Z GK G G U n
= k ⋅ R + jX′′
(
) d
Z GK
G
G
U
n
c max
k
G =
U
+ x ′′⋅
sin
rG 1
d
ϕ rG
E
′′
I
k ′′=
X
′′
d
1,1
U
′′=
rG
E
3
i
= 2 ⋅κ⋅I′′
p
k
κ =
f
(R /X ′′
) peak factor
G
d

The peak short-circuit current is given by the

manufacturer. Tolerances of ±30% are permissible.

by the manufacturer. Tolerances of ± 30% are permissible. Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Load unbalance

Negative sequence currents I 2 occur in the generators at asymmetrical faults in the grid. The negative sequence currents cause contrarotating fields which stress the generator windings thermally.

The highest negative sequence currents occur at phase-to-phase short circuits.

The percentage negative sequence current is called load unbalance:

s =

I

2

I rG

100 [%]

Permissible values:

continuous load unbalance: s = 5%

short-term load unbalance:

5s

t

s = ⎜ ⎝

1

2

t: duration of the load unbalance

[s]

100

[%]

⎝ 1 2 t: duration of the load unbalance [s] ⋅ 100 [%] Brandenburg University of

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7.2 Transformer

7.2.1 Unit transformer

Types of construction

7.2 Transformer 7.2.1 Unit transformer Types of construction Figure 7.6 : Types of construction for unit

Figure 7.6: Types of construction for unit transformers

Properties:

Variant 1 in comparison with variant 2 and 3

Variant 3 in comparison with variant 1 and 2

– reduced costs

– reduced losses

– one three-phase reserve transformer needed

– maximum space required

– one single-phase reserve transformer needed

– high expenses for the interconnection of the single-phase windings

for the interconnection of the single-phase windings Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Electrical Engineering in Power Plants I Figure 7.7 : Interconnection of three single phase transformer windings

Figure 7.7: Interconnection of three single phase transformer windings (vector group Yd5)

For the unit connection type always transformers with vector group Yd5 are applied.

Vector group Yd5

Neutral point connection:

depends on the desired phase-to-ground short-circuit current in the grid

Variants:

Z ME = 0

Solid earthing

Z ME = X D

Low-impedance earthed neutral

Rated power output:

– power output of the transformer depends on the cooling

rated power output for continuous operation is given for the designed (rated) cooling

– overload capability is a function of the time and additional cooling

– transformer temperature is monitored continuously

Further important criteria:

– changing of the transformation ratio by on-load tap changer (reactive power consumption or infeed in dependency of the grid voltage)

– transport

– acoustic power level

– insulation level

– transport – acoustic power level – insulation level Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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7.2.2 Unit auxiliary transformer

Determination of percentage impedance

Three-winding transformers will be often applied for unit auxiliary transformers (figure 7.5).

often applied for unit auxiliary transformers (figure 7.5). Figure 7.8 : Three-winding transformer The determination of

Figure 7.8: Three-winding transformer

The determination of the percentage impedances u k has to consider the following:

– short-circuit currents at busbar 1 and 2 should not exceed defined values

– low mutual influence of the busbars 1 and 2 starting operations of machines connected at busbar 1 should cause only small voltage drops at busbar 2

The equivalent circuit for three-winding transformers is shown in figure 7.6.

for three-winding transformers is shown in figure 7.6. Figure 7.9 : Equivalent circuit of a three-winding

Figure 7.9: Equivalent circuit of a three-winding transformer (Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 are not symmetrical impedances)

For

u

k

0

1

=

u

k 0

u

k

1

2

= 2

we get

Z

0 =

0

u

2

k 0

1

For this case the sides US 1 and US 2 are independent from each other.

the sides US 1 and US 2 are independent from each other. Brandenburg University of Technology

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Voltage control

Unit auxiliary transformers will be often stressed by high motor starting currents. This is one of the reasons why unit auxiliary transformers are not equipped with a tap changer. The voltage at US 1 and US 2 can be only controlled by the generator voltage control. The following requirement has to be met:

U Gmax

ü

U m

U

m

maximum permissible voltage at sides US 1 and US 2

Further properties

Vector group:

Yy0

or

Dy0

Neutral point treatment:

Low-impedance earthed neutral

Isolated neutral

or

7.2.3 Distribution transformer

In case of application of three-winding transformers the above mentioned statements are valid too.

Properties

 

Three-winding transformer

Two-winding transformer

Vector group:

Dy5y5

Dy5

Neutral point treatment:

Maximum transformer power:

Solid earthing

Z ME = 0

2 MVA (0,4 kV)

3,15 MVA (0,69 kV)

(due to limited arcing fault withstand capability of the low- voltage switchgears)

fault withstand capability of the low- voltage switchgears) Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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7.2.4 Guidance values for transformer parameter

Type

Transformation ratio

S

rT

u

k

u

R

[MVA]

[%]

[%]

Unit transformer

U rG / (U n ±12%) 1)

600 – 1000

12 – 16

0,1 – 0,2

Unit auxiliary transformer

U rG / 10,5 2)

20 – 45

8 – 12

0,3 – 0,4

Distribution transformer

10,5 / 0,40 ±2x2,5% 3)

1 – 2 2 – 3,2

6

0,5 – 0,8 0,4 – 0,7

10,5 / 0,69 ±2x2,5% 3)

