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Educational Input Provision for OVC

EDUCATIONAL INPUT PROVISION FOR ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN (OVC)

Assessing the Impact of Educational Input Provision for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: The case of Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization

By: Robel Taye Enrolment No. 099110965

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Work from Indira Gandhi National Open University, School of Social Work

October, 2012 Addis Ababa

Educational Input Provision for OVC DECLARATION I hereby declare the project work entitled Assessing The Impact Of Educational Input Provision For Orphans And Vulnerable Children In The Case Of Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization submitted by me for the partial fulfillment of MSW to Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) New Delhi is my original work and has not been submitted earlier to IGNOU or to any institution for the fulfillment of the requirements of any course of study, I also declare the no chapter of this manuscript in whole or in part is lifted and incorporated in this report form earlier work done by me and others. Place________________ Date________________ Name________________ Address______________ Signature_________________ Enrollment No._____________

Educational Input Provision for OVC CERTIFICATE This is to certify Mr. Roble Taye student of MSW from Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi was working under my supervision and guidance for his project work for the course MSWP001. His project work entitled Assessing the Impact of Educational Input Provision for Orphan and Vulnerable Children the case of: Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization. Place________________ Date________________ Signature_________________ Name ___________________

Address of the supervisor_______________________________

Educational Input Provision for OVC

Acknowledgement First of all I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude for the almighty God and His son and our Savior Jesus Christ on whose will and grace I exist and conduct all activities in life. Secondly, I would like to thank my cooperative skill full advisor PhD Candidate Dessalegn Negeri for his constructive criticism that finally leads me to accomplish my tasks. Then I thank my families from the bottom of my heart for their boundless financial and moral support, without which I cannot succeed my studies. I am so humble and great full to forward my gratitude for everyone who cooperated for the finalization of this paper.

Educational Input Provision for OVC ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATION AIDS AHISDO OVC CIA CRC HIV IHAUDP MDGS MOLSA UDHR UNESCO UNHCR UNICEF Acute Immune Deficiency Syndrome Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization Orphan Vulnerable Children Central Intelligence Agency Convention on the Rights of Children Human Immune Virus Integrated Holistic Approach for Urban Development Program Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nation Education and Scientific Organization United Nation High Commission for refuge United Nations Children's Emergency Fund

Educational Input Provision for OVC

Table of Contents
Table of Contents....................................................................................................... 1 Chapter One............................................................................................................... 3 Introduction................................................................................................................ 3 Background of the Study............................................................................................4 Statement of the problem..........................................................................................5 Objectives of the Study..............................................................................................6 General Objective....................................................................................................6 Specific Objectives..................................................................................................6 Research Questions....................................................................................................6 Significance of the Study............................................................................................7 Limitations of the study..............................................................................................7 Delimitation of the Study............................................................................................8 Chapter Two...............................................................................................................9 Review of Related Literature......................................................................................9 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 9 Chapter Three..........................................................................................................21 Research methodology and Design .........................................................................21 Research Design....................................................................................................22 Study population ..................................................................................................22 Sample..................................................................................................................23 Tools for data collection........................................................................................23 Data Processing and Analysis................................................................................24 Ethics in Research.................................................................................................25 Chapter Four............................................................................................................26 Data Analysis and Interpretation .............................................................................26 The provision of basic school supplies...................................................................26 The provision of tutorial Support...........................................................................29 Expectations and reflections about the provided educational support..................30 The provision of psycho social support for OVCs..................................................30 Chapter five.............................................................................................................. 35

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Conclusion................................................................................................................ 35 Recommendation..................................................................................................... 36 Reference.................................................................................................................38

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Educational Input Provision for OVC

Chapter One Introduction According to the definition obtained from Dan Church Aid (2006), United Nation defines Orphans as children below 18 years who have lost a mother, a father, or both parents to any cause of death. Vulnerable children are, children whose parents are chronically ill. These children are often even more vulnerable than orphans because they are coping with the psychosocial burden of watching a parent wither and the economic burdens of reduced household productivity and income and increased health care expenses. The number of orphans and vulnerable children throughout Eastern and Southern Africa is growing. In large part, this is due to the death of parents from HIV and AIDS. The impact of HIV and AIDS on children in the developing world is vast and multifaceted. More than 13 million children under the age of fifteen, most of them in the sub-Saharan Africa, have lost one or both parents due to AIDS. This number is expected to increase to more than 25 million by the year 2010. In 2001, 12% of the children in Sub-Saharan Africa were orphaned, compared to 6.5% in Asia and 5% in Latin America (UNICEF, 2008). Children orphaned and made vulnerable would be affected by a number of factors. Distress due to lack of food, shelter, health care, and other material goods is making their life miserable. They may be forced to drop out of school or required to care for chronically ill parents. They are exposed to abuse, discrimination, or stigma. Children living in households that have taken in orphans, unless external resource was pledged or their income increased, existing household resources would be spread more thinly among all children who create strain and stress to the host families in this turbulent and hyperinflation period (UNICEF, 2008). According to the CIA The World Fact Book 2000 Ethiopia, children between the age of 0- 14 years accounts for 47% (30,144,741). The total population growth rate is estimated to be 2.76% while the birth rate is 45.13/1000. As a result of the existing low level of socio-economic status of the country, exacerbated by recurrent draught and war, millions of children in Ethiopia
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Educational Input Provision for OVC are deprived of the right with basic needs and survival. The situation is exacerbated by the AIDS pandemic, ravaging the country and deteriorating the active labor force that can a significant role in the future socioeconomic development of the nation. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA, 2000) estimates those disadvantaged children who are victims of all the above factors to be approximately five million. This shows that orphaned and vulnerable children requires holistic and integrated response that will address the psychological, social, biological, and educational need of the child. Educational support provided for orphan and vulnerable children play a pivotal role in their wellbeing.

