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King George's ArlllY

1740

,

93

3

King George's ArlllY 1740 , 93 3

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KING GEORGE'S ARMY 1740-1793 (3)

INTRODUCTION

In

1740, there

were some 500 cavalry officers on

the

regular

establishment,

compared

to

about

1,450 infantry oflicers.

The inevitable expansion

of the army during

the

War

of the

Austrian

Succession

saw

the

number of infantry

(and

marine) officers increase to about 2,500,

but the

number of cavalry

officers

remained

constant.

Indeed,

only

two

new regiments

during the

war, both of them

at

the

raised height of the

were

Jacobite emergency

in

1745.

After

1748,

the

number of cavalry officers again dropped to around 450 against some 1,650 infantry oflicers.

The outbreak of the Seven Years War again slightly lifted the cavalry total this time to 600. But, by contrast, nearly 4,000 infantry officers

were carried on the Army List at the height of the

conflict. Further fluctuations followed

the

end of

the lVar in 1763 and the American War of

Independence 1775-1783, but although the total

number of cavalrymen

had remained

higher than

in

1740, their

relative

importance was less.

In

1740 cavalrymen

accounted

for

a quarter

 

of the

King's officers (excluding Ordnance officers), but

by 1793 that proportion

had

dropped

to

only

a

sixth.

However, the figures can be slightly misleading.

The steady expansion

of the infantry

largely

reflected the increased need to man imperial gar-

risons.

In operations closer to home though,

the

perceived

importance of the cavalry was

undi-

minished.

During the War of the Austrian Succession two

troops of Horse Guards, one troop of Horse Grenadier Guards, the Blues, two other regiments of Horse and seven Dragoon regiments served in

Flanders -

a

total

of ten regiments, besides the

Horse Guards, while 14 British cavalry regiments served in Germany during the Seven Years \\I"ar. At the same time 22 infantry regiments had served

Officer's grenadier CliP, 2nd (Royal /v'orlh Brilish)

Dragoons. The GreJls were famously dislinguished flol only

by Iheir grey

horses, bllt a/so b.y the wearing of grenadier

caps in place of hats. The prominenl display of the garler star rather than Ihe slar oI51. Andrew is ralher surprising but also appears in Ihe depiction of a Irooper of the GreJls ill Ihe 1742 Cloathing Book. The replacement of the u.l"Iia/

while horse on Ihe little flap is also UlIUSIIal, Iml a dis-

(inC/ion shared at this time with the 21st Foot.

(Aulhor)

1ll Flanders and

17

in

Germany.

By

contrast,

during the American \Var of Independence, only

two regular cavalry regiments; the 16th and

17th

Dragoons saw service, although they were of

course supported

by

provincial units.

a number

of locally raised

The British Army had three classes of ·cavalry in 1740: Household units, Horse and Dragoons.

• Trooper 13th Dragool/S (IS depicted in the J 742 Cloathing Book. This IlIIiform s1l11'ived -virlllallJ'

Trooper 13th Dragool/S (IS depicted in the J 742 Cloathing

Book.

This IlIIiform s1l11'ived -virlllallJ' I/ndumged ill the

  • 1 i5i Warrant, bl/I the el(/hor(l/e~)' decorafed sluldle

hOI/sings alit! holster (fIP~' mere repltlced bJI {f milch simpler

sly/e sometimc before Alorier pail/ted a trooper ill 1 U8. (Trustees of tlte National All/seums of Scotland)

Highest in order of precedence, the Household

c:lyalry

comprised

four

grossly oycr-officered

troops of red-coated Horse Guards (amalgamated into two troops in 17-l6) and two troops of Horse Grenadiers. Although unquestionably a social elite, the fact that the Horse Guards rarely \'entured outside London did nothing for their militar\' efficiency. Only the Horse Grenadiers,

originally

raised

as

specialist

Dragoons

wcre

,

and

seven other regiments of Horse. 'The greater

part of the British Army's cavalry howe\'er com-

prised 14 regiments of Dragoons -

increased to 15

in

17-l6. Thcsc had originally been no morc than

mountcd

infantn' and

"'ere still

looked

down

upon

as

such

by

the

Horse_

But

although

reg-

ularly

trained

as

infantrymen

in

the

platoon

exercise,

in

reality

there

was

\-cry

linlc

-

other

than

their

uniforms

and

rates

of pay

-

to

dis-

tinguish them from the Horse. In 17-l6, the same cconomy dri\'e which sa"

the

four troops of Horse Guards reduced to two, also

sa" a change in status for three of the regiments

of Horsc. "lindful of the fact that the differences

between Horse and Dra(Toons \\ ere '"crv lar<reh- cosmetic ones, it was decided to convert the reg- iments of Horse into Dragoons. Howe,·cf, in order

o

.

0_

to preserye the all important order of precedence

and

to sweeten

the pill a little, those cOOl'crrcd

regiments were tailed Dragoon Guards. The

Blues, who had pre\'iously ranked as thc

1st

Horse, were spared. Otherwise, there ought, in theory to have been seven regiments of Dragoon

Guards and

15 of Dragoons.

But in

fact,

Dublin

Castlc

for

reasons best known

to

itself dccided

against

converting

the

four

regiments

of Horse

then

maintained

Establishment.

on

the

separate

Irish

As

a result,

the

2nd

or

King's

Horse

became

the

1st

or

King\

Dragoon

Guards,

the

3rd

or

Queen's

Horse

became the

2nd

Dragoon

Guards

and the 4th bccame the 3rd Dragoon <;iuards. The

5th to 8th Horse "ere then redesignated as the

1st

to -lth (Irish) Horse, although e\'entually they too finally became Dragoon Guards in 1789. This round of alterations did not affect the total

number

of units,

and

consequently

the

dis-

bandment of the shorr-liyed

15th Dragoons in

17-l8 left

the armY' with

the same number of line

ca\'alry regiments as in 17·.J.O, except that they now comprised three regiments of Dragoon Guards,

four

regiments of Horse and

H

regiments of

reckoned

to

ha\'e an\'

real militan- yalue and

in

Dragoons_

Each

category

was

distinguished

one

1788 both they

and

the two

remaining troops of

from

another

only

by

\-ariolls

peculiarities

of

Horse

Guards

were

amalgamated

to

form

the

dress.

Lifeguards.

