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MOS Transistor Definitions ntypeMOS:Majoritycarriersareelectrons. ptypeMOS:Majoritycarriersareholes. Positive/negativevoltageappliedtothegate (withrespecttosubstrate)enhancesthenumber ofelectrons/holesinthechannelandincreases conductivitybetweensourceanddrain. VtdefinesthevoltageatwhichaMOS transistorbeginstoconduct.Forvoltagesless thanVt(thresholdvoltage),thechanneliscut off.

MOS Transistor Definitions Innormaloperation,apositivevoltageapplied betweensourceanddrain(Vds).

Nocurrentflowsbetweensourceanddrain(Ids =0)withVgs=0becauseofbacktobackpn junctions.

FornMOS,withVgs>Vtn,electricfield attractselectronscreatingchannel. Channelisptypesiliconwhichisinvertedton typebytheelectronsattractedbytheelectric field.

n-MOS Enhancement Transistor Physics ThreemodesbasedonthemagnitudeofVgs: accumulation,depletionandinversion.

n-MOS Enhancement Transistor Physics

n-MOS Enhancement Transistor WithVdsnonzero,thechannelbecomes smallerclosertothedrain.

WhenVds<=VgsVt(e.g.Vds=3V,Vgs= 5VandVt=1V),thechannelreachesthedrain (sinceVgd>Vt). Thisistermedlinear,resistiveor nonsaturatedregion.Idsisafunctionofboth VgsandVds.

n-MOS Enhancement Transistor WhenVds>VgsVt(e.g.Vds=5V,Vgs=5V andVt=1V),thechannelispinchedoffcloseto thedrain(sinceVgd<Vt). Thisistermedsaturatedregion.Idsisa functionofVgs,almostindependentofVds.

MOS Enhancement Transistor MOStransistorscanbemodeledasavoltage controlledswitch.Idsisanimportantparameter thatdeterminesthebehavior,e.g.,thespeedof theswitch. Whataretheparametersthateffectthe magnitudeofIds?(AssumeVgsandVdsare fixed,e.g.5V). Thedistancebetweensourceanddrain(channel length). Thechannelwidth. Thethresholdvoltage. Thethicknessofthegateoxidelayer. Thedielectricconstantofthegateinsulator. Thecarrier(electronorhole)mobility.

Summaryofnormalconductioncharacteristics: Cutoff :accumulation,I ds isessentiallyzero. Nonsaturated :weakinversion,I ds dependentonboth V gs andV ds . Saturated :stronginversion,I ds isideallyindependent ofV ds .

Threshold Voltage Vtisalsoanimportantparameter.Whateffects itsvalue? Mostarerelatedtothematerialproperties.In otherwords,Vtislargelydeterminedatthe timeoffabrication,ratherthanbycircuit conditions,likeIds. Forexample,materialparametersthateffectVt include: Thegateconductormaterial(polyvs.metal). Thegateinsulationmaterial(SiO 2 ). Thethicknessofthegatematerial. Thechanneldopingconcentration.

However,Vtisalsodependenton V sb (thevoltagebetweensourceandsubstrate),which isnormally0indigitaldevices. Temperature:changesby2mV/degreeCforlow substratedopinglevels.

Threshold Voltage Theexpressionforthresholdvoltageisgivenas:

Threshold Voltage Thresholdvoltage(cont.):

TypicalvaluesofVtfornandpchannel transistorsare+/700mV. Threshold Voltage Fromequations,thresholdvoltagemaybevaried bychanging: Thedopingconcentration(N A ). Theoxidecapacitance(C ox ). Surfacestatecharge(Q fc ).

Asyoucansee,itisoftennecessarytoadjustVt . Twomethodsarecommon:

ChangeQ fc byintroducingasmalldopedregionatthe oxide/substrateinterfaceviaionimplantation.

ChangeC ox byusingadifferentinsulatingmaterial forthegate. o AlayerofSi3N4(siliconnitride) witharelativepermittivityof7.5is combinedwithalayerofsilicon dioxide(relativepermittivityof3.9). o Thisresultsinarelativepermittivity ofabout6.


o

Forthesamethicknessdielectriclayer, Coxislargerusingthecombined material,whichlowersVt.

Body Effect Indigitalcircuits,thesubstrateisusuallyheld atzero. o Thesourcesofnchannel devices,forexample,arealso heldatzero,exceptincasesof seriesconnections,e.g.,

Thesourcetosubstrate(Vsb)mayincreaseat thisconnections,e.g.VsbN1=0butVsbN2/=0. Vsbaddstothechannelsubstratepotential:

Basic DC Equations Idealfirstorderequationforcutoffregion:

Idealfirstorderequationforlinearregion:

Idealfirstorderequationforsaturationregion:

withthefollowingdefinitions:

Basic DC Equations Processdependentfactors: .

Geometrydependentfactors:WandL. Voltagecurrentcharacteristicsofthenandp transistors.

Beta calculation Transistorbetacalculationexample: o Typicalvaluesforann transistorin1micron technology:

Computebeta:

Howdoesthisbetacomparewithp devices:

ntransistorgainsareapproximately2.8times largerthanptransistors. Inverter voltage transistor characteristics InverterDCcharacteristics

Beta Ratios RegionCisthemostimportantregion.Asmall changeintheinputvoltage,Vin,resultsina LARGEchangeintheoutputvoltage,Vout. Thisbehaviordescribesanamplifier,theinput isamplifiedattheoutput.Theamplificationis termedtransistorgain,whichisgivenbybeta. Boththenandpchanneltransistorshavea beta.Varyingtheirratiowillchangethe characteristicsoftheoutputcurve.

Beta Ratios Therefore,the


o

doesNOTaffectswitchingperformance.

Whatfactorwouldargueforaratioof1for o Loadcapacitance! Thetimerequiredtochargeordischargea capacitiveloadisequalwhen .

SincebetaisdependentWandL,wecanadjust theratiobychangingthesizesofthetransistor

channelwidths,bymakingpchannel transistorswiderthannchanneltransistors. Noise Margins Aparameterthatdeterminesthemaximum noisevoltageontheinputofagatethatallows theoutputtoremainstable. Twoparameters,Lownoisemargin(NML)and Highnoisemargin(NMH). NML=differenceinmagnitudebetweenthe maxLOWoutputvoltageofthedrivinggate andmaxLOWinputvoltagerecognizedbythe drivengate.

Noise Margins Idealcharacteristic:VIH=VIL=(VOH+VOL )/2.

Thisimpliesthatthetransfercharacteristic shouldswitchabruptly(highgaininthe transitionregion). VILfoundbydeterminingunitygainpoint fromVOH.

Pseudo-nMOS Inverter

Therefore,theshapeofthetransfercharacteristic andtheVOLoftheinverterisaffectedbythe

ratio . Ingeneral,thelownoisemarginisconsiderably worsethanthehighnoisemarginforPseudo nMOS.

PseudonMOSwaspopularforhighspeed circuits,staticROMsandPLAs. Pseudo-nMOS Example:Calculationofnoisemargins:

ThetransfercurveforthepseudonMOS invertercanbeusedtocalculatethenoise marginsofidenticalpseudonMOSinverters