Background of the Study Educating orphan and vulnerable children is an important component in the social wellbeing of these children and in reducing poverty. Muhammad Yunus (2003) Nobel Peace Prize winner and founder of the Grameen Bank, asserts that education is one of the primary components for moving the poor out of poverty. The advocacy group Human Rights Watch (2006) issued a strong statement concerning education and its influence in breaking the cycle of poverty: Education breaks generational cycles of poverty by enabling children to gain skills and knowledge for better life letter on. Education is strongly linked to improvements in child health, nutrition and empowers them to be full and active participants in society, which able them to exercise their rights and engage in civil and political life, for improvement in maternal and childrens health, economic growth, sustainable family size, and democracy. In the same token, denying children access to quality education increases their vulnerability to abuse, exploitation disease and finally to death. However, Ethiopian culture does not give rights to children as understood in the CRC; Ethiopians have always taken the welfare of their children seriously. The government of Ethiopia ratified the UN CRC in 1992. The tasks to harmonize national laws, including the Ethiopian Constitution, and policies with the provision of the convention were completed a decade ago and related program implementations has been under way with this frame work.
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Educational Input Provision for OVC

According to the United Nations Children's Fund (2006) orphans are less likely to be in school and more likely to fall behind or drop out, limiting their abilities and prospects for a better life. Becoming caretakers or parents and siblings, increasing awareness of stigma; sexual, physical and verbal abuse, depression, increasing workload, (child labor) were some of the factors contributing immensely for orphans to loss their education. Further increase in responsibilities as they assume role of provider and caretaker, would further exacerbated their exclusion from education sector. Hence, the effects of educational support provided orphan and vulnerable childrens by different development agencies on their s must be examined in detail.

Statement of the problem According to the CIA The World Fact Book 2000 Ethiopia, children between the age of 0- 14 years accounts for 47% (30,144,741). The total population growth rate is estimated to be 2.76% while the birth rate is 45.13/1000. The estimated number of street children in Ethiopia is in between 150,000 to 200,000 and according to the 1991 study conducted by UNICEF (2009); around 1,000,000 urban poor children were at high risk of becoming street children. Around seven million children are estimated to have some sort of physical or mental disabilities in Ethiopia. The current estimate of AIDS orphans is about 750,000 and may increase to 980,000 by 2010 and to 2.1 million by 2014. The internal war that ravaged the country for three decades has affected thousands of children. Out of the 1991, 200,000 displaced Ethiopians from Eritrea 120,000 were children. An estimated 120, 000 children have been displaced as the result of the 1998 and 99 Ethio-Ertria border conflict. Of the 491,502 returnees from the Sudan, Djibouti and Somalia in the early 90s, 211,346 (43%) were estimated to be children. The 80s, i.e. the 1984/85 drought and famine left 36,339 minors unaccompanied and the 1987/88 drought and famine left 37,000 orphaned. The above figures indicated the enormous nature and magnitude of the problem and its impacts, on socio-economic condition of the country. One of the primary objectives of this research is to assess the effects of educational support provided for orphan and vulnerable childrens on their study, with particular emphasis to Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization. The aim of the study is to identify the
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Educational Input Provision for OVC impact of educational support frameworks and processes for meeting the needs and aspirations orphaned and vulnerable children. More over it also tried to analyze the impact of the educational support on the academic side of children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. In addition to these, the study also aims to identify key educational intervention modalities as prioritized by the target children themselves and to use the findings of the study to inform, recommend and draw the attention of key stakeholders towards educational support for orphan and vulnerable children and respond appropriately to their operating environment.

Objectives of the Study

General Objective

The general objective of the study is to assess the effects of educational support provided to orphan and vulnerable children by Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization. Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study are: To identify the major educational supports provided to orphan and vulnerable children To identify the strengths and gaps in educational support provided for orphans and vulnerable children by the agency To examine the usefulness of the educational support on psychosocial well being of the children.

Research Questions To effectively analyze the main issues raised in the specific objectives of the study, the study will use the following guiding research questions:

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Educational Input Provision for OVC What are the major educational supports provided to orphan and vulnerable children by the agency? What are the strengths and gaps in educational support provided for orphans and vulnerable children? Is the educational support provided to OVCs is effective in improving their psychosocial well being? What innovative educational interventions provided for the OVCs and will these practices is captured as lessons for future programming?

Significance of the Study The major significance of the study is to describe the situations of OVCs by focusing on the educational support provided for them. It contributes for developing the knowledge towards this segment of population. It can also guide community-based organizations and NGOs to identify the core and essential needs of their beneficiaries and enable them to act effectively in their response toward the communities problem. The research has also tremendous importance in assisting attempts made by other researcher on OVCs by describing their situation and the desired change that needs to be achieved. It can also benefit the beneficiaries by directing possible solutions for better outcomes in providing assistance.

Limitations of the study Due to the limitation of time, and resources constraint the following limitations have been encountered in the study: The study employed more of qualitative methods that some of the findings are complemented by quantitative data but the advanced quantitative analysis was not undertaken. Hence the study is a qualitative study and confined to a single agency intervention, finding obtained from this study cannot be generalized to larger population or some similar setting. The research is limited to the intervention area of AHISDO , Kebele 08/09 which is a very tiny part

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Educational Input Provision for OVC of Addis and the findings and outcomes of the research cannot be represent entire OVC situations within or in the large remaining part of Addis Ababa.

Delimitation of the Study The study is limited to describing the existing situation in depth, but quantitative figures, relationships and causalities are not described. The study involves OVCs supported by AHISDO, Kebele 08/09, other metropolitan areas, which are not under the agencys operational areas are not included.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

Introduction According to the definition obtained from Dan Church Aid (2006), United Nation defines Orphans as children below 18 years who have lost a mother, a father, or both parents to any cause of death. Vulnerable children are, children whose parents are chronically ill. These children are often even more vulnerable than orphans are because they are coping with the psychosocial burden of watching a parent wither and the economic burdens of reduced household productivity and income and increased health care expenses. The number of orphans and vulnerable children throughout Eastern and Southern Africa is growing. In large part, this is due to the death of parents from HIV and AIDS. The impact of HIV and AIDS on children in the developing world is vast and multifaceted. More than 13 million children under the age of fifteen, most of them in the sub-Saharan Africa, have lost one or both parents due to AIDS. This number is expected to increase to more than 25 million by the year 2010. In 2001, 12% of the children in sub-Saharan Africa were orphaned, compared to 6.5% in Asia and 5% in Latin America (UNICEF, 2008). Children orphaned and made vulnerable would be affected by a number of factors. Distress due to lack of food, shelter, health care, and other material goods is making their life miserable. They may be forced to drop out of school or required to care for chronically ill parents. They are exposed to abuse, discrimination, or stigma. Children living in households that have taken in orphans, unless external resource was pledged or their income increased, existing household resources would be spread more thinly among all children which creates strain and stress to the host families in this turbulent and hyperinflation period (UNICEF, 2008).

