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Name& Surname: Mehmet LOLU Student Number:090302025 Electrical & Electronics Engineering EEN 402 GRADUATION PROJECT II PROGRESS

REPORT THE PROJECT: REMOTE CONTROL ROBOT 8-bits Supervisor Name: Prof.Dr. Ali Zeki

Introduction to How Remote Controlled robot-8bits Works

While the mechanics of how they operate can differ greatly between different toys, the basic principle is the same. All radio controlled toys have four main parts: Transmitter - You hold the transmitter in your hands to control the toy. It sends Radio waves to the receiver. Receiver - An antenna and circuit board inside the toy receives signals from the transmitter and activates motors inside the toy as commanded by the transmitter. Motor(s) - Motors can turn wheels, steer the vehicle, operate propellers, etc. Power source - The transmitter sends a control signal to the receiver using radio waves ,which then drives a motor, causing a specific action to occur. The motor in a car may cause the wheels to turn, while the motor in a plane may adjust the flaps. The power source is typically a rechargeable battery pack, but sometimes it's just normal batteries.

RC Car Transmitter RC toys typically have a small handheld device that includes some type of controls and the radio transmitter. The transmitter sends a signal over a frequency to the receiver in the robot. The transmitter has a power source, usually a 9-volt battery, that provides the power for the controls and transmission of the signal. The key difference between radio controlled and remote controlled robot is that remote controlled robot have a wire connecting the controller and the robot, while radio control is always wireless.

Most RC car operate at either 27 MHz or 49 MHz. This pair of frequencies has been allocated by the FCC for basic consumer items, such as garage door openers, walkie-talkies and RC car. Advanced RC models, such as the more sophisticated RC airplanes, use 72-MHz or 75-MHz frequencies. Transmitters range from three-function simple controllers to full-function controllers with a wide range of options. An example of a Three -function controller is one that makes the robot go forward/cam rec/front light open when the trigger is pressed and To stop the toy, you have to actually turn it off.

Most full-function controllers have eight controls: Pulses sequence: Robot-Control Function Forward Reverse Forward/Right Forward/Left Reverse/Right Reverse/Left Stop Mode Camera Control Function Camera Rec Camera Stop Camera Rec Camera Rec Camera Rec Camera Rec Camera Rec Camera Rec Light Control Function Front Light(on) Back Light(on) Forward/right/light Forward/left/light Camera Up Camera Down Camera Right Camera Left Pulse Sequences 10 pulses 15 pulses 20 pulses 25 pulses 30 pulses 35 pulses 40 pulses 45 pulses

Radio Control The completed circuit causes the transmitter to transmit a set sequence of electrical pulses. Each sequence contains a short group of synchronization pulses, followed by the pulses sequence. For our robot, the synchronization segment -- which alerts the receiver to incoming information 5 milliseconds (thousandths of a second) long, with 700-microsecond (millionths of a second) intervals. The pulse segment, which tells the antenna what the new information is, uses 700-microsecond pulses with 700-microsecond intervals.

Receiver Transmitter Blok Diagram

Transmitter Receiver Circuit

ATX-34 Transmitter Integrated

ARX-34 Receiver Integrated

XT Oscillator

Crystal oscillator is kept in metal housing with two pins where you have written down the frequency at which crystal oscillates. One ceramic capacitor of 30pF whose other end is connected to the ground needs to be connected with each pin. Oscillator and capacitors can be packed in joint case with three pins. Such element is called ceramic resonator and is represented in charts like the one below. Center pins of the element is the ground, while end pins are connected with OSC1 and OSC2 pins on the microcontroller. When designing a device, the rule is to place an oscillator nearer a microcontroller, so as to avoid any interference on lines on which microcontroller is receiving a clock.

PIC16F877 Timer Modules tutorials - Timer0 Calculating Count, Fout, and TMR0 values If using internal crystal as clock, the division is performed as follow:

PIC TIMER0 formula for internal clock Fout The output frequency after the division. Tout The Cycle Time after the division. 8 - The division of the original clock (8 MHz) by 8, when using internal crystal as clock (and not external oscillator). Count - A numeric value to be placed to obtain the desired output frequency - Fout. (256 - TMR0) - The number of times in the timer will count based on the register TMR0. An example of INTERNAL crystal as clock Suppose we want to create a delay of 0.5 second in the our program using Timer0. What is the value of count? Calculation: First, lets assume that the frequency division by the Prescaler will be 1:256. Second, lets set TMR0=0. Thus:

RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT SIMILATION: This circuit consists of transmitter and receiver parts. Transmitter part pic 16F84 produces pulse, there are all functions different pulses. Receiver part pic 16F877 take pulses and which functions decide to performs.

Communication Protocol

Future Work: I will buy circuit devices. I will learn the characteristics of electronic circuit elements. I will load pic 16F84 and pic 16F877 I will set up circuit I will prepare the presentation

Circuit elements: 1. Pic 16F877 2. Pic 16F84 3. ATX-34(Transmitter modul) 4. ARX-34(Receiver modul) 5. 8 MHz and 20MHz crystal 6. 10x Switch 7. 10x Red led 8. 6x Green led 9. 4x Yellow led 10. 2x LM7805(Regulator) 11. 4x10kohm 12. 20x330ohm 13. 6x22pF capacitor 14. 4x100nF capacitor 15. 4x470uF capacitor References http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/rc-toy4.htm http://www.rentron.com/remote.htm http://www.circuitstoday.com/ mikroc_pic_pro_manual(pic c book pdf)