After the Household cavalrv proper came the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards (the 'Blues'),

Co-operation

with

the Imperial army In

Flanders during the 17-l0s had

pointed

up

the

usefulness of light cayalry and the 15th Dragoons,

originally raised during the Jacobite emergency as Kingston's 10th Horse, are said to have been trained

originally raised during the Jacobite emergency as

Kingston's

10th Horse,

are

said

to

have

been

trained as hussars. "as nobody's fool

General

Henry Hawley (who

despite

his

quite

undeserved

reputation as

a

vicious

martinet)

had

in

fact

advocated

the

raising of such

a

unit

as

early as

1728. But

to

Cumberland's dismay the

regiment,

although a good

one,

was

disbanded

in

17-18.

It

was

all

the

more

galling of course

that the

13th

and I-Ith Dragoons, who had distinguished them-

selres during the late Jacobite emergency only by

(he speed with which

they ran away c,-ery time

Guidon, 4th Dragoons (?) J NOs. Olllj, olle guidon was carried bJ' each squadroll of which the first. or Killg's, was

to be of crimsoll damask and the others ill Ihe regimental facing colol/r. Onl)' two Dragoon regimenls had greell

Jacillgs at this

tillle -

the 41h and Ihe

13lh.

Since the

Fingillg is silver it lI1a)1 be inferred that this gl/idon mas carried by Ihe fonner regiment as Gardiller's /31h had gold

lace.

Unaulhorised badges, such as Ihis stag and //lotto

Rouze, mere HlppoSi'dl)' suppressed ill abollt 1743 bill ill practice 0111)1 seem 10 /ull:e been replaced as Ihe)1 1/lore oul - or were 10sl. 111 1 N6 the 13th losl a 'curious !ille' guidon at Falkirk hearing the moUo Brirons Srrikc I-Iome. (Author)

and those raised after 1793 were also designated as

they met the enemy, were retained on

the

Irish

Light Dragoons. The

19rh, 20th

and

21st

Light

 

Dragoons were actually formed by brigading

Establishment. The outbreak of the Sel'en

Years War in

1756

together the

ne\\'ll'

raised

Light Troops

of the

brought a slight increase in the size of the c",·alry.

Heal~y ca"alry

regiments

and

by

1783

nearly all

At first,

as

was

the case

with

the infantry, this

simply took the form

of an augmentation

in

the

strength of existing

units carried on

the English

J::stablishment. But because of the desperate need for some kind of light ca"alry 11 additional troops authorised on 1-1 April 1757, were intended to fill that role. After that, there \\'as no looking back and beginning in March 1759 Letters of Service

were granted for

no less than se,-en new cayalry

regiments, all of them designated as Light

Dragoons. Similarly all the new ca,-alry units faised during the American \Var of Independence

the old regiments of (hea,'y) dragoons had been conyerted to light cavalry.

Unforlunately,

although

attended

by

consid-

erable enthusiasm this preoccupation with the merits of light cavalry in reality extended little further than the intricacies of military millinery. The sad fact of the matter was that, in contrast to

the solid professionalism of the British infantry, all too many caI'alry officers did indeed subscribe to the not entirely apocryphal Yiew that their chief

func.tion

was

to

lend

some tone

to

what might

otherwise be a yulgar

brawl.

And

their

tactical

s

• • Comet, 8th Horse. Said to hm.:e beell carried and defended by Comet Richardson at

Comet, 8th Horse. Said to hm.:e beell carried and defended by Comet Richardson at Denillgen ill 1 N3, tlris rather finc CQrnet is of crimson damask with a gold fringe ami 'he

nnm a[General Ligonier. The small 1I11ioll i1/ the confOIl

appears to have bew S1lppre.ued ill /743. (Author)

15th Light Dragoons ,yere ordered to take part in a he"'y raid on the French garrison of :\Iarburg. En route the raiders unexpectedly ran into fi"e French battalions ncar Emsdorf. An attempt to surprise this detachment failed, but after the 15th

cut the Marburg road the French tried

to escape

repertoire

was

almost

entireh-

limited

to

the

across country. One battalion got clean

away but

charge.

the others were twice charged

by

the

15th,

In

1758 the intention had been "en' different,

Finally, as the exhausted dragoons formed

for

a

The

Weekly

JOllrnal

for

23

,\1", reported

third charge the French - actually a German

appro"ingly

on

the Light

Troop

of the

II th

regiment, the Royal B"'erie -

decided

that they

Dragoons,

then

preparing to

take

part

in

one of

had had enough and surrendered,

the raids on the French coast: 'The hussars of the

In the euphoria which followed this notable feat

nine regiments are now

preparing to

go

on

the

of arms, the fact that they had lost J? 5 men and

expedition. The flower of these Hussars is

the

168 horses in the action and afterwards

had

to

be

Troop commanded by Captain Lindsay quartercd at i\laidenhead where they h,,·e been practising

the Prussian exercise and for some da\-s ha'"c been

sent back

to

Hano,-cr to reorganise

was

quietly

o,'erlooked, Thereafter, the mundane demands of outpost work and skirmishing were subordinated

digging

trenches

and

leaping Q\-er

them,

also

to

training

for

the charge

and

in

the

hope

of

leaping high hedges

with broad

ditehes on

the

another such glorious enterprise as Emsdorf. The

other side, Their Captain on Saturday last s,,'am

regiment made so much of this ,-ictory that the"

with

his horse o"er

the Thames and

back again

emblazoned the details on their helmet plates

and

the "'hole Troop were yesterday to swim the

There was little chance of finding a similar

river. '

triumph during the American War of Indepen-

 

This

was all

well and

good, but the work done

dence, While the infantry learned valuable lessons

by the likes of William Lindsay was undone when

there, the c"'alry learned little, Much of the "'ork

the

first

of the new Light Dragoon

regiments

done there did indeed centre around the demand-

went into action,

In July

1760, the newly landed

ing skills of outpost work, reconnaissance and

skirmishing. But only two regular dragoon reg-

iments, the 16th and lith, sen-ed there_ E,-en the

16th came home in

1778 and

their influence at

home was negligible. Consequently, at the outset of the great war with Re'"olutionary France in 1793, there was vir-

tually nothing sayc their uniforms to distinguish Light Dragoons from their heavier brethren_ This

point was dramatically emphasised bv the action at Villers-en-Cauehies on 2-t April 1794, which again involved the 15th Light Dragoons_ Two

squadrons of the regiment, together with two

squadrons of the A ustrian Leopold Hussars,

charged and dispersed six battalions of French

infantry. From then on, it was useless to expect British light cayalry to do anything more com- plicated than to charge straight at the enemy,

