Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Linearized Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion

Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics MAE 331, 2008

Nonlinear Dynamic Equations v = Y /m + gsin " cos # \$ ru + pw

6-Component Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion

y I = (cos # sin% ) u + (cos " cos% + sin " sin # sin% )v + (\$sin " cos% + cos " sin # sin% ) w

Spiral, Dutch roll, and roll modes Stability derivatives

Dutch-rollmode response of side velocity Spiral-mode response of crossrange Spiral-mode response of yaw angle Dutch-roll-mode response of roll and yaw rates Roll-mode response of roll angle

{ ( r = ( I L + I N \$ {I ( I
xz xx xz

2 2 p = Izz L + Ixz N \$ Ixz ( Iyy \$ Ixx \$ Izz ) p + Ixz + Izz ( Izz \$ Iyy ) r q ( Ixx Izz \$ Ixz )

yy

\$ Ixx \$ Izz

[ )r + [ I

2 xz

+ Ixx ( Ixx \$ Iyy

]}) )] p}q) (I

xx zz

2 I \$ Ixz )

" = p + (qsin " + r cos " ) tan # % = (qsin " + r cos " ) sec #

State Vector, 6 components

Copyright 2008 by Robert Stengel. All rights reserved. For educational use only. http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html

" x1 % "v % " % Side Velocity \$ ' \$ ' \$ ' x2' y' \$ Crossrange \$ \$ ' \$x3 ' \$ p' \$ ' Body * Axis Roll Rate \$ ' = x LD6 = \$ ' = \$ ' x4 ' r' \$ Body * Axis Yaw Rate \$ \$ ' \$x5 ' \$( ' \$ Roll Angle about Body x Axis ' \$ ' \$ ' \$ ' #x6 & #)& #Yaw Angle about Inertial x Axis&

4- Component Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion

Nonlinear Dynamic Equations, neglecting crossrange and yaw angle

4- Component Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion

Nonlinear Dynamic Equations, assuming steady, level, longitudinal ight (constant longitudinal variables)

v = Y /m + gsin " cos # \$ ru + pw

{ ( r = ( I L + I N \$ {I ( I
xz xx xz

2 2 p = Izz L + Ixz N \$ Ixz ( Iyy \$ Ixx \$ Izz ) p + Ixz + Izz ( Izz \$ Iyy ) r q ( Ixx Izz \$ Ixz )

yy

\$ Ixx \$ Izz

[ )r + [ I

2 xz

]}) )] p}q) (I

v = YB /m + gsin " cos # N \$ ruN + pw N = YB /m + gsin " cos % N \$ ruN + pw N

xx zz

2 I \$ Ixz )

(I L + I N ) p = zz B xz B

(I

xx zz

2 I \$ Ixz )

" = p + (qsin " + r cos " ) tan #

State Vector, 4 components

r=

(Ixz LB + Ixx N B )

qN = 0 "N = 0 #N = \$ N

" x1 % "v % " % Side Velocity \$ ' \$ ' \$ ' x2' p' \$ Body ) Axis Roll Rate \$ = x =\$ = ' LD4 \$x3 ' \$r' \$ ' Body ) Axis Yaw Rate \$ ' \$ ' \$ ' #x 4 & #( & #Roll Angle about Body x Axis&

(I

xx zz

2 I \$ Ixz )

State Vector, 4 components

!
!
!

" x1 % "v % " % Side Velocity \$ ' \$ ' \$ ' Body ) Axis Roll Rate \$ x 2 ' = x = \$ p' = \$ ' LD4 \$x3 ' \$r' \$ ' Body ) Axis Yaw Rate \$ ' \$ ' \$ ' #x 4 & #( & #Roll Angle about Body x Axis&

Body-Axis Perturbation Equations of Motion

" LD (t) = FLD "x LD (t) + G LD "uLD (t) + L LD "wLD (t) x
Perturbations from wings-level ight

v N = 0; pN = 0; rN = 0; " N = 0
\$ *f1 *f1 ' &*v *+R ) & wind *f 2 ) & *f 2 )\$"+A(t)' *v & *+R )& + & wind *f 3 )%"+R(t)) *f 3 ( & *+R ) &*v wind *f 4 ) & *f 4 ) *+R ( & %*v wind

YB = CYB

1 " NVN 2 S; Body # Axis Side Force 2 1 2 LB = ClB " NVN Sb; Body # Axis Rolling Moment 2 1 N B = Cn B " NVN 2 Sb; Body # Axis Yawing Moment 2
!

