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MURAT HAI^TEAD

^THE STORY OF CUBA

HER STRUGGLES FOR LIBERTY

THE CAUSE, CRISIS AND DESTINY OF THE

PEARL OF THE ANTILLES

BY

MURAT HALSTEAD

GRAPHICALLY ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS TYPICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTIONS AND ORIGINAL DRAWINGS

CHICAGO

CUBAN LIBRE PUBLISHING CO.

f'77

(^51) If

Copyright, 1896,

BY

THE WERNER COMPANY.

THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

The first words that invite the eye in a book are the

last written. When the preface is prepared the work

is finished.

This volume is up-to-date, but the story of

Cuba is not all told. The tragedy goes on.

umph is to come. The logic of all history contemplates

the conclusion we confidently declare. It is, that the end of foreign domination over the discoveries of

The tri-

Columbus and his followers, draws near.

Cuba is the

splendid stage on which is performed the last act of the

drama of Spain in America. It is Spain's war with her

children. All nations are spectators our own with the

greater share of interest and sympathy. It is as the

first President Harrison wrote of our revolution " hard, hard indeed, is the struggle for liberty and the contest

There is to the student of the

for independence ! "

Cuban story, a series of surprises in the revelation of

the immensity of the Island, the riches of her resources,

the

certainty of her

rights and the

cruelty of her

wrongs, the marvelous position she holds in the trop-

ical seas ; and there comes, with the enchantment of her

" fatal gift of beauty," beyond the endowment of Italy,

the conviction that the people who should inherit this land, are honorably and bravely represented in the

5

^

6

THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

rebellion, and that the righteousness that exalts a na-

tion is in their cause of liberty.

There are hundreds of books about Cuba. Many are

meritorious. We have gathered from those that are authorities, or that excel in the picturesque, and care-

fully credited, characteristic passages, that confirm or

illustrate ; but above all other writings, in whatever

form given, acknowledgments of obligations are due to

the newspapers the New York Journal, Herald, World, Sun, and Mail and Express, whose correspond-

ents, adventurous and courageous, are the able and the

only historians of the war. The author remembers them

as comrades in difficult good works, and with pride in

the association, inscribes to them this sorrowful story, of

the fairest of islands that shall grow lovelier yet in lib-

erty.

They have honored the press and served the

country.

INTRODUCTION.

The Story of Cuba is a tragedy. The beautiful island,

when found by civilized man, was peopled by a gentle

race, kindly, innocent, indolent, loving ; living on fish and fruit, corn and sweet potatoes, under the shade of

royal palms, in orchards of pineapples and oranges ; the very wilderness brilliant with flowers, and birds of

glittering plumage ; the guileless tribes happy and harm-

less as if they were chosen children of God, dwelling

apart in Paradise.

These dainty savages were seized and held, and per-

ished in servitude to the fierce, remorseless adventurers,

who, in the passion of empire and greed for gold, were

insensible to the considerations of humanity and the

charity of Christianity, and into the bitter gloom of whose selfishness there entered no soft sentiment of

mercy and no ray of the enlightenment of good will to

men or of the generosities of statesmanship.

Then followed African slavery as a benevolent miti- gation of the barbarism that consumed the poor Indians

in their tenderness and timidity ; and it is a Cuban tra-

dition that the sharks that now swarm on the shores of

the Island were introduced by following the slave ships

from the waters of Africa to devour the victims that,

overcome by the torments of the terrible voyages, were

flung into the sea.

For a century Cuba was the base of operations of the

7

INTROD UCTTON.

expedition of the conquering Spaniards in tropical Amer-

ica, and for another century the fleets, with the spoils

of the conquest of the West, sailed from her harbors,

and then, for a century, the West Indies became the

scene of a tremendous contest for naval supremacy by

England, France and Spain. After England won the

mastery of the ocean, Napoleon, losing the sea power

at Trafalgar, attempted to coerce all continental Europe

into his schemes of aggrandizement, and Spain, resisting

his pretensions, was crushed for a time by his imperial genius, but closed with him in a war to the knife, that

endured until the conqueror was conquered ; but not

until after parcelling out his American possessions,

and then the crumbling of Spanish dominion in the

New World began.

Before our revolutionary war it was in 1 762 Ha- vana was besieged and captured by the English, and

the episode of their occupation of her harbor, and open-

ing it to commerce, stimulated the Cubans to marine

enterprise ; but though they had been long faithful, and began to prosper after the fall of the French empire,

and had a right to share the progress and dignity of

Spain, to which they were loyal in affection through her

misfortunes, they were swiftly reminded of colonial

disabilities ; and then came the conflicts that are cul-

minating in the condition of the Island, the richest that

the seas encircle, where the Spaniards and their children

are carrying on a war of desolation that is ruining both. The higher class of the public men of our country

have always been interested in Cuba, and she has had

a charm for our people in proportion to the elevation

The logic of Spanish history is

of their intelligence.

the loss of Cuba.

