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# Basic Mine Ventilation

Fundamentals of Airflow

## Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP)

Agricola (1556) noted
The outer air flows spontaneously into the caverns of the earth, and when it can pass through them it comes out again. This, however comes about in different ways, for in spring and summer it flows into the deeper shafts. . . . and finds its way out of the shallower shafts; but in autumn and winter, it enters the upper tunnel or shafts and comes out the deeper ones. This change of flow in the air currents occurs in the temperate regions at the beginning of spring and the end of autumn.

SUMMER

WINTER

Shaft

Shaft

Mine workings

Shaft

Mine workings

Shaft

## Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP)

Air movement caused by conversion of heat to mechanical energy and this was recognised in the 1700s when fires were used to create air currents

Surface

0.5 kg of coal increased the temperature by 30C to 40C per 0.5 m3/s

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Calculation of NVP
Air movement caused by conversion of heat to mechanical energy. NVP is estimated as the difference of the pressure exerted by the column of air in the shafts
The mass of a column of air is determined as the density multiplied by the length, and to obtain the pressure this is multiplied by gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s)
PC = gh PC = pressure exerted by the column of air (Pa) g h = mean density of the column of air (kg/m 3 ) = gravitatio nal aceleratio n (m/s) = heigh of the column (m)

Mine workings

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Calculation of NVP

Shaft A

Shaft B

Density Method
Shaft Length = 200m Area = 10m2

## Shaft Length = 180m Area = 10 m2

Assume mean density of 1.10 kg/m3 in shaft A and 1.05 kg/m3 in shaft B NVPA = 1.10 x 9.81 x 200 = 2,158 Pa NVPB = 1.05 x 9.81 x 180 = 1,854 Pa The difference between these pressures is the NVP = 2,158 - 1,854 = 304 Pa

Mine workings

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NVP
The effect of outside temperature is cancelled if shaft collars are at the same level Water flowing down the shaft will cause the air to flow in the same direction. In exhausting shaft it increases the resistance and decreasing the flow created by the fan

## Elementary laws of airflow

1. For air to flow from one point to another there must be a difference in pressure between the two points. 2. Air will always flow from a high pressure to a low pressure and will continue to flow as long as the pressure is maintained. 3. The greater the difference in pressure the greater the quantity of airflow. (PQ) 4. Any resistance to pressure will reduce the quantity of airflow.

5. As the resistance between the two points increases the quantity of airflow decreases

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Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
At sea level =10,000 kg/m2 =1 atmosphere =1.013 Bar =101.325 kPa =1013 mb

Barometric Pressure
The pressure measured with a barometer.

## Ventilation Pressure (Pa)

Static pressure (bursting pressure) is the potential energy measured with a side tube normal to the direction of flow Velocity pressure is the kinetic energy and is calculated v = velocity of the air (m/s) = density of the air (kg/m3)
PV = v 2 2

Total pressure is the sum of the static and velocity pressures. Measured with a facing tube parallel to the flow of air.
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Ventilation Pressure
Total pressure is the sum of the static and velocity pressures. Measured
with a facing tube parallel to the flow of air

## Total pressure = Static Pressure + Velocity pressure

Static pressure (bursting) is the potential energy and is measured with a side tube, normal to the direction of airflow.

## Velocity pressure is the kinetic energy can be indirectly measured with a

pitot tube but is normally calculated from

v 2 PV = 2
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PV = Velocity pressure (Pa) = Density of the air (kg/m3 ) v = Velocity of the air (m/s)
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Pitot Tube

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Ventilation Pressure
Mine environmental engineering more frequently use pressure difference than absolute pressure. The differences are indicated on a gauge and measured relative to atmosphere. Often referred to pressure drop Direction of flow
Total Pressure Static Pressure Velocity Pressure

PS

PT PV

Side gauge

Facing gauge

Laminar flow

Pressure loss

PQ PQ2
Turbulent

Turbulent

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Ventilation Equation

PQ PQ2
P R Q

R =

P Q

R =

P Q
2

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Other factors
Atkinson postulated that the flow also varied for other reasons such as changes in: Area Shape Length Roughness of the wall Density of the gas