ORGANISATION

In 1740, each troop of Horse Guards mustered no

fewer than 18 officers, comprising a colonel, first

and second lieutenant colonels,

first and second

majors, four 'exempts', four brigadiers, four sub-

brigadiers and an adjutant. When the four troops

were being consolidated into t""O at the end of 1746, they "ere ordered to be completed to 150 prIvates apiece" The line regiments howe,"er, including the Blues, were much more con'"entionally officered,

-

-

and were normally made up of six or occasionally

The H~71¥­ Col. JAMES 'GARDINER
The H~71¥­
Col. JAMES 'GARDINER

Cololle! James Gardiner, 13th Dragoons (J 688-1 U5}. Bom ill Lil/litllgom, the SOli of anotller professiollal soldier, Gardiner mas killed at Prestonpaw ill I U5 mhile l·O11l- manding tile 13111 Dragoons. (NAlS)

off to form squadrons and dre"- up three men deep, either in line or ,Yith two squadrons up and

seyen troops, each commanded by a captain, lieu-

the third in resen-e. It ,yas possible to 'oar' (his

tenant and a cornet, The latter was the equi"alent

practice if the tactical situation demanded

it.

A.t

of the infantry ensign_ As in the infantry three of

Prestonpans in

1745, General Cope formed

both

the troop commanders were also field officers: the

his Dragoon

regiments

in

two ranks deep

rather

colonel, lieutenant colonel and major, and the

than the

usual

(hree_

In

the

follo,,-ing

year

at

colonel's own troop was actually led by a captain- lieutenant.

In addition

to

its

officers,

each

troop of

Dragoons or Dragoon Guards comprised three

sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, and 59

troopers_ The establishment also included a hautbois or oboist in each troop, but this indi-

,"idual existed only on paper, his pay being onc of

the colonel's traditional perquisites_

In action, ca'"alry troops were normally paired

Culloden, General Hawley deployed the "YO regular Dragoon regiments in their indiyidual troops rather than pairing them off into squadrons. In both cases this was done because the likelihood of action against hostile cayaln- was nonexistent, Although trained for dismounted action, British ca,-aln"men almost inyariablY went into action sitting on their horses' backs. The night battle at Clifton in 17·15 appears to be the onh- occasion

-

.

7

• Colonel Gardiner of/he }31h Dragoom Ih.:cd (II Bankron HOI/Sl~ 011 the fringe oj the Prestollpam

Colonel Gardiner of/he }31h Dragoom Ih.:cd (II Bankron

HOI/Sl~ 011 the fringe oj the Prestollpam balllefleld.

Breaches were made ill the park walls ill the hours befon'

Ihe battle ill order 10 allom free passage through them by

General Cope's troops.

The subsequent repairs 10 the mall

linking tlte main house with one of two flanking pm.:iliolls

call r1ellrly be seen. (Au/hor)

during the period in which extcnsl\-c use was made of dismounted dragoons.

UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT

A pair of new boots, as the)' shall

,,-antmg.

be found

As it is difficult

to fix

a period of time

for

pro-

,·iding saddles, it is to be left to the judgement of the general officer, who may be appointed to review them_

Housings, (holster) caps, ne" horse furniture, bins, and stirrup-irons; cloaks f.lced with the

li,-ery of the regiment, entirely new; and new buff or buff coloured cross-belts, to he pro,~ided as thcy shall be wanting.

The second mounting is to consist of ncw-Iaced hats, and horse collars.

As

in

the infantry the clothing and equipment

issued to each soldier was set out in the Regulalious

jor Ihe

Cloathillg ~F His -IIa)esl]"s

Forces ill

Tillie aF

Peace 20 Nov. J 729. This specified:

For a trooper

A new cloth coat, well lined with serge. A new waistcoat.

A new laced hat.

A pair of new large bun' gloYcs, with stifl' tops,

once In two years.

For a dragoon

A new cloth coat, wcll lined with serge. A new waistcoat.

A pair of new breeches.

A ncw laced hat. A pair of new large buff-eoloured glo,-es with

stiff tops.

A pair of new boots, as they shall be wanting. Saddles to be left to the judgement of the general officer who may be appointed to reyicw them. Housings, [holster] caps, new horse furniture, bins and stirrup-irons; and cloaks faced with the

liyery of the regiment 1 entirely new, as they shall be ,yanting. ~e,y buff or buff-coloured accoutrements; yiz. A shoulder-belt, with a pouch, a waist-belt, suf- ficient to carry the sword, with a place to recei,-c the bayonet and sling for the anTIS, such as the general officers, appointed to inspect the

c1oathing, shall approve of, as rht\ shall be

wantmg. The second mounting is to consist of new-laced hats, glo\'es, and horse-collars.

Perhaps the most striking difference between these lists and the similar oncs relating to the proyision of clothing for infantrymen is the degree to which the clothing and equipment issued '\'3S expected to last longer. Instead of a regular twO year replacement cyele the cavalryman could cxpect to be clothed e,"ery year - including ::1 new waistcoat and not a red one cut down from the pre\'ious year's coat, but e\'erything else was to be replaced only as and when required. :\n inspection report on the 4th tIrish' Horse in

In I disapprmingly noted that rhe boors had been

receiyed as long ago as 1767. Consequently, while the conlmanders of infantry regiments ,yere

required to cerrify annually thar the,· had supplied

their men ,yith the clothing to

,

which the'" were

.

entitled, comn1Jnders of cavalry units only had to do so e'"elT two '"ears. Regiments of Horse, Dragoon Guards, Dragoons and Light Dragoons ,yere distinguished in the following ways. Regiments of Horse had fairly narro'y lapels which stretched from the collar to the hem of the coat. Dragoon Guards

had smallcr, broader, 'half lapels' like rhose \Yorn

by infantrymen. Dragoons had no lapels at all, but Light Dragoons \Yore narrow lapels similar to

those \Yorn by infanrrymen afrer

1768. The

16rh

were, at first, an exception and lVlorier's painting

ContempOYflIJ' map of the bailIe of Falkir/.: (l i Jalluary f 746). General HawlcJ".I· Ihree regimen Is of Dragoom were posled 011 Ihe lefi of his ji-onl lil/e (flld opened 'he balfle lVilh all UIlSUCCl'Ssflll allac/.: agaiml IlIl' Jacobite iI/filii' I]'. A lJIiserable pel!ormallce IIJflS Ihen compounded by ridil1g