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Educational Input Provision for OVC According to the CIA The World Fact Book 2000 Ethiopia, children between the age of 0- 14 years accounts for 47% (30,144,741). The total population growth rate is estimated to be 2.76% while the birth rate is 45.13/1000. As a result of the existing low level of socio-economic status of the country, exacerbated by recurrent draught and war, millions of children in Ethiopia are deprived of the right with basic needs and survival. The situation is exacerbated by the AIDS pandemic, ravaging the country and deteriorating the active labor force that can a significant role in the future socioeconomic development of the nation. Children are among the most vulnerable groups affected by HIV/AIDS. Most children who have lost their parents to AIDS are denied their inheritance rights, discriminated against, exploited, excluded, and more crucially, deprived of their basic rights to access social services such as education. Indeed, orphans who have lost their parents to AIDS are more likely to miss out on education than other children. This calls for interventions from various stakeholders to enable these orphans and other vulnerable children to access education and acquire valuable skills. Education is an important human right. It is guaranteed by Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and is considered as a cornerstone in the achievement of the human rights framework (UNESCO 2002). The right is further reinforced in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) as well as in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). In 2000 Ethiopia signed up to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All (EFA) goals. For children, especially OVCs, it is an equally fundamental right that prepares them for full integration in society and broadens their opportunities. However, its provision is often conditional on the fulfillment of other rights such as non-discrimination under which OVCs often find themselves. Everyone is entitled to the right to education without bias to social origin, birth, or other status. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopias Constitution and other national documents and polices also guarantees the right to education and how children are entitled to be protected from any interference in their education. Unfortunately, the right to education is often denied to

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Educational Input Provision for OVC young people especially OVC who are mostly reliant on external parties to provide them with education support (Selam, 2002). The educational needs of children born with HIV have also been ignored, possibly because they are seen as children without a future and education is an investment for the future. This standpoint becomes redundant with the increasing availability of ARVs and the consequently rising number of pediatric HIV cases who are now reaching adulthood (UNESCO, 2002). Another limitation of studies on educational disadvantage and OVCs is that the concept of education is often restricted to one of enrolment. Though enrolment is one of the most important educational indicators, education is far more complex: children may be enrolled at school but not learning because they are hungry; they may be unable to concentrate due to anxiety at home; or missing classes to look after their family. Research therefore needs to look at the spectrum of possible disadvantages these children face, including educational progression and outcome variables such as repetition, highest grade completion, learning outcomes, gender equity and the inclusivity of education (NOVOC, 2009). Evidence that shows formal education can play against HIV is growing though dogged by methodological problems in assessing causality. One of the strongest pieces of evidence comes from Zimbabwe, where 15-18-year-old girls who were still enrolled in school showed HIV prevalence rates of 1.3%. Prevalence among girls of a similar age who had dropped out of school rose at 7.2% (Boler et al, 2003). The preferred interpretation is that, participation in the formal education system reduces susceptibility to HIV infection. One explanation is that participation in schooling leads to later sexual debut and lower numbers of casual sexual partners. The second explanation of how formal education may change sexual behavior lies in increased access to information: both to HIV related materials in school, and better access to such material later in life ( Boler et al, 2003). Education is in fact a confounder for socio-economic status: richer learners are more likely to stay in the formal education sector; they may also be in a better position of power to protect themselves from HIV infection (by avoiding situations of risk; being able to afford condoms; or
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Educational Input Provision for OVC having more self confidence and higher self esteem). If this is the case, as OVCs are less exposed to educational opportunities, their vulnerability to HIV infection is higher, and then the argument for addressing their specific educational needs is fortified (CRS, 2006). Many schools and educators view their boundaries of responsibility as ending in the classroom. However, the rigid timetables of schools make learning problematic for a number of children affected by HIV/AIDS. There is a real need to adapt existing learning materials for delivery at a distance. This would make them available to children who are out of school, would prevent them from falling behind when they cannot attend schools and help them re-enter school. Although specific open and distance learning courses have not been designed for OVCs, lessons can be drawn from existing distance and face-to-face programs (CRS, 2006). According to UNICEF (2009), for example, the Escuela Nueva program in Columbia delivers the national curriculum in modular form through the provision of learner guides for each subject. These guides enable children to learn independently and in groups in class or at home when they cannot attend school for short periods. When children return to school, they carry on wherever they have reached in the modular guides. This form of open distance and flexible learning could be especially useful for children who are caring for sick parents or younger siblings, or those who are working part-time. Another solution is to provide school feeding schemes in which schools provide food for the poorest children. Although school-feeding schemes can be beneficial to poor children, a number of points need to be taken into consideration to improve the chances of success: I. Timing of the school feeding scheme: In many programmes, the food is distributed at the end of the day. This reduces the potential level of impact on children: they need food at the start of the day to concentrate. Moreover, it is thought that the poorest children are not able to stay after the end of the school day because of work commitments at home, and they therefore miss out on the school feeding program. II. Nutritional value of food:
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Educational Input Provision for OVC Consideration needs to be taken of the content of the school-feeding scheme. For example, is the food provided through the scheme an addition to a home meal, or a replacement? The content of food programmes designed by international agencies has also been criticized for not having a high nutritional value, or for not including indigenous foods. III. IV. Sustainability: Food schemes are often undertaken by NGOs, which leads to difficulties in sustainability and up scaling. Governments should therefore be active partners in such feeding schemes. V. Stigmatization: Feeding schemes that specifically target poor children also label them as poor, causing inadvertent stigmatization. Sensitivity needs to be taken to prevent poor children being stigmatized, and to ensure respect and confidentiality wherever possible.
VI.

