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The marks of 20 students in a test were as follows: 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11, 12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 18, 19, 20. Solution: Data is already arranged in ascending order. (i)Mean = (5 + 6 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 13 + 14 + 14 + 15 + 15 + 15 + 16 + 16 + 18 + 19 + 20)/ 20= 260/20 = 13. [Ans.] (ii) n = 20 [even number] Median = [(n/2) th + {(n/2) + 1}]/2 observation = [(20/2) th observation + {(20/2) + 1}th observation ]/2 =(10 th observation + 11 th observation)/2 = (13 + 14)/2 = 13.5. [Ans.] (iii) Mode = 15, as it occurs 3 times (The most often.). [Ans.] Question 2. Given below are the weekly wages of 200 workers in a factory : Weekly wages in Number of workers rupees 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 20 30 20 40 90

Calculate the mean weekly wages of the workers. Solution : Method I Weekly wages in Rs. 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 No. of workers 20 30 20 40 f Mid-values (x) 90 110 130 150 fx 1,800 3,300 2,600 6,000

90 f = 200

170

15,300 fx = 29,000

Mean = fx/f = 29,000/200 = Rs.145. [Ans.] Method II Weekly wages in Rs, 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 Total No. of workers fi 20 30 20 40 90 fi = 200 Mid-value xi 90 110 130 = A 150 170 di = xi A 40 20 0 20 40 difi 0 800 0 600 0 800 3600 difi = 3000

Mean = A + difi/fi = 130 + 3000/200 = 130 + 15 = 145. [Ans.] Method III Weekly wages in Rs. 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 Total No. of workers fi 20 30 20 40 90 fi = 200 Mid-values xi 90 110 130 = A 150 170 ui = (xi A )/h =(xi 130)/20 2 1 0 1 2 uifi 40 30 0 40 180 uifi = 150

Question 3. If the mean of 5, 4, 6, 3, 2x + 4, 3x 6, 5, 6, and 7 is 10, find the value of x. Solution : By definition, mean = x/n. Here, x = 5 + 4 + 6 + 3 +(2x + 4) + (3x 6) + 5 + 6 + 7 = 5x + 34, mean = 10 and n = 9, Hence, 10 = (5x + 34)/9 Or, 5x + 34 = 90 Or, 5x = 90 34 = 56 Or, x = 56/5 = 11.2. [Ans.] Question 4. The marks obtained by a set of students in an examination are given below: Marks No. of students 5 6 10 4 15 6 20 12 25 x 30 4

Given that the mean marks of the set is 18, calculate the value of x. Solution : Marks , (x) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Total As, Mean = fx/f 18 = (520 + 25x)/(32 + x) Or, 18(32 + x) = 520 + 25x Or, 576 + 18x = 520 + 25x Or, 25x 18x = 576 520 Or, 7x = 56 No. of students, (f) 6 4 6 12 x 4 f = 32 + x fx 30 40 90 240 25x 120 fx = 520 + 25x

Or, x = 56/7 = 8. [Ans.] Question 5. If the median of 11, 12, 14, 18, x + 2, x + 4, 30, 32, 35, 41 is 24, find the value of x. Solution : Here we suppose that the data is arranged in ascending order. Number of observation = 10. Median = 1/2(5th observation + 6th observation) = 1/2(x + 2 + x + 4) Or,24 = 1/2(2x + 6) = x + 3 Or,x = 24 3 = 21. [Ans.] Maths - Trigonometrical Identities (Solved) Question 1. Prove the following identities : (i) (secA 1)/(secA + 1) = (1 cosA)(1 + cosA) (ii) 1/(sin + cos) + 1/(sin cos) = 2sin/(1 2cos2) (iii)cot2A cos2A = cot2A cos2A (iv)(1 + sin)/(1 sin) = sec + tan (v) (1 sin)/(1 + sin) = (sec - tan)2 (vi) sinA/(1 + cosA) + (1 + cosA)/sinA = 2cosecA (vii) cosA/(1 tanA) + sinA/(1 cotA) (viii)1 cos2/(1 + sin) = sin (ix) (1 cosA)/(1 + cosA) = sinA/(1 + cosA) (x) sin tan /(1 cos) = 1 + sec (xi) (1 + tanA)2 + (1 tanA)2 = 2 sec2A Solution : (i) LHS = (secA 1)/(secA + 1) = (1/cosA 1)/(1/cos + 1) = [(1 cosA)/cosA]/[(1 + cosA)/cosA] = (1 cosA)/(1 + cosA) = RHS. (ii) LHS = 1/(sin + cos) + 1/(sin cos) = {(sin cos) + (sin + cos)}/(sin + cos)(sin cos) = 2sin/(sin2 cos2) = 2sin/[(1 cos2) cos2] = 2sin/(1 2cos2) = RHS. (iii) LHS = cot2A cos2A = cos2A/sin2A cos2A

= cos2A(1/sin2A 1) = cos2A(cosec2A 1) = cos2A cot2A = RHS (iv) LHS = (1 + sin)/(1 sin) = (1 + sin)/(1 sin)(1 + sin)/(1 + sin) = (1 + sin)2/(1 sin2) = (1 + sin)2/(cos2) = (1 + sin)/cos = 1/cos + sin/cos = sec + tan = RHS (v) RHS = (sec tan)2 = (1/cos sin/cos)2 = {(1 sin)/cos}2 = (1 sin)2/(cos)2 = (1 sin)2/(1 sin2) = (1 sin)2/{(1 + sin)(1 sin)} = (1 sin)/(1 + sin) = LHS (vi) LHS = sinA/(1 + cosA) + (1 + cosA)/sinA = {sin2A + (1 + cosA)2}/{(1 + cosA) sinA} = {sin2A + 1 + 2cosA + cos2A}/{(1 + cosA) sinA} = {(sin2A + cos2A) + 1 + 2cosA}/{(1 + cosA) sinA} = {1 + 1 + 2cosA}/{(1 + cosA) sinA} = {2(1 + cosA)}/{(1 + cosA) sinA} = 2/sinA = 2 cosecA = RHS (vii) LHS = cosA/(1 tanA) + sinA/(1 cotA) = cosA/(1 sinA/cosA) + sinA/(1 cosA/sinA) = cos2A/(cosA sinA) + sin2A/(sinA cosA) = cos2A/(cosA sinA) sin2A/(cosA sinA) = (cos2A sin2A)/(cosA sinA) = (cosA + sinA)(cosA sinA)/(cosA sinA) = cosA + sinA = RHS (viii) LHS = 1 cos2/(1 + sin) = (1 + sin cos2)/(1 + sin) = (sin2 + sin)/(1 + sin) = sin (1 + sin)/(1 + sin) = sin = RHS (ix) LHS = (1cosA)/(1+cosA) = (1cosA)/(1+cosA)(1+ cosA)/(1+cosA) = (1 cos2A)/(1 + cosA)2= (sin2A)/(1 + cosA)2 = sinA /(1 + cosA) = RHS

(x) LHS = sin tan/(1 cos) = {sin (sin/cos)}/(1 cos) = sin2/cos (1 cos) = (1 cos2)/cos (1 cos) = {(1 + cos)(1 cos)}/cos (1 cos) = (1 + cos)/cos = 1/cos + cos/cos = sec + 1 = RHS (xi) LHS = (1 + tanA)2 + (1 tanA)2 = 1+ 2tanA + tan2A + 1 2tanA + tan2A = 2 + 2 tan2A = 2 (1 + tan2A) = 2 sec2A = RHS Question 2.Evaluate, without the use of trigonometric tables : (i) sin80/cos10 + sin59sec31 (ii) 3sin72/cos18 sec32/cosec58 (iii) 3cos80cosec10 + 2cos59cosec31 (iv) cos75/sin15 + sin12/cos78 cos18/sin72 (v) 2tan53/cot37 cot80/tan10 Solution : (i) sin80/cos10 + sin59 sec31 = sin(90 10 ) / cos10 + sin(90 31)1/cos31 = cos10/cos10 + cos31/cos31 [sin(90 ) = cos] = 1 + 1 = 2. [Ans.] (ii)3sin72/cos18 sec32/cosec58 = 3sin(90 18)/cos18 sec(90 58)/cosec58 = 3 cos18/cos18 cose58/cosec58 = 31 1 = 2. [Ans.] (iii) 3cos80cosec10 + 2cos59cosec31 = 3cos80cosec(90 80) + 2cos59cosec(90 59) = 3cos80sec80 + 2cos59sec59 = 3cos801/cos80 + 2cos591/cos59 = 3 + 2 = 5. [Ans.] (iv) cos75/sin15 + sin12/cos78 cos18/sin72 = cos(90 15)/sin15 + sin(90 78)/cos78 cos(90 72)/sin72 = sin15/sin15 + cos78/cos78 sin72/sin72 = 1 + 1 1 = 1. [Ans.] (v) 2tan53/cot37 cos80/tan10 = 2tan(90 37)/cot37 cot(90 10)/tan10 = 2cot37/cot37 tan10/tan10 = 2 1 = 1. [Ans.] Maths - Construction (Solved) Question 1. Use ruler and compass only in this question. (i) Draw a circle, with centre O and radius 4 cm.

