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Linearized Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion

Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics MAE 331, 2008


Nonlinear Dynamic Equations v = Y /m + gsin " cos # $ ru + pw

6-Component Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion


y I = (cos # sin% ) u + (cos " cos% + sin " sin # sin% )v + ($sin " cos% + cos " sin # sin% ) w

Spiral, Dutch roll, and roll modes Stability derivatives


Dutch-rollmode response of side velocity Spiral-mode response of crossrange Spiral-mode response of yaw angle Dutch-roll-mode response of roll and yaw rates Roll-mode response of roll angle

{ ( r = ( I L + I N $ {I ( I
xz xx xz

2 2 p = Izz L + Ixz N $ Ixz ( Iyy $ Ixx $ Izz ) p + Ixz + Izz ( Izz $ Iyy ) r q ( Ixx Izz $ Ixz )

yy

$ Ixx $ Izz

[ )r + [ I

2 xz

+ Ixx ( Ixx $ Iyy

]}) )] p}q) (I

xx zz

2 I $ Ixz )

" = p + (qsin " + r cos " ) tan # % = (qsin " + r cos " ) sec #

State Vector, 6 components

Copyright 2008 by Robert Stengel. All rights reserved. For educational use only. http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html

" x1 % "v % " % Side Velocity $ ' $ ' $ ' x2' y' $ Crossrange $ $ ' $x3 ' $ p' $ ' Body * Axis Roll Rate $ ' = x LD6 = $ ' = $ ' x4 ' r' $ Body * Axis Yaw Rate $ $ ' $x5 ' $( ' $ Roll Angle about Body x Axis ' $ ' $ ' $ ' #x6 & #)& #Yaw Angle about Inertial x Axis&

4- Component Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion


Nonlinear Dynamic Equations, neglecting crossrange and yaw angle

4- Component Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion


Nonlinear Dynamic Equations, assuming steady, level, longitudinal ight (constant longitudinal variables)

v = Y /m + gsin " cos # $ ru + pw

{ ( r = ( I L + I N $ {I ( I
xz xx xz

2 2 p = Izz L + Ixz N $ Ixz ( Iyy $ Ixx $ Izz ) p + Ixz + Izz ( Izz $ Iyy ) r q ( Ixx Izz $ Ixz )

yy

$ Ixx $ Izz

[ )r + [ I

2 xz

+ Ixx ( Ixx $ Iyy

]}) )] p}q) (I

v = YB /m + gsin " cos # N $ ruN + pw N = YB /m + gsin " cos % N $ ruN + pw N

xx zz

2 I $ Ixz )

(I L + I N ) p = zz B xz B

(I

xx zz

2 I $ Ixz )

" = p + (qsin " + r cos " ) tan #


State Vector, 4 components

r=

(Ixz LB + Ixx N B )

qN = 0 "N = 0 #N = $ N

" x1 % "v % " % Side Velocity $ ' $ ' $ ' x2' p' $ Body ) Axis Roll Rate $ = x =$ = ' LD4 $x3 ' $r' $ ' Body ) Axis Yaw Rate $ ' $ ' $ ' #x 4 & #( & #Roll Angle about Body x Axis&

(I

xx zz

2 I $ Ixz )

" = p + ( r cos " ) tan # N = p + ( r cos " ) tan % N

State Vector, 4 components

!
!
!

" x1 % "v % " % Side Velocity $ ' $ ' $ ' Body ) Axis Roll Rate $ x 2 ' = x = $ p' = $ ' LD4 $x3 ' $r' $ ' Body ) Axis Yaw Rate $ ' $ ' $ ' #x 4 & #( & #Roll Angle about Body x Axis&

Lateral-Directional Force and Moments

Body-Axis Perturbation Equations of Motion


" LD (t) = FLD "x LD (t) + G LD "uLD (t) + L LD "wLD (t) x
Perturbations from wings-level ight

v N = 0; pN = 0; rN = 0; " N = 0
$ *f1 *f1 ' &*v *+R ) & wind *f 2 ) & *f 2 )$"+A(t)' *v & *+R )& + & wind *f 3 )%"+R(t)) *f 3 ( & *+R ) &*v wind *f 4 ) & *f 4 ) *+R ( & %*v wind

YB = CYB

1 " NVN 2 S; Body # Axis Side Force 2 1 2 LB = ClB " NVN Sb; Body # Axis Rolling Moment 2 1 N B = Cn B " NVN 2 Sb; Body # Axis Yawing Moment 2
!