Oiler tlte 10.Valist GlasgO/IJ VOlullteers in flleir fligllt - (flld

IWIl/rtl//y being shol liP by Ihem in Ihe process. ("-liS)

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• Drummer's cap, 1J/h Dragoons. Like those Ivom bJI infillltrJI dnl1l1mers this cap has II rather

Drummer's cap, 1J/h Dragoons. Like those Ivom bJI infillltrJI dnl1l1mers this cap has II rather lower [rolll thall a grenadier cap tmd ,he hag or stocking t!terefore hangs down 01 the hack. The trophies displayed Oil the [rOllt are simply

a cOllvellliOlw! design alld do 1/01 reflect allY particular

battle hOI/ours - indeed the only active servia seen by the 13th Dragoons throughout the 18th Ce1lIItYJI cOIISisted of rll/ming awa)1 from the rebels at PreSlolipom ami Falkirk.

(Author)

the facing colour rather than plain red ones. In

1768, however,

they

too

were ordered

to adopt

white linings and small-clothes, although inspection reports reveal that a number of units wore buff linings in the early I 170s. The trumpeters and kettledrummers of the Horse (and Dragoon Guards) and drummers of

Dragoon

regiments

wore the traditional

reversed

coat colours liberally decorated with lace. Dragoon drummers had the same small mitre style caps worn by infantry drummers prior to 1768, but

trumpeters

of Horse and

Dragoon

Guards wore

the same cocked hats as the troopers and officers.

Light Dragoon drums and trumpets however wore

helmets from the outset. This distinctive clothing

reflected

the

fact

that drums and

trumpets

were

signallers

rather

than

musicians and

had

to

be

readilv identified bv officers in the midst of battle. Consequently many regiments also went so far as

~

.

to mount them on greys as a further distinction,

although inspection reports reveal that this was far

from being a uni,"ersal practice.

Cavalrymen

required

more

necessaries

than

their infantry counterparts and

these

black

woollen

gaiters

for dismounted

included drills and

guards, half gaiters, forage caps, curry combs etc.

and 'frocks'. These were presumably some kind of

smocks to be 1759 order to

for

stable duties -

although a

worn the Greys laid down

that they were

 

to

be

worn

over coats

on

the

march,

perhaps

shows the original

uniform to

have been

a single

because the roads

they

were

travelling on

were

breasted coat of 'heayy' dragoon style with black

collar and cuffs. They did ho\\"e'-ef subsequently adopt lapels. Apart from their leather, copper or brass helmets, thc Light Troops attachcd to regiments of Dragoon Guards and Dragoons during the

Sc'·cn Years War worc the uniform of their parent

regiment - Guards and

that

is,

with

half lapels for Dragoon

no lapels for Dragoons. With thc

exception of the Blues, all ca,·alry regiments ,,·ore red coats until 1784 ,,·hen blue jackets wcre adoptcd by Light Dragoons. At that point, those

regiments which had previously worn blue facings were ordered to adopt red ones instead. Under King George II, cavalry regiments were

also distinguished from their infantry counterparts by generally wearing waistcoats and breeches of

particularlv dusty at the time.

Accoutrements comprised a sword belt, worn

over the right shoulder by Horse and around the

waist by the Horse Grenadier Guards, Dragoons and Dragoon Guards, and either a carbine belt or a cartridge box and sling, according to arm. Camp

Equipage issued by the Board of Ordnance included the usual canteens and haversacks, and picket poles. On the march these were strapped to the trooper's firelock and if time permitted were

thrown awa\" at the commencement of an action.

\\'eapons

were

somewhat

more

varied.

Generally speaking at the outsct of the period all

cavalrymen carried broadswords (or occasionally

single-edged backswords) with basket hilts. These

hilts were often Scottish in origin, differing from

those carried by highlanders ·by an oval

ring set

into the to hold

inside of the

basket to allow

the

sword and

reins simultaneously.

trooper

As

the

swords were purchased by

the colonel

there "'as

no fixed

pattern

and

particularly

after

the

intro-

duction of Light Dragoons a number of varieties

abounded. ~ot until I /88 "'as there any real attempt at standardisation.

~lost cavalrymen also

carried a pair of pistols,

though Light Dragoons were originally supposed

to

ha,-c

only

onc.

In

theory

Dragoons

were

supposed to

thrust

their pistols into their

belts

when dismounted

bur

there

is

no

indication

that

ther did so at Clifton

in

17-15.

All cu"aln'men also carried

a carbine

of some

description.

Again

there

were

a

number

of

patterns

in

usc.

.65 Shorr Land

ntil

1770,

Dragoons

carried

a

Pattern

firelock

with a 42-inch

barrel and

a wooden

ramrod.

They

were also

equipped with a bayonet for it.

On march

past in

rc,-icw

order

they

were

expected

to

carry

their

firclocks

with bayonets fixed.

Doubtless to their

dismay, Dragoons

Guards

\ycre also encumbered

with this weapon after their conversion in 1746.

The regiments of Horse were equipped instead

with a slightly lighter carbine which, after 1757 at

least, had a barrel length

of 37 inches

and

was of

.65

or

.68

calibre.

It

was

fully

stocked

to

the

muzzle and, in

place of the

usual sling fitted

to

Dragoon firelocks, it had

a

ring

and

bar fitted

orer the sideplate. This arrangement permitted it,

in theory, to be clipped

to the carbine

that

it could

be fired

from

horseback,

belt so though

it

is

questionable

whether

this

was

ever

done.

"ormally the carbine was strapped to the saddle,

butt dmynwards in Dragoon style.

Light

Dragoons

on

the

other

hand

were

in

theory expected

to skirmish

on

horseback

using

their carbines.

Kingston's

10th

Horse

were

cer-

tainly described as

doing so, although

it

was

not

until they were

.

taken

the

OHr

by

-

the

Duke

of

 

Cumberland as

15th Dragoons that they

recei"ed a special carbine. This was of .65 calibre

with a -I2-inch barrel capable of taking a bayonet.

Fitted with both an

infantry

sling and

a

ring and

rather large bar

for attaching to a carbine belt,

it

onlr reallr differed

.

.

from

the Short Land Pattern

normally carried by Dragoons in its lighter calibre.