(ii) Mark a point P such that OP = 7 cm. Construct the two tangents to the circle from P. Measure and record the length of one of the tangents. Solution : A circle with centre O and radius 4 cm is drawn. A point P is taken 7 cm from O. O is joined with P. OP is bisected at C. Taking C as centre ad OC as radius a circle is drawn which intersect the previous circle at T and T. PT and PT are joined which is the required tangents. PT = PT = 5.7 cm (aprox.)

Question 2. Construct an angle PQR = 45. Mark a point S on QR such that QS = 4.5 cm.Construct a circle to touch PQ at Q and also to pass through S. Solution : L PQR = 45 is drawn. QX is drawn perpendicular to PQ at Q. QS = 4.5 cm is taken from QR. Perpendicular bisector of QS is drawn which intersects QX at O. Taking O as centre and OQ as radius a circle is drawn which pass through Q and S.

Question 3. Construct a ABC, in which AC = 5 cm, NC = 7 cm and AB = 6 cm. (i) Mark D, the midpoint of AB. (ii) Construct the circle which touches BC at C and passes through D. Solution : AB = 6 cm is drawn. From B an arc of radius 7 cm and from A an arc of radius 5 cm are drawn. They intersect

at C. Ac and BC are joined. The point D, the mid-point of AB is drawn. CD is joined. At C perpendicular to AC is drawn. Perpendicular bisector of CD is drawn which intersect OC at O. Taking O as centre and OD as radius, a circle is drawn. This is the required circle to pass through C and D.

Question 4. Using ruler and compass only, construct a ABC such that AB = 5 cm, LABC = 75 and the radius of the circum-circle of triangle ABC 3.5 cm. On the same figure, construct a circle touching AB at its middle point, and also touching the side AC. Solution : AB = 5 cm is drawn. Perpendicular bisector PQ of AB is drawn. Taking A as centre and radius of 3.5 cm, an arc is drawn to intersect PQ at O. With O as centre and OA as radius, a circle is drawn. At B an angle ABR = 75 is drawn, here BR intersect the circle at C. AC is joined. ABC is the required triangle. Angle bisector of L BAC is drawn which intersect PQ at D. Taking D as centre and DM as radius, another circle is drawn. It is the another required circle.

Question 5. Only ruler and compass may be used in this question, (i) Construct ABC, such that AB = AC = 7 cm, BC = 5 cm. (ii) Draw AX, the perpendicular bisector of side BC. (iii) Draw a circle with centre A and radius 3 cm cutting AX at Y. (iv) Construct another circle to touch the circle with centre A externally at Y and passing through B and C.

Solution : (i) BC = 5 cm is drawn. Taking B and C as centre two arcs are drawn to intersect at A. AB and AC are joined. ABC is the required triangle. (ii) Perpendicular bisector AD of BC is drawn. (iii) With A as centre a circle of radius 3 cm is drawn which intersect AD at P. (iv) PB and PC are joined. Perpendicular bisector of PC is drawn which intersect AD at O. With O as centre and OP as radius, a circle is drawn. This is the required circle through B and C.

Question 6. Ruler and compass only may be used in this question. All construction lines and arcs must be clearly shown, and be of sufficient length and clarity to permit assessment. (i) Construct ABC, in which AB = 9 cm, BC = 10 cm and L ABC = 45. (ii) Draw a circle, with centre A and radius 2.5 cm. Let it meet AB at D. (iii) Construct a circle to touch the circle with centre A externally at D and also to touch the line BC. Solution : AB = 9 cm is drawn. At B, L ABC = 45 is drawn. BC = 10 cm is taken. A circle with A as centre and radius 2.5 cm is drawn which intersect AB at D. A perpendicular on AB at D is drawn which intersect BC at E. Angle bisector of L BED is drawn which intersect DB at F. Taking F as centre and FD as radius a circle is drawn which touch previous circle at D and the line BC at ..

Question 7. Using ruler and compass only, construct (i) A triangle ABC in which AB = 9 cm, BC = 10 cm and L ABC = 45.

(ii) construct a circle of radius 2 cm to touch the arms of L ACB in (i) above. Solution : AB = 9 cm is drawn. At B L ABC is drawn 45. BC = 10 cm ia taken. AC is joined and we get ABC. Angle bisector CD of L ACB is drawn. A line parallel to BC and at a distance of 2 cm from BC is drawn which intersect CD at D. With D as centre and radius of 2 cm a circle is drawn which touch arms of L ACB.

Maths - Circle (Solved) Question 1. In the figure given below, there are two concentric circles and AD is a chord of larger circle. Prove that AB = CD.

Solution : OM perpendicular to AD is drawn. We know that perpendicular from centre to the chord of a circle bisect the chord.

Therefore, AM = MD (for bigger circle) ------------ (i) and BM = MC (for smaller circle) ------------ (ii) On subtracting (ii) from (i) we get AM BM = MD MC , Or, AB = CD. [Proved.] Question 2. In the figure given below, AOE is a diameter of a circle, write down the measure of sum of angles ABC and CDE. Give reasons of your answer.

Solution :

AD is joined. ADE is a right angle, being angle in a semi-circle. L ABC + L ADC = 180 [opp. angles of a cyclic quad. ] L ADE = 90 [angle in the semi-circle] Hence, L ABC + L ADE + L ADC = 270 Or, L ABC + L CDE = 270. [Proved.] Question 3. In the figure given below, AC is a diameter of a circle with centre O. Chord BD is perpendicular to AC. Write down the angles p, q, r in terms of x .

Solution : LAOB = 2LADB, Or, LADB = x/2. Now, LADB + LDAC + 90 = 180, Or, p = 90 x/2. q = LADB = x/2. r = LCAB = 1/2LCOB = 1/2(180 x ) = 90 x/2. Question 4. In the given circle below, find the value of x.

Solution : LABD = LACD [angles in the same segment are equal] = 30 [LACD = 30 given] AB is a diameter of the circle, LADB = 90 [angle in a semi-circle is 90] In ABD, LDAB + LABD + LADB = 180 [sum of all the three angles of a triangle is 180] Or, x + 30 + 90 = 180 Or, x = 180 90 30 = 60. [Ans.] Question 5. A circle with centre O, diameter AB and a chord AD is drawn. Another circle is drawn with AO as diameter to cut AD at C. Prove that BD = 2OC. Solution : The following figure is drawn according to the question :

C to O and D to B are joined. L ADB = 90 [angle in a semi-circle is 90, AB is diameter] L ACO = 90 [same reason, OA is diameter] In s ACO and ADB, L ACO = L ADB = 90 L CAO = L DAB [common] Hence, ACO ~ ADB [A A similarity rule] Therefore, OA/AB = OC/BD Or, OA/2OA = OC/BD [AB = 2OC, given] Or, BD = 2OC. [Proved.]

Solution : PRT is tangent at R and RQ is a chord from the contact point, Therefore, L PRQ = L QSR = y [Angle in the alternate segment] and L QRS = 90 [angle in semi-circle is 90 as, QS is a diameter.] In PRS, L SPR +L PRS + LRSP = 180 [sum of angles of a = 180] Or, x + y + 90 + y = 180 Or, x + 2y = 180 90 = 90. [Ans]. Question 7. In the figure given below, O is the centre of the circle and L AOC = 160. Prove that 3Ly 2Lx = 140.