& *v $"v (t)' &*f & ) & 2 p &" (t)) = & *v &"(t) ) &*f 3 r & ) & *v %"# (t)( & &*f 4 % *v

! $ *f1

*f1 *p *f 2 *p *f 3 *p *f 4 *p

*f1 *r *f 2 *r *f 3 *r *f 4 *r

*f1 ' $ *f1 & *# ) ! )$"v(t)' &*+A *f 2 ) & ) & *f 2 *# )&"p(t)) &*+A + *f 3 )& "r(t) ) & *f 3 )& *# %"# (t)) &*+A ( ) & *f 4 *f 4 ) & %*+A *# (

*f1 ' *pwind ) ) *f 2 ) *pwind )$"v wind ' *f 3 )&"pwind ) % ( *pwind ) ) *f 4 ) ) *pwind (
dim("x) = 4 #1 dim("u) = 2 #1 dim("w) = 2 #1

#"u1 & #")A& #Aileron Perturbation& % (=% (=% ( $"u2 ' $")R' $ Rudder Perturbation '

#"w1 & #")A& # Side Wind Perturbation & % (=% (=% ( $"w 2 ' $")R' $Vortical Wind Perturbation'

!
! ! !

Typical Lateral-Directional Initial-Condition Linearized Response


Dutch-rollmode response of side velocity Spiral-mode response of crossrange

Dimensional Stability-andControl Derivatives


Stability Matrix
$ "f1 & "v & & "f 2 & "v & "f 3 & "v & &"f 4 % "v

"f1 "p "f 2 "p "f 3 "p "f 4 "p

"f1 "r "f 2 "r "f 3 "r "f 4 "r

"f1 ' "# ) ) "f 2 ) $ Yv & "# ) & Lv = "f 3 ) &N v "# ) & 0 ) % "f 4 ) "# (

(Y

+ wN ) Lp Np 1

(Yr * uN )
Lr Nr tan + N

gcos + N ' ) 0 ) 0 ) ) 0 (
!

#v & # & Side Velocity % ( % ( Body ) Axis Roll Rate % p( = % ( %r( % ( Body ) Axis Yaw Rate % ( % ( $" ' $Roll Angle about Body x Axis'

Spiral-mode response of yaw angle Dutch-roll-mode response of roll and yaw rates Roll-mode response of roll angle

Control Effect Matrix

$ "f1 &"#A & "f & 2 &"#A & "f 3 &"#A & "f 4 & %"#A

"f1 ' "#R ) $ Y " f 2 ) & #A ) "#R ) = & L#A "f 3 ) &N#A "#R ) & 0 "f 4 ) % ) "#R (

Y#R ' ) L#R ) N#R ) ) 0 (

Disturbance Effect Matrix

# "f1 %"v % wind % "f 2 %"v wind % "f 3 % %"v wind % "f 4 % $"v wind

"f1 & "pwind ( ( "f 2 ( # Yv % "pwind ( % Lv = "f 3 ( %N v "pwind ( % 0 ( $ "f 4 ( ( "pwind '

Yp & ( Lp ( Np( ( 0'

Body-Axis Perturbation Equations of Motion


Rolling and yawing motions
$"v (t)' $ Yv & ) & " (t)) & Lv p & = &"(t) ) &N v r & ) & %"# (t)( % 0

Stability Axes
Alternative set of body axes Nominal x axis is offset from the body centerline by the nominal angle of attack, !N

(Y

+ wN ) Lp Np 1

(Yr * uN )
Lr Nr tan + N

gcos + N '$"v(t)' $ Y,A )& ) & 0 )&"p(t)) & L,A + )& "r(t) ) &N,A 0 )& ) & 0 (%"# (t)( % 0

$ Yv Y,R ' ) & L,R )$",A(t)' & Lv & )+ )%",R(t)( &N v N,R ) & 0 ( %0

Yp ' ) L p )$"v wind ' & ) N p )%"pwind ( ) 0(

!
$"v ' $ ' Side Velocity Perturbation & ) & ) Body * Axis Roll Rate Perturbation &"p) = & ) &"r ) & Body * Axis Yaw Rate Perturbation ! ) & ) & ) %"#( %Roll Angle about Body x Axis Perturbation(