Haying

seen

comparatively

little

use

these

weapons were appropriated by the Horse Grenadier Guards when the 15th were disbanded in 17-18. Subsequenth' this weapon formed the pattern for the He",)' Dragoon Carbine of 1770. The Light Dragoon Carbine of 1756 was rather handier "'ith a 36-inch barrel but, in 1760, General Elliot of the 15th Dragoons designed a still sharrer one with a ?8-inch barrel. Although

generally

agreed

to

be

an

improycment

this

into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper
into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper

,

,'.

-
-

-..

into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper
into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper
into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper

'.

,

,

into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper

Artillery officer J712, after a contemporfllJ' Ivatereolollr

sketch. The chief poillls

of illlereJl are the eomparathely

plain appearance of the uniform ami his being armed with II fusil. ~His Ivaistcollt and breeches are scarlet in contrast to the blue small-clothes worn by gunllers, (All thor)

I

I

into the to hold inside of the basket to allow the sword and reins simultaneously. trooper

• • - , , \ . , Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1 Nl, after a wmempom'J'
• • - , , \ . , Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1 Nl, after a wmempom'J'
• • - , , \ . , Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1 Nl, after a wmempom'J'
• • - , , \ . , Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1 Nl, after a wmempom'J'
- , , \ . ,
- ,
,
\
.
,
• • - , , \ . , Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1 Nl, after a wmempom'J'
• • - , , \ . , Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1 Nl, after a wmempom'J'

Gill/lieI'. RUJ'al ArtillelJ', 1Nl,

after a wmempom'J'

JPaft'rcololtr sketch. Tlte coat til this period ;s substantia II], un/aced bUI bJI JUB I1J/tell David .Horier pail/led the lrain

at Roerlllolld ill Holland (I considcrable OIllQUlII oJyellorP

tape hinding had aPPl'(lIw/. A/lhough depiclt.'d here (IS

cary),jllg 0111), (I finstod.'. large powder-hom (lnd brass- hilred hanger, .Harier's painting shows that firelocks were

also m,.,-ied 011 active sen:ice. (AutllOr)

important, if seldom used, facility to fix a bayonet

on

to

it.

In

thc

1/805 experiments were also made

with rined carbines.

Each ca,·alryman was also pro,·ided with

harness and saddle housings for his horse. In 17-l2

the latter, comprising a shabraque or decoratiye

blanket and

a

pair

of holster

caps (co\'ers),

"'ere

quite elaborate with what appears to havc been an cmbroidered edging enli,·ened by knights' helmets

and trophies of arms. By 17-18, ho"e\'er, they had been replaced by a much simpler pattern. Probabh' introduced at the Duke of Cumberland's

behest, they displayed the regiment's facing colour and were edged with coloured stripes. The shabraquc bore a cartouche with the regiment's number surrounded by a Union wreath, while the

holster caps had the Royal

cypher in the middle

and

the number was repeated on the edging -

for

example, XIII D for 13th Dragoons.

REGIMENTAL

DISTINCTIONS

The

details

here are

all

taken

from

the

17-12

Cloat/iillg Book, \lorier's paintings cl7-18, and the

Clothing Warrants of 1751

and

1768.

Under the breeches

1768 Warrant, coloured waistcoats and

were replaced

by

white ones and

coat

linings

became either buff or white. Other ,-ariations arc

culled from the inspection repons of various dates and officers' portraits. With the exception of the 1st Horse (Blues), all regiments wore red coats until the 178-1 when blue jackets were adopted by light

Dragoons.

weapon

wns

cluding the

fully

stocked

to

the

use of a bayonet.

In

muzzle,

pre-

1773

though

ElliD[ produced a second ,"ersian again with a 28-

inch barrel, "'hich this time could be fitted

with a

bayonet. This \'ersion was adopted as the standard

Light Dragoon carbine.

Another Light Dragoon

carbine, issued to the 21st (Royal Forresters) "'as

,"cry similar to the first

pattern Elliot except for a

better standard of \\"Orkmanship and the all

1st Horse (Royal Regimenl of Horsegllards)

Blue coats, red facings & waistcoat, blue breeches.

:\0 lace on coat. Buff small-elothes worn after 1768.

lsi (K illg 's) Dragooll Gila rds

Blue facings, waistcoat and breeches. Buff small clothes 1768. Yellow lace with buttons arranged in

pairs. Red fUl1liturc, latterly with "Royal" lace: yellow with a blue stripe. Drummers mounted on greys.

Lieulellalll Edward Han';ej1. lOfh DragoollS. li-lOs. f/t/r<.:eJI (J718-1778) elliered Ihe armJl as a Cornel ill Ihe

Lieulellalll Edward Han';ej1. lOfh DragoollS. li-lOs. f/t/r<.:eJI (J718-1778) elliered Ihe armJl as a Cornel ill Ihe /Ot}, DragoollS ill li41 {Ind remained with Ilwl regimenl mlfil gaining a Caplaillcy ill Ihe 7th Dragoons in 17-17. Promoted 10 Major ill 1751 he becallle Lieulelllflli C%llel of lite 61h (Jnlliskillillg) DragoollS ill 1751 am/mas promoled 10 JIIII C%nel iI/ /760. A .llajor Gem:ral ill 1762 he brieflJ' comlllanded the 12th Dragoons /763--1 and fhell

Ihe 3rd (!rish) Horse lin Ii! '775 whell he resumed cOlllmand oj Ihe 61h DragoollS. He died ill 1778 while SiJlfu!ltmcollslJI holdillg Ihat post. se/Tillg as Adjllumt Gel/era I. COi:emor of Por/smoulh {mt! .'iil/illg as the

J1'lember oj Par/ialllelli for ]flf/whh.

Jlliereslinglyalthough

his foal lining and gorget palches are .)lel/om (the 10111 's

facing coloffr). his rtllher plaill nlj/s are fed. Dundee Art Galler)'. photo COliriesy of NllS)

(Origillal ill

I)

• • Capillin Lord Rohert Kerr. A Seo/slIlall. he was killed al Culloden while commal/ding the

Capillin Lord Rohert Kerr. A Seo/slIlall. he was killed al Culloden while commal/ding the grenadier compaflJI uf Barrell's hll Foot. (,YJlISj

until

1790 although

"COs

had

'Dragoon'

styl

uniforms

in

1788.