Solution : By arc property of the circle, Lx = 1/2(LAOC) = 1/2(160) = 80 The vertices of the quadrilateral lie on the circle, so it is a cyclic quadrilateral. Therefore, Lx + Ly = 180 Or, 80 + Ly = 180 Or, Ly = 100 Hence, 3Ly 2Lx = 3100 280 = 140. [Proved.] Question 8. A, B and C are three points on a circle. The tangent at C meets BA produced at T. Given that L ATC = 36 and that the L ACT = 48. Calculate the angle subtended by AB at the centre of the circle. Solution :

Let O be the centre of the circle. OA is joined. In TAC, L TAC = 180 (48 + 36) = 96, L CAB = 48 + 36 = 84, Now OC is perpendicular to TC, [C being point of contact]

L OAC = L OCA = 90 48 = 42 [OA = OC, being radii] L OAB = L CAB L OAC = 84 42 = 42, Again AOB is isosceles, L OBA = L OAB = 42 Therefore, L AOB = 180 (42 + 42) = 180 84 = 96. [Ans.] Question 9. In the given figure below, find TP if AT = 16 cm and AB = 12 cm.

Solution :

In s PAT and PBT, L TPB = L PAT [angles in the alternate segment are equal] L ATP is common Therefore, PAT ~ PBT [AA similarity rule] Hence, PT/AT = BT/PT Or, PT2 = ATBT = AT(AT - AB) = 16(16 12) = 64 Or, PT = 64 = 8 cm. [Ans.]

Maths - Symmetry (Solved) Question 1. Using ruler and compass only, construct a rectangle ABCD with AB = 5 cm and AD = 3 cm and construct its lines of symmetry. How many lines of symmetry are there ? Solution : A line AB = 5 cm is taken. At A an angle BAD equal to 90 is drawn. Taking A as centre, an arc of 3 cm is drawn which intersect AD at D. From D an arc of 5 cm is drawn and from B an arc of 3 cm is drawn. These two arcs intersect at C. BC and CD are joined. ABCD is the required rectangle. Lines joining mid-points of AD and

BC is one line of symmetry and other is line joining mid-points of AB and CD as shown in the figure.

Question 2. Using ruler and compass only, construct a regular hexagon of side 2.5 cm. Draw all its lines of symmetry. Solution : A line AB of length 2.5 cm is drawn. At A and B angles BAF and ABC equal to 120 are drawn. BC and AF equal to 2.5 cm is taken and at C and F angles BCD and AFE equal to 120 are drawn. CD and FE equal to 2.5 cm is taken. DE is joined. ABCDEF is the required hexagon. The six lines of symmetry has been drawn in the fig.

Question 3. Construct a ABC in which AB = AC = 3 cm and BC = 2 cm. Using a ruler and compass only, draw the reflection ABC of ABC, in BC. Draw the lines of symmetry of the figure ABAC. Solution : BC equal to 2 cm is drawn. Taking B and C as centre, arcs BA and CA of length 3 cm are drawn which intersect at A. AB and AC are joined. ABC is the required triangle. Again taking B and C as centre, arcs equal to 3 cm radius are drawn which intersect at A. A is the reflection of A in BC. BC and AA are the two lines of symmetry as shown in the figure.

Question 4. Use graph paper for this question. Plot the points A(8,2) and B(6,4). These two points are the vertices of a figure which is symmetrical about x = 6 and y = 2. Complete the figure on the graph. Write down the geometrical name of the figure. Solution : Co-ordinate axes are selected as shown below. A(8,2) and B(6,4) are plotted . The lines of symmetry x = 6 and y = 2 are drawn. As, the figure is symmetrical about x = 6 and y = 2, the image of A is C and the image of B is D as shown in the figure below.

Maths - Equation of a Straight Line (Solved) Question 1. Find the equation of a line passing through (2, 3) and inclined at an angle of 135 with positive direction of x-axis. Solution : The point is (x1,y1) = (2, 3), slope = m = tan135 = 1, The equation of a line passing through (x1,y1) with slope m is : y y1 = m(x x1) Hence, equation of line passing through (2, 3) with slope 1 is given by

y (3) = 1(x - 2) Or, y + 3 = x + 2 Or, x + y + 1 = 0. [Ans.] Question 2. Find the equation of the line parallel to 3x + 2y = 8 and passing through the point (0, 1). Question 3. The line 4x 3y + 12 = 0 meets the x-axis at A. Write down the co-ordinates of A. Determine the equation of the line passing through A and perpendicular to 4x 3y + 12 = 0. Solution : At x-axis, y-co-ordinate is zero. The line 4x 3y + 12 = 0, meets x-axis. Hence putting y = 0 in the equation of line we get, 4x 30 + 12 = 0 Or, 4x = 12 or, x = 3. Therefore, line 4x 3y + 12 = 0, meets x-axis at A(3,0).[Ans.] Slope m1 of the line 4x 3y + 12 = 0, = (coefficient of x /coefficient of y) = (4/3) = 4/3 Let the slope of the required line be m2. Then m1m2 = 1 Or, (4/3) m2 = 1 Or, m2 = 3/4 Therefore, line through A(3,0 ) with slope 3/4 is given by y 0 = (3/4){x (3)} Or, 4y = 3(x + 3) = 3x 9 Or, 3x + 4y + 9 = 0. [Ans.] Question 4. Write down the equation of the line whose gradient is 3/2 and which passes through P, where P divides the line segment joining A(2,6) and B(3, 4) in the ratio 2 : 3. Solution : Let the co-ordinates of P be (x,y). x = {23 + 3(2)}/(2 + 3) = 0, y = {2(4) + 36}(2 + 3) = 2, Hence, P is (0,2), m = 3/2, Using the formula, y y1= m (x x1), The equation of the line is given by, y 2 = 3/2 (x 0 ) Or, 2y 4 = 3x Or, 3x 2y + 4 = 0. [Ans.]

Question 5. ABCD is a square. The co-ordinates of A and C are (3,6) and (1,2) respectively. Write down the equation of BD. Solution : Co-ordinate of A and C are (3,6) and (1,2). Slope of AC = m1 = (y2 y1)/(x2 x1) = (2 6)/(1 3) = 1.

As, diagonals of a square bisect each other at right angle, let slope of BD be m2, then m1m2 = 1 or, m2 = 1/1 = 1 Co-ordinates of mid point of AC are {(x1 + x2)/2,(y1 + y2)/2} = {(3 1 )/2, (6 + 2)/2} = (1,4). Using the formula y y1 = m(x x1) , the equation of BD is 0 + y 4 = (1)(x 1) or, x + y 5 = 0 . [Ans.] Question 6. If 3y 2x 4 = 0 and 4y ax 2 = 0 are perpendicular to each other, find the value of a. Solution : he given equation of lines are , 3y 2x 4 = 0 --------- (i) and 4y ax 4 = 0 ---------- (ii) m1 = slope of (i) = coefficient of x/coefficient of y = (2)/3 = 2/3, m2 = slope of (ii) = coefficient of x/coefficient of y = ( a)/4 = a/4, lines (i) and (ii) are perpendicular to each other, therefore, m1m2 = 1, or, (2/3)(a/4) = 1 or, a = 6. [Ans.]

Maths - Distance and Section Formulae (Solved) Question 1. The mid point of the line segment joining (2a, 4) and ( 2, 2b) is (1, 2a + 1). Find the value of a and b. Solution : Mid point of (2a, 4) and ( 2, 2b) is (1, 2a + 1) i.e. x = (x1 + x2)/2 Or, 1 = (2a 2)/2 => a = 2; and y = (y1 + y2)/2 Or, 2a + 1 = (4 + 2b)/2 => 2a + 1 = 2 + b => b = 3; Hence, a = 2, b = 3. [Ans.] Question 2. If the points (2,1) and (1, 2) are equidistant from the point (x,y), show that x + 3y = 0. Solution : Let A(2,1) and B(1, 2) is equidistant from P(x,y), then PA = PB Or, [(x 2)2 + (y 1)2] = [(x 1)2 + (y +2)2] [by distance formula] Or, x2 4x + 4 + y2 2y + 1 = x2 2x + 1 + y2 + 4y + 4 Or, 4x 2y + 2x 4y = 0 Or, 2x 6y = 0 Or, x + 3y = 0 [Proved.] Question 3. For what value of a, the point (a,1), (1, 1) and (11,4) are collinear. Solution : Let line joining the points (a,1) and (11,4) is divided by the point (1, 1) in the ratio K : 1, then