$"#A' $ Aileron Perturbation' & )=& ) %"#R( % Rudder Perturbation ( $"#A' $ Side Wind Perturbation ' & )=& ) %"#R( %Vortical Wind Perturbation(

Transformation from Original Body Axes to Stability Axes


$ cos" N & HS = & 0 B & %#sin " N
# "u & # "u & % ( ( S% "v = H B % "v ( ! % ( % ( % ( $"w'S $"w'B

Stability-Axis LateralDirectional Equations


Rotate body axes to stability axes Replace side velocity by sideslip angle Revise state order

0 sin " N ' ) 1 0 ) ) cos" N (


#"p& #"p& % ( ( S% %"q( = H B %"q( % ( % ( $"r'S $"r'B
!

$"v(t)' $"v(t)' $", (t)' $ "r(t) ' & ) & ) & ) & ) "p(t)) "p(t)) ", (t)) &"p(t)) +& +& +& &"r(t) ) &"r(t) ) & "r(t) ) &"p(t)) & ) & ) & ) & ) %"# (t)(Body*Axis %"# (t)(Stability*Axis %"# (t)(Stability*Axis %"# (t)(Stability*Axis
"# $ "v VN

Side velocity (!v) and pitch rate (!q) are unchanged by the transformation

Stability-Axis LateralDirectional Equations


% N# % "(t) ( ' N r r / Y# ' * ', Yr '"# (t)* = '. V +11 V N '" (t)* '- N 0 p L# ' * ' Lr &"$ (t))S 0 & tan 2 N Np Yp VN Lp 1 0 (% %N * "r(t) ( ' Y3A * gcos 2 N * ' "# (t)* ' 3A + VN VN * ' '"p(t)* ' L 0 *' ' 3A * "$ (t)*S ' 0 ) & 0 )S & %N # N3R ( 'Y Y3R * # * %"3A(t)( ' VN * ' + 'VN * L3R * &"3R(t)) ' L# '0 0 *S ) & Np( Yp * * %"# wind ( VN * ' * L p * &"pwind ) 0 *S )

Why Modify the Equations?


Dutch-roll mode is primarily described by stability-axis yaw rate and sideslip angle

Dutch Roll, top

Dutch Roll, front

Roll and spiral mode are primarily described by stability-axis roll rate and roll angle
Stable Spiral

#"x1 & # "r & # Stability + Axis Yaw Rate Perturbation & % ( % ( % ( Sideslip Angle Perturbation %"x 2 ( = %") ( = % ( %"x 3 ( %"p( % Stability + Axis Roll Rate Perturbation ( % ( % ( % ( $"x 4 ' $"* ' $Stability + Axis Roll Angle Perturbation'

Unstable Spiral Roll

Linearized equations allow the three modes to be studied

Why Modify the Equations?


Effects of Dutch roll perturbations on Dutch roll motion Effects of roll-spiral perturbations on Dutch roll motion

Stability, Control, and Disturbance Matrices


FLD "F = $ DR RS #FDR " Nr N( $* - Y( Y DR FRS % $, r )1/ ' = $+ VN . VN FRS & $ Lr L( $ 0 # tan 0 N
N"R & Y"R ( ( VN ( L"R ( ( 0 '
!

FLD

"F = $ DR RS #FDR

DR FRS % " FDR small% "FDR '=$ '($ FRS & #small FRS & # ~ 0

~ 0% ' FRS &

Np Yp VN Lp 1

% ' gcos 0 N ' VN ' 0 ' ' 0 & 0


!

#"x1 & # "r & % ( % ( %"x 2 ( = %") ( %"x 3 ( %"p( % ( % ( $"x 4 ' $"* '

Effects of Dutch roll perturbations on roll-spiral motion

Effects of roll-spiral perturbations on roll-spiral motion

!
... but are the off-diagonal blocks really small?

G LD

#N"A % Y"A % = % VN % L"A % $ 0

#"u1 & #")A& % (=% ( $"u2 ' $")R'

L LD

#N " %Y % " = %VN % L" %0 $

Np& Yp ( ( VN ( Lp ( 0( '
!