Yellow

lace -

\\'hite

by

176

with

buttons

set two

and

two.

Blue fumiture

white lace

with

red

stripe.

Trumpeters

mauntel

on greys 1769

211d (irislt) Horse - 5tlt Dragooll GlIards J788

Green

facings,

waistcoat

and

breeches.

'Ful

Green'

facings

lace,

yellow

by

1768,

but

1768 and

)'ello\\' in back to

1788. Whitl

178!

\\'hite in

with bunons set two and two.

Green

furniture,

white

lace

with

red

strip(

1768.

Yellow

furniture,

white

lace

with

greer

stripe ordered in 1788 but old (ie. green) furniwn

still

noted

as

late

as

1768 and 1775.

1792. Trumpeters on bay!

3rd (irish) Horse - 61h Dragooll Gllards or Carabineers 1788

Pale yellow facings, buff linings, waistcoat and breeches. White facings by 1769. White lace \\ith buttons set two and two. Buff furniture, then white edged with yellow lace bearing black stripe. Trumpeters on long-tailed greys 1769

2nd (Q!,een's) Dragoon Gnards

-Ilh (Irish) Horse - 71h (Prillcess Royal's) Dragooll Gllards 1788

Buff facings, waistcoat and breeches. Black facings

Black

facings,

buff small clothes -

white

1788.

ordered 1783 but not noted until 1785. Yello\y

Yello\\'

lace with

buttons set

two and

two.

Buff

lace with huttons set three and three. \\"hite small

furniture -

white

1788

-

white lace

with

black

-clothes instead of buff ordered

177+. Red

fur-

niture, by

1768 this was buff with 'royal' lace. Bay

horses 1768. Drummers and farriers mounted on

greys 1776.

3rd (Prince of lVales) Dmgoon Gnards

Vlhirc facings and

waistcoat,

red breeches (white

stripe. Trumpeters on greys 1772.

I Sf (Royal) Dmgoo/ls

Blue facings and waistcoat, red breeches (blue bl"

17+8).

)"ello\\'

lace,

buttons set

two

and

two.

Sergeants had blue sashes in 1753. Blue furniture,

red by 1768 with 'Royal' lace. Drummers and

by

17+8). Yellow

lace

with

buttons set

two and

Farriers initially mounted on (Treys

_

but blacks b,-

_

 

two

-

a report

of 1768 comments on

buff tape

1777. All horses long-tailed.

button

loops instead of \·ellow.

\Yhite

furniture,

'Royal' lace. Trumpeters on greys and farriers on

blacks 1776

lsI (insh) HOHe - -Ilh Royal irish Dragoon Gnards 1788

Blue facings, waistcoat and breeches (pale blue by 17+8). Officers \\earing buff waistcoat and breeches 1768. Dragoon stvle clothing and accou-

trements were not altered to the 'Dragoon' pattern

211d (Royal .Yorlh Brilish) Dragoons

Blue facings,

\\aistcoats and breeches. White lace,

buttons set t,,-o and two.

Cloth

grenadier caps

worn

by

all

ranks until

1178, then black bearskin ones. Officers' bearskins

'handsomeh"

embroidered and ornamented. \"hite

accoutrements. Bille furniture with (RoYal' lace. \~'holc regiment mounted on greys.

Allegedl]1 laken by the French al Ponlenoy in 1745 this yel/om guidon rather illtriguingf)l hears the fombined (frl1B' of Robert

Rich lind his mife.

The

)'ellolP ground might suggest the 8th DragoollS were it lIot Jor the Jact that Rich tra1lSJened from that regiment to the 4th in 1735. .\fureover the 81h (St. George's) Dragoon., did n01 serve in Flanders. Unlikely though it may seem thereJore Rich's 4th Dragoons may have been carryillg this JleLlow guidon ill 1745, losing both it and the green one illustrated elselPhere at Melle 011 9 June 174S where the regiment lost very heavil]l. The reverse of the guidon bears a rather old-fashioned

dOllbled GR cypIlC1·.

(Author)

Allegedl]1 laken by the French al Ponlenoy in 1745 this yel/om guidon rather illtriguingf)l hears the

3rd (King's Own) Dragoons

Light blue facings,

waistcoat and

breeches.

Buff

small-clothes 1768. Yellow lace with buttons set three and three. Red furniture, blue by 1768 with

'Royal' lace.

hh Dmgoons

Pea-green facings (full green 1768) , waistcoat and

breeches. White lace with buttons set two and

two. Green furniture,

white lace

with red

stripe -

changed to 'Royal' lace by 1790. Trumpeters all

negroes 1776.

5th (Royal Irish) Dragoons

Blue facings, waistcoat and breeches. Yellow lace,

but white by 1768 with buttons set three and three.

Two troops wearing grenadier caps as late as 1768. Said to have "een a distinction conferred on the regiment in Queen Anne's time, but ordered

to be discontinued 1769 in conformity with 1751

Warrant. Blue furniture with 'Royal' lace.

Trumpeters on hays 1775.

6th (Jnniskilling) Dragoons

'Full Yellow' facings, waistcoat and breeches.

Yellow lace -

white by

1768 with buttons set two

and two.

Yellow furniture,

white lace with

blue

stripe. Trumpeters and farriers on greys 1777.

7th (Queen '5) Dragoons

Vlhite facings, ·waistcoat and breeches. White lace

with

buttons set three and

three.

Converted to

Light Dragoons 1783. Otlicers' sword belts noted

to be worn under the jacket

1789 and

1790

-

ordered to be worn outside. White furniture with

'Royal' lace.

8tlt Dragoons

Orange facings, waistcoat and breeches before

1748

and

thereafter yellow. White lace with

buttons set three and three. Orange, then yellow

furniture, \vhite lace with a yellow stripe.

Apparently using goatskin furniture Ii'om c1787.

Perrnitted to wear cross belts as a distinction from Queen Anne's war. This distinction was

apparently lost when they converted to Light

Dragoons in 1775.

9th Dragoons

Buff facings, waistcoat and breeches. White lace

with buttons set two and two. Buff furniture, lace white ,,'fith a blue stripe .