1 = (1a + K11)/(K+1) ------------------ (i) and 1 = (11+K4)/(K+1) ------------------ (ii) From (ii) we get 4K + 1 = K 1 Or, 5K = 2 Or, K = 2/5 Putting the value of K in (i) we get, 11K + a = K + 1 or, 10K + a = 1 or, 10 ( 2 /5) + a = 1 or, a = 1 + 4 = 5. [Ans.] Question 4. Find the value of k if the triangle formed by A(8, 10), B(7, 3) and C(0,k) is right angled at B. Solution : As B is a right angle, so, AC must be the hypotenuse and hence by Pythagoras Theorem, AC2 = AB2 + BC2 Or, (0 8)2 + (k + 10)2 = (7 8)2+ ( 3 + 10)2 + (0 7)2 + (k +3)2 Or, 64 + k2 + 20k + 100 = 1 + 49 + 49 + k2 + 6k + 9 Or, 14k = 108 164 = 56 Or, k = 56 /14 = 4. [Ans.] Question 5.The three vertices of a parallelogram are (3,4), (3,8) and (9,8). Find the fourth vertex. Solution : Let the vertices of the given parallelogram be A(3,4), B(3,8), C(9,8) and D(x,y). We have to find x and y. As, we know diagonals of a parallelogram bisects each other, so, the mid-point of AC and BD must be the same. Mid-point of AC are {(9+3)/2, (8+4)/2}= (6,6) And mid-point of BD are {(x+3)/2, (y+8)/2} Therefore, (x+3)/2 = 6 and (y+8)/2 = 6, which gives x = 9 and y = 4.[Ans.] Question 6.(2, 2), (x,8), (6,y) are three cyclic points whose centre is (2,5). Find the values of x and y. Solution : Let P(2, 2), Q(x,8) and R(6,y) be cyclic points whose centre is O(2,5). Then OP = OQ = OR = r, radius of the circle. OP2 = (2 + 2)2 + (5 2)2 = 16 + 9 = 25 , Or, OP = 5 OQ2 = (x 2)2 + (8 5)2, Or, x2 4x + 4 + 9 = 25 [OP = OQ] Or, x2 4x 12 = 0 , Or, x2 6x + 2x 12 = 0 Or, (x+2)(x 6) = 0 which gives x = 6, 2. [Ans.] OR2 = (2 6)2 + (5 y)2, Or, y2 10y + 25 + 16 = 25 [OP=OR] Or, y2 10y + 16 = 0, Or, y2 8y 2y + 16 = 0 Or, (y 2)(y 8) = 0 which gives y = 2,8. [Ans.]

Question 7. In what ratio does the y-axis divide the line AB, where A(4, 1) and B(17.10) ? Solution : Let P(0,y) be a point on the y-axis which divides the given line AB in the ratio AP : PB = K : 1. Hence, [1(4) + K17]/[K +1] = 0 Or, 17K 4 = 0 Or, K = 4/17 so the ratio is 4 : 17. [Ans.] Question 8. Two vertices of a triangle are (3, 5) and (7,4). If its centroid is (2, 1), find the third vertex. Solution : Let the third vertex be (x,y). Then, using formula of centroid, 2 = (3 7 + x)/3 Or, x 4 = 6 Or, x = 10. Similarly, 1 = (4 5 + y)/3 Or, y 1 = 3 Or, y = 2. Hence, third vertex is (10, 2). [Ans.] Maths - Marices (Solved) Question 1. Find x and y if

Solution :

or,6x 10 = 8..(i) and 2 x +14 = 4y(ii) From(i), 6x 10 = 8 or, 6x = 18 or, x=3 [Ans.]

From(ii), 2x +14 = 4y

or, or,

4y = 2 3 + 14 = 8 y=2 [ Ans.]

Solution :

Question 3.

Maths - Factor Theorem (Solved) Question 1. Show that (x 1) is a factor of x3 7x2 + 14x 8. Hence, factorize the above polynomial completely. Solution : If (x 1) is a factor of f(x) = x3 7x2 + 14x 8, then f(1) = 0. Now, f(1) = 13 7(1)2 + 14(1) 8 = 1 7 + 14 8 = 0. Hence, (x 1) is a factor of f(x). To find other factor, f(x) = x3 7x2 + 14x 8 = x2(x 1) 6(x 1) + 8(x 1) =(x 1) (x2 6x +8) = (x 1){x(x 4) 2(x 4)} = (x 1)(x 2)(x 4).[Ans.] Question 2. Find the remainder when f(x) = x3 6x2 + 9x + 7 is divided by g(x) = x 1. Solution : When f(x) is divided by g(x) = x 1, then remainder, R = f(1), by remainder theorem. Hence, R = f(1) = (1)3 6 (1)2+9(1) + 7 = 1 6 + 9 + 7 = 11. [Ans.] Question 3. For what value of a , the polynomial g(x) = x a is a factor of f(x) = x3 ax2 +x + 2. Solution : As, x a is a factor of f(x), therefore, f(a) = 0 i.e. a3 a a2 + a + 2 = 0 or, a3 a3 + a + 2 = 0 or, a + 2 = 0 or, a = 2. [Ans.] Question 4. Find the value of p and q, if (x + 3) and (x 4) are the factors of x3 px2 qx + 24. Solution : Le f(x) = x3 px2 qx + 24.

As, x + 3 is a factor of f(x), f( 3) = 0 i.e. ( 3)3 p( 3)2 q( 3) + 24 = 0 or, 27 9p + 3q + 24 = 0 or, 9p + 3q 3 = 0 --------------------------- (i) Also x 4 is a factor of f(x), then f(4) = 0 i.e. (4)3 p(4)2 q(4) + 24 = 0 or, 64 16p 4q + 24 = 0 or, 16p 4q + 88 = 0 ---------------------- (ii) Multiplying eqn.(i) by 4 and eqn.(ii) by 3 and then adding we get 84p + 252 = 0 or, p = 3. [Ans.] Putting value of p in eqn.(i) we get, 93 + 3q 3 = 0 Or, 3q 30 = 0 Or, q = 10. [Ans.] Question 5. Find the value of q if the polynomial f(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + q is divisible by g(x) = x 2. Hence find all the factors. Solution : As, f(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + q is divisible by g(x) = x 2, Therefore, f(2) = 0 Or, (2)3 + 2(2)2 13(2) + q = 0 Or, 8 + 8 26 + q = 0 Or, q = 10. [Ans.] Now, f(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + 10 = x3 2x2 + 4x2 8x 5x + 10 = x2(x 2) + 4x(x 2) 5(x 2) = (x 2)(x2 + 4x 5)

= (x 2)(x2 + 5x x 5) = (x 2){x(x + 5) 1(x + 5)} = (x 2)(x 1)(x + 5). [Ans.] Maths - Ratio and Proportion (Solved) Question 1. If A:B = 4:5, B:C = 6:7and C:D = 14:15, find A:D. Solution : Here we have, A:B = 4:5, B:C = 6:7 and C:D = 14:15 Or, A/B = 4/5, B/C = 6/7 and C/D = 14/15 Or, A/BB/CC/D = 4/56/714/15 [Multiplying both sides] Or, A/D = 16/25 Or, A:D = 16:25. [Ans.] Question 2. If x : y = 9:10, find the value of (5x + 3y) : (5x 3y). Solution : x : y = 9:10 Or, x/y = 9/10 (5x + 3y) / (5x 3y) = (5x/y + 3) / (5x/y 3) = (59/10 +3)/(59/10 3) = (9/2 + 3)/ (9/2 3) = [(9 + 6)/3]/[(9 6)/3] = (15/3)/(3/3) = 15/3 = 5/1 = 5. [Ans.] Question 3. What must be subtracted from each term of 5 :7, so that it is equal to 3 : 4 ? Solution : Let x be subtracted from each term of 5 : 7, so that it become 3 : 4. i.e. (5 x)/(7 x) = 3/4 Or, 4(5 x) = 3(7 x) Or, 20 4x = 21 3x Or, 20 21 = 4x 3x