The same causes that cost Spain,

INTROD UCTION.

g

Mexico, and Peru, and Chili, and Bolivia, Central Amer-

ica, Venezuela, and the rest, mean also that the long

struggle of the Cubans for liberty will close in triumph.

With Cuba's destiny in the hands of her own people,'

she will obey the irresistible attraction of our Union to

be one of the United States.

With the advantages of recent personal observation

of the situation in Cuba, receiving polite attentions and

extensive information from the Spanish authorities, and

enjoying the confidence of Cubans, and the candid ex-

pression of their interpretation of events, it is with a

sense of duty to the veracity of history, that I propose to recite with sincerity the Cuban story of four hundred

years.

MURAT HaLSTEAD.

^

/ OF THE

'^

nJH-IVERSITY

CONTENTS.

Introduction

CHAPTER I.

PAGBS

7

FIRST EVENTS AND EARLY INFLUENCES.

The Discovery Columbus Enchanted His Dreams Beauty of Earth,

Ocean and Sky The Gentle Natives Smoke Centuries The British Conquest Dawn of

Cigarettes Some

Slow

Revolution in the Ever

Faithful Island The Slavery Embarrassment Thomas Jefferson and

Charles Sumner A Despotic Political Economy

CHAPTER II.

EUROPE AND AMERICA AND THE INDIES.

\^

British Conquest of Cuba American Revolution and Cuban I»reurrections

Americans Interested in Cuban Affairs The Lopez and Virginius

Massacres Terrible Scenes of Bloodshed Cuban Martyr's Letter to

his Wife

Spanish Passion for

CHAPTER III.

ORIGIN AND CONDUCT OF CUBAN W^ARS. Cuba Growth of Cuban War Spirit The Ten Years'

War Compared with the Present Gomez and Campos in Both Ta- con's Tyranny Slavery Abolished "Book of Blood" Edinburg

Review on War of '68-' 78

23-31

32-54

55-69

CHAPTER IV.

SPANISH STORY OF THE TREATY OF ZANJON.

Was the Famous Compact that Closed the Ten Years' War Fairly Drawn

and Honorably Executed, or a sham, with Nothing for Cuba in it?

The Side of Sp ain Set Forth on the Highest Authority, with Cita-

tions of the Reform Laws and the Liberal Autonomist Circular

II

70-87

1 2

CONTENTS.

/

CHAPTER V. V

THE SPANISH WAR POLICY.

^

The Way the Present War Opened, and How it Progressed Personal

Kt

Characteristics of Prominent Figures Campos, Weyler, Gomez, the Maceos and Garcia The War Shifted to the West End The Prize of

the Victor Praised in Prose and Poetry

CHAPTER VI.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRESENT CUBAN WAR.

The Press

of Cuba Its Limitations An Assault on American Senators

The Comic Style of Abusing Uncle Sam Interview with Captain-

General Marin His View of the Zanjon Reforms and Rebel Ingrati-

tude Refers to the Ten Years' War and to the Robbers The Retir-

ing Captain-General does not get a Hearing in Havana

CHAPTER VII.

LEADING QUESTIONS OF RACES AND CRIMES.

The Blacks as Soldiers and in Caricature Preoccupation on Both Sides in Cuba with the United States Habits of Exaggeration Governor-

General Weyler Interviewed, and Defends his Policy Too Much

Attention to Wild Stories Brutalities of Bandits The Machete the

Sword of Cuba

CHAPTER VIII.

THE ORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION OF WEYLER.

A Vigorous and Comprehensive Series of Orders, Declarations, Decrees

and Commands, and Promises of Restoration of Order in these Prov-

inces on the 15th of March The Difference Between the Proclama-

tion and the Performance The Weylgj^Administration Signally Fails The Daring and Success of the Maceos A Hard Blow at a Sore

Time and Place

CHAPTER IX.'

THE FORCES NOW ENGAGED IN CUBA.

The Conduct of the War Spanish

Force Almost 200,000 Armed

Men

65,000 Cubans in Arms, but Poorly Armed Cavalry a Most Impor-

tant Factor Sanitary Regulations Lessen Spanish Loss by Sickness

Opinions of Experts Suggestions of Strategy Statistics of the

Population of Combatants Women in the Army for Protection

88-101 ^

102-109

110-122

123-137

138-147

CONTENTS.

y

CHAPTER X.

1 3

THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT.

PAGBS

Cubitas the Capital A Letter fronljhe President Proclamation and Let-

ter from Gomez, the Hero of the War, and a Letter from Maceo

CHAPTsfe XL

j^

^

I48-157

THE PI.AY OF PRESIDENT PIERCE FOR CUBA.