& *v \$"v (t)' &*f & ) & 2 p &" (t)) = & *v &"(t) ) &*f 3 r & ) & *v %"# (t)( & &*f 4 % *v

! \$ *f1

*f1 *p *f 2 *p *f 3 *p *f 4 *p

*f1 *r *f 2 *r *f 3 *r *f 4 *r

*f1 ' \$ *f1 & *# ) ! )\$"v(t)' &*+A *f 2 ) & ) & *f 2 *# )&"p(t)) &*+A + *f 3 )& "r(t) ) & *f 3 )& *# %"# (t)) &*+A ( ) & *f 4 *f 4 ) & %*+A *# (

*f1 ' *pwind ) ) *f 2 ) *pwind )\$"v wind ' *f 3 )&"pwind ) % ( *pwind ) ) *f 4 ) ) *pwind (
dim("x) = 4 #1 dim("u) = 2 #1 dim("w) = 2 #1

#"u1 & #")A& #Aileron Perturbation& % (=% (=% ( \$"u2 ' \$")R' \$ Rudder Perturbation '

#"w1 & #")A& # Side Wind Perturbation & % (=% (=% ( \$"w 2 ' \$")R' \$Vortical Wind Perturbation'

!
! ! !

Typical Lateral-Directional Initial-Condition Linearized Response

Dutch-rollmode response of side velocity Spiral-mode response of crossrange

Dimensional Stability-andControl Derivatives

Stability Matrix
\$ "f1 & "v & & "f 2 & "v & "f 3 & "v & &"f 4 % "v

"f1 "r "f 2 "r "f 3 "r "f 4 "r

"f1 ' "# ) ) "f 2 ) \$ Yv & "# ) & Lv = "f 3 ) &N v "# ) & 0 ) % "f 4 ) "# (

(Y

+ wN ) Lp Np 1

(Yr * uN )
Lr Nr tan + N

gcos + N ' ) 0 ) 0 ) ) 0 (
!

#v & # & Side Velocity % ( % ( Body ) Axis Roll Rate % p( = % ( %r( % ( Body ) Axis Yaw Rate % ( % ( \$" ' \$Roll Angle about Body x Axis'

Spiral-mode response of yaw angle Dutch-roll-mode response of roll and yaw rates Roll-mode response of roll angle

Control Effect Matrix

\$ "f1 &"#A & "f & 2 &"#A & "f 3 &"#A & "f 4 & %"#A

"f1 ' "#R ) \$ Y " f 2 ) & #A ) "#R ) = & L#A "f 3 ) &N#A "#R ) & 0 "f 4 ) % ) "#R (

Disturbance Effect Matrix

# "f1 %"v % wind % "f 2 %"v wind % "f 3 % %"v wind % "f 4 % \$"v wind

"f1 & "pwind ( ( "f 2 ( # Yv % "pwind ( % Lv = "f 3 ( %N v "pwind ( % 0 ( \$ "f 4 ( ( "pwind '

Body-Axis Perturbation Equations of Motion

Rolling and yawing motions
\$"v (t)' \$ Yv & ) & " (t)) & Lv p & = &"(t) ) &N v r & ) & %"# (t)( % 0

Stability Axes
Alternative set of body axes Nominal x axis is offset from the body centerline by the nominal angle of attack, !N

(Y

+ wN ) Lp Np 1

(Yr * uN )
Lr Nr tan + N

gcos + N '\$"v(t)' \$ Y,A )& ) & 0 )&"p(t)) & L,A + )& "r(t) ) &N,A 0 )& ) & 0 (%"# (t)( % 0

\$ Yv Y,R ' ) & L,R )\$",A(t)' & Lv & )+ )%",R(t)( &N v N,R ) & 0 ( %0

Yp ' ) L p )\$"v wind ' & ) N p )%"pwind ( ) 0(

!
\$"v ' \$ ' Side Velocity Perturbation & ) & ) Body * Axis Roll Rate Perturbation &"p) = & ) &"r ) & Body * Axis Yaw Rate Perturbation ! ) & ) & ) %"#( %Roll Angle about Body x Axis Perturbation(

\$"#A' \$ Aileron Perturbation' & )=& ) %"#R( % Rudder Perturbation ( \$"#A' \$ Side Wind Perturbation ' & )=& ) %"#R( %Vortical Wind Perturbation(

Transformation from Original Body Axes to Stability Axes

\$ cos" N & HS = & 0 B & %#sin " N
# "u & # "u & % ( ( S% "v = H B % "v ( ! % ( % ( % ( \$"w'S \$"w'B

Stability-Axis LateralDirectional Equations

Rotate body axes to stability axes Replace side velocity by sideslip angle Revise state order

0 sin " N ' ) 1 0 ) ) cos" N (

#"p& #"p& % ( ( S% %"q( = H B %"q( % ( % ( \$"r'S \$"r'B
!

\$"v(t)' \$"v(t)' \$", (t)' \$ "r(t) ' & ) & ) & ) & ) "p(t)) "p(t)) ", (t)) &"p(t)) +& +& +& &"r(t) ) &"r(t) ) & "r(t) ) &"p(t)) & ) & ) & ) & ) %"# (t)(Body*Axis %"# (t)(Stability*Axis %"# (t)(Stability*Axis %"# (t)(Stability*Axis
"# \$ "v VN

Side velocity (!v) and pitch rate (!q) are unchanged by the transformation

Stability-Axis LateralDirectional Equations

% N# % "(t) ( ' N r r / Y# ' * ', Yr '"# (t)* = '. V +11 V N '" (t)* '- N 0 p L# ' * ' Lr &"\$ (t))S 0 & tan 2 N Np Yp VN Lp 1 0 (% %N * "r(t) ( ' Y3A * gcos 2 N * ' "# (t)* ' 3A + VN VN * ' '"p(t)* ' L 0 *' ' 3A * "\$ (t)*S ' 0 ) & 0 )S & %N # N3R ( 'Y Y3R * # * %"3A(t)( ' VN * ' + 'VN * L3R * &"3R(t)) ' L# '0 0 *S ) & Np( Yp * * %"# wind ( VN * ' * L p * &"pwind ) 0 *S )

Why Modify the Equations?

Dutch-roll mode is primarily described by stability-axis yaw rate and sideslip angle

Dutch Roll, front

Roll and spiral mode are primarily described by stability-axis roll rate and roll angle
Stable Spiral

#"x1 & # "r & # Stability + Axis Yaw Rate Perturbation & % ( % ( % ( Sideslip Angle Perturbation %"x 2 ( = %") ( = % ( %"x 3 ( %"p( % Stability + Axis Roll Rate Perturbation ( % ( % ( % ( \$"x 4 ' \$"* ' \$Stability + Axis Roll Angle Perturbation'

Why Modify the Equations?

Effects of Dutch roll perturbations on Dutch roll motion Effects of roll-spiral perturbations on Dutch roll motion

Stability, Control, and Disturbance Matrices

FLD "F = \$ DR RS #FDR " Nr N( \$* - Y( Y DR FRS % \$, r )1/ ' = \$+ VN . VN FRS & \$ Lr L( \$ 0 # tan 0 N
N"R & Y"R ( ( VN ( L"R ( ( 0 '
!

FLD

"F = \$ DR RS #FDR

DR FRS % " FDR small% "FDR '=\$ '(\$ FRS & #small FRS & # ~ 0

Np Yp VN Lp 1

% ' gcos 0 N ' VN ' 0 ' ' 0 & 0

!

#"x1 & # "r & % ( % ( %"x 2 ( = %") ( %"x 3 ( %"p( % ( % ( \$"x 4 ' \$"* '

Effects of roll-spiral perturbations on roll-spiral motion

!
... but are the off-diagonal blocks really small?

G LD

L LD

#N " %Y % " = %VN % L" %0 \$

Np& Yp ( ( VN ( Lp ( 0( '
!

Second-Order Models of Lateral-Directional Motion

Approximate LTI Dutch Roll Equation

Fourth- and SecondOrder Models and Eigenvalues

Fourth-Order Model F= -0.1079 -1 0.2501 0 1.9011 0.0566 -0.1567 0 -2.408 -1.1616 0 1 0 0.0958 0 0 G= 0 -1.1196 0 0 2.3106 0 0 0 G= -1.1196 0 G= 2.3106 0 Eigenvalue 0.00883 -1.2 -1.16e-01 + 1.39e+00j -1.16e-01 - 1.39e+00j Eigenvalue -1.32e-01 + 1.38e+00j -1.32e-01 - 1.38e+00j Eigenvalue 0 -1.16 Damping Freq. (rad/s) 8.32E-02 8.32E-02 Damping 9.55E-02 9.55E-02 Damping 1.39E+00 1.39E+00 Freq. (rad/s) 1.38E+00 1.38E+00 Freq. (rad/s)

" DR x

\$ Nr N# ' \$N # ' \$ ' \$ " ' & \$ "r ' N2R r , Yr / Y# )& ) + & Y2R )"2R + & Y# )"# wind = & ) * & )%"# ( & ) & ) %"# ( . +11 % VN ( &- VN 0 VN ) %VN ( % (

\$" ' \$L p " RS = & ) * & p x "#( % 1 %

\$L p ' 0'\$"p' \$L+A ' )& ) + & )"+A + & )"pwind 0(%"#( % 0 ( %0(

2nd-order-model eigenvalues are close to those of the 4th-order model Eigenvalue magnitudes of Dutch roll and roll roots are similar

Comparison of Second- and Fourth-Order Initial-Condition Responses of Business Jet

Fourth-Order Response Second-Order Response

Approximate Dutch Roll Mode

\$ Nr N# ' \$N ' \$ " ' & r )\$ "r ' & 1R ) & ) = &+ Yr *1. Y# )& ) + & Y1R )"1R 0 %"#( %"#( V % N( & %, VN / VN ) (
Characteristic ! polynomial, natural frequency, and damping ratio
% ( + % . Y Y ( " DR (s) = s2 # ' N r + \$ V * s + -N \$ '1# Yr V * + N r \$ V 0 , & & N) N) N/ Y % ( 1 n DR = N \$ '1# Yr V * + N r \$ V & N) N % ( Y Y % ( 2 DR = #' N r + \$ V * 2 N \$ '1# Yr V * + N r \$ V & & N) N) N

Speed and damping of responses is adequately portrayed by 2nd-order models Roll-spiral modes have little effect on yaw rate and sideslip angle responses Dutch roll mode has large effect on roll rate and roll angle responses

With negligible Yr

" n DR = N # + N r \$ DR

Y#

VN

& ) Y Y = %( N r + # V + 2 N # + N r # V ' N* N

Weathercock Stability: Yaw Acceleration Sensitivity to Sideslip Angle, N"

Vertical tail, fuselage, and wing are principal contributors to directional stability
Side force contributions times respective moment arms Non-dimensional stability derivative
Cn " # Cn "

Vertical tail

(C )
n"

Vertical Tail

aFin = () Lift slope of isolated n referenced to n area, SFin

2 & )& V ) "vt = "elas(1+ #\$ #% +( Tail2 + ' *' VN *

( )

Vertical Tail

+ Cn "

( )

Fuselage

+ Cn "

( )

Wing

+ Cn "

( )

Vvt =
Propeller

!

!
!

& %V 2 ) Sb \$C & %V 2 ) Sb N" # n ( = Cn " ( + + \$" ' 2 * Izz ' 2 * Izz

> 0 for stability

VTail = Airspeed at vertical tail; scrubbing lowers VTail, propeller slipstream increases VTail #, Sidewash: Deection of ow from freestream direction due to wing-fuselage interference

Fuselage

(C )
n"

Fuselage

!
!

#2K VolumeFuselage Sb

1.3

Contributions to Directional Stability, N"

Wing
Differential drag Interference effects
" = Sweep angle AR = Aspect ratio \$ = Taper ratio % = Dihedral angle

Side Acceleration Sensitivity to Sideslip Angle, Y"

Side-force sensitivity to sideslip angle, Y"

(C )
n"

Wing

Fuselage, vertical tail, and wing are principal contributors !

CY" # CY"

Propeller n effect
!

(C )
n"

( )

Fuselage

+ CY"

( )

Vertical Tail

+ CY"

( )

Wing

Propeller

Function of blade geometry, number of blades, thrust coefcient, and advance ratio J = V/nd ! n = rpm d = propeller diameter
see NACA-TR-819

(C )
Y"

Vertical Tail

# aFin\$vt SFin S
2

(C ) (C )
Y" Y"

Fuselage

# %2 SBase S ; SB = &dBase 4
k=

Wing

!

"AR
1+ 1+ AR 2

Cn r " Cn r

Yaw Damping Due to Yaw Rate, Nr

Dimensional stability derivative
\$ #V 2 ' \$ b '\$ #VN 2 ' N r " Cn r & N )Sb = Cn r & )Sb )& % 2VN (% 2Izz ( % 2Izz ( \$ #V ' < 0 for stability = Cn r & N ) Sb 2 % 4Izz (

( )
\$

Vertical Tail

+ Cn r

( )

Wing

Vertical tail contribution

! " (Cn )Vertical Tail = #(Cn

Vertical Tail

( )

Vertical Tail

r=

(C )
n r

vt

)
2

= #2 Cn \$

( )

% lvt ( ' * Vertical Tail & b )

!

rb 2VN

Wing contribution
!

(C )
!

n r Wing

= k 0CL + k1CDParasite,Wing

Approximate Roll and Spiral Modes

Roll rate is damped by Lp Roll angle is a pure integral of roll rate

Roll Damping Due to Roll Rate, Lp

\$ #V 2 ' \$ b '\$ #VN 2 ' \$ #V ' 2 L p " Cl p & N )Sb = Cl p & ) Sb = Cl p & N )Sb )& % 2VN (% 2Ixx ( % 4Ixx ( % 2Ixx (
< 0 for stability

Cl p " Cl p

( )

Vertical Tail

+ Cl p

( )
=\$

Horizontal Tail

+ Cl p

( )

Wing

Wing with taper

" RS (s) = s( s # L p )

(C )
lp

Wing

"p

="

\$S = 0 \$R = L p

(C )
lp

Wing

#AR 32

Vertical tail

(C )
lp

vt

p= pb 2VN

(C )
lp

ht