Or, 1 = x Or, x = 1. [Ans.] Question 4. What must be added to each of 7, 16, 43 and 79 so that they become proportion ? Find the number, which are in proportion. Solution : Let x be added to each of 7, 16, 43 and 79 so that the resulting number are in proportion. i.e. (7 + x) : (16 + x) : : (43 + x) : (79 + x) Or, (7 + x)/(16 + x) = (43 + x)/(79 + x) Or, (7 + x)(79 + x) = (16 + x)(43 + x) Or, 553 + 7x + 79x + x2 = 688 + 16x + 43x + x2 Or, 553 + 86x + x2 = 688 + 59x + x2 Or, 86x 59x + x2 x2 = 688 553 Or, 27x = 135 Or, x = 135/27 = 5. [Ans.] The numbers are : (7 + 5), (16 + 5), (43 + 5) and (79 + 5) Or, 12, 21, 48 and 84. [Ans.] Question 5. In a regiment, the ratio of number of officers to the number of soldiers was 3 : 31 before a battle. In the battle 6 officers and 22 soldiers were killed. The ratio between the numbers of officers and the number of soldiers now is 1 : 13. Find the number of officers and soldiers in the regiment before the battle. Solution : Before battle, Let the number of officers be 3x and that of soldiers 31x After battle, Number of officers = 3x 6 and that of soldiers = 31x 22 As per question, (3x 6)/(31x 22) = 1/13 Or, 13(3x 6) = 31x 22 Or, 39x 78 = 31x 22 Or, 39x 31x = 78 22

Or, 8x = 56 Or, x = 7 Hence, no. of officers = 3 7 = 21, and no. of soldiers = 31 7 = 217. [Ans.] Question 6.Find the mean proportion of : 25, 64 Solution : Let x be the mean proportional between 25 and 64, Therefore, 25 : x : : x : 64 Or, 25/x = x/64 Or, x2 = 25 64 = 1600 Or, x = 40. [Ans.] Question 7. If x : y : : y :z , show that x :z = x2 : y2. Solution : Let x/y = y/z = k, Then, y = zk , x = yk = (zk)k = zk2, L.H.S. = x/z = zk2/z = k2, R.H.S. = x2/y2 = (zk2)2/(zk)2 = z2k4/z2k2 = k2. Hence, L.H.S. = R.H.S. Proved. Question 8. If (4a + 9b) : (4c + 9d) = (4a 9b) : (4c 9d) , show that a : b = c : d. Solution : Here we have, (4a + 9b)/(4c + 9d) = (4a 9b)/(4c 9d) Or, (4a + 9b)/(4a 9b) = (4c + 9d)/(4c 9d) [By alternendo] Or, [(4a + 9b) + (4a 9b)]/[(4a + 9b) (4a 9b)] = [(4c +9d) + (4c 9d)]/[(4c + 9d) (4c 9d)] [By componendo and dividendo] Or, 4a/18b = 8c/18d Or, a/b = c/d Or, a : b = c: d. Proved.

Question 9. If x = [(a + 3b) + (a 3b)]/[(a + 3b) (a 3b)], prove that 3bx2 2ax + 3b = 0. Solution : We have, x/1 = [ (a + 3b) + (a 3b)]/[(a + 3b) (a 3b)] Applying componendo and dividendo we get (x + 1)/(x 1) = [(a + 3b) + (a 3b) + (a + 3b) (a 3b )]/[(a + 3b) + (a 3b) (a + 3b) + (a 3b)] Or, (x + 1)/(x 1) = 2(a + 3b)/2(a 3b) = (a + 3b)/(a 3b) Squaring both sides we get, (x2 + 2x + 1)/(x2 2x + 1) = (a + 3b)/(a 3b) Again applying componendo and dividendo we get, (x2 + 2x + 1 + x2 2x + 1)/(x2 + 2x + 1 x2 + 2x 1 ) = (a + 3b + a 3b )/(a + 3b a + 3b) 2(x2 + 1)/2(2x) = 2(a)/2(3b) Or, 3bx2 + 3b = 2ax [By Cross Multiplication] Or, 3bx2 2ax + 3b = 0. [Proved.] Maths - Quadratic Equation (Solved) Question 1. Solve the following quadratic equation for x and give your answer correct to two decimal places : x2 3x 9 = 0 Solution : We have x2 3x 9 = 0 Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0 We get, a = 1, b = 3, c = 9 and D = b2 4ac = ( 3)2 4 (1)( 9) = 9 + 36 = 45.

Hence, x = [ b D]/2a = [ ( 3) (45)] / 2 = [3 35]/2 = [3 6.708]/2 Or, x = 4.85 and 0 1.85. [Ans.] Question 2. Solve (7x + 1)/(7x + 5) = (3x + 1)/(5x + 1). Solution : Here we have, (7x + 1)/(7x + 5) = (3x +1)/(5x +1) Multiplying both sides by (7x +5)(5x +1) [LCM of the fraction], we get (7x +1)(5x +1) = (3x +1)(7x +5) or, 35x2 + 7x + 5x + 1 = 21x2 + 7x + 15x + 5 or, 35x2+ 12x + 1 = 21x2 + 22x + 5 or, 35x2 21x2 +12x 22x + 1 5 = 0 or, 14x2 10x 4 = 0 or, 7x2 5 x 2 = 0 or, 7x2 (7 2)x 2 = 0 [By splitting middle term] or, 7x2 7x + 2x 2 = 0 or, 7x(x 1) + 2(x 1) = 0 or, (x 1)(7x +2) = 0 [By factorization] either x 1 = 0 or, 7x + 2 = 0 either x = 1 or, x = 2/7 Hence, roots of the quadratic equation are 1, 2/7. [Ans.] Question 3. Solve the quadratic equation : 21x2 8x 4 = 0 Solution : Here we have, 21x2 8x 4 = 0 Or, 21x2 (14 6)x 4 = 0 [By splitting middle term] Or, 21x2 14x + 6x 4 = 0

Or, 7x(3x 2) + 2(3x 2) = 0 Or, (3x 2 )(7x + 2) = 0 [By factorization] Either 3x 2 = 0 or, 7x + 2 = 0 Either 3x = 2 or, 7x = 2 Either x = 2/3 or, x = 2/7 Hence, roots of the quadratic equation are 2/3, 2/7. [Ans.] Question 4. Solve the equation : (3x2 2) = 2x 1. Solution : Hers we have, (3x2 2) = 2x 1, Squaring both sides we get, 3x2 2 = (2x 1)2 Or, 3x2 2 = 4x2 4x + 1 Or, 3x2 4x2 + 4x 2 1 = 0 Or, x 2 + 4x 3 = 0 Or, x2 4x + 3 = 0 Or, x2 (3 + 1)x + 3 = 0 Or, x2 3x x + 3 = 0 Or, x(x 3) (x 3) = 0 Or, (x 3)(x 1) = 0 Either , x 3 = 0 Or, x 1 = 0 Either , x = 3 Or, x = 1 . Hence roots are 1,3. [Ans.] Question 5. Solve the quadratic equation : 3 x2 + 10x 83 = 0. Solution : Here we have, 3 x2 + 10x 83 = 0; where, a = 3, b = 10, c = 83. Using, D = b2 4ac = (10)2 4 3 ( 83) = 196 >0 Hence, x = [ b D]/2a = [ 10 (196)]/23

Or, x = [ 10 14]/23. Or, x = 4/23 , 0 24 /23 Therefore , x = (23)/3 , 43. [Ans.] Maths - HCF and LCM of Polynomials by factorization (Solved) Question 1. Find the LCM and HCF of the following polynomials : f(x) = 2x2 5x 3, g(x) = 4x2 36. Solution : (x) = 2x2 5x 3 = (2x + 1)(x 3), g(x) = 4x2 36 = 4(x2 9) = 22 (x + 3)(x 3). LCM = 22 (2x + 1)(x + 3)(x 3) = 4(2x + 1)(x + 3)(x 3).[Ans.] HCF = x 3.[Ans.] Question 2. Find the HCF of the following polynomials : 30x2y2(x4 x3 2x2); 42(x6 8x3) and 24x6y6(x2 5x +6) Solution : 30x2y2(x4 x3 2x2) = 30x2y2.x2(x2 x 2) = 30x4y2(x2 2x + 1x 2) = 30x4y2[x(x 2) + 1(x 2)] = 235x4y2(x 2)(x + 1) ---------- (i) 42(x6 8x3) = 42x3(x3 8) = 42x3(x3 23) = 237x3(x 2)(x2+ 2x + 4) ----------- (ii) 24x6y6(x2 5x + 6) = 24x6y6[x2 2x 3x + 6] =24x6y6[x(x 2) 3(x 2)] = 233x6y6(x 2)(x 3) ----------- (iii) Hence, HCF = 23x3(x 2) = 6x3(x 2). [Ans.]