• Officer's cap. Light T,'oop, 2nd DragoollS cl760. Jll fOfl/msl /0 Ihe rather ambiguousl), tlecomletl cap

Officer's cap. Light T,'oop, 2nd DragoollS cl760. Jll fOfl/msl

/0 Ihe rather ambiguousl), tlecomletl cap worn in J lI2 litis

desigll. first .~eell ill .llorier's pail/ling of J liB is ullcompm-

1I/isiI1K~J' Scollish ill choracler. (Author)

IOtll Dragoons

Yellow facings, waistcoat and breeches. \Yhite lace

with buttons set three, four and

fi,·e.

Yellow fur-

niture,

white

lace

with

green

stripe.

Officers'

swords in form of scimitars without guards to the

hilt

1770.

Light

Dragoons

1783,

but

1789

inspection comments on hcayy dragoon furniture

II til Dragoons

\Vhire cuffs,

buff linings,

\yhire waistcoat,

red

breeches -

all

bufl" by

1748.

White lace, buttons

set three and

three.

White linings reported

1776,

but buff in the fullowing ,ear.

Buff furniture,

1775 repon noted

made

up

in

1763

",hire lace with

green stripe.

that housings which had been

but

not deliyered

until

1775

were moth-eaten. Trumpeters on greys 1777.

Light Dragoons

1783

-

inspection

report

for

following year comments on clothing being the same as worn when heayy dragoons, only cut

shoner and still without lapels.

1789 inspection

mentions old

heavy

dragoon

furniture

still

in

use, and

buff wings on

shells -

ordered to be discontinued 1790. Same inspection

mentioned

swords

dismounted.

left

all

horses

when

regiment

12/11 Dragoons

\\'hitc facings and \yaistcoat, red breeches (white by 1748). On conversion to Light Dragoons

(Prince

ot" Wales)

recei,·ed

black

facings

-

including half-lapels. White lace \\ith buttons set

two and t\\o. Originall,· white furniture but 1768

\,"arrant specifies 'black with goatskin'. :\0 lace.

stripes of ,,·hite

13/ II Dragoons

Green

cuffs,

buff linings,

white

,,-aistcoat and

breeches -

all

light green

by

1748.

Buff small-

clothes 1768. Facings also changed to buff on con-

version

to

Light Dragoons

in

1783.

\Vhite

lace,

although officers had

gold

lace

as

early

as

1751,

but yello,,· lace specified in 1768. Buttons set three and three. Buff furniture, green by 1768,

white lace with ~ellow stripe.

l-ItII Dragoons

Pale or lemon yellow facings, ",hite waistcoat and

breeches -

all pale ,·ello\\ by 1748. Facings briefly

changed to green on con\'ersion

to Light

Dragoons in

1775. Yello\\

lace,

white

by

1768

with buttons set three and three.

Pale yellow

furniture,

white lace

with

red and

green stripes. Ho\\e,"Cr, lelter of j\\arch 1792 gives permission for change from black to yellow fur-

niturc. Trumpeters on greys 1775.

15/iI Dragoons (dis". J 7JS)

Green facings, buff waistcoat and breeches. Yellow lace. Green furniture.

15tiI King's Ligllt Dragoons (raised 1759)

Green

facings,

\\·hite

breeches.

White lace.

linings,

Granted

waistcoats

and

blue

facings

in

1766. Buttons set t\m and two.

Facings changed to red on adopting blue jackets

in

1784.

shells -

1789

inspection

mentions red

wings on

ordered to be discontinued in the fol-

lowing year.

Black helmets with white fittings, initially green

turban and green sashes_

red

mane.

Sergeants originally had

\\'hite

furniture,

originally edged

\\-hite with

red stripe, but edged with 'Ro\'al' lace after 1766,

Trumpeters on greys 1777. Same inspection mentions swords left on horses when dismounted 'as is practised by the other Dragoon regiments'.

/6th Q!leell i Light Dmgoolls

Black collar and cuffs, \I'hite linings, '\0 lapels on

coat, but

\I hite

lace

loops

in

threes,

"'hite

waistcoat and breeches.

Blue

facings -

including

lapels granted in 1766, Buttons set t\Yo and 176 , \\"hite furniture with 'RO\'al' lace,

t\l'O in

/llh Light DmgoollS

(:\0 details arc known of the uniform \lorn by the

original 17th Dragoons raised but neyer completed

in Scotland b,' Lord Aberdour. The regiment now

known as the 17Lh was originally raised as the

18th Light Dragoons,)

,rhite facings, waistcoat and breeches. Officers

had blue cloaks lined \lhite 177 L

Sun-i\-ing first pattern

helmet

has

a

red

front

plate, edged

\I'ith

fur

and

bears a crossed

bones

badge o"er the skull, Subsequenlh skull and

crossbones were joined with the skull on top,

"'hite turban

mentioned

in

1768

inspection,

White furniture, \I'hite lace \lith black edge,

/81h I.ight Drngoolls

,rhite facings, waistcoat and breeches - unau- thorised scarlet edging to waistcoat noted in por- traits and inspection reports. ""hite lace with burrons set £\\0 and two. \rhite furniture, red and white lace.

,

.

/logO/'lh's celebrated _ilardi of tltt' Guards 10 Finch/e)'. Thi_~ is. 110 doubt, liS exaggeraled as most carialtures but

l/e

...ertheleH

sl/cceeds rn:r mell ill c01n·e.J'illg Ihe oJien

chaoli( nature ofmililtl1J' operaliol1s.

(\".US)

IL·.'"T'''''{).' . fIU:I'/( I ..
IL·.'"T'''''{).'
. fIU:I'/( I
..

• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury

I

• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury

Plal~ XVllT,/

• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury

Redout

Detached-Bastion

• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury

Tenaille

• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury

Ravelin

Redout

• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury
I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion
I
Secollfl -Method
I
ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion
• • I Plal~ XVllT,/ Detached-Bastion Tenaille Ravelin Redout I Secollfl -Method I ith Detaeh('(I-Bsstion Eighle£lIlh-celllury

Eighle£lIlh-celllury fortifi-

catiolls (IS depicted in

Muller's 'Elements 0/

Fortification '. As fur (IS the

British ArmJl was conumed

fhe stal/dard work IIpon the

subject ill English. (Author's

collec/iotl)

19th Light Dragool/s (raised I ii9 - disbal/ded 1783)

Grecn facings, white small-clothes.

19th Light Dragool/s (/783- )

See 23rd Light Dragoons.

20th Liglit Dragool/s (raised 1779 - disbal/ded 1783)

Yellow facings) "'hire small-clothes.

