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Electrical System Maintenance skills


Presented and Prepared by: Eng. Nabeel Hassan Ali

Safety in General

How to be safe in your life, the definition of safety in wild angle, did we can be safe after affected by any accident. Electrical How to apply the Electrical Safety Safety Regulation in practical life, in work, Regulation at home. What is the meaning of the NEC, NFPA, and others. You are How to make my work safety, how safe by to assess the job wither its safe or applying not, can I refuse, can I stop, can I safety complain

Safety in General
What is Safety? How to be Safe? What you have to do to be safe? Can I Refuse because of Safety? Can I stop to check something for Safety? Basic Phenomena in safety?

Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered nondesirable. Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses. It can include protection of people or of possessions.

What is the Safety?

Safe Unsafe work.

Safety is how to start, work, and finish the task, without hurting myself and dont hurt others. Safety is to do the task in a right way as per the regulation Regulation not orders, rules are the result of years of research and investigation of all accidents over the years.

The fire Location Protect your eyes Clean the work area Correct equipmentand tools. Correct store and carry Suitable Dress and others Clean in and after Planning your work Carrying Report , advise, and listen Clam, focus, and do not disturb

Safety in Sample world

Basic Safety Roles

Unsafe work

Unsafe work

Unsafe work

Unsafe work

Electrical Safety Regulation

Unsafe work

NEC for National Electrical Code. OHSA for Occupational Safety and Health Administration. NFPA is a part of NEC for the National Fire Protection Association. ***And a lot of standers in the world.

The National Electrical Code (NEC) is prepared by the National Electrical Code Committee, which consists of a Technical Correlating Committee and 19 codemaking panels. The code-making panels have specific subject responsibility within the Code. The scope of the National Electrical Code Committee is as follows: This committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on minimizing the risk of electricity as a source of electric shock and as a potential ignition source of fires and explosions. It shall also be responsible for text to minimize the propagation of fire and explosions due to electrical installations.

The main purpose of OSHA is to ensure that employers provide employees with employment a place of employment free from recognized hazards. This is accomplished by the development of standards, the process of inspection and citation for violation, the provision of guidance and consultations, and the use of publicity.

NEC purpose
Electrical Hazard Categories

OSHA purpose
Shock/ Electrocution

- Shock / Electrocution - Arc/Flash/Explosion - Other - Fires - Burns

- Occurs when a person contacts an exposed energized conductor or surface with elevated potential and becomes part of a circuit. - Electrocution is a deadly shock - The greatest number of deaths occur with 120V systems (most exposure) - Some evidence now exists that every shock can result in some damage to body skin. So, seek Medical attention if you are shocked!

- (Typical Measurements) - dry skin 100,000 - 400,000

- wet or ionized skin 500 - 1,000 - internal body 400 - 500

- BODY AREA RESISTANCE (ohms) Note: Resistance of dry skin decreases if you are in-circuit (skin is not a stable insulator, it becomes a conductor)

- Powerful, high-amperage current arcing Concern is primarily with 480V and 12kV systems Available Fault current is key factor Temperatures as high as 35,000degF have been reached - Three primary hazards: Thermal radiation (heat) and intense light Pressure wave (blast effects) Molten metal spray - Burns resulting from arc ignition of clothing can be fatal Do not wear any garments that could increase the extent of injury (e.g., no acetate, nylon, polyester or rayon) May need flame resistant (FR) outer garments


Human Resistances

Even low voltage circuits and circuit elements present a hazard -12 volt batteries can explode and cause chemical burns. -Capacitors can also explode. Plugging and unplugging equipment with the on/off switch on can cause arcs (e.g., welders) Vision damage in any of these events is a major concern -Safety glasses can prevent/minimize injuries WEAR THEM AT ALL TIMES!!! -Safety glasses offer protection against radiation injury, as well as flying particles; etc.

- Fire/explosion from ignition of - flammable atmospheres - combustible materials (e.g., Haworth partition fires from overloading) - Secondary effects - from involuntary muscular contractions when shocked - Falls kill more electricians than shock - Miscellaneous - Wire poked in eye - Burns from contacting resistively heated surfaces..

Other Hazards


What is the Causal Factors of Electrical Accidents: - Unsafe equipment.

Faulty insulation. Improper grounding. Loose connections. Defective parts. Ground faults. Unguarded live parts. Isolated / Floating Voltage Sources.

- Insufficient maintenance. - Insufficient clear workspace.

When the wire or any live Electrical component insulation damaged we can say its Faulty insulation, like wires, coils, contactors, circuit breakers and more.

Faulty insulation

You are safe by applying safety

Personal injury from electric shock caused by improper grounding can cause immeasurable human suffering and significant expense. Also Its will effect the Reliability and Efficiency

Loose connection will increase the Resistance, also its will generate a heat due to arcs, its will damage the cable cores and insulation, and its will effect in its reliability and efficiency. This is the utmost mistake committed by electrician.

Loose connections

Improper grounding

The electrical devices consists of two parts, live parts and dead parts, we now when the live parts defective what will happen. Also, the dead part can be the major cause of faulty, fire, or unsafe mode. Ex: plastic covers, cable ties, terminals,

A ground faults occurs when the electrical current does not complete its circuit and unintentionally flows to the ground. Ground faults can cause fires and are dangerous when they flow through a person to the ground.

Ground faults

Defective parts
Unguarded live parts

Before start any work underground you have to get approval from the safety office. Check the drawing of the site to be sure its safe place to work. Stop when you see yellow nylon label with HIGHVOLTAGE mark. When you want to lay any cable underground you have to update the drawing for future.

Safe Work Practices

Safe Work Practices

One Familiar with the Construction and Operation of the Equipment and the Hazards Involved
One Trained and Familiar with: skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric/electronic equipment skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts approach distances to exposed live parts and the corresponding voltages proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials and insulating tools where work on energized equipment involves either direct contact or contact by means of tools or materials

- Live parts shall be de-energized (and locked & tagged out) unless doing so: Introduces additional or increased hazards (e.g., shutdown of hazardous location ventilation equipment; removal of illumination for an area- is temporary lighting possible?) Is infeasible (e.g., testing for voltage) - If live, only qualified persons using safe work practices discussed in the following slides are permitted Requires managers approval

Qualified Person

Live Work

- The Safe Practice is to Keep All Conductive Objects Away from Energized Conductors - Conductive Apparel: Examples : watch bands, bracelets, rings, key chains, badge chains, necklaces, metalized aprons, metal headgear, cloth with conductive thread, etc. If they might contact exposed energized parts: -Remove; or, -Render nonconductive by covering, wrapping, or other insulating means

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Your employer (direct Admin) is responsible for providing whatever you need to work safely and in compliance with regulations. Even you can refuse to do anything when you are confused or afraid. You can stop your work when you encounter unsafe or danger.

Conductive Apparel and Objects Common Types of PPE

qHead qEyes qFace qHands qFeet qBody qHearing qRespiratory

Electrician tools have to be insulated one, which showing doubletriangle Marking.

Insulated Tools