Source of food: Food should be sourced locally, ensuring the scheme support local income-generation work. Transporting food from outside will creating greater expense, be less sustainable, less appropriate, and have less impact on the community as a whole. Source: UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS, 2003 p: 14-16 Many of the problems faced by OVCs are linked to AIDS-related stigma and denial.

Unfortunately, schools are not immune to stereotypes and in some cases may serve to exacerbate negative labeling and treatment of people with HIV. The other remedies could be to encourage, all schools to aim for inclusive education. This means minimizing all barriers to learning and participation, whoever experiences them and wherever they are located within the cultures, policies, and practices of a school (UNICEF, 2009). Inclusive education involves, valuing all learners and staff equally, restructuring the cultures, policies and practices in schools so that they respond to the diversity of learners in the locality. Inclusion also requires learning from attempts to overcome barriers to access and participation of particular learners to make wider changes for the benefit of learners and viewing the difference between learners as resources to support
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Educational Input Provision for OVC learning, and learners as problems to overcome. (UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS, 2003)
It is clear that we need to know more about the difficulties faced by OVCs and their corresponding spectrum of educational needs. Educators have been grappling for decades with how to include marginalized children into mainstream schooling: we, therefore, should be able to respond knowledgeably to the orphan crisis with appropriate tools developed by tackling similar issues. Reviewing and building upon best practice with out-of-school children in a number of different settings, UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS delineates some of the core OVC issues, their educational consequence and remedies that need to be done which will be elaborated in detail in the table below.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC Consequences for Education Response


OVCs Issues POVERTY

Education Response

Drop out of education due to unaffordable schools fees Stigmatized because of inadequate uniform and learning materials Low attention span due to hunger Social exclusion: marginalization of children affected by HIV/AIDS Negative learning environment Barriers to participation

Abolish school fees or provide bursaries for poor children School feeding schemes Change polices around uniforms and learning materials Create inclusive school policies and practices Eliminate discrimination in education and care services Pressurize authorities to recognize rights and allocate funds Encourage all learners and educators to adopt inclusivity and zero tolerance towards discrimination.

STIGMA

Education of community and parents to combat AIDS-related stigma Sensitivity training for educators to identify special needs Counseling and referral skills for educators and children Access to counselors and educational psychologists Train teachers and learners around infection, to reduce stigmatization and ensure that necessary safety precautions are available

Special educational needs Difficulty to concentrate and learn

TRAUMA

Low expectations of children Fear of infection by learners and educators Difficulties in adhering to ARV treatments due to lack of HIVPositive

Foster policies, practices and

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Educational Input Provision for OVC understanding

cultures on inclusive education Treatment education

Low prioritization of education within families and society Fear of violence (including sexual violence) in the school place

GIRLS

Flexible, certified educational options Safety to and in school Women teachers Evening literacy classes Financial incentives for girls Life skills training Analysis of texts and content for gender stereotyping Gender-sensitive teacher training and school facilities (e.g. toilets) Community advocacy Education Response Strengthen links between schools and local health and counseling providers, to ensure referral and access to bereavement counselors when necessary

GIRLS Contd

High demands for labor at home Household chores and responsibilities Sexual risks Perceived irrelevance of education

Consequences for Education OVCs Response Issues Low motivation for learning due to BEREAVE depression and anxiety Silence surrounding death in many countries may lead to emotional problems, which in turn are likely to impact on learning Low educational expectations of orphans Lower prioritization of orphans education over other children within the household Lack of homework support or LACK OF FAMILY SUPPORT MENT

Include coping with death as part of school curricula Increase school-home liaison to work with families on increasing support to education Create afterschool homework clubs to provide additional support to those without families
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Educational Input Provision for OVC household encouragement of education Create mentor schemes in which vulnerable children have a mentor to provide emotional and intellectual Tiredness during classes Erratic school attendance Lower learning achievement WORKING CHILDREN support to their studies Provide flexible but sensitive educational options[LS15] that are regulated and certified Encourage open and distance learning Link to broader poverty reduction strategies and to the development of No access to schooling Problems with authority: difficulties in adapting to mainstream education intuitions Drug abuse Low attention Absenteeism Difficulty in participating in certain school activities (e.g. sports) CHRONIC ILLNESS STREET CHILDREN alternative livelihood strategies Link to broader poverty reduction strategies and to the development of alternative livelihood strategies Provide flexible, certified educational options, including open and distance learning Take special consideration with respect of each school activity to ensure that less physically able children are included Train all staff in first aid Resource person within the school with knowledge of local healthcare providers Consequences for Education Response Increased responsibilities at home reduce the amount of time available for education OVCs Issues ADULT ROLES Education Response Include more relevant and vocational courses Acknowledge that young people are
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Educational Input Provision for OVC Education becomes less relevant Problems with respect and discipline in the classroom as young people become adults prematurely and consequently, expect to be treated as such Denial of the right to education Trauma Difficulties in accessing schools Fear of violence affects learning CONFLICT taking on different roles in the family and need educational support on how to care for sick parents or younger siblings Nurture respect in the classroom between learners and educators, and vice versa Prioritize the provision of education in refugee camps and areas of conflict Ensure that place of learning is secure and not a focus for conflict Provide flexible learning options Provide sensitivity training for educators on how to deal with traumatized children