6 – 7

Table 7.2: Guidance values for transformer parameters 1) on-load tap changer 2) change of the transformation ratio by generator voltage control 3) off-circuit tapping U n nominal voltage of the transmission grid

Permissible tolerances for the

percentage impedances

Impedances

Two-winding transformer

principal tapping: ±10%

±14%

other tapping:

Z T = R + jX T T 2 − 2 U rT = u
Z
T = R
+ jX
T
T
2
− 2
U rT
= u
⋅10
R T
R
S rT
2
U
− 2
rT
= u
⋅10
Z T
k
S
rT
2 2
= Z − R
X T
T
T

According to VDE 0102 correction factors have to be

considered:

Three-winding transformer

Z

TK

(

= k R

T

T

+ jX

T

)

k T for maximum short-circuit currents:

k

T

=

0,95

c max

1 + 0,6

X

T

S

rT

U

2

rT

For short-circuit calculation each side can be

considered separately. According to figure 7.6 we get:

Z

Z

T

T

=

Z

= Z

0

0

+ Z

1

+ Z

2

or

to figure 7.6 we get: Z Z T T = Z = Z 0 0 +

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7.3 Motor

For the drive of pumps, fans, mills etc. asynchronous motors are applied.

U

n

P

rM

[kV]

[kW]

10

> 500

0,69

< 500

0,40

< (200 … 250)

Table 7.2: Guidance values for motor power

Requirements

1. Secure start-up at U N = 0,75 · U rM and f N = 0,95 · f r

2. No interruption of operation at short-term voltage deviations of U N = 0,70 · U rM (no stall/pulling out)

3. Re-connection at U M = 0,4 · U rM and phase opposition between motor voltage and grid voltage

4. Secure continuous operation at voltage deviations to U N = 0,85 · U rM

Parameters

Rated motor current

Quasi-steady starting current

I rM

I AM

P rM = 3 ⋅ U ⋅ cos ⋅ η rM ϕ rM rM =
P rM
=
3
U
cos
η
rM
ϕ rM
rM
= a ⋅I
rM

a starting current ratio (given by the manufacturer) permissible tolerance: +20%

guidance values:

Subtransient starting current (peak values of the starting current)

M.V.-motors:

a = 4 … 5

L.V.-motors:

a = 2,5 … 7,5

a = 2,5 for P rM < 1 kW

i AM

κ

M

a = 2,5 … 7,5 a = 2,5 for P r M < 1 kW i

= 2 κ I

M

AM

peak factor (dependent on R M / X M ) in most cases manufacturer information are not available

κ M max = 1,8

information are not available κ M m a x = 1,8 Brandenburg University of Technology Department

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Start-up

L.V.-motors:

– direct start-up

M.V.-motors:

– direct start-up

– application of frequency converters to reduce

the motor starting currents (fig. 7.7)

the starting currents will be reduced

(fig. 7.7) ⇒ the starting currents will be reduced to 2 · I r M Figure

to 2 · I rM

Figure 7.10: Connection of motors using frequency converters

Impedances

Z =

M

1

U

2

rM

a

S

rM

S

rM

=

P

rM

cos

ϕ

rM

η

rM

This impedance is the initial motor impedance (after switch-on, after

fault begin) Z M X = M 2 ⎛ R ⎞ M 1 + ⎜
fault begin)
Z
M
X
=
M
2
R
M
1 + ⎜
X
M

According to VDE 0102 the following values in table 7.3 can be

applied.

U

rM

P rM / p [MW]

 

X

M

[kV]

R M / X M

[]

> 1

>1

0,10

0,995

> 1

< 1

0,15

0,989

< 1

all

0,42

0,922

Table 7.3: Guidance values for motor resistances and reactances

p number of pole pairs

for motor resistances and reactances p number of pole pairs Brandenburg University of Technology Department of

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Short-circuit current

I

i

′′

kM

pM

U rM ≈ ≈ a = 2 ⋅κ ⋅I′′ M kM
U rM
≈ ≈
a
= 2 ⋅κ ⋅I′′
M
kM

I

rM

The impedances of the cable connections can be neglected.

The motor short-circuit currents decay very fast. Hence the

– breaking current

– thermal equivalent short-circuit current

are very small compared to the short-circuit currents feeded from the grid.

7.4 Switchgears

Rated switchgear parameters

Rated short-time withstand current

Rated peak short-circuit current

I

I

cw(1s)

pk

The switchgear parameters have to meet the following requirements:

Withstand capability

>

Stress parameter

I cw(1s)

I pk

>

>

I th(1s)

i p

Safety factors will be applied to consider possible future changes (increases) in motor power.

The arcing fault stress to the switchgear is not a formal selection criterion. The arcing fault withstand capability of a switchgear has to be proofed in a test field. The test parameters

– prospective

I′′ k (three-phase, dead short circuit)

– fault duration t ag

are set by the user of the switchgear. The determination of these test parameters has to consider the real maximum short-circuit current and the total fault duration according to the protection concept.

total fault duration according to the protection concept. Brandenburg University of Technology Department of De

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The rated parameters for switchgears are given in table 7.4 and 7.5.

U

n

I

cw(1s)

I

pk

[kV]

[kA]

[kA]

10

 

25

 

63

10

 

31,5

 

80

10

 

40

 

100

10

 

50