American Interest in Cuba, and English Jealousy The Famous Confer- ence at Ostend in 1854, between Bijchanan, Mason and Soule, the

Ministers to England, France and Spain Mr. Marcy's Warlike Letters

and Soule' s Courtly Ways Cuba we ijauaLhave, in Peacejf Possible, by War if Necessary, was the Policy of Pierce The Famous Mani-

festo by Three Ministers A Record of the Past Applicable to the

Present Buchanan's Nomination for the Presidency

158-180

CHAPTER Xn.

ENGLISH FAILURE IN THE WEST INDIES.

The Testimony of the Eminent Historian, James Anthony Froude The

Mismanagement of the English Islands by Free Trade Orators Negro

Predominance The Spanish Islands are Peopled with the Children of Spaniards Black Labor and Beet Sugar Cuba and the United

States, as an Englishman puts the Questions of Destiny

CHAPTER XIIL

THE CITY OF HAVANA.

181-191

Life in the Capital of Cuba during the War Time Hotel Apartments and Furniture Breakfasts Barber Shops Bar Rooms Narrow Streets

The Double Standard The Water Jug A Hot Weather Town A

Tender-Necked People^The Casino and the Castle and the Royal

Palms in the Garden

CHAPTER XIV.

192-214

THE BRITISH AND PROVINCIAL CONQUEST OF CUBA.

How the Island was Invaded, and Havaria_Captured, After a Bloody and

Deadly Siege, in the Summer of 1762, by the British Under Lord Albe- marle, Helped Just in Time by a Force of 2,300 Men from Connecti-

cut, New York, and New Jersey, Under General Lyman and Colonel

Israel Putnam, and then Returned to the Spaniards Frightful Losses

of the Invaders Havana Looted, and a Prize Money Scandal The

14

CONTENTS.

Greed of the British Officers Did the Provincial Troops Establish

a Preemption Right to the Island ? Colonial and English Sympa-

thy Washington's Brother in the British Service in the West Indies

the Plague at Havana Sad

A Connecticut Chaplain's Journal of Fate of General Lyman

CHAPTER XV.

215-252

EARLY INCIDENTS OF THE PRESENT WAR.

The Ibarra Band the First Organized Coloma and his Fianc6, being Captured, are Married in Moro Castle Efforts Made for Peace, but

the Disturbance Spread Rapidly General Campos, President Marti,

Gomez and Maceo Land in Cuba Marti's Death The Cause of illa Warfare

Guer-

253-271

CHAPTER XVI.

BATTLE OF BAYAMO AND RESULTS.

Campos' First Sharp Check Spaniards Much Shaken Severe and

Inter-

esting Battle General Santocildes Sacrifices his Life to Save that of

Campos Maceo does not Permit his Sharpshooters to Pick Off Cam-

pos Maceo's Humanity to the Wounded

CHAPTER XVH.

THE MASSACRE AT GAUTAO.

A Seaside Breakfast and the Cuban Flag The Road into the Cuban Re-

public How the Rebels Foraged The Gulf and the Sharks The

First News of the Massacre The Tale of a Volunteer who Partici-

pated Eighteen Pacificos Killed to two Soldiers Marcy Reports Adventures of Correspondents Talk with General Weyler on the

Subject The Dismal Scene at the Palace

CHAPTER XVHI.

HORRORS OF MORO CASTLE.

272-277

278-290

A Newspaper Correspondent Arbitrarily Arrested A Night and Two Days

in an Ugly Dungeon Neglect of Prisoners A Case of Mistaken

Identity Released, but Apology not Made The Claim of Clemency,

not Justice, Insisted Ui*on The Exclusive Societ»y of Gray Rats not

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIX.

THE SECOND YEAR OF THE SECOND WAR. The Condition of the Country Approaching the Second Rainy Season of

the Struggle Why the War-Cry went forth in February The Saga-

city of Gomez in Choosing Time and Place Preparing for his Re-

markable Campaign The Policy of Destruction Why it was Adopted

The Way the Spaniards are

Combatants War, Pestilence

and Distress of the

People

Waste by Both

Retaliating Cuba Laid

and Famine The Terrible Privations

CHAPTER XX.

THE PICTURESQUE IN THE WAR.

The Camps of the Rebels and the Palace of the Governor-General How

the Wounded Cubans are Cared for The Inside of the Rebellion in

the Woods, and the Secret Doors of the Palace The Cuban Women

in the War, and an American Woman Interviews the Redoubtable Weyler, and he Shows Photographs of his Family, and Gives her Flowers

CHAPTER XXI.