Source: UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS, 2003 p: 19-21

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A child who knows how to read, write and do basic arithmetic has a solid foundation for continued learning throughout life. Education is also critically important to childrens social integration and psychosocial well-being. School attendance helps children affected by trauma to regain a sense of normalcy and to recover from the psychosocial impacts of their experiences and disrupted lives (Selam, 2002). As well as benefiting individuals, education benefits whole nations as a major instrument for social and economic development. Particularly at the basic level (primary and lower secondary), it is a major contributor to the reduction of poverty. Education increases labor productivity, improves health, and enables people to participate fully in the economy and the development of their societies (World Bank et al. 2005). The experiences obtained from Catholic Relief Service Ethiopia Office, developed guidelines for providing education support to OVCs in 2006. According to the guidelines, education support is defined through a comprehensive package of assistance, which includes school fees, learning materials and school uniforms. In addition to the specific material support noted above , provision of food and nutrition, provision of psychosocial support, delivery of education and skills building schemes; and economic strengthening innervations and livelihoods development, need to be part and parcel of the educational support package provided for orphan and vulnerable children ( CRS Ethiopia Country Offices,2006). The AIDS epidemic has thrown up new and difficult challenges for the education community. Children affected or infected by the epidemic known as OVCs face a spectrum of vulnerabilities. The risk to their education and future well-being is immediate, and yet there are still many unknowns. Multi-dimensional research is urgently needed to explore which children are at risk, when they are most vulnerable, and why. There will never be one answer; children affected by the AIDS epidemic are too diverse for that. However, it is possible to identify a spectrum of vulnerability in which to place individual children or subgroups of children. In order to do this, lessons must be learnt from the past: the many initiatives for out-of-

Educational Input Provision for OVC school or marginalized youth should be assessed with respect to their applicability to the current AIDS crisis.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC

Chapter Three Research methodology and Design Main objective is to describe the variation in a phenomenon, situation or attitude of the AHISDO administrators and instructors as well as OVC orphan and students opinions towards the academic support provision. e.g., description of an observed academic situation, the historical enumeration of events of the center, an account of different opinions different people have about an issue, description of the students learning and the organizations working condition in a particular. In addition, this research attempts to focus on qualitative and quantitative research approach as specific inquiry, which will become the building block for further in depth investigation. Accordingly, the study is designed as a comprehensive assessment by taking the situation of OVC and orphan student cases to gather the necessary information for the study. Given that, the aim is to classify, describe, and explain what is prevalent with respect the situation of OVC and the provision of essential supplies for them including support in education and psychosocial supports, mixed method is relevant. Quantitative research is one where data is expressed in figures, and involves the measurement of facts and variables (Neuman, 2006). On the other hand, qualitative research aims to gather data in form of words, and data is usually acquired through observations and interviews. This approach is mostly used when the researcher targets a smaller sample in order to gain an in-depth understanding about the services. Hence, employing this approach becomes useful as it allows the opportunity to gather different opinions via the use of different methods, which increase the robustness of results and strengthens the findings through the cross-validation.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC Research Design

David and Walonick (2010) state, descriptive studies are intended to answer the questions of who, what, where, when and how cases. This research applied both qualitative and quantitative methods since the intention is to describe what is prevalent in the organization. But qualitative approach is taken as major method and quantitative as supportive in studying and analyzing about the situation of OVC and the provision of essential supplies for them including support in education and psychosocial supports. The research describes the situations of OVC in particular focusing on the educational assistance that was provided for the orphan students by the community-based organization which engaged in such activities. Since, it emphasize in describing the social economic and the status of OVC it is mainly explanatory and descriptive research. Often in many social scince research books Descriptive research design has been stated as a method which attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or programme, or provides information about , say, living condition of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue. The study is carried out to assess and describe the educational support provided for OVC in a community-based organization called, Addis Hiwot Integrated Development Sustainable Organization (AHISDO). The operational are of AHISDOs is in Addis Ababa, Kirkos Sub City, Kebele 08/09. Mainly this geographical area and the agency were selected for this study, because, it is one of the areas in Addis Ababa where HIV is striking seriously and exposing many children to be orphan and vulnerable. In addition, it is because of the accessibility and proximity of the agency and its operational areas to the student researcher were also taken into consideration.

Study population The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Kirkos Sub city, Kebele 08/09, which is the operation area of Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization (AHISDO). Currently 356 OVCs (163 males and 193 females) are being supported by the agency.
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Educational Input Provision for OVC Sample Out of the total 356 OVCs (i.e. 163 were males while the rest 193 were females) that are being supported by Addis Hiwot Integrated Sustainable Development Organization (AHISDO). As this research deals with the educational support for OVCs, a 10% of the total population, i.e. 36 subjects were selected to be analyzed through simple random sampling. The size of the sample to be studied was decided depending on the objective of the research and the context. As this research is descriptive; therefore, it requires adequate samples, from which sufficient data was collected and analyzed, made future replication of the study in other similar setting possible. Most importantly, the sample size was determined based on what is recommended in most of social science research books (>=5% of the target population). However, the total number of the population is small and due to this reason only 10% of the population was taken and the result was generalized for population and similar contexts. Accordingly, due to the expected homogeneity of the responses, the sample size for this study is equal to 10% of each target population. In addition, simple random sampling was used to select participants, this give equal chance for all the population to be selected since the experience and response is assumed similar. In simple random sample, every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected. In stratified random sample, population is divided into mutually exclusive groups such as age groups and random samples are drawn from each group. Tools for data collection The survey is the most common method of gathering information in the social sciences. It can be a face-to-face interview, telephone, or mail survey. A personal interview is one of the best methods obtaining personal, detailed, or in-depth information. It usually involves a lengthy questionnaire that the interviewer fills out while asking questions. It allows for extensive probing by the interviewer and gives respondents the ability to elaborate their answers. Telephone interviews are similar to face-to-face interviews (David S. Walonick, 2010).