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Atkinson's Equation

P=

kCL A
3

Std

Q2

P = Pressure (Pa) R = Resistance (Ns2/m8) Q = Quantity of air (m3/s) k = Coefficient of friction (Ns2/m4) C = Circumference of Airway (m) L = Length of Airway (m) A = Cross sectional area of airway (m2) = Density of the air (kg/m3) Std = Density of standard air (1.2 kg/m3)

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k Factor
The calculation k is complicated by variables Velocity Density Viscosity Hydraulic diameter Reynolds number (itself is complicated by variable velocity, surface roughness, the ration of the roughness to the diameter of the airway). Estimate using,
Some values that can be used for are Concrete lined 0.007 Raisebored use 0.01 Blasted use 0.3

k =

6.67

= Ns2 / m 4

## DH = Hydraulic diameter 4ab 2(a + b ) = height = width =

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## but will tend to underestimate for mines

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a b

Example k
Assume standard density for air (1.2kg/m3) Blasted rock walled airway 5.5m x 5.0m Assume relative roughness for rockwalled drive 0.3
DH = Hydraulic diameter

## Calculate the hydraulic diameter

1 2 = 1.74 2 log DH = 0.076

## 4ab 2(a + b ) = 5.2 m =

Calculate Lamda

Calculate k

k =

6.67

= 0.011428 (Ns2 / m 4 )

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Typical k factors

Typical ranges shown below. (In mines or in doubt err on the high side)

Airway Type Smooth Pipe Normal rigid ducting Flexible ducting Concrete surface Rock Surfaced Raisebored

k Factor (Ns2/m4) 0.0028 0.0030 to 0.0035 0.0030 to 0.0065 0.0035 to 0.0040 0.0010 to 0.0200 0.0035 to 0.0050

## Example - Pressure difference

Calculate the pressure difference (drop) across a concrete lined shaft 3.5 m diameter 350m long. The airflow measure with an anemometer is 175 m3/s. Assume standard density for air (1.2 kg/m3). What is the pressure drop for the same flow if the shaft was rock walled. 3.5 m diameter

## Example - Pressure difference

Atkinson's Equation P = kCl Q2 A3 3.5 m diameter Concrete lined shaft From table k = 0.004 (Ns2/m8) and A = 9.62 (m2) C = 11.0 (m) l = 350 (m) Q = 175 (m3/s) From Atkinsons Equation Pressure P = 310 (Pa) Rock wall From table k = 0.015 (Ns2/m8) and A = 9.62 (m2) C = 11.0 (m) l = 350 (m) Q = 175 (m3/s) From Atkinsons Equation Pressure P = 1,180 (Pa)

## The X factor i.e. Changing direction of flow

Shock loss, turbulence, flow separation = Pressure loss due to change in direction

PShock = XPV
X = Shock loss factor Calculation is complex PV = Velocity Pressure

Configuration and flow through the element Angle of the change in direction Degree of the abruptness of the change Radius of curvature Ratio of the radius to width of the airway Aspect ratio between height and width of the airway Airway roughness Shape of the airway immediately before and after the change in direction Velocity of the air The number and type of complex elements. (for example any vertical airway - bend, contraction, expansion, bend)

## Plain X = 0.9 Bell Mouth X = 0.05

Flanged X = 0.5

Notched X = 0.05 Note that the Notched entry approximates the Bell Mouth and the vortex formed in the notch promotes a smooth flow into the airway.

Conical X = 0.2

## Shock losses Intake RBs

X = 0.05 Quantity = 233 m3/s

## X = 0.9 Quantity = 200 m3/s

Diameter Quantity

Abrupt Expansion

A1

A2

## X = ( 1 [A1 / A2 ])2 Gradual Expansion

A1

A2

Note: Expansions are complicated by the regain in static pressure over the length of the change. To keep expansion losses to a minimum the change should take place over the longest available distance and the downstream duct must be at least 4 times the larger diameter to ensure full recovery of the pressure.
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## Shock losses Contraction

Abrupt Contraction

A1

A2

X = 0.5 [ 1 (A2 / A1 )]

Gradual Contraction

A1

A2

X = 0.333 [ 1 (A2 / A1 )] Note: If the length of contraction is 4 x the smaller diameter then the shock losses are negligible

