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# What we learned in chapter 1

Speed of light is finite. Fixed in vac and slower in media Laws of reflection and refraction (Snells law) Fermats Principle (looking at the same problem backwards). Similar to the relationship between Newtonian mechanics and Lagrangian mechanics Chromatic dispersion and the separation of colors

## Plane Surfaces and Prisms

1. Parallel beam
Reflected beam has the same cross section as the incident beam External reflection

## cos '/ cos

Critical angle
sin n ' = sin ' n For n<n If sin =1, there is a max that is called the critical angle c n sin c = Incident from air n' For crown glass n=1.52 c=41.14 For water n=1.333 c=48.60 For Diamond n=2.42 c=24.41

## Total internal reflection

Apply the principle of reversibility The critical angle is the smallest angle in incidence in the higher indexed medium for which light is totally reflected. When TIR occurs, no energy goes into the lower indexed medium

Prism Applications

Prism materials
Most prisms are used at 45 degree angle so we need Materials can be used would need n>1.414 Most materials can be used.

n' sin 45 n

n>n

## Plane-parallel Plate only shifts a ray

d = l s i n ( ')
t d= (sin cos ' sin 'cos ) cos '

## n cos d = t (sin sin ) n' cos '

The displacement is given by

## n cos d = t sin (1 ) n ' cos '

Approximation
n cos ) d = t sin (1 n ' cos '
d
Off by about 3% for 30 degrees

Refraction by a prism
In a parallel plate, the deviations of the two surfaces are annulled In a prism, they are made to enhance each other Snells Law of refraction
sin 1 n ' sin 2 = = sin 1 ' n sin 2 '
O

= 1 1 '

= 2 2 '

= + = 1 1 '+ 2 2 ' = 1 + 2
comes in by considering the ANBO quadragon

Minimum deviation
Minimum happens at

1 = 2 1 ' = 2 ' =

Rotation around A

## Minimum deviation -II

m = + = 2 = 1 '+ 2 ' = 21 ' 1 = 1 '+
Solve these together

## 1 ' = (1/ 2) 1 = (1/ 2)( + m )

Apply Snell's law n ' sin[(1/ 2)( + m )] = n sin(1/ 2)
Another way of measuring n. Most prisms are used near this angle to cause less astigmatism from the divergence or convergence of incident beam

Thin prisms
If is small n ' sin[(1/ 2)( + m )] + m = = sin(1/ 2) n = (n ' 1)
m label is dropped since they are almost always used at min dev. in air The prism Diopter, 1cm deviation at 1 m away, or =0.01 rad=0.0573

## 1-D dense flint prism, n=1.067050

= / (n ' 1) = 0.85459

## Combination of 2 thin prisms

Risley or Herschel prism Two of equal power Power addition by vector addition
If is the angle between the two prisms

= 12 + 22 + 21 2 cos
Compared to only one prism 2 sin tan = 1 + 2 cos If 1 = 2

tan = tan( / 2)

= /2

ROQ=

RPQ=

## Direct vision prism

n and n chosen for the D line to have =0 Ray tracing done for all colors

Back to back

## Reflection of divergent rays

s = s'
Object distance = image distance

Virtual image

## Paraxial ray image

Angles are small cosine=1 and sine equals angle

h = s tan = s ' tan ' tan sin cos ' n 'cos ' s' = s =s =s tan ' cos sin ' n cos since s' n' = = s ' n We have s' n' = s n

Fiber Optics

## Nobel Prize in Physics for 2009

one half to Charles Kuen Kao
Standard Telecommunication Laboratories, Harlow, UK, and Chinese University of Hong Kong

Godfather of Broadband, "Father of Fiber Optics or "Father of Fiber Optic Communications "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication

## other half jointly to Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith

Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA