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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE

By Edgardo M. Bernardino

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction The Basic Dimensioning and Call-outs Project Specifications Standard Fabrication Drawing Library Todays World Fabrication Samples Reasons Why Mistakes are Committed Helpful Tables References and Further Reading About the author

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this book is to guide curtain wall designers and fabricators alike to be familiar with the proper presentation of fabrication drawings. In my experience in different curtain wall companies here in the Philippines and in the Middle East they have their own different ways of presenting such drawings. This is more frequent in the Middle East considering the different nationalities working there, the different educational background, the different engineering standard, and most importantly the labourers who did not even know how to interpret a working drawing. This confusion were even enhance by the different experience of technical personnel like; technical manager, design manager, design project manager, design team leader, design supervisor, senior designer, draftsmen, and even production manager who brought their own knowledge which is not even close to the companys standard. For example, when a new design project manager comes to a company, she/he adopted his/her standard disregarding the existence of companys standard. This practice is very disturbing because it affects everything from design, quality assurance/ quality control and production department. Of course each has his own agenda; more specifically for their own departments benefit because they find difficulty in adopting the established guidelines. By the way, I will not argue nor contradict what the existing standard practice of individual companies or

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

the company where you are presently working as they have their own way of presentation. Nor ask you to adopt what is being discussed in this book. Nevertheless, because of my experience where many drawings were not understood in the production, simplicity is the best logical approach. Those who have knowledge in architecture and engineering they have different way of presenting fabrication drawings. (There are those who present in architectural way, civil, electrical, mechanical or sanitary way of presenting). Although, there is no harm in adopting either architectural, civil, electrical, sanitary or mechanical presentation the burden lies on the designer on how to present the drawings to be understood by an ordinary labourer who do not have any background, even to know how to read a simple working drawing. In this book the author will not fully explain about the different types of section view such as; full, half, removed, revolved and broken-out section because I really want to have a conventional or simple presentation were as much as possible abolish sectional views. To the ordinary workers section views might even confuse them especially if there are so many sections. Besides, many assembly and part drawings in a curtain wall fabrication can be simplified accordingly. By the way those who believe that side view is similar to section view. This take place when a profile or die

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

is interpreted as a section. True, it is indeed a section but not in the orthographic or pictorial presentation jargon as it has own definition of the word section (views). A view is called a section view when a cutting plane line is introduced to the top, front or side views.

1. THE BASIC
It is a norm that a mechanical method in presenting fabrication drawing is the most conventional way of presenting. This is simple because designer is not compels to show all the five (5) views illustrated in Figure 1.1 below.

FIGURE 1.1-ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION PRINCIPLES

As shown above, projection or extension lines help explain the relationship between each view. Slotted holes can be easily identified on how it is displayed,

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

where it is located and how it is associated with each other. Nowadays however, due to computer aided design drafting these lines are sometimes removed for clarity. This kind of presentation is also called third angle projection. If fabricator will learn this simple principle, designer will no longer find difficulty in producing fabrication drawings that can be understood in the production line. Before going any further it is vital to explain the different between the two (2) types of projection; the first angle projection and third angle projection. For better understanding and guidance for draftsman and fabricator alike let me start by showing the projection symbol, as shown in Figure 1.2 and 1.3.

FIGURE 1.2

FIGURE 1.3

Usually, either one of these symbols is added to completed drawing to avoid directional viewing arrow. However, this becomes useless if the reader do not understand how it is oriented and what the fundamental differences between first and third angle projection system is.

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

The current British and ISO standards accept both system but they should not be mixed on the same drawings. In short, in preparing a complete working drawing decide which of the two you want to use. Ironically, in several companies which I worked in United Arab Emirates only one (1) is following this standard. Most of the time, they combined the two system making the interpretation difficult especially to the fabricators. Instead of using the angle projection, most of the draftsmen rely on the orientation arrow. See Figure 1.4 as example.

FIGURE 1.4-VIEWING USING ORIENTATION ARROW

The major mistakes of relaying to the so called orientation viewing arrow is; most of the time the aforementioned angle projection is violated. This violation brings confusion to the drawing presentation. For example the draftsmen place the 5

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

arrow wherever he or she wants because he/ she want to show one or three portions of the object, there might be a possibility of mixing the two angle projection system which is not allowed by ISO procedures. Sometimes this also conflict with the addition of cutting plane line, where its objective totally deviate from what is intended in the sectional view. As an experienced draftsman or designer, you must be aware and fully conversant in all forms of orthographic and pictorial projection thus able to produce a complete fabrication drawing without doubt or ambiguity relating to interpretation. Taking into account that the end user is not as qualified as you are (in interpreting what you did), always put your shoes into the workers. As a fabricator, I think this is the right time for you to study this angle projection rules for your own benefit. The following illustration describes more on how the orientation of the two systems works. See Figure 1.5 to Figure 1.8.

FIGURE 1.5-FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION

FIGURE 1.6-THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Notice the difference between the two. On the first angle projection (Figure 1.7) the block is turned to the left while the third angle projection (Figure 1.8) is turning to the right yet both present the top view of the block.

FIGURE 1.7-FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION

FIGURE 1.8-THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

(In the course of my examples, as much as possible I will use the third angle presentation as it is similar to the standard orthographic projection).
Let us go back to our objective which is to reduce the number of views to save drafting time not only during the design stage but during the revision or modification. Looking back to Figure 1.1, removing one side view will not jeopardize the fabrication drawing. See Figure 1.9.

FIGURE 1.9 FOUR VIEWS PRESENTATION

Can I still remove one or two views without abandoning the objective of complete working drawing which stressed that the reader or end user need not to go back to the designer to ask any question regarding the drawing? A complete working drawing thoroughly explains what is to be done and

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

will stick to it. Before removing a view let me explain further another principle in drawing presentation. In college days one (1) view with center line explain that the object is a rod or cylindrical or conical as the case maybe (See Figure 1.10). However, to an ordinary worker they will not understand this kind of object unless one (1) view will be added see Figure 1.11 or a call-out which identifies that this is indeed a rod like in Figure 1.12.

FIGURE 1.10 OBJECT WITH CENTER INEbject with Center Line

FIGURE 1.11 - SIDE VIEW IS ADDED

FIGURE 1.12 - CALL OUT IS ADDED

FIGURE 1.13 REVOLVED SECTION IS ADDED

Figure 1.11 is the most acceptable to most workers with limited technical background but Figure 1.12 is more convenient by just adding size and material of part. For purposes of simplification, Figure 1.13 is highly recommended however, other might misread the intent especially if revolved section is not explained to the end users.

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Let me discuss the Cutting Plane Line (CPL) and Section Line (SL); when to use it or not to use it. In the drawing samples above, there is no need to use CPL as these are very simple object. However, when the object is complicated and end user cannot figure it out then CPL and SL is required. Again, as the author experience, most of the companies in the Middle East include cutting plane line (CPL) and section lines (SL) in the fabrication drawing without understanding the primary purpose of doing so. They do not have the idea that following only the principle of orthographic projection is enough to make a fabrication drawing. Now, when there are complicated areas where a plain view cannot fully identify such areas, then it is necessary to provide cutting plane line and section line so fabricator can understand the drawing. Similarly, auxiliary view or helping view can be added if required. When using CPL the designer shall be aware of the rules such as; 1. When the CPL passed through a bolt, screws, keys and the likes, section line shall not be shown on these items. As shown on Figure 1.14. 2. When two (2) or more separate parts were cut, direction of section line shall be observed to characterize that they are separate with each other. (Also in Figure 1.14).

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Since this discussion focus on simplicity, there is no need to elaborate the different section line symbol of every material but rather use the standard symbol.

FIGURE 1.14 CUTTING PLANE LINE AND SECTION LINE APPLICATION

The drawing as shown in Figure 1.14, the cutting plane line is passing thru two (2) bolts. In this example, the designer intent is to display the holes and that is the reason why the CPL is drawn in such direction. It is therefore the responsibility of the designer where he intent to place the CPL, with an intention to clear up doubts that might arise when fabricator will start the production. Again, if it is not required do not provide cutting plane line and section views. You will also notice that bolts were not section as stated in rule number 1. Similarly, two (2) parts of the

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

assembly were section in different direction indicating that these are separate parts. There are additional rules on this subject, but I rather focus on the above in order not to complicate matters, since our goal is to convey to the workers in the simplest way possible in preparing a fabrication working drawing so they can understand easier. I will no longer venture in explaining the different kind of section views like; full, half, removed, revolved and broken-out as this might be beyond the comprehension of the end user, the workers. Maybe the more additional infusion of technicalities into our fabrication drawing, the more they will be confused. Again, I wish to restate my position to have a simple easily understandable fabrication drawing presentation. Let us go back now to the simplification of drawing. As previously discussed, eliminating views and reducing to the minimum is beneficial to designer, fabricator and other end users. Let us use the same channel shown on Figure 1.1 in our discussion.

FIGURE 1.15 THREE VIEWS PRESENTATION

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

You will notice that the orientation of the side view on Figure 1.15 was change if you compare it against Figure 1.1. Actually, it doesnt matter if it was oriented differently for as long as it defines the part to be fabricated. Since I wish to reduce the views I oriented it in such a way that all the information required by the fabricator is clearly explained in the given views. In this position the slotted holes are all highlighted in three (3) views only while in Figure 1.1 & 1.9 you need extra view(s) to explain the holes location. I am leaving the designer to his own judgment whether to adopt this presentation or not. Maybe there are limitations in using this, such as; space, company guidelines and other reasons. Can I remove another view? In this example no more! Otherwise it will just complicate things. However, if the slotted holes are align then it can be presented in two (2) views. See Figure 1.16 below (from this point, projection lines will be removed for presentation clarity).

FIGURE 1.16 TWO VIEWS PRESENTATION

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

As we go along, all the data require for the complete working drawing like call-outs, dimension lines, finishes, material and other relevant topics will be discuss thoroughly.

2. DIMENSIONING AND CALL-OUTS


Dimension and call-outs are very important information in a fabrication drawing otherwise it will be impossible for the fabricator to manufacture an object. Dimensions might be in English of Metric system depending upon which part of the world you are, or the company you are working. Although most of the countries are adopting Metric system there are some companies who still use English system. In the Middle-East where I worked before, they are using Metric system, so sample drawings in this book will adopt Metric system. Likewise; I wish to emphasize the importance of callouts and dimension text which shall be legible enough so anybody who read drawings can clearly understand what are being describe and dimensioned. Many designers ignore the significance of this, although there is already guideline for the minimum text height in a particular drawing as stated in the company drafting manual, in case they have one. In order to produce a good professional standard drawing, it is important to observe the dimensioning standard as described in British Standard 8888 which covers all ISO dimensioning rules.

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

For our reference, below is the Dimensioning Principles from the Manual of Engineering Drawing by Colin H. Simmons and Dennis E. Maguire. (Please compare this to your Office Drafting Manual and if there is any deviation apply your company standards).

1. Dimension and projection lines are narrow continuous lines 0.35mm thick, if possible, clearly placed outside the outline of the drawing. The drawing outline is depicted with wide lines of 0.7mm thick. The drawing outline will then be clearly defined and in contrast with the dimensioning system. 2. The projection lines should not touch the drawing but a small gap should be left, about 2 to 3mm, depending on the size of the drawing. The projection lines should then continue for the same distance past the dimension line. 3. Arrowheads should approximately triangular, must be of uniform size and shape and in every case touch the dimension line to which they refer. Arrowheads drawn manually should be filled in. Arrowheads drawn by machine need not be filled in. 4. Bearing in mind the size of the actual dimensions and the fact that there may be two numbers together where limits of size are quoted, then adequate space must be left

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

between rows of dimensions and a spacing of about 12mm is recommended. 5. Center lines must never be used as dimension lines but be left clear and distinct. They can be extended, however, when used in the role of projection lines. 6. Dimensions are quoted in millimeters to the minimum number of significant figures. For example, 19 and not 19.0. In case of a decimal dimension, always use a nought before the decimal marker, which might not be noticed on a drawing print that has poor line definition. We write 0.4 and not .4. It should be stated here that on metric drawings the decimal marker is a dot positioned on the base line between the figures, for example, 5.2 but never 5 5 with a decimal point midway. 7. To enable dimensions to be read clearly, figures are placed so that they can be read from the bottom of the drawing, or turning the drawing in a clockwise direction, so that they can be read from the right hand side. 8. Leader lines are used to indicate where specific indications apply. The leader line to the hole is directed towards the center point but terminates at the circumference in an arrow. A

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

leader line for a part number terminates in a dot within the outline of the component.
In a computer generated drawing most of these principles above can be pre-set accordingly. The most important thing is the clarity of quoted dimensions. Application of dimensioning principles is best explain in Figure 2.1 below.

FIGURE 2.1 APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONING PRINCIPLES

The next I will be showing dimension using the principles and the one which does not. Let us see the different. Many draftsmen failed to follow the principles with so many excuses; like submission schedules, there is no more time, it was done before, production department has no complained about the drawing so why change it now and many other excuses just to contradict the established principles.

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Regrettably, this should not be the right attitude of draftsmen because drawing is a media in communicating to workers your intent on how things are manufacture. Please view Figure 2.2 intensively and compare the difference. Studying the illustration below; placing dimensions inside the object is not advisable especially so if it is crowded. In most cases dimensions crisscross with each other and cited numbers are unreadable.

FIGURE 2.2 DIMENSIONING PRINCIPLES ILLUSTRATION

Another typical example draftsmen ignore is the placement of overall dimensions. The rule is to place it outside other dimensions, showing the sum of the multiple dimensions. I have seen drawings were it is place the other way around. See figure 2.3. 18

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

FIGURE 2.3 INCORRECT DIMESIONING PRACTICE

Some of draftsmen and designers assume that by just placing dimensions anywhere in the drawing is good enough for as long as it is there and can be understood. True, but we are no longer living in a world where we are writing in plant leaves or bark. We have to accept the fact that we are technologically oriented professional who shall produce a better drawing presentation. End user or fabricators expect the best from us. Check Figure 2.4 below, this is the classical illustration of what I mentioned earlier. Is this the kind of output in a computer generated presentation? Maybe we are just hard headed or ignorant enough that we miss to see the convenient of other people who will be using our fabrication drawings.

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

FIGURE 2.4 INCORRECT DIMESIONING PRACTICE

I also encountered some dimensions in a fabrication drawing, although it is correct, can be presented in a simple and much better way as shown in Figure 2.5. The closer the dimensions to the shape (in this example is circles) the better. I do not appreciate any reason why dimension lines are place all the way to the other side, passing the length or width of the object, when it can be done on the nearer side. Embracing the second practice (preferred) bring the fabrication drawing much clearer.

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

FIGURE 2.5 NOT PREFFERED VS. PREFFERED DIMENSION PRACTICE

Allow me to discuss a little bit about call outs or leader dimensioning. Mistakenly draftsmen ignore the fact that pointing the leader dimension on the shape being describes (in this case on the elevation, see Figure 2.6) they set it on the view where the shape is not properly displayed. This practice to me is not acceptable. I prefer the drawing on the right side because it already shows the outline that is being described.

FIGURE 2.6 NOT PREFFERED VS. PREFFERED CALLOUT PRACTICE

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Let us now proceed to the different methods of dimensioning which are listed below: 1. Chain dimensioning (in Auto-cad it is label as continuous dimension). 2. Parallel dimension (baseline in Auto-Cad) 3. Running dimension 4. Staggered dimension 5. Dimensioning circles 6. Dimensioning radii 7. Dimensioning spherical radii and diameters 8. Dimensioning curves 9. Dimensioning irregular curves 10. Angular dimensions 11. Unidirectional and aligned dimensions 12. Dimensioning tapers 13. Dimensioning chambers 14. Dimensioning holes 15. Dimensioning counter-bores 16. Dimensioning squares or flats 17. Dimensioning countersunk holes Before choosing what particular kind of dimension you want to use in the preparation of fabrication drawings. It is wise to coordinate with the production department and ask them which they prefer to used, anyway they are your client. Nevertheless, if your company have standard drafting manual the better and just follow their standard. I do not encourage you to change their existing dimensioning method (chain, parallel, running or staggered). Most of the company now has modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine. This machine revolutionized the machining process by just encoding

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

data to the computer base on your drawing. The CNC operator is the most qualified to answer what kind of dimensioning they are using. Despite the introduction of the new technology, I think it is just fair to explain the characteristic of each dimension type since at the end, it is the draftsman, designer and fabricator who will be directly benefited by such clarification. Many designers and draftsman forgot these dimensions types maybe because they are already used doing the wrong presentation since it is also acceptable in the company and anyway fabricator can also produce windows, doors, curtain wall, etc. without following the principles. However, the fact remains that by following the industry standard, fabricator will find their task much easier. 1. CHAIN DIMENSION When using chain dimensions take good care of the accumulation of tolerance as this might endanger the function of the part. Many times the overall dimension does not tally with this type of dimension especially if the dimension decimal were not set accordingly (auto cad drafting). See Figure 2.7 below.

FIGURE 2.7 CHAIN DIMENSION

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

2. PARALLEL DIMENSON This kind of dimensioning improved positional accuracy compare to chain by measuring from common datum, as shown in Figure 2.8. Many CNC operators prefer this dimensioning.

FIGURE 2.8 PARALLEL DIMENSION

3. RUNNING DIMENSION This method is a simplified parallel dimension with the advantage of less space. See Figure 2.9. In running dimension it has also common datum similar to parallel dimension. I do not recommend running dimension to draftsmen and designers in fabrication drawing.

FIGURE 2.9 RUNNING DIMENSION

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

4. STAGGERED DIMENSION For staggered dimension see Figure 2.10. For clarity other dimension were removed.

FIGURE 2.10 STAGGERED DIMENSION

5. DIMENSIONING CIRCLES It is important to place symbol to indicate the diameter of circle. There are several methods wherein draftsmen can choose which can be determine by the size of holes. In a computer aided design drafting it automatically show the type as shown in Figure 2.11.

Also accepted is showing the radius of circles in lieu diameter size. 25

FIGURE 2.11 DIAMETER OF CIRCLE DIMENSION

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

6. DIMENSIONING RADII

FIGURE 2.12

7. DIMENSIONING DIAMETERS

SPHERICAL

RADII

AND

In Figure 2.13, the appearance has nothing to do with orthographic projection which means that views do not have any relationship with each other. This is only to illustrate how to dimension spherical radii and diameters. Notice that dimension lines is drawn passing thru the arc center or in the case of short distances it rest in a line.

FIGURE 2.13

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

8. DIMENSIONING CURVES Where a curve is tangent to a line or lines and multitude of radii are intersecting which each other as shown on Figure 2.14, it is important to display the center line of each curves radii for proper dimensioning.

FIGURE 2.13 FIGURE 2.14

9. DIMENSIONING IRREGULAR CURVES Irregular curves maybe dimensioned using ordinates. In Figure 2.15 x and y coordinates were not shown for clarity the important thing is the intersection of these coordinates which determine the point where each individual curve starts and where it ends. Years back, when significant quantities are required to be produced, fabricator makes a plywood or wood pattern using the coordinates. Today, however due to

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

the introduction of computer aided design and CNC machine this task is easy to work with.

FIGURE 2.15

10. ANGULAR DIMENSIONS Angular dimensions on engineering drawings are stated in degrees, degrees & minutes, and degrees, minutes & seconds. In auto-cad this is just a simple operation, by using angular dimension in the pop up menu then clicking to the angle you want to measure will automatically produce the actual measurement. It is up to the designer to fix the default he wants whether it requires degrees, minutes and seconds or degrees only. On Figure 2.16 below, the illustration measure a degrees only as this is the default in the auto-cad.

FIGURE 2.16

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

11. UNIDIRECTIONAL DIMENSIONS

AND

ALIGNED

Similar to angular as stated previously, aligned dimensions can be easily manipulated in computer aided design drafting. The important thing it is presented in a very precise and clear manner as shown in Figure 2.17.

FIGURE 2.17

12. DIMENSIONING TAPERS Let me explain first the meaning of taper. The difference between dimension X and Y (whether diameters or widths) divided by the length between them defines a ratio called taper. See Figure 2.18A. Formula: Taper = X Y Length 29

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

FIGURE 2.18A

For example, the conical taper in Figure 2.18B. Taper = 20 10 = 10 = 0.25 40 40

FIGURE 2.18B

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

This can be expressed as rate of taper 0.25: 1 in diameter. An arrow is ISO recommended symbol for taper this symbol can be added to the drawing accompanied by the rate of taper (see Figure 2.18b). The arrow indicates the direction of the taper. When the arrow and the rate of taper is enclosed in a box this indicates that the taper is required as datum. For fabrication drawing simplicity however, rate of taper might not be required for as long as dimensions X, Y and length are given. 13. DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS Different methods of internal and external chamfer dimensioning are shown in Figure 2.19.

FIGURE 2.19

14. DIMENSIONING HOLES

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Dimension of the depth of drilled holes, when specified in a note form, denotes the cylindrical portion and not the point left by the drill. If no other indication is given they are assumed that it go through the material. Refer to Figure 2.20C.

FIGURE 2.20

If holes are positioned around pitch circle (PCD) and may be equally spaced on the main center lines, size and location of holes can be dimensioned using callouts similar to Figure 2.20-A. When holes are positioned individually, as shown in Figure 2.20-B, PCD dimension, angle dimensions and size of holes dimension shall be introduced. 15. DIMENSIONING COUNTER BORES In Figure 2.21-A, B and C alternate methods of dimensioning counter bores are illustrated which are applied to elevation and sections.. In all three cases it is important to specify the size of the needed counter bore. It is not ample to state COUNTER BORE FOR M10 RD HD SCREW, since

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

obviously the head of the screw will fit into any counter bore which is larger than the head. Well, some companys production department might accept the above statement for they already knew what to do in the fabrication floor. They might have organized table for counter bore sizes in every bolt sizes.

FIGURE 2.21

16. DIMENSIONING COUNTERSUNK HOLES The common machined angles for countersunk holes are 60 and 90, to accommodate the heads of the screw and rivets to provide a flush finish. It is a good practice to refer to the manufacturers catalogue for suitable screw and rivets dimensions. Figure 2.22A, B and C demonstrates the different methods of dimensioning countersunk holes (shown in elevation and sections). 33

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

Countersunk holes dimensioning in one of the company I work simply provides a call out (leader dimension) by writing(3) COUNTERSUNK HOLES FOR M6 X 19mm SCREW. It also worked well because the fabrication department is already aware of what to do.

FIGURE 2.22

17. DIMENSIONING SQUARES OR FLATS In Figure 2.23A & B, shows a simple dimensioning of square or flats. Nevertheless, standard dimensioning is acceptable.

FIGURE 2.23

Still with me!!! Again let me remind the readers that I am not imposing the aforementioned principles, since

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there are still many methods in the engineering or ISO standard you can implement. If you feel that the present system you are using now is sufficient enough for your presentation it is up to you. Further, if the dimensions, drawings or any ideas explained in this book will not help in improving the preparation of fabrication drawings you can just stick with your old standard, but if you feel the other way around by all means adopt this now.

3. PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS:
It is imperative that draftsmen, designers and team leaders shall know by heart the project specification of each project assigned to them. As a matter of fact in every lecture I conducted to the companys new employees orientation seminar, I always stressed the important of project specifications. The duty of the design team leader is to read and prepare a summary of project specifications. This step will help draftsmen and designers under him in the preparation not only fabrication drawings but shop drawings as well. During my time as design supervisor, this is always the first thing I do since every step in drawing preparation evolve in specifications. On the part of draftsmen and designers, their job is to stick with specifications. What does project specification has to do in the production of fabrication drawings? Well, in the fabrication drawings material specification, material finishes and profiles are to be indicated.

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I will give some of the available description of the above, however, to those who are making and using fabrication drawing I encourage you to continue researching and reading new reference as new technologies in curtain wall industry are introduce day by day. Some company describe material as the composition of profile, sheets and parts. For examples in aluminium this is designated by alloy and temper. A. Aluminium Plates: AA-3003-H14, AA-5456H116 and AA-6061-T6 B. Aluminium Sheets: AA-3003-H12, AA-3003H14, AA-3003-H16, AA-3004-H12, AA-3004H14 and AA-3005-H34. C. Aluminium Dies or Profiles: AA-6061-T4, AA6061-T6, AA-6063-T4, AA-6063-T5, AA-6063T6, AA-7075-T5 and AA-7075-T6. For Carbon & Alloy Steel: A. Great Britain BS 970: 230M07, 070M20, 080M40, 070M55, 080A15, 080M13, 709M40, 708M40, 817M40, 816M40, 835M30, 655M13, 655H13, 722M24, 905M31 and 905M39. B. U.S.A. AISI/ SAE: 1213, M1020, M1023, 1040, 1055, M1015, M1016, 4140, 4142, 4340, 4337, 3310, 9314, E71400 and G71406. There are countries that has their own specification like; Germany (W-Nr Din), Italy (UNI), Japan (JIS), France (AFNOR) and Spain (UNE). This all depends on

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

the project specification and what standard is used. The best reference on this is the structural calculation made by your companys structural engineers. For Stainless Steel: A. Great Britain BS 970: 17/4PH, 303S31, 304S11, 304S15, 316S31, 316S11, 321S31, 310, 416S21, 420S29, 420S37, 420S45, 410S21 and 431S29. B. U.S.A. AISI/ SAE: ASTM A564 Grade 630, 303, 304L, 304, 316, 316L, 321, 310, 310S, 416, 420, 420F, 410 and 431. Similar to carbon and alloy steel the best reference on this is the structural calculation made by your companys structural engineers. For Glass:

A. B. C. D. E.

Float or Annealed Heat Strengthen Fully Tempered Heat Soak Laminated

The aforementioned glass can be either single glazed, double glazed, insulated glass unit (IGU) and multiple glazed. Different application whether soft coating (sputtered) or hard coating (pyrolytic) can be added to glass to get the U-Value needed by specification. These can be clear, tinted, coated, reflective and low emissivity (passive solar Low-E or solar control Low-

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CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

E) application or the combination of either of the above. Listed below are other architectural specialty glasses that can be incorporated in the curtain wall.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

Low Iron Float Glass Transparent Mirror Patterned Glass Acid Etched Anti-Reflective Glass Fire-Resistance Glass Structural Glass Self-Cleaning

Here let me list down the different material finishes for your guidance. For Aluminium:

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.

Mill Anodized Powder Coated (preferably for inside finish) Super Durable Powder Coated (preferably for outside finish) Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) Alodine Chromated Brushed Mirror

For Steel:

A. Raw

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B. Hot Dipped Galvanized C. Powder Coated


For Stainless Steel:

A. B. C. D. E. F.

Mill Satin Mirror Brushed Matte Bead Blast

4. STANDARD FABRICATION DRAWING LIBRARY:


The important of standard fabrication drawing library especially in any design organization cannot be overlooked. In one company I worked in Saudi Arabia, for the last 60 years they continuously update their standard drawings library. Volumes were completed for an easy, accurate and speedy future reference in the preparation of fabrication drawings. One company in the middle-east, even group their system design components by serial numbering. Like 1XXX for mullions, 2XXX for transoms, 3XXX for pressure plates, 4XXX for cover caps, 5XXX for sleeves, 6XXX for gutter splices, 7XXX for glazing adaptor, 8XXX for spandrel glass reducer, etc. Correspondingly, different system design itself has own designation. Stick curtain wall uses SW60 for

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60mm width profiles, SW70 for 70mm width profiles, SW80 for 80mm width profiles, SW90 for 90mm width profiles and so on. Unitized curtain wall system uses similar practice yet instead of using the prefix SW it uses UCW. Parts that can be considered as standard are; wall brackets, shoe brackets, hook brackets, supports, mullion sleeves, transom connectors, corner cleats, inserts, adaptors, glazing beads, reducers, load transfer blocks, gutter splices, toggles, clips, shims, serrated washers and many others. The parts mentioned earlier can significantly reduce the number of man-hours and mistakes in producing fabrication drawings. It is already in the library and ready for printing. How about standardizing mullions, transoms, and other main curtain wall components? Imagine the savings!!! So significant that a fabrication drawings or even shop drawings, instead of the normal completion of say three (3) days can be done in one (1) day only. Not only design department benefits in this issue but production/ fabrication department as well. Keeping these standard parts in the CNC machine or external storage will help expedite the production of parts. R & D Department is usually in-charge in preparing, filing, modifying and updating the library. Unfortunately, many companies do not see the

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significant of this in connection with fabrication drawings. True, because the result is not seen in the early stages in design and drawing process but it will be cherished in the future. So start now! It is never too late.

5. TODAYS WORLD:
In todays curtain wall industry limitation of materials is no longer an issue due to the new emerging technologies that is being introduces in the market. In this regard, fabrication drawing is not only for aluminium mullion, aluminium transoms and glass but as what the architect or consultant desire to do in the building envelope. It is not even limited to the external curtain wall only but it is also introduce inside the building. In order to cover this scope I will try to give example of fabrication drawings of aluminium, glass, steel, stainless steel, G.I. sheets and composite cladding. Let me remind again that different company has their own way of presenting fabrication drawings. In line with this, I will present a combination of drawings from different company were I worked before which I feel serves my purpose of simplification. Steps in Fabrication Drawing preparation are as follows:

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1. Make setting out drawings. These were based from the approved shop drawings which were submitted to the consultant and returned to us. Included in setting out are tag numbers, assembly dimensions and quantity of assemblies (can be counted based on tag numbers). Preferably, it is of great help in the quantification of assemblies if table is provided for this purpose although it is not mandatory. 2. Produce assembly drawings. Assembly drawing is not only limited to panel but rather it includes; brackets, supports, handrail, and other relevant curtain wall assemblies. 3. Generate part drawings. As the name implies this means individual portion of the assembly. In curtain wall examples these are; mullion, transom, pressure plate, cover cap, mullion sleeve, wall bracket and shoe bracket (bracket might be either a sub-assembly or part). On the next pages, I will be giving fabrication drawing examples in sequential order following the three (3) steps in preparing fabrication drawing. Much my desire to give you as much examples as I can it is my belief that this guide is not intended for this purpose. Besides, the basic principles discuss in this book is sufficient enough in the production of simplified fabrication drawings. Therefore, I will present few unitized curtain wall system fabrication drawings.

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In fairness with all the company I work with, I will not mention their names or show their logos in any of the following drawing examples.

6. FABRICATION DRAWING SAMPLES:

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FIGURE 4.1- UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL PARTIAL SETTING OUT

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

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FIGURE 4.2- UNITISED CURTAIN WALL ASSEMBLY DRAWING

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FIGURE 4.3- MALE MULLION PART DRAWING

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

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FIGURE 4.4- FEMALE MULLION PART DRAWING

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

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FIGURE 4.5- SECONDARY TRANSOM PART DRAWING

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

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FIGURE 4.6- INTERMEDIATE TRANSOM PART DRAWING

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FIGURE 4.7- STACK JOINT SILL PART DRAWING

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FIGURE 4.8- STACK JOINT GUTTER PART DRAWING

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FIGURE 4.9- HOOK BRACKET PART DRAWING

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FIGURE 4.10- SPANDREL GLASS PART DRAWING

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

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FIGURE 4.11 SAMPLE SHEET SHEARING CALL OUTS

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino

When a company have a fabrication and detail drawing library, fabrication drawings are faster to produce. Actually, not only fabrication drawings but shop drawings as well. By the way this might only apply to common system, not for custom system design. This has been my experience in two of the companies in U.A.E. where the fabricators were already familiar with all the details which guide them to assemble standard doors and windows. On windows these may include: punch, striped, casement (side hung), awning (top or bottom hung), sliding and turn/ tilt windows. While on doors these comprises: hinged, swing, sliding and rotating doors. Although to some extend this is limited to standard doors and windows only, this procedure aids in the speedy production of fabrication drawings. Further, it is organized to cater all types and system of standard doors and windows. Additional examples on the next pages were made using the excel format not in auto-cad. It was prepared in such way that the draftsman or designer job is to input the quantity, width and height of a door or window then it will provide result for accessories, quantities, cutting size of profiles and glass automatically.

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7. REASONS COMMITTED:

WHY

MISTAKES

ARE

I am disappointed to see fabrication drawings go back and forth from the QA/QC department to design department because designers hasten the preparation of drawings. Equally disturbing, is from production department to QA/QC to design and vice versa. This situation is indeed very ironic, nevertheless let us look deeper into the reasons why these things are happening. It is ideal if drawings smoothly go through these three stages in one direction but realistically it never happens. A. SUBMISSION SCHEDULE The primary reason is schedule commitment. During my stay in United Arab Emirates many companies anchored their minds on this obligation. For a very obvious reason; first the company reputation and second the company profits. If a companys reputation is damage they might end up losing more bids in the future. Consequently, closing the company altogether. Talking about profits, it is well accepted fact in the construction companies that once you miss the target day, the client can impose penalty to the contractor, maybe every month, every week or worst every day depending upon the agreement in the construction contract. Additionally, if a constructions completion go way beyond the estimated date then company losses significant amount of money.

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Conversely looking into another philosophy, schedule commitment (when not properly done, not knowing the true priorities or not being follow) can even bring more disaster to both companys reputation and profits. How? Let us look at it this way when a submission schedule is not reasonable; meaning draftsmen and designers are force to the limit, working overtime and under pressure. This attitude will lead to more mistakes and subsequently repetition of work, this mean additional overtime is required. Let me give you an example. Some draftsmen and designers will submit incomplete or wrong fabrication drawings just to meet the schedule date imposed to them by their supervisors or design manager. Well, documentation wise, this is good because it will appear very nice in the progress report. However, this will just add to the delay in the overall submission because it will just come back to them from QA/QC department. I encountered few draftsmen and designers whose philosophy is to submit fabrication drawings fast and let the QA/QC department find the mistakes. This kind of people is not really helping the organization but rather only helping his/her own reputation alone. This attitude is passing responsibility to the next link in the production chain without remorse. If a company has internal QA/QC department, all the full pressure lies on this department. All the mistakes

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and blames are all directed to QA/QC, this is the weakest link, especially if design department will continue to stick into such philosophy I mentioned above. Sadly, most of the time this department is the less appreciated in the series of chain. My advice to QA/QC department never comprises company design standard policy in lieu of schedule. Unless of course higher authority overrides such policy, yet under no circumstances forget to ask a written order superseding the specific policy. I came up with my own philosophy with regards to schedule, set aside the schedule primarily just do your job right the first time and at the end correctness of activities will prevail over the schedule thus beating it to become secondary in our activities. B. EXCESSIVE OVERTIME The more overtime being rendered the more problem employee will encounter, both job related activities and health. In a study, excessive overtime lead to stress, heart attack, mental fatigue, physical tiredness and other related health illnesses. Researchers in Britain reported in the European Heart Journal that people who work 10 hours a day is more likely to have heart related problems than those who work less.

One or two hours overtime made no difference to peoples health, the researchers from University London and Finnish Institute of Occupational Health found. But three or more hours led to 60% increased risk of coronary heart disease.

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In a circumstance like this, how can an employee perform his best? Instead of producing one (1) drawing a day he might complete it in two (2) days. This is a fifty 50 percentage decline in his standard output. That is a 100 percentage additional drafting cost entail by the company. I do not see the logic behind this procedure. I rather work in a properly plan and organize time management environment than work overtime. This I learned while working in Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO), Al Jubail Petrochemical Company (KEMYA) and Saudi Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET) all in Saudi Arabia. I remember during my time with Aramco, Dhahran in Saudi Arabia, there is a mandatory memorandum from the Doctor that employee can only render overtime to a maximum of 40 hours (if my memory is right) per month. Every manager is directed to abide with this memorandum, for the same simple reason I previously stated. Many times, I saw people working excessive overtime only to be absent the following day because of ailment. What happened to the schedule? Lucky, if before the guy got sick he completed his task. Worst come to worst they even go leaving the company in order to preserve their physical health and mental health. Here is an analogy in the petrochemical sector I used to work before. There are always three lines in the production of plastic pellets yet these lines are not working simultaneously in full capacity. During an

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annual preventive maintenance were one line is shut down, two will run a little bit higher than normal to compensate for the production loss due to the stoppage of one line. It was never run to produce more in one month (full capacity) but rather do it in one in a half or two months in a normal speed. This procedure extends the life of each line way beyond the design specifications intend. Applying this rotational procedure to personnel will not only preserve the health of the employees but eventually produce similar production result.

Less stress and less pressure is the most conducive working environment for it eventually produces more with lesser mistakes.
C. ORGANIZATION AND COORDINATION The third reason is the absence of organization and coordination between teams. In my own experienced in a multi-million dollar project in Dubai were 100 employees are doing the fabrication drawings is a testimony that in a situation like this mistakes in presentation and delayed of submission is an ordinary incidence. Seven (7) team leaders were assigned to the project, under them at least fourteen (14) senior designers, designers and draftsmen. Although all the teams work in typical curtain wall cladding they have their own way of drawing presentation, different bracket locations, different spread sheet bending dimensions

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deductions and different use of finish in the same material parts or assembly to name a few. Well, this responsibility is for the overall design supervisor or design manager to see to it that they are working in a similar design environment. Undesirably, many of these senior staffs do not want to involve directly in the design process. The result, DISASTER!! I am also lucky to work in a company were one of the priority is organization. Our team is composed of Senior Project Design Manager, Design Supervisor, Material Coordinator, Senior Designer and five (5) draftsmen. We are nine (9) in a team who is doing two (2) huge projects simultaneously. One project in Kuwait and one project in Paris, France. How then our team manage to complete the shop drawings, material take-off (for material purchasing), and fabrication drawings on time? Well, the secret is not the number of personnel involve but a proper organization and coordination. I think it will be unfair to you if I will not elaborate the system that our team particularly used. 1. In the project handover meeting with the Consultant, Contractors, Owner, the Senior Project Design Manager and Design Supervisor we the curtain wall contractor readily prepared a set of relevant questions necessary for our team advantage.

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2. After preparing the curtain wall system design, our team organized a meeting with the consultant to present our proposal and subsequently ask them their comments. This is very significant because once the consultant signed the document we minimize the number of revisions in our drawing. This step leads us to the next. 3. Our objective is to revised shop drawings (or system design) to a maximum of two (2) revision only to get at least status B. The soon we get such approval the soon our team can order required materials. From here on everything will move smoothly to our benefits. If there is any design changes requested by the contractor, consultants or the owner we can even ask additional engineering cost due to the change. This kind of leverage is working for the companys gain. 4. On the fabrication drawings, we evolve in a one format presentation. We are lucky that we are very few people in our project management team. It is easy to coordinate and impose what supervisor wants, besides the company has its own standard where the team consistently follow regardless of any situation like schedule of submission. They beauty is, the format is designed where it produces more assemblies and parts drawings with less sheet and documentation. In short, it is indeed less man-hours in the design and engineering with less overtime rendered every

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month for our team. Well, for most of us this is not good because less extra money flows into our pocket, yet remember this... the more you are healthy, the longer you will get money going into your direction. 5. Lastly, we respected each of our insights for the betterment of the group not for the benefit of the few. Recognition is given to those who deserve it and not to the manager or supervisor alone for we know we work as a team. The success of one is the success of all. This is the greatest secret in any organization. D. ERRONEOUS COPY AND PASTE PRACTICE Some draftsmen and designers today have the habit of copying and pasting drawings from previous project to the present fabrication. This is an advantage if he/ she will check thoroughly the correctness of the copied drawings. Many of them failed to do so. You and I know precisely the outcome. In fabrication copying part drawing from a correct assembly drawing make the activity faster. In the same manner copying assembly drawing from a correct setting out drawing will have a similar consequence.

8. HELPFUL TABLES:
Below you will find tables which can assist in the preparation of fabrication. ENJOY!!!

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REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Colin H. Simmons and Dennis E. Maguire, Manual of

Engineering to British and International Standards,


Second Edition 2004.

Brian Griffiths, Engineering Drawing for Manufacture, February 2006.

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