## Example Abrupt Expansion

Abrupt Expansion
Drive A1 - 4.0m x 4.0m Drive A2 - 6.0m x 6.0m Airflow 125 m3/s Assume standard density for air

A1

A2

Calculate X

A1 X = 1- A2 = 0.309

X = ( 1 [A1 / A2 ])2

## Example Abrupt Contraction

Abrupt Contraction
Drive A1 - 6.0m x 6.0m Drive A2 - 4.0m x 4.0m Airflow 125 m3/s Assume standard density for air

A1

A2

Calculate X

X = 0.5 [ 1 (A2 / A1 )]

A2 X = 0.5 1 A1 = 0.278
Calculate the velocity pressure in the airway

PV =

v2 2

## 7.8 2 2 = 36 (Pa) = 1.2

Calculate the pressure loss due to shock

## Shock losses 900 Bends

Circular Mitre Bend Smooth Bend

X = 1.15

X = 0.25 x 2 m2 a0.5 902 m is the radius ratio = Centre line radius / width of the airway A is the aspect ratio = Height / width

X = 1.15

R/D X

0.5 0.425

1.0 0.350

1.5 0.315

2.0 0.315

2.5 0.325

3.0 0.380

X = X90 x 90

## Example 900 Bends

Mitre bend
5.0m x 5.0m drive Airflow 125 and 35 m3/s Assume standard density for air

3 piece bend
5.0m x 5.0m drive Airflow 125 m3/s Assume standard density for air

Velocity pressure

PV =

v2 2 = (Pa)

## Shock loss pressure

PShock = X PV = (Pa)

## Example 900 Bends

Mitre bend Mitre bend 3 piece bend

5.0m x 5.0m drive Airflow 125 m3/s Assume standard density for air
Velocity pressure

5.0m x 5.0m drive Airflow 35 m3/s Assume standard density for air
Velocity pressure

5.0m x 5.0m drive Airflow 125 m3/s Assume standard density for air
Velocity pressure

## v 2 = 15 (Pa) Shock loss pressure PV =

PShock = X PV = 1.15 x 15 = 17 (Pa)

## Shock losses - Splits

Splitting Straight Branch X = 0.5((Q / Qb)-1)2

## Shock losses - Junctions

Junction Straight Branch X = 3.3((tan /2)0.67).(((Q/Qb).((1/Cc)-1))2

Q = Total Airflow Qb =Airflow in the branch being evaluated Xb= X for the deflected branch Cc=Coefficient of contraction =Ac / Ao Ac=Area of the vena Contractor Ao=Area of the orifice

Ideal Junction

v1 v2

= 300 & v1 = v 2

## Shock losses Outlet (discharge)

In all cases X = 1.0 and the velocity pressure is determined by the velocity in the plane of the exit area
X=1.0

Plain X=1.0

Flanged X=1.0

Diffused

## System Pressure Losses

Entry to the system (shock losses) Frictional losses (roughness, dimensions) Shock losses (any change in direction of airflow)
Bends Intersections Obstructions Changes in area or shape

## System resistance characteristic (curve)

A system characteristic curve can be generated using the abbreviated ventilation equation
P = RQ2 (Assume R = 0.0746 (Ns2/m8))
Volume of air (Q) (m3/s) Pressure (P) (Pa) 0 0 20 30
3500 3000 2500 Pressure (Pa) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Volume of air (m 3/s)

40 120

60 268

80 477

100 746

120 1,074

140 1,462

160 1,910

180 2,417

200 2,984

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Acknowledgements
DALY, B.B., 1978 Woods Practical Guide to Fan Engineering (Published by Woods of Colchester 1978) Le ROUX, W., Le Rouxs Notes on Mine Environmental Control Fourth Edition. (The Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa). JORGENSEN, R. 1983 Fan Engineering Eighth Edition (Buffalo Forge Company. Buffalo, New York.) BURROWS, J., 1989 Environmental Engineering in South African Mines (The Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa) Tien, J.C., 1999 Practical Mine Ventilation Engineering (Intertec Publishing Corporation. Chicago, Illinois.)