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Educational Input Provision for OVC Both primary and secondary data are collected by employing survey strategy via structured interview, questionnaire and focus group discussion techniques. In order to collect essential datas for the purpose of this study, information has been collected by deploying structured interview and observation. In-depth interview was used as principal tool for data collection. Since, the research is descriptive and qualitative; in-depth interview was conducted with study subjects, their parents and other staffs working in the agency. Interview questions have been gathered by the researcher via face-to-face personal approach with the study samples particularly with the organization top management group and instructors. Because this approach enables the researcher to see the reaction of the respondents and take his judgment. Document review was also used as another tool to substantiate and verify data gathered through interview process. In addition, on site observation through structured checklists was also been used. In combining the use of these data, collection tools, trustworthiness was assured by triangulating the data obtained from in-depth interview, document review and on site observation. Data Processing and Analysis The collected data was analyzed and further elaborated through qualitative means of data analysis and interpretation. The information collected through all the above methods and techniques was transcribed, organized and summarized by building themes and categorically analyzes them against the research question set for the study. For the quantitative data, tools of analysis proposed are descriptive and inferential statistics; thus, questions were tested quantitatively using statistical tools. In other words, after the collected data is summarized using tables, it was analyzed and interpreted in detail in line with the conceptual framework of the study to draw possible conclusions. Manual data analysis is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. Hence, to make the analysis easier data was coded and it directly onto large graph paper in columns. Data collection tools were developed,

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Educational Input Provision for OVC after the necessary correction and amendments were given by the advisor, then the tools were administered to the study participants by the researcher. Ethics in Research The assumption that research should be governed by ethics and principles is a universal fact and this research is strictly adhering to this fact. First informed consent was signed with each respondents and their willingness to participate in this research was assured. Then, the importance of their involvement in the study was described and every precaution was in place to keep the data and other sensitive information gathered from the confidential. In addition to this, their anonymity through the research process was also maintained.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Interpretation Part I- Qualitative analysis The conducted depth interview mainly includes the beneficiaries or OVCs supported by AHISDO and the other key informants or professionals working in the organization. After the data was collected through depth interview and observation, it was transcribed and presented for the research purpose as follows. The depth interview focused on the research question and attempts to describe the efficiency of academic support provided for the OVCs and its outcome in transforming their life. The respondents were the beneficiaries or OVCs themselves and the key informants or professionals working in AHISDO. Ten OVC respondents took part in this research and out of these six are males and the rest four are females. Seven out of the ten are double orphans and the rest are single orphans who are made to be vulnerable by their parents failure to meet their basic needs. For the sake of confidentiality, the names of these children are given pseudo names as Kirubel, Dawit, Mekdes, Tsegereda, Iman, Hana, Nahome, Fantaye, Thomas, and Anteneh. Serious consideration has been given for the interviewee to conduct the study without affecting the safety and interest of the beneficiaries or OVC respondents. Their age group ranged from 12-19 and the minimum grade level is 5 and the maximum is a second year university student. Apart from this, the depth interview also includes the key informants or the professional employees working in AHISDO. These are the Manager, Psychologist, Community Worker, Nurse, Supervisor and Librarian. Seven out of the ten are double orphans and the rest are single orphans who are made to be vulnerable by their parents failure to meet their basic needs. The provision of basic school supplies The need to provide adequate educational support for OVCs is extremely crucial in transforming their life and enables them to assume a better destiny or make their dreams of better
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Educational Input Provision for OVC tomorrow possible. Thus, with the provision of educational support it is possible to liberate

OVSs from their social and economic deprivation and make them self reliant and confident citizen. Addis Hiwot Integrated Development Sustainable Organization is among the institutions in Addis launched an intervention program through education to support OVCs .The support includes educational materials like pen, pencils, exercise book, uniform and the likes and tutorial classes and psychosocial support. Concerning the delivery of basic educational materials, most of the respondents believe that it is sufficient and they receive it according to their need. This, according to the respondents, mainly includes things like exercise book, pen, pencil and the likes. These respondents are first cycle students and they state that they are satisfied in the provision of educational materials. According to these segments of the beneficiaries, they are receiving it up to their needs and they are satisfied with it. On the contrary, some respondents, which mainly include the high school students, state that the academic material provision is not sufficient and on top of that, there is problem during distribution. They state that employees of the organization do favor for some and ignore others based on personal intimacy and they are adamant to cooperate whenever they are asked. Such factors play prominent role in the outcomes of the students educational achievement. They suggest that some employees lacks work ethics and serve through partiality and this as they stated in the long run creates frustrations and failure on the students. Therefore, according to these respondents, which mainly consists of the high school students and the older ones the provision of educational materials in AHISDO, is not satisfactory and a lot remained to be done to achieve the targeted objective. Most of the respondents complained when it comes to the delivery of uniform by stating the fact that they will not be provided on time and as a result, it consumes their academic time. Because of this, many students are supposed to waste their precious academic time at home by the organizations failure to provide them on the required time. In addition to this they mentioned about the problems related with the size of the uniform and the failure of the institution to provide them enough uniform that can serve them for the entire academic year. Especially, they stressed that things are worsened by the delivery of one uniform for the whole academic year created a problem on their learning. Since, most schools use white shirt as a uniform and that
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Educational Input Provision for OVC cannot be used for the entire academic year. Thus, most of respondents stated that the delivery of basic school supplies in relation to uniform is not enough and there is a lot remained to be done. On the other hand, when it comes to the provision of other basic educational supplies like pen, pencil and exercise book some of the respondents stated that they are receiving it adequately and whenever there is the need. The first respondent was a student by the name Kirubel who is nineteenth, studying supply management said even though they provide the basic school materials that help them, the time of provision is not at the required time. The respondent also mentioned the uniform stays for about a month or so after class commenced. Even that very often has a problem with size and they are forced to stay for additional times as well as it really consume their school time for a very long time. But with regard to the educational materials like pen, pencil and exercise books have been provided at the beginning of the year with sufficient number. The respondent also confirmed that the support given to them seems insufficient and inadequate to follow their education without any doubt. As a result he believes all these traverse wont make him self-reliant and will lay their shadow on his confidence. Hence, from all these one can conclude that the educational support given for the students attending in the organization give the impression to say insufficient and the organization need to work hard to launch extensive tutorial program so as to help them overcome the academic problem they face during their stay in the school and the remaining life time. The second respondent was a student called Fantaye a grade eleven natural science student and he further elaborated on what the first respondent said. Concerning the provision of basic educational materials he stated that the support is not satisfactory and up to the expected level. The distribution has also problem according to the respondent. There is a lot remained to be done he said regarding the adequacy and reliability of the provided support. Finally he suggested that the relationship between the staffs in the organization is not satisfactory and there is discrimination in distribution. This shows the discrepancies in the academic support provided by the organization.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC The provision of tutorial Support Concerning tutorial support excluding the elementary or lower grade students all other respondents said that they do not receive tutorial support and they are only striving by their academic effort and this according to them is a serious blow, which hinder their academic progress. The high school and preparatory students share a common view in this respect. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that science subjects are very challenging and they are not receiving any tutorial support from AHISDO. They suggest that it would make their academic achievement by far better if they acquire support in their education. All high school attendants strongly suggest that they are highly dissatisfied and unhappy about the provided tutorial support especially when they consider the scope of the support only includes junior students. According to some respondents high school is very important in deciding the future academic prospect of a student, whether one join territory education or not is determined by high school result and it is a grade level whereby students strive to score up better grade and join university. Thus, the tutorial support provided by AHISDO is not inclusive and satisfactory in the eyes of the beneficiaries. Instead, it excludes the high school students who are striving on the verge of completing their secondary education. One University student stated that he attended his high school without receiving tutorial support through his own personal effort and it was very tough and challenging for him as he described it. He further elaborate his statements by consolidating his complain on the organization and by suggesting that it would be by far better if AHISDO can extend its intervention on tutorial support by embracing high school student and by supporting the program through full commitment. According to some informants, the organization needs to recruit highqualified teachers for high school students especially in the science stream to assist and supplement the effort of the students. In this respect, AHISDO needs to take experience from other organizations and launch a full committed tutorial support to promote better destiny for its beneficiaries.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC Expectations and reflections about the provided educational support

