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1. History & Introduction

2. Architecture and Throughputs
3. Physical Layer and Physical Channels
4. Baseband Layer
5. Link Manager Protocol
6. Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
7. RFCOMM Protocol
8. Service Discovery Protocol
9. Host Control Interface
10. Profiles
11. Conclusion
Why Bluetooth?
Ø Cable replacement between devices.
Ø Supported by major companies
Ø Low power consumption
Ø Connection can be initiated without user
Ø Devices can be connected to multiple devices at
the same time.
1. History & Introduction
Ø Bluetooth is a short-range wireless
network originally intended to replace
the cable(s) connecting portable and/or
fixed electronic devices. Such a
network is also sometimes called a
PAN (Personal Area Network)
Ø Invented in 1994 by L. M. Ericsson,
Ø The first version was released July
Ø Named after Harald Blaatand
“Bluetooth”, king of Denmark 940-981
Ø Bluetooth SIG founded by Ericsson,
IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba in Feb
Ø More than 2100 members today
Ø Bluetooth version 1.0 and 1.1 2 have
been released
2. Architecture and Throughputs
2.1 Architecture

Ø In principle each unit is a peer with the

same hardware capabilities m s
Ø Two or more Bluetooth units that share
a channel form a piconet
Ø Only one master in a piconet.
Ø Upto 7 slaves
Ø A group of overlapping piconets is
called a scatternet
Ø Users in a piconet share a 1 Mbps
channel – individual throughput
decreases drastically as more units are
Ø The aggregate and individual
throughput of users in a scatternet is
much greater than when each user
participates on the same piconet
Piconets and Scatternet
Bluetooth Specification Protocol Stack

– Lower layer protocols: Baseband, LMP, L2CAP, service discovery

protocol (SDP)
– Interfacing protocols: RFCOMM
– Applicative control specifications: TCS Binary, AT Commands
– Applicative protocols: PPP, TCP/IP, OBEX, WAP, vCard, VCal, WAE
2.2 Throughputs and Versions
Ø Several versions of the specifications exist.Version 1.0 offers a
maximum bandwidth less than 1 Mbps for a range of about 10 m. The
range depends on the equipment class. Three classes and hence
three transmission powers are defined
– Class 1: it is designed for high-range devices such as Bluetooth
points (∼100 m), power characteristics: 20 dBm (100 mW)
– Class 2: for normal PCs and portable plugged devices (∼10 m),
characteristics 4 dBm (2.5 mW)
– Class 3: for low power devices (range less than 1 m), power
characteristics: 0 dBm (1 mW)
Ø Version 2 offers a maximum bandwidth ranging from 2 to 3 Mbps.
When Bluetooth goes to higher ranges it faces other standards
such as Wimedia
3. Physical Layer and Physical Channels

Ø The physical layer is based, for the basic rate, on frequency

hopping with GFSK
modulation. The modulation produces 1M symbols for a total
throughput of
712 Kbps. In this kind of modulation we generate a binary one by a
frequency deviation, and a binary zero by a negative frequency
deviation. The
advantage of this technique is that it does not require complex
3.1 Frequency Bands and RF
Ø Bluetooth operation is in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. In most countries
we have 83.5MHz that should be dedicated to this protocol. 79
channels are hence possible in this range with a bandwidth of 1
MHz per channel.
Ø Global Availability and License Free


1 79
83.5 Mhz
4. Baseband Layer

Ø Baseband is a layer that implements a very

large amount of procedures linking
the data transmission to the radio coding and
modulation. Clock, data packet
formats, master/slave roles, connection/sleep
state machine management, link
control and audio transmission and forward error
correction (FEC) (coding also)
are defined here.
4.1 Physical Characteristics

Physical Channels.
1. It is represented by the pseudo-random sequence hopping the chosen
79or 23 among channels RF available in the 2.4 GHz band.
2. The hopping sequence is unique for each piconet
3. The channel is divided into intervals of time or slots
4. Each interval of time corresponds to an RF frequency among the hopping
sequence so that two consecutive slots correspond to two frequencies
5. The multiplexing technique uses time division duplex (TDD), i.e. the
master and slaves transmit alternatively (a master transmits in the even
slots and the slaves in the odd slots).
6. The intervals of time or slots are numbered and last 625 μs each one.
7. A packet corresponds to the juxtaposition of 1–5 consecutive time slots
8. when a packet has a size higher than 1 time slot (3 or 5 slots), one
speaks about multi-slot transmission
Logical Links.
Ø Several types of links can be established between a
master and one (or several) slave. We enumerate the used
most here:
-Synchronous connection oriented (SCO)
SCO are used for:
– Voice communications in circuit mode
– Synchronous and symmetrical services
- Extended SCO (ESCO)
ESCO are asymmetric links and they offer more packet types supported on
their communications.
- Asynchronous connection oriented (ACL)
ACL links are used for:
– Data communication
– Symmetrical and asymmetrical asynchronous services
– Discovery and paging
4.2 Addressing
Ø Four types of addresses are used between Bluetooth
Ø BD_ADDR: Bluetooth device fixed address.
It is provided by the manufacturer.Each device must have a unique Ø
address. The length is 48 bits.corresponds to an MAC address

Ø LT_ADDR: the address of the active Bluetooth

It is a 3-bit wide. number and it elucidates the secret behind the maximum
number of eight nodes in a piconet.
Ø PM_ADDR: it is an address reserved to the non-active
This address is on 8 bits and is valid only if the slave is parked.