Question 3. Find the LCM of the following polynomials : 2x3 128 ; x2 9x + 20 ; x2 16. Solution : 2x3 128 = 2(x3 64) = 2(x3 43) = 2(x 4)(x2 + 4x + 16) --- (i) x2 9x + 20 = x2 4x 5x + 20 = x(x 4) 5(x 4) = (x 4)(x 5) ----------- (ii) x2 16 = x2 42 = (x + 4)(x 4) ------------------------------- (iii) Hence, LCM = 2(x 4)(x + 4)(x 5)(x2 + 4x +16). [Ans.] Question 4. The HCF of two polynomials is x + 3 and their LCM is x3 7x + 6. If one of the polynomials is x2 + 2x 3, find the other polynomial. Solution : Let P(x) = x2 + 2x 3 = x2 + 3x x 3 = x(x + 3) 1(x + 3) = (x + 3)(x 1) LCM = x3 7x + 6 = x2(x 1) + x(x 1) 6(x 1) = (x 1)(x2 + x 6) Let other polynomial be Q(x), P(x)Q(x) = (HCF)(LCM) Hence, Q(x) = [(HCF)(LCM)]/[P(x)] = [(x + 3)(x 1)(x2 + x 6)]/[(x + 3)(x 1)] = (x2 + x 6) [Ans.] Question 5. If (x 3)(x + 2) is the GCD (HCF) of the polynomials P(x) = (x2 2x 3)(2x2 + ax 2) and Q(x) = (x2 + x 2)(3x2 + bx 3), find the value of a and b. Solution : P(x) = (x2 2x 3)(2x2 + ax 2) = (x2 3x + x 3)(2x2 + ax 2) = [x(x 3) + 1(x 3)] (2x2 + ax 2) = (x + 1)(x 3)(2x2 + ax 2) As, GCD = (x 3)(x + 2),

Hence, P(2) = 0 , Or, x = 2 Or, ( 2 +1)( 2 3)[24 + a( 2) 2 ] = 0 Or, ( 1)( 5)(8 2a 2) = 0 Or, 5(6 2a) = 0 , as 5 0 , then 6 2a = 0 or, a = 3 ------------ (i) Q(x) = (x2+ x 2)(3x2 + bx 3) = (x2 + 2x x 2)(3x2 + bx 3) = [x(x +2) 1(x + 2)](3x2 + bx 3) = (x 1)(x + 2)(3x2 + bx 3) As, GCD = (x 3)(x + 2), Hence, Q(3) = 0 , Or, x = 3 Or, (3 1)(3 + 2).(3.9 + 3b 3) = 0 Or, (2)(5)(27 + 3b 3) = 0 Or, 10(24 + 3b) = 0 , as 10 0 , then 24 + 3b = 0 or, b = 8 ------------ (ii) Therefore, a = 3, b = 8. [Ans.] Question 6. If x is the HCF of polynomials p(x) = x3 7x + 6 and q(x) = x3 x2 + x 1, find the value of . Solution : p(x) = x3 7x + 6, p() = 3 7 + 6, When = 1, p(1) = (1)3 7 (1) + 6 = 0 Therefore, ( 1) is a factor of p() Therefore, p() = 2( 1) + ( 1) 6( 1) = ( 1)(2 + 6) = ( 1)(2 + 3 2 6) = ( 1)[( + 3) 2( + 3)] = ( 1)( 2)( + 3) Since, (x ) is the HCF of p(x) and q(x), then p() = 0

Or, ( 1)( 2)( + 3) = 0 Therefore, ( 1) = 0 or, ( 2) = 0 or, ( + 3) = 0 Hence, = 1, 2, 3 ------------------------------------------- (i) q(x) = x3 x2 + x 1 q() = 3 2 + 1 = 2( 1) + 1( 1) = ( 1)(2 + 1) Since, (x ) is HCF of p(x) and q(x), then q() = 0 Or, ( 1)(2+ 1) = 0 Therefore, ( 1) = 0 or, (2 + 1) = 0 Hence, = 1, 2 = 1 --------------------------------------------- (ii) Thus, = 1 is the only common solution. [Ans.] Maths - Shares and Dividends (Solved) Question 1. Ajay owns 560 shares of a company. The face value of each share is Rs. 25. The company declares a dividend of 9%. Calculate : (i) The dividend that Ajay will get. (ii) The rate of interest on his investment if Ajay had paid Rs. 30 for each share. Solution : No. of shares = 560, Nominal Value of one share = Rs. 25, Rate of dividend = 9%. (i) Dividend per share = 9% of Rs. 25 = 9/100 Rs.25 = Rs. 9/4. Dividend for 560 shares = 560 Rs. 9/4 = Rs. 1260. (ii) Investment = No. of shares Market value of one share = 560 Rs. 30 = Rs. 16800. Rate of interest on investment = (Dividend / Investment) 100 = (1260/16800) 100 = 7.5%.[Ans.]

Question 2. Aman invests Rs.29929 in shares of par value Rs.26 at 10% premium. The dividend is 15% per annum. Calculate : (i) the number of shares (ii) the dividend received by him annually (iii) the rate of interest he gets on his money. Solution : (i) Here, Par value = Rs.26, Premium = 10% , Let the no. of shares be x Market value of one share = Rs.26 + 10% of Rs.26 = Rs.26(1 + 10/100) = Rs.26 (11/10) = Rs.143/5. As per question, (143/5)x = 20020 or, x = (200205)/143 = 700. [Ans.] (ii) Dividend per share = 15% of Rs.26 = (15/100) Rs.26 = Rs.3.90 Hence, dividend on 700 shares = Rs.3.90 700 = Rs.2730. [Ans.] (iii) On Rs.20020 his income is Rs.2730 On Rs.100 his income is (Rs.2730/Rs.20020) 100 = 150/11 = 13(7/11) Hence, his income = 13(7/11)%. [Ans.] Question 3. Which is better investment : 7% Rs.100 shares at Rs.120 or 8% Rs.10 shares at Rs.13.50? Solution : Let the investment be Rs.120 13.50 In the first case : As, investment is Rs.120 income is Rs.7 Hence, when investment is Rs.120 13.50 income is (Rs.7 Rs120 13.50)/Rs.120 = Rs.94.50 In the second case : As, investment is Rs.13.50 income is 8% of Rs.10 = Re.0.80 Hence, when investment is Rs.120 13.50 income is (Re.0.80 Rs.120 13.50)/Rs.13.50 = Rs.96.00

Therefore, second investment is better. [Ans.] Question 4. A company with 10000 shares of Rs.100 each, declares an annual dividend of 5%. (i) What is the total amount of dividend paid by the company ? (ii) What would be the annual income of a man, who has 72 shares, in the company ? (iii) If he received only 4% on his investment, find the price he paid for each share. Solution : (i) Dividend per share = 5% of Rs.100 = Rs.5. Dividend paid by the company for 10000 shares = 10000 Rs.5 =Rs.50000. [Ans.] (ii) Annual income of a man for 72 shares = 72 Rs.5 = Rs.360. [Ans.] (iii) Let his investment per share be x. As per question, 4% of x = Rs.5 Or, (4/100) x = Rs.5 Or, x = Rs.5 (100/4) = Rs.125. [Ans.] Question 5. A man invested Rs.45000 in 15% Rs.100 shares quoted at Rs.125. When the market value of these shares rose to Rs.140, he sold some shares, just enough to raise Rs.8400. Calculate : (i) the number of shares he still holds. (ii) the dividend due to him on these shares. Solution : Number of shares which he purchased = Rs.45000/Rs.125 = 360. (i) Let the number of shares he sold be x , As per question, Rs.140 x = Rs.8400 Or, x = Rs.8400 /Rs.140 = 60. Hence number of shares still with him = 360 60 = 300. [Ans.] (ii) Dividend per share = 15% of Rs.100 = Rs.15. Hence dividend for 300 shares = Rs.15 300 = Rs.4500. [Ans.]]