Most of the beneficiaries state that they do not expect the provided academic support is sufficient as a result; they suggest they do not expect it to make them self-reliant. Thus, it shows us how the targeted aim of the project does not appear to create confidence in the minds of the beneficiaries. From the above statements, we can deduce that the educational support of AHISDO failed to create reliability in the eyes of the beneficiaries. In the very beginning the project needs to boost the confidence of its beneficiaries regarding its service and the outcome they expect from it. Though the first cycle students themselves state that they are satisfied and happy about the provided support their conclusion when it comes to future expectation appeared to be below the expectation and they suggest that they dont expect it to make them self reliant. Thus, the future prospects of the supports tend to be gloomy. If the beneficiaries think that they cannot be self-reliant the activities of the organization in relation to children fall under question, since these issues are the aim of the project targets the organization tends to achieve. The provision of psycho social support for OVCs The need for educational support for OVCs cannot be detached from psychosocial support since such children needs a special support in this aspect to enable them to meet their future dreams. All the respondents unanimously, stated that they do not receive any psychosocial support from AHISDO. They further strengthened the idea by elaborating the discrepancy created through the absence of psychosocial support. According to most of the respondent the failure of AHISDO to provide them with psychosocial support created a gap on them. In fact educational support cannot be detached from psychosocial support since the two are interdependent. The beneficiaries are orphans and vulnerable children who are the most deprived and downtrodden segments of the population and they need special support and treatment from the community in general and the organization helping them in particular. However, all the respondents stated that they do not get any psychosocial support from AHISDO this create a huge discrepancy in the personality and future identity of the children. According to the
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Educational Input Provision for OVC researchers view psychosocial support is the most prominent issue which takes the forefront and lion share in the hierarchy of needs. Before it launches its intervention the organization needs to conduct need assessment to boost its effort in helping these children. Psychosocial support play pivotal role in the socialization process of the OVCs and in transforming their entire life. Though the organization has a psychologist due to several reasons the beneficiaries are not getting psychosocial support and he is busy in handling the office paper work. In addition to the direct beneficiaries or the OVCs themselves depth interview was also conducted with the key informant or various professionals and semi professionals working in AHISDO. Through detailed method substantial and extensive data was gathered and transcribed. The collected data through the depth interview is described as follows. The key informants include the Manager, Psychologist, Community Worker, Nurse, Supervisor, and Librarian. Key informants from the employees In the conducted depth interview apart from the beneficiaries or the orphan children other key informants or employees in AHISDO were interviewed and responded for the interview question as follows. Concerning the material provision all the respondents stated that it is adequate and the beneficiaries are offered with all the basic educational materials including exercise book, pen, pencil uniform and the likes. On the contrary the beneficiaries elaborate that the provision is not sufficient and adequate, especially uniform and exercise books are not enough. Regarding the reliability and consistency of the support with the exception of two of the key informants the rest claim that it is consistent and it is up to the beneficiaries to exploit it effectively. To substantiate their claim they state that the sponsors promised to provide the support until they complete secondary education. They also consider students behavior as a factor for the consistency of the service. That means if the students behavior is good it will keep the program and the sponsors will sustain in providing the support. Based on this statement it is
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Educational Input Provision for OVC the students failure or success in their achievement that determines the sustainability of the provided support. On the other hand some of the respondents suggest that they do not think the support is consistent since AHISDO as an organization is not self sufficient in terms of local NGO, called IHAUDP. For the last question which deals with whether the provided support will make the beneficiaries self sufficient or productive citizen most of the key informants suggest that it will make them if the beneficiaries are capable of exploiting it. However one among the key informants mentioned that she is cautious and suspicious about the issue since as she stated cannot hundred percent relay on the donors promise only. Another respondent strengthen this idea by mentioning the fact that there is a lot remained to be done to make the beneficiaries selfsufficient. According to her the organization is expected to maximize its effort toward this to promote better self esteem among the beneficiaries that enable them to be self reliant and productive citizen for the future. Part II- Quantitative analysis A total of thirty five survey questionnaire has been sent to sample subjects and thirty three of them have been returned. Respondents characteristics 1. Sex Table II Respondents Males Females 21 14 its income and the organization do not have its own financial source and it is dependent on another

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Educational Input Provision for OVC From the total of the respondents twenty one of them were males and the rest of them only fourteen were females. This implies the majority of the respondents that were selected randomly were males.