#"w1 & #")A& % (=% ( $"w 2 ' $")R'

Second-Order Models of Lateral-Directional Motion


Approximate LTI Dutch Roll Equation

Fourth- and SecondOrder Models and Eigenvalues


Fourth-Order Model F= -0.1079 -1 0.2501 0 1.9011 0.0566 -0.1567 0 -2.408 -1.1616 0 1 0 0.0958 0 0 G= 0 -1.1196 0 0 2.3106 0 0 0 G= -1.1196 0 G= 2.3106 0 Eigenvalue 0.00883 -1.2 -1.16e-01 + 1.39e+00j -1.16e-01 - 1.39e+00j Eigenvalue -1.32e-01 + 1.38e+00j -1.32e-01 - 1.38e+00j Eigenvalue 0 -1.16 Damping Freq. (rad/s) 8.32E-02 8.32E-02 Damping 9.55E-02 9.55E-02 Damping 1.39E+00 1.39E+00 Freq. (rad/s) 1.38E+00 1.38E+00 Freq. (rad/s)

" DR x

$ Nr N# ' $N # ' $ ' $ " ' & $ "r ' N2R r , Yr / Y# )& ) + & Y2R )"2R + & Y# )"# wind = & ) * & )%"# ( & ) & ) %"# ( . +11 % VN ( &- VN 0 VN ) %VN ( % (

Dutch Roll Approximation F= -0.1079 -1 1.9011 -0.1567

Approximate LTI Spiral-Roll Equation

Roll-Spiral Approximation F= -1.1616 1 0 0

$" ' $L p " RS = & ) * & p x "#( % 1 %

$L p ' 0'$"p' $L+A ' )& ) + & )"+A + & )"pwind 0(%"#( % 0 ( %0(

2nd-order-model eigenvalues are close to those of the 4th-order model Eigenvalue magnitudes of Dutch roll and roll roots are similar

Comparison of Second- and Fourth-Order Initial-Condition Responses of Business Jet


Fourth-Order Response Second-Order Response

Approximate Dutch Roll Mode


$ Nr N# ' $N ' $ " ' & r )$ "r ' & 1R ) & ) = &+ Yr *1. Y# )& ) + & Y1R )"1R 0 %"#( %"#( V % N( & %, VN / VN ) (
Characteristic ! polynomial, natural frequency, and damping ratio
% ( + % . Y Y ( " DR (s) = s2 # ' N r + $ V * s + -N $ '1# Yr V * + N r $ V 0 , & & N) N) N/ Y % ( 1 n DR = N $ '1# Yr V * + N r $ V & N) N % ( Y Y % ( 2 DR = #' N r + $ V * 2 N $ '1# Yr V * + N r $ V & & N) N) N

Speed and damping of responses is adequately portrayed by 2nd-order models Roll-spiral modes have little effect on yaw rate and sideslip angle responses Dutch roll mode has large effect on roll rate and roll angle responses

With negligible Yr

" n DR = N # + N r $ DR

Y#

VN

& ) Y Y = %( N r + # V + 2 N # + N r # V ' N* N

Weathercock Stability: Yaw Acceleration Sensitivity to Sideslip Angle, N"


Vertical tail, fuselage, and wing are principal contributors to directional stability
Side force contributions times respective moment arms Non-dimensional stability derivative
Cn " # Cn "

Contributions to Directional Stability, N"


Vertical tail

(C )
n"

Vertical Tail

# aFin$vt SFin lvt Sb = aFin$vtVvt

aFin = () Lift slope of isolated n referenced to n area, SFin


2 & )& V ) "vt = "elas(1+ #$ #% +( Tail2 + ' *' VN *

( )

Vertical Tail

+ Cn "

( )

Fuselage

+ Cn "

( )

Wing

+ Cn "

( )

Vvt =
Propeller

SFin lvt = Vertical Tail Volume Ratio Sb

Dimensional stability derivative


!

!
!

& %V 2 ) Sb $C & %V 2 ) Sb N" # n ( = Cn " ( + + $" ' 2 * Izz ' 2 * Izz


> 0 for stability

VTail = Airspeed at vertical tail; scrubbing lowers VTail, propeller slipstream increases VTail #, Sidewash: Deection of ow from freestream direction due to wing-fuselage interference

Fuselage

(C )
n"

Fuselage

!
!