Question 1. Shyam deposited Rs. 150 per month in his bank for eight months under the Recurring Deposit Scheme. Find the maturity value of his deposit, if the rate of interest is 8% per annum and the interest is calculated at the end of every month ? Solution : Sum deposited in 8 months @ Rs. 150 per month = Rs. 150 8 = Rs. 1200. No of months of interest = {8 (8 + 1)}/2 = 36. Equivalent principal for 1 month = Rs. 150 36 = Rs. 5400. Interest on Rs. 5400 for 1 month @ 8% p.a. = Rs. (5400 1/12 8/100) = Rs. 36. The maturity value = Rs. 1200 + Rs. 36 = Rs. 1236. [Ans.] Question 2. Mr. Ajay Kumar has a saving account in a bank. His passbook has the following entries : Date Year Withdrawals Deposits BalanceRs. Particulars 2007 Rs.P Rs. P P January 01 January 09 B/F By cheque 2000.00 6200.00 4500.00 2628.70 524.50 2700.00 1500.00 1000.00 2927.50 2307.25 1276.38 3583.63 1583.63 7783.63 3283.63 5912.33 5387.83 2687.83 4187.83 3187.83 6115.33

March 07 To self March 25 By cash June 10 July 16 October 20 October 25 To cheque By clearing To cheque To self

Calculate the interest due to him for the year 2007 at 4.5% per annum if the interest is paid once in a year at the end of December. Also, find the total amount he will receive on 11th January, 2008, if he closes his account. Solution : As per entries we have the following information : Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Total Here, principal for 1 month = Rs.52750, rate of interest = 4.5%, time = 1/12 year Interest = Rs.(52750 4.5 1/12)/100 = Rs.197.81. [Ans.] Amount received by Ajay on 11th January 2008 = last balance + interest = Rs.6115.33 + Rs.197.81 = Rs.6313.14. [Ans.] Question 3. The entries in a Saving Bank Passbook are as given below : Date Particulars Withdrawal Deposit 010107 B/F Balance Rs.14000 Balance of the month Rs.1276.38, Rs.3583.63 Rs.3583.63 Rs.3583.63, Rs.1583.63, Rs.7783.63 Rs.7783.63 Rs.7783.63 Rs.7783.63, Rs.3283.63, Rs.3283.63, Rs.5912.33 Rs.5912.33 Rs.5912.33 Rs.5912.33, Rs.5387.83, Rs.2687.83 Rs.2687.83, Rs.4187.83 Rs.4187.83, Rs.3187.83, Rs.6115.33 Minimum balance between 10th Qualifying balance to the last day of the month Rs.3583.63 Rs.3583.63 Rs.1583.63 Rs.7783.63 Rs.7783.63 Rs.3283.63 Rs.3283.63 Rs.5912.33 Rs.5912.33 Rs.2687.83 Rs.4187.83 Rs.3187.83 Rs.3580 Rs.3580 Rs.1580 Rs.7780 Rs.7780 Rs.3280 Rs.3280 Rs.5910 Rs.5910 Rs.2690 Rs.4190 Rs.3190 Rs.52750

By cash

Rs.11500 Rs.25500

To cheque

Rs.5000

Rs.20500

By cash

Rs.3750

Rs.24250

To cheque

Rs.4250

Rs.20000

By cash

Rs.1500

Rs.21500

By cash

Rs.1500

Rs.23000

Calculate the interest for six months (January to June) at 4% per annum on the minimum balance on or after the tenth day of each month. Solution : As per passbook entries, we have the following information : Month January February March April May June Total Here, principal for 1 month = Rs.119500, rate of interest = 4%, time = 1/12 year Interest = Rs.(119500 4 1/12)/100 = Rs.398.33. [Ans.] Balance of the month Rs14000, Rs.25500, Rs.20500 Rs.20500 Rs.20500, Rs.24250, Rs.20000 Rs.20000, Rs.21500 Rs.21500, Rs.23000 Minimum balance between 10th to the last day of the month Rs.14000 Rs.20500 Rs.20500 Rs.20000 Rs.21500 Rs.23000 Qualifying Balance Rs.14000 Rs.20500 Rs.20500 Rs.20000 Rs.21500 Rs.23000 Rs.119500

Question 4. Bharti has a recurring deposit account in a bank for 5 years at 9% per annum simple interest. If she gets Rs.51607.50 at the time of maturity, find the monthly instalment. Solution : Let the monthly instalment be x, Total money deposited by Bharti in 5 years = Rs.60 x = Rs.60x. Principal for 1 month = Rs.x (60 + 59 + 58 + + 3 + 2 + 1) =Rs.x 60 (60 + 1)/2 = Rs.1830x. Interest of Rs.1830x for 1 month at the rate of 9% = Rs.(1830x 9 1/12)/100 = Rs.(549/400x The maturity amount = Rs.60x + Rs.(549/40)x = Rs.(2949/40)x. As per question, Or, (2949/40)x = 51607.50 [Using, Sn = n (n + 1)/2]

Question 5. Mira Kumar has an account with a bank. The following entries are from her pass-book : Date Particulars 08 02 08 18 02 08 12 04 08 15 06 08 08 07 08 B/F Withdrawals Deposits Balance Rs. Rs.p. Rs. p. p. 8500.00

To self

4000.00

By cash

2238.00

To self

5000.00

By cash

6000.00

Compute the above page of her pass book and calculate the interest for the six months. February to July 2008, at 4.5% per annum. Solution : Mira Kumars Pass-Book.

Balance of the month Rs. 8500.00, Rs. 4500.00. Rs. 4500.00. Rs. 4500.00, Rs. 6738.00. Rs. 6738.00. Rs. 6738.00, Rs. 1738. Rs. 1738, Rs. 7738.00.

Minimum balance between 10 th Qualifying Balance. to the last day of the month. Rs. 4500.00 Rs. 4500.00 Rs. 4500.00 Rs. 6738.00 Rs. 1738.00 Rs. 7738.00 Rs. 4500.00 Rs. 4500.00 Rs. 4500.00 Rs. 6740.00 Rs. 1740.00 Rs. 7740.00 Rs.29720.00

Total principal for 1 month = Rs. 29720.00 = P, T = 1/12, R = 4.5%. Interest = (PRT)/100 = Rs. (297200 4.5 1/12)/100 = Rs. 111.45. Maths - Sales Tax and Value added Tax (Solved) Question 1. Dinesh bought an article for Rs. 374, which included a discount of 15% on the marked price and a sales tax of 10% on the reduced price. Find the marked price of the article. Solution: Let marked price be Rs. x, Discount = 15%, Rate of Sales Tax = 10%. Discount on Rs. x = 15% of x = (15/100) x = 15x/100. Price after discount = x 15x/100 = 85x/100. Sales Tax = 10% of 85x/100 = (10/100)(85x/100) = 85x/1000. Price including sales tax = 85x/100 + 85x/1000 = 935x/1000. As per question, 935x/1000 = Rs. 374 Or, x = Rs. 374(1000/935) = Rs. 400. Hence, marked price = Rs. 400. [Ans.] Question 2. Ms. Chawla goes to a shop to buy a leather coat which costs Rs.735. The rate of sales tax is 5%. She tells the shopkeeper to reduce the price to such an extent that she has to pay Rs.735, inclusive of sales tax. Find the reduction needed in the price of the coat. Solution: Let the reduced price of the coat be Rs.x Sales tax = 5% of x = (5/100) Rs.x = Rs.x/20 Amount paid by Ms Chawla = Rs.(x + x/20) = Rs.21x/20

Reduced price of the coat = Rs.700 Hence, reduction needed = Rs.735 Rs.700 = Rs.35. [Ans.] Question 3. a shopkeeper buys an article at a rebate of 30% on the printed price. He spends Rs.40 on transportation of the article. After charging sales tax at the rate of 7% on the printed price, he sells the article for Rs.856.Find his profit percentage. Solution: Let the printed price of the article be Rs.x. Sales tax = 7% of Rs.x = (7/100) Rs.x = Rs.7x/100. Selling price = Rs.x + Rs.7x/100 = Rs.107x/100. As per question, 107x/100 = 856 or x = (856 100)/107 = 800. Hence, printed price = Rs.800. Rebate = 30% of Rs.800 = (30/100) Rs.800 = Rs.240. Cost price of the article = Rs.800 Rs.240 = Rs.560. Overhead = cost of transportation = Rs.40. Actual cost price = Rs.560 + Rs.40 = Rs.600. Profit = Printed price Actual cost price = Rs.800 Rs.600 = Rs.200. Profit percent = (profit/cost price) 100% = (200/800) 100 = 100/3% = 33(1/3)%. [Ans.] Question 4. The catalogue price of a colour TV is Rs.2400. The shopkeeper gives a discount of 8% on the listed price. He gives a further off-season discount of 5% on the balance. But sales tax at the rate of 10% is charged on the remaining amount. Find : (i) the sales tax amount a customer has to pay. (ii) the final price he has to pay for the colour TV. Solution: Catalogue price = Rs.24000. Discount = 8% of Rs.24000 = (8/100) Rs.24000 = Rs.1920. Price after discount = Rs.24000 Rs.1920 = Rs.22080. Off-season discount = 5% of Rs.22080 = (5/100) Rs.22080 = Rs.1104.