2. Age category

Table III 6-9 No Age category 4 % 12.1 No 6 10- 13 % 18.2 No 10 14-17 % 30.3 No 13 18-20 % 39.3

As one can easily observe from table three, 12.1% of them were under the age of nine, six or 18.2%, ten or 30.3%, and thirteen or 39.3% of the students were aged under thirteen, seventeen and twenty respectively. A. Major variables

Table IV Variables Highly satisfactory No Educational material support Psycho-social support Tutorial 2 4 6.0 12.1 4 5 12.1 15.2 26 22 78.7 66.6 1 2 3.0 6.0 % No 6 % No 23 Satisfactory Unsatisfactor y % 69.6 No 4 Highly poor %

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Educational Input Provision for OVC Future expectation 17 51.5 -

Regarding the major research themes that the research study tries to uncover, the respondents offer their answer in the following way. For the first question focusing on the educational material provision as indicated on Table four above, the majority of the respondents (69.6%) were not happy about the adequacy. While only six (18.2%) of the respondents gave their agreement on the sufficiency of the support they obtained in relation to the total educational support. On the other hand students aging less than nine do not gave their opinion. This implies the educational support offered by AHISDO seems less than the students expectation. Similarly, for the issue that pertain psycho-social support provision, the majority that means 26 or 78.7% said that they were not satisfied and 4 or 12.1% indicated that the support is satisfactory for them. Regarding the tutorial provision that offered for them, 22(66.6%) of the respondents said not satisfactory and only 4(12.1%) conformed as highly satisfied. This can said the organization needs to engage in more time for tutorial class particularly for high school students. Finally, from the students included as subject, most of them that means 17(51.5%) were highly in doubt about the contribution of the support they obtained on their future life reliance. On the other hand with unknown reason not able to respond. Hence, the organization needs to evaluate its plan and establish effective and efficient strategy that enables them to help its students.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC

Chapter five

Conclusion The findings from the research indicate that the educational support provision for OVC by AHISDO proves that the non-existence failure to include the most important input that makes learning to go smoothly called the psychosocial support. As it was clearly stated by the respondents and information gathered, psychosocial support provision is not as it was expected level and seems neglected. Moreover, the general academic support given by AHISDO was almost inadequate. The existing literature on educational support shows that childrens right on the convention and other international document fulfillment is one of the crucial elements. To this end the document suggests that all children in general and orphan and vulnerable children in particular need to get psychosocial support which contributes for the effective development of the child. Therefore, the educational support provided by AHISDO cannot be satisfactory and helpful without addressing the psychosocial needs of its beneficiaries or the OVCs. When it comes to the consistency of the provided educational support, the data collected from the respondents and key informants, it was pointed out that the program is not conducted in a regular basis. According to the respondents this was happened due to several reasons. Among these reasons lack of independent financial source (i.e. the organization so far did not look for financial aid providing either local or international body- if it makes relationship or link itself with sponsors that would make the support provision sustainable and helpful in addition to using the available experts who have the potential to assist). Secondly it is unlikely to think that the OVCs will develop self-reliant attitude without receiving psychosocial support which is the sole and key ingredient that can satisfy long lasting needs of the OVC. To conclude the AHISDO educational support provision is far from being
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Educational Input Provision for OVC expected and inadequate. It is also inconsistent and will not contribute in promoting the desired self-reliant spirit that required in developing the mind of the young. Thirdly, educational work in general and student assistance in particular is not the job of individuals, rather it demands the organized effort of all the stakeholders such as family, academic and administrative staff, the community and higher officials as a whole. Thus, the school needs to have smooth and intimate relationship with the above listed groups and constantly arrange discussion session and use the idea that will be obtained to use it as an input as well to make the support provision effort successful.

Recommendation Based on the conclusions made from the findings above and cognizant of the vitality of psychological support in addition to the academic sessions; and as well as to achieve the desired goal of the launched project the following recommendations are provided. it would be better to consider the psycho-social environment and needs of the children so as to make the educational resource distribution fair and adequate it would be advisable to provide psychological support in order to help students to spell out their potential so as to harness the instructions offered in the regular sessions it would be good to support with tutorial classes for all levels it would be better to make the support provision in a regular basis so that they can use it as additional impetus it would be nice to encourage students constantly to express their potentials which help them to boost their self reliance to be successful the organization had better assess students need and embed itself with the plan made at the beginning of the year moreover, acknowledging the available teaching staff skill will help to avoid the need to look outside support, etc

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Educational Input Provision for OVC In general, since the study limited it on a single organization and it would be difficult to generalize and make the result to all similar organizations. That is to mean, this research does not give detail attention and focus, researchers that need to study on such a topic in the future it would be good to increase the number organization that will be assessed.

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Educational Input Provision for OVC

Reference

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Network of Organization for Vulnerable and Orphan Children (NOVOC) 2009.

Declining Education Support For Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Malawi Analysis and Review of the Malawi Government Budget of Education Support for OVC: Accessed through www.novocmalawi.org/publication Selam, 2002 Lesson Learned and Experience Gained from Wollo Child-Family Reunification Project. Addis Ababa AIDS Resource Center. Tania Boler & Peter Aggleton 2003. Life skills-based education for HIV prevention: a critical analysis Policy & Research: ISSUE 3: Accessed through: http://www.aidscorsortium.org.uk/education/educationworkinggroup.html
UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS, 2003. Addressing the educational needs

of orphan and vulnerable children: Accessed through: http://www.adisconsortium.org.uk/education/educationworkinggroup.html UNICEF 2008. Children on the Brink: A joint Report on New orphan Estimates and A Framework for Action, Washington DC UNICEF 2009. Living in a World with HIV/AIDS: The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphan and Vulnerable Children, Washington DC UNESCO 2002. Report on Multi-Sectoral HIV/AIDS Response. Addis Ababa, AIDS Resource Center

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