#2K VolumeFuselage Sb

# & K = %1" dmax Length ( $ fuselage '

1.3

Contributions to Directional Stability, N"


Wing
Differential drag Interference effects
" = Sweep angle AR = Aspect ratio $ = Taper ratio % = Dihedral angle

Side Acceleration Sensitivity to Sideslip Angle, Y"


Side-force sensitivity to sideslip angle, Y"

% $V 2 ( Y" # CY" ' *S & 2m )

(C )
n"

Wing

= 0.75CLN # + fcn ( $, AR, %)CLN

Fuselage, vertical tail, and wing are principal contributors !


CY" # CY"

Propeller n effect
!

(C )
n"

( )

Fuselage

+ CY"

( )

Vertical Tail

+ CY"

( )

Wing

Propeller

Function of blade geometry, number of blades, thrust coefcient, and advance ratio J = V/nd ! n = rpm d = propeller diameter
see NACA-TR-819

(C )
Y"

Vertical Tail

# aFin$vt SFin S
2

(C ) (C )
Y" Y"

Fuselage

# %2 SBase S ; SB = &dBase 4
k=

Wing

= %CDParasite, Wing % k' 2


!

"AR
1+ 1+ AR 2

Yaw Damping Due to Yaw Rate, Nr


Cn r " Cn r

Yaw Damping Due to Yaw Rate, Nr


Dimensional stability derivative
$ #V 2 ' $ b '$ #VN 2 ' N r " Cn r & N )Sb = Cn r & )Sb )& % 2VN (% 2Izz ( % 2Izz ( $ #V ' < 0 for stability = Cn r & N ) Sb 2 % 4Izz (

( )
$

Vertical Tail

+ Cn r

( )

Wing

Vertical tail contribution


! " (Cn )Vertical Tail = #(Cn

Vertical Tail

% rlvt ( ' * = # Cn $ & V) +r

( )

Vertical Tail

% lvt (% b ( ' *' * r & b )& V )


r=

(C )
n r

vt

+" (Cn )Vertical Tail + rb 2V

)
2

+" (Cn )Vertical Tail

= #2 Cn $

( )

% lvt ( ' * Vertical Tail & b )


!

rb 2VN

Wing contribution
!

(C )
!

n r Wing

= k 0CL + k1CDParasite,Wing

High wing-sweep angle can lead to Nr > 0

k0 and k1 are functions of aspect ratio and sweep angle

Approximate Roll and Spiral Modes


Roll rate is damped by Lp Roll angle is a pure integral of roll rate

Roll Damping Due to Roll Rate, Lp


$ #V 2 ' $ b '$ #VN 2 ' $ #V ' 2 L p " Cl p & N )Sb = Cl p & ) Sb = Cl p & N )Sb )& % 2VN (% 2Ixx ( % 4Ixx ( % 2Ixx (
< 0 for stability

$" ' $L p p & ) = & %"#( % 1

0'$"p' $L*A ' )& ) + & )"*A 0(%"#( % 0 (

Vertical tail, horizontal tail, and wing are principal contributors

Cl p " Cl p

( )

Vertical Tail

+ Cl p

( )
=$

Horizontal Tail

+ Cl p

( )

Wing

Characteristic polynomial has real roots

Wing with taper

" RS (s) = s( s # L p )

(C )
lp

Wing

" (#Cl )Wing


"p

CL% '1+ 3& * ) , 12 ( 1+ & +


="

$S = 0 $R = L p

Thin triangular wing

(C )
lp

Wing

#AR 32

Roll Damping Due to Roll Rate, Lp


Vertical tail

(C )
lp

vt

CY & S )& 1+ 3, ) " (#Cl ) vt = $ %vt ( vt +( + "p 12 ' S *' 1+ , *


p= pb 2VN

Tapered horizontal tail

(C )
lp

ht

CL " (#Cl ) ht = $ % ht "p 12

& Sht )& 1+ 3, ) ( +( + ' S *' 1+ , *

Next Time: Analysis of Linear Dynamic Models

pb/2VN describes helix angle for a steady roll