Price after off-season discount = Rs.22080 Rs.1104 = Rs.20976. (i) Sales tax = 10% of Rs.20976 = (10/100) Rs.20976 = Rs.2097.60. [Ans.] (ii) The final price a customer has to pay = Rs.20976 + Rs.2097.60 = Rs.23073.60. [Ans.] Question 5. [VAT] A manufacturer produces a good which cost him Rs.500. He sells it to a wholesaler at a price of Rs.500 and wholesaler sells it to retailer at a price of Rs.600. The retailer sells it to the customer at a price of Rs.800. If the sales tax charged is 5%. Find the tax charged under VAT by : (i) manufacturer, (ii) wholesaler and (iii) retailer. Find the tax paid by the customer. Solution: Cost of production of manufacturer = Cost of wholesaler = Rs.500. Tax charged by manufacturer from wholesaler = 5% of Rs.500 = Rs.25. Cost charged by wholesaler from retailer = Rs.600 Tax charged by the wholesaler = 5% of Rs.600 = Rs.30. Cost charged by retailer from customer = Rs.800. Tax charged by retailer from customer = 5% of Rs.800 = Rs.40. Tax paid to Govt. Tax paid to Govt. by Tax paid to Govt. by manufacturer wholesaler Rs.25 Rs.5 Tax paid to Govt. by Tax paid to retailer Govt. by customer Rs.10 Rs.40

Rs.40

The Government collects the same tax at different stages equal to Rs.40. [Ans.] Maths - Compound Interest (Solved) Question 1. Ramesh invests Rs. 12800 for three years at the rate of 10% per annum compound interest. Find : (i) The sum due to Ramesh at the end of the first year. (ii) The interest he earns for the second year. (iii) The total amount due to him at the end of the third year. Solution: Principal = Rs. 12800, Rate = 10%. Interest for one year = (PRT)/100 = (12800 10 1) / 100 = Rs. 1280. (i) Sum due after one year = 12800 + 1280 = Rs. 14080.[Ans.] (ii) Interest for 2 nd year = (14080 10 1) / 100 = Rs. 1408.

Amount after 2 nd year = Rs. 14080 + Rs. 1408 = Rs. 15488. Interest for 3 rd year = (15488 10 1) / 100 = 1548.80. [Ans.] (iii) The amount due after 3 year = 15488 + 1548.80 = Rs. 17036.80. [Ans.] Question 2. A man borrows Rs.5000 at 12% compound interest per annum, interest payable after six months. He pays back Rs.1800 at the end of every six months. Calculate the third payment he has to make at the end of 18 months in order to clear the entire loan. Solution: As 12% is the interest p.a. so half-yearly interest will be 6%. Principal for the first six months = Rs.5000. Interest for the first six months = Rs.(5000 6 1)/100 = Rs.300. Amount after six month = Rs.5000 + Rs.300 = Rs.5300. Money refunded after six months = Rs.1800. Principal for the second six months = Rs.5300 Rs.1800 = Rs.3500. Interest for the second six months = Rs.(3500 6 1)/100 = Rs.210. Amount after second six months = Rs.3500 + Rs.210 = Rs.3710. Money refunded after second six months = Rs.1800. Principal for the third six months = Rs.3710 Rs.1800 = Rs.1910. Interest for the third six months = Rs.(1910 6 1)/100 = Rs.114.60. Hence payment he has to make after 18 months to clear the entire loan = Rs.1910 + Rs.114.60 = Rs.2024.60 [Ans] Question 3. A man invests Rs.5000 for three years at a certain rate of interest, compounded annually. At the end of one year it amounts to Rs.5600. Calculate : (i) the rate of interest per annum. (ii) the interest occurred in the second year. (iii) the amount at the end of the third year. Solution: Here, P = Rs.5000, A = Rs.5600, n = 1, r = ? (i) Using A = P (1 + r/100)n, Rs.5600 = Rs.5000 (1 + r/100)1 or, 5600/5000 = 1 + r/100 or, 56/50 = 1 + r/100

or, r/100 = 56/50 1 = 6/50 or, r = (6 100)/50 = 12 % p.a. [Ans.] (ii) Interest occurred in the second year, I = PRT/100 = (Rs.5600 12 1)/100 = Rs. 672.[Ans.] (iii) Amount at the end of three years, Using A = P (1 + r/100)n, where, P= Rs.5000, r = 12%, n = 3. A = Rs.5000 (1 + 12/100)3 = Rs.(5000 112 112 112)/1000000 = Rs.7024.64. [Ans.] Question 4. The compound interest on a certain sum of money at 5% per annum for two years is Rs.246. Calculate the simple interest on the same sum for three years at 6% per annum. Solution: Using C.I. = P [(1 + r/100)n 1], we get Rs.246 = P [(1 + 5/100)2 1] Or, Rs.246 = P [(21/20)(21/20) 1] = P (41/400) Or, P = Rs.(246 400)/41 = Rs.2400. Now, P = Rs.2400, r = 6% p.a., t = 3 years Using S.I = Prt/100, S.I. = Rs.(2400 6 3)/100 = Rs.432. [Ans.] Question 5. On a certain sum of money, the difference between the compound interest for a year, payable half-yearly, and the simple interest for a year is Rs.180. Find the sum lent out, if the rate of interest in both the cases is 10%. Solution: Let the principal, P = Rs.x, r = 10%, t = 1 year Using S.I. = Prt/100, S.I. = Rs.(x 10 1)/100 = Rs.x/10 No of conversion period, n = 2 1 = 2, r = 10%/2 = 5% per conversion period, P = x, Using C.I. = P [(1 + r/100)n 1], C.I. = Rs.x [(1 + 5/100)2 1] = Rs.x(21/20 21/20 1)

= Rs.x(441/400 1) = Rs.(41/400)x. As per problem, C.I. S.I. = Rs.180 Or, Rs.(41/400)x Rs.x/10 = 180 Or, Rs.(41/400 1/10)x = 180 Or, Rs.x/400 = 180 Or, x = Rs.180 400 = Rs.7200. [Ans.] Question 6. A certain sum amounts to Rs.5292 in 2 years and to Rs.5556.60 in 3 years at compound interest. Find the rate and the sum. Solution: Here, Rs.5556.60 Rs.5292 = Rs.264.60 = Interest for 1 year on Rs.5292. i.e. P = 5292, t = 1 year, S.I. = Rs.264.60, r = ? Using, S.I. = prt/100 264.60 = (5292 r 1)/100 or, r = (264.60 100)/5292 = 5% 2nd part : Let P = x, A = 5292, t = 2 years, n = 2, r = 5% p.a. Using, A = P(1 + r/100)n 5292 = x (1 + 5/100)2 or, 5292 = x (105/100)2 = x (2121)/(2020) or, 5292 = x (441/400) or, x = (5292400)/441 = 4800 Hence, rate = 5% and the sum = Rs.4800. [Ans.] Question 7. The cost of car, purchased 2 years ago, depreciates at the rate of 20% every year. If its present worth is Rs.315600, find : (i) its purchase price (ii) its value after 4 years. Solution: (i) Here, V = present value = Rs315600, t = 2 years, r = 20%, V0 = purchase price = ?

Using V = V0(1 r /100)n, 315600 = V0 (1 20/100)2 or, 315600 = V0 (80/100)2 = V0 (44) (55) =V0(16/25) or, V0 = 31560025/16 = Rs.493125. [Ans.] (ii) Again, V0 = Rs.493125, V = value after 4 years, t = 4years, n = 4, r = 20%. Using, V = V0(1 r /100)n V = 493125 (1 20/100)4 = 493125 (80/100)4 = 493125 (256/625) = Rs.201884. [Ans.]

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