20th (Jamaica) Light Dragool/s (raised 1792)

Dark blue jacket with )'eIlO\,' facings. Tin helmet with horsehair mane and alligator badge on front.

221/d Light

1783)

Dragool/s

Green jackets.

(raised 1779 -

disbal/ded

23rd Light Dragool/s (raised I ii9)

Red

coats

with

green

facings

and

white

small

clothes. Buttons looped two and two. Apparently

went out to India \\'caring green jackets. By virtue

of serying there escaped disbandment in 1783 and redesignated 19th Light Dragoons. Facings changed to yellow 1786.

21s1 L(ght Dragool/s (RoJlal Foresters) (disbal/ded I 763)

See text accompanying plate C3 ..

THE BOARD OF ORDNANCE

2IS! L(ght Dragool/s (mised 1779 - disbal/ded 1783)

White facings and small-clothes.

221/d Liglll DragoollS (disbal/ded 1763)

No details known but possibly black facings.

The Board had a variety of functions

in

the

18th

century, including the supply of guns and ammu-

nition to

the Royal

Navy as

well

as

to

the army.

In vcry genera) terms it was responsible for sup-

plying the "arious forces of the crown

with all

the

lethal and non-lethal hard\lare \yhich the\"

required (including powder, cannon and smaIl arms for the nu,-y), for training and administering the Royal Artillery (including the quite separate

Irish ArtillelT raised

in

1755) and Engineers.

From there it was a short step to supplying' forti-

fications and, increasing'ly, purpose-built barracks.

As an organisation

it

,yas also,

in

theory,

quite

independent and its officers and men were not, strieth' speaking, part of the army. Officers

rceci"cd their commissions from

the Board,

not

from the crown. In

like the officers and

this respect they were rather

men of the 11an- and marines

\\ho answered to the Board of Admiralt\' rather than the King.

This relationship could at times

produce some

curiolls anomalies.

In

the

early

days,

it

\ras

common for engineer officers

to sirnultaneously

hold military commissions in regiments of the line - and commoner still for regimental officers to fill in as engineers" hen \Yool" ich trained personnel were wanting. I ndeed, in 1772 Thomas Simes,

The ,lIi/illlr)' Guide for

Youug OjJirers specificalh-

recommended that newly commissioned infantry

officers should furnish themseh'es \I'ith a copy of

John Muller's

1746

treatise on

fortification, but

said nothing abollt other

books.

1\loreo\-er

although an .Army officer recciying half pay could nor sen-e at the same time in another regiment of

the

line

or

e,·en

in

the

militia

as

these

were

lofficcs of profit

under

the

crown'

there

was

nothing \\-hateyer to preYCnl his working for the

Board of Ordnance and

drawing

his

half pay

at

the same time. Although the Board's independence could be quite jealously guarded on occasion, it was little f\ercised in the field. The most obvious dis- tinction was the wearing of blue coats by the ~ing's artillerymen. Curiously enough this sar- torial distinction was not extended to the Board's engineer officers until 1782. enril that time the\' \\ore red coats, perhaps as a hangover from the da\"s \\"hen the\· also held infantn· commissions but more likely to make them less conspicuous. The necessity for close reconnaissance of fortified places made the engineer's job dangerous enough without drawing attention to himself unneces- sarily. Haying changed to Ordnance blue in 1782,

••

o 0 0 o 0 o 0 0 o 0 ,On o 0 o 0 ,0,
o 0
0
o 0
o 0
0
o 0
,On
o 0
o 0
,0,
=~=
o
5
I

111 pl"llclice Ihe armJf's forlijicaliom mere oflm milch less elahol"llic Ihan those descrihed hJ' .1Iuller alld olher experts. This is a plan of Rulh,·en barrllcks. built in /719-21 find slIcces.ifullJ' defended hJ' Sergeanl Tar)' .110110.1' and" dozen mell ill J liS. 1t lVas origiliallJ· hoped 10 huild jour flallki"g lowers (olle htsitates to describe Ihem as baSliom) 'If Ihe IIUJIll'jf answers' - t't'rJ' eridelilly it did not. (Autltor)

the Engineers reverted to red in 1811 precistdy for that \'cry ·reason, haying suffered \·cry high casu- alties in the Peninsula. Thc real distinction bet\\-een King's officers and Ordnance officers lay in the system of training

and promotion. Due to the technical nature of the sen"ice, the Board's officers could nQt purchase their commissions and promotion was entirely a

matter of scniorit) ...

\1oreoyer

while the training, if

any, received by the young infantry or cavalry oflicer was a matter for his regiment, the Board's officers were trained in the intricacies of their cr"'aft at \\"oolwich, and just as importantly

• • .Yor/hern flallking lomer, RlItltrt'lI 8aJ"rtIl.'Rs. Terl]' _\Jollo)' aud Itis lllt'll sltot domn a pari),

.Yor/hern flallking lomer,

RlItltrt'lI 8aJ"rtIl.'Rs. Terl]' _\Jollo)' aud Itis lllt'll sltot domn a pari), of Jacobile

mppers from these loopholes

as they attempled to set fire

to

lite _w/~)'-port gate ill tlte

foregrolllU/_

receiYcd ~hands on' experience as Cadet ~latrosses

(unskilled labourers), Cadet Gunners and Cadet Fireworkers (Corporals) before gaining their com-

miSSlons.

The four battalions of Ro' al :\niller\, and the quite separate Ro\al Irish Artillery, were purely

administrati\'c

units.

The basic unit

company

and

the

one commanded

by

was

the

Captain

Lieutenant John Godwin at Culloden was perhaps

typical

in comprising

ten

officers,

a number

of

"olunreers and

106

:'-1COs and

men.

Bet\\een

them they were responsible for

looking after ten

31b cannon and six Coehurn mortars.

This particular artillen' train had been assembled specifieall,' for operations in Scotland

and

generally speaking the Royal

Artillery dis-

pla,"ed considerable Oexibility in pro"iding the appropriate weight of artillery support for a par-

ticular operation. This could

,"ary,

according to

circumstances,

from

a single curricle gun

and

a

THE PLATES

Plate A: Regular Cavalry l7~Os

AI: Trooper, 2nd (Royal North British)

Dragoons /748

The 2nd Dragoons, better known as the Scots

Gre,"s, had a solidi,' impressi"e combat record

during the reign

of King George II_ In

1742 they

\\ ere ordered to Flanders and sen'ed there until

the cessation of hostilities

in<