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MEIE-4262 Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Chapter-1 Introduction

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Manufacturing Processes - Definition

A method of converting raw material into a finished products by using machines, tools and labour
Finished products may be used as such or for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Evolution of Manufacturing

Began about 5000 to 4000 B.C with the production of various articles of wood, ceramic, stone and metal Derived from Latin word manu factus meaning made by hand

The word manufacture first appeared in 1567


The word manufacturing appeared in 1683 Production is also used interchangeably .

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

What is Manufacturing?
Range of Materials & Processes in a Tractor

FIGURE 1.1 Model 8430 tractor, with detailed illustration of its diesel engine, showing the variety of materials and processes incorporated. Source: Courtesy of John Deere Company.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

History of Manufacturing

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

History of Manufacturing (cont.)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

History of Manufacturing (conc.)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Manufacturing Importance

FIGURE 1.2 Importance of manufacturing to national economies. The trends shown are from 1982 until 2006. Source: After J.A. Schey with data from the World Development Report, World Bank, various years.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Classification of Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Classification of Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing Processes

Two basic types:

1. Processing operations - transform a work material from one state of completion to a more advanced state

Operations that change the geometry, properties, or appearance of the starting material

2. Assembly operations - join two or more components to create a new entity

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Processing Operations

Shaping operations
Solidification processes Particulate processing

Deformation processes
Material removal processes Property-enhancing operations (heat treatments) Surface processing operations Cleaning and surface treatments

Coating and thin-film deposition


Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Shaping Processes Four Categories



Solidification processes - starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid Particulate processing - starting material consists of powders

Deformation processes - starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal)


Material removal processes - starting material is a ductile or brittle solid

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Solidification Processes

Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state
Examples: metal casting, plastic molding

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Particulate Processing

Starting materials are powders of metals or ceramics
Usually involves pressing and sintering, in which powders are first compressed and then heated to bond the individual particles

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Deformation Processes

Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that exceed the yield strength of the material Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Material Removal Processes

Excess material removed from the starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry
Examples: machining such as turning, drilling, and milling; also grinding and nontraditional processes

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Property-Enhancing Processes

Performed to improve mechanical or physical properties of work material Part shape is not altered, except unintentionally Examples: Heat treatment of metals and glasses Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Surface Processing Operations


Cleaning - chemical and mechanical processes to remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants from the surface
Surface treatments - mechanical working such as sand blasting, and physical processes like diffusion Coating and thin film deposition - coating exterior surface of the workpart

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Assembly Operations

Joining processes Welding Brazing and soldering Adhesive bonding Mechanical assembly

Threaded fasteners (e.g., bolts and nuts, screws)


Rivets Interference fits (e.g., press fitting, shrink fits) Other
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Product Design and Concurrent Engineering


Development Process

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 1.3 (a) Chart showing various steps involved in designing and manufacturing a product. Depending on the complexity of the product and the type of materials used, the time span between the original concept and the marketing of a product may range from a few months to many years. (b) Chart showing general product flow, from market analysis to selling the product, and depicting concurrent engineering. Source: After S. Pugh.

Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Service,


Shapes & Manufacturing Process
TABLE 1.2 Shapes and some common methods of production.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Design for Assembly

FIGURE 1.4 Redesign of parts to facilitate automated assembly. Source: Reprinted from G. Boothroyd and P. Dewhurst, Product Design for Assembly, 1989, by courtesy of Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Design for Environment; Sustainable Manufacturing; Product Life Cycle


All-Aluminum Automobile

FIGURE 1.5 (a) The Audi A8 automobile, an example of advanced materials construction; (b) The aluminum body structure, showing various components made by extrusion, sheet forming, and casting processes. Source: Courtesy of ALCOA, Inc.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Material Selection

Types of materials Material substitution Material properties Cost and availability Service life and recycling

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Selection of Manufacturing Process


Methods of Manufacture

FIGURE 1.6 Various methods of making a simple part: (a) casting or powder metallurgy, (b) forging or upsetting, (c) extrusion, (d) machining, (e) joining two pieces.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Scales in Manufacturing

FIGURE 1.7 Illustration of the range of common sizes of parts and the capabilities of manufacturing processes in producing these parts.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Computer Integrated Manufacturing


Machining a Mold Cavity

FIGURE 1.8 Machining a mold cavity for making sunglasses. (a) Computer model of the sunglasses as designed and viewed on the monitor. (b) Machining the die cavity using a computer numerical control milling machine. (c) Final product produced from the mold. Source: Courtesy Mastercam / CNC Software, Inc.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Flexible Manufacturing

FIGURE 1.9 General view of a flexible manufacturing system, showing several machines (machining centers) and an automated guided vehicle (AGV) moving along the aisle. Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron, Inc.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing; Quality Assurance and TQM

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Manufacturing Cost
Global Labor Rates

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7