Ø AR_ADDR: access request address

4.3 Bluetooth Packets

Ø There are several kinds of packets that are related to the different
link types.According to the application, we identify globally three kinds of
– Control packets: they are used between the server and slaves to carry
information related to the radio (frequency hopping, clock) to the link
(establishment, security) or to the connection (connection requests).
– Synchronous packets SCO: they are used by the connection oriented links
to carry voice.
– Asynchronous packets ACL: they are used for ACL connections, so mainly
best effort data traffic.

For each one of these types, several subcategories exist. The various
types of packets which result from this list are shown hereafter.

– Voice data packets DV , DM x packets (x = 1,3 or 5) ,

DH y packet types (y = 1,3 or 5) , 2-DH1, 3-DH1 , ….
Ø Packet Formats.

Header Payload
control packets
In all, there are five types of control packets (ID, POLL, NULL, FHS, DM1)that
are used for control of the channel
Ø ID Packet It consists of the device access code (DAC) or inquiry access
code .(IAC) and has a fixed length of 68 bits. It contains the node address
an inquiry code to ask for a node with specific conditions .
Ø FHS Packet The FHS packet contains the MAC address of the sender
It is coded with 2/3 FEC rate.This packet is used in the answers to the
page requests and Inquiry ones before the creation of the PICONET or
when there is a role change.
Ø Access Code.
– Channel access code (CAC)
– Device access code (DAC)
– Inquiry access code (IAC)
Ø Packet Header.
4.4 Error Control

Ø Error Control Codes.

Ø Header Error Check.
Ø 1/3 FEC Coding.
Ø 2/3 FEC Coding.
Ø Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ).
5. Link Manager Protocol
As shown in Figure the Paging procedure
triggers the device to get into
connected state and triggers all
possible LMP messages. This is done
through LMP message. There are
several states:
– Standby
– Page
– Page scan
– Master Response
– Slave Response
– Inquiry
– inquiry scan
– Inquiry Response
– Connection
– Park

State diagram of bluetooth

Some LMP Procedures.

Ø LMP Host Connection

Req, LMP Setup
Complete :The basic
connection establishment
procedure is the connection
request. Ithappens after paging
a node.
6. Logical Link Control and
Adaptation Protocol
There are three types of
L2CAP links:
– Bidirectional channel
links for signalling.
– Data connection for
bidirectional traffic.
– Unidirectionnel multicast
connections. This means
that L2CAP manages
multicast communications
for Bluetooth
Some L2CAP Functions
Ø Multiplexing
Ø Control Frame Format
Ø Quality of Service.
Ø Segmentation and Reassembly.

Connection Establishment
Two step process : Inquiry – to get device addr
Paging – for Synchronization

Inquiry : Uses the Inquiry hop sequence and

the IAC
Paging : Uses the Paging hop sequence and
the DAC of the device to be paged
Connection Establishment -

No master and slaves at this point

Inquiry pkt
Inquiry Inquiry Scan

FHS pkt
Inquiry Response

Device A Device B
Connection Establishment -
Master Slave
Page pkt
Page Page Scan
ID pkt Slave Page
Master Page FHS pkt
Response Uses FHS to get
Assigns active ID pkt CAC and clk info
addr POLL

Connected Connected
Connection Establishment

Inquiry Paging Connected

Typical 5.12 s 0.64 s

Max 15.36 s 7.38 s

Ø Provide support for legacy applications that
use serial cables
Ø The scope is point-to-point communication
between Bluetooth-equipped devices.
Ø A serial cable emulation protocol
Ø Performs all the necessary functions for
transferring serial data as well as modem
control signals
SDP - Service Discovery
Ø Focus
Ø Service discovery within Bluetooth environment
Ø Optimized for dynamic nature of Bluetooth
Ø Services offered by or through Bluetooth devices
Typical Usage of SDP

Ø Establish L2CAP connection to remote

Ø Query for services
Ø Search for specific class of service, or
Ø Browse for services
Ø Retrieve attributes that detail how to
connect to the service
9.Host Controller Interface
Ø HCI provides an interface with methods for
uniform access to baseband functions
and independent from the upper interface.
Today we have USB, PCMCIA,PCI, RS232
and WAP interfaces already defined

Ø Service discovery application profile (SDAP),

Ø Cordless telephony profile (CTP),
Ø Serial Port Profile (SPP).
Ø Headset (HS)
Ø Dial-up networking profile (DNP),
Ø Fax FP (Fax Profile).
Ø Local area network profile (LAP),
Ø Generic object exchange profile (GOEP),
Ø File transfer profile (FTP),
Bluetooth Products

Bluetooth Mobile Phone, headset, PDAs

Bluetooth printer and laptop with

Cordless Bar code Scanner bluetooth adapter
11. Conclusion

Ø Bluetooth technology has certain assets: low

power consumption, high level of
integration, profiles, native management of
the voice and it includes mechanisms
for simple QoS and error control
Thank You