1 5

PAGES

301-31 1

312-341

AN IRREPRESSIBLE CONFLICT OF TESTIMONY.

The Double-Entry Historical Bookkeeping of the Battles in Cuba The

Remarkable Characteristics of Discrepancy The Havana and Key

West Stories Discolored and Distorted Out of Recognition The Re-

sponsibility for Nickel Novel Cuban Reports Dynamite and

Press The War in the West End

the

342-355

CHAPTER XXII.

THE RECORD OF DESOLATION AND DESPAIR.

The Torch is Mightier than the Sword Lists of the Plantations and Towns Burned Dramatic Scenes and Thrilling Incidents in the Doomed

Island The Work

of Destruction the Only Occupation Utter Col-

lapse of Business Famine Close at Hand Inhumanity and the Cu-

ban Cry for Cartridges A New York Deserter A Business Man has

One Hope of Escaping Ruin The Truth of the Civil Government of

Cuba The Cry for Cartridges

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE CAUSE OF CUBA.

^ ^v

35^-392

Cuba is Governed by Spain for Spain Cubans are Taxed to Protect

Spain Impolicy Prepared for Revolution Rebellion Forced by Mis-

;

/^

OF The

^

x.

; "CfNlVERSITY)

1 6

CONTENTS.

government Public Papers as Testimony A Ruler of Spain Polite

to General GranX,About Cuban Independence

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE CRISIS IN CUBA.

This War not a Ten Years' War The Fighting too

Fast and Furious to

Last The Crisis Financial, Industrial, Social, Military and Political

General Lee's Important Functions The Policy of the Administra- tion Senator White's Speech James Creelman's Story of Massacre

The PQWC£^ind Duty of the United States The Mutual Hatred of

the Creole and

Slavery

the Spaniard, and

Influence of the Abolition of

CHAPTER XXV.

THE DESTINY OF CUBA,

393-41 '

412-444

A Personal Word Account of a Mysterious Missionary Comparison of

Campos and Weyler Spain

has Lost Cuba The Destiny of the Pearl

of Islands is to be one of our States Gentlemen are Rebels The

Volunteers as Business Men Cubans Worthy to be our Fellow

Citizens

CHAPTER XXVI.

POINTS OF PICTURES.

445-472

Sugar Plantation Tobacco Fields Royal Palms Cocoanut Palms

Cuban Vegetation Moro Castle Cell Valley of the Yumuri San-

of Cuba and Long Island

Contrasted on the Scale as to Size The Spanish Hill-top and Car

Fortifications Cuban Pictures too Beautiful to Paint, Except with a

Poetic Pen

tiago Royal Family The Object Lesson

473-491

CHAPTER XXVII.

STATISTICAL AND DOCUMENTARY.

Organization of the Cuban Army, as Reported by General Gomez Com- merce of Spain with her Colonies- The Authentic Figures of the

Population of the Island, Showing the Proportion of Whites and

Colored People Official Cuban Letters and Proclamations

492-504

CHAPTER XXVIII.

NATITRAL RICHES AND NATIVE CHARMS OF CUBA.

The Cultivation of Sugar Cane Picture of a Cuban Garden The South-

ern Cross Cuba as Eden Sugar Making Tobacco Raising The

CONTENTS.

17

PAGES

Forests and Fruits Beauty of the Nights Cuba Compared with

New York The Precious Woods Mountains and Rivers Solid

Encyclopaedical Information The Cry of a Poor

Man

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE ANCIENT RECORDS OF THE ISLAND.

505-531

*'

The Words in Spanish and Rendered in English with which Columbus Reports the Discovery of Cuba The Words in which he Reported

the Smoking of Tobacco by the Islanders The Account of the First

Mass Celebrated in the New World

532-541

CHAPTER XXX.

LATEST NEWS FROM THE SEAT OF WAR.

Monotony of Military Situations The Trocha as a Delusion Fighting

General Pando Goes Home Strange Paralysis of Spanish Forces

How it Pays to keep Full Prisons Corrupt Sluggards Weyler and

the Front, and Sharp-shooters The Battle of Cacarajicara The

Island becoming a Cinder Path The Massacre of Horses Battle of

Manzanillo The Fever One Good Work Going On American Re-

sponsibility Considered

C—2

542-583

J^JIVERSITY

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Murat Halstead

Map of Cuba,

gents

Havana

Frontispiece

showing operations of the Insur-

Face Contents

22

Butchery of the Crew of the Virginius, Captain Fry Bid-

ding His Men Farewell

The Virginius Martyrs

General Martinez Campos

Group De Lome, Castillo, Hannis Taylor

D. Valeriano Weyler

A. and J. Maceo

Charge of Cuban Cavalry

Sugar Cane Plantation

Women Cavalry General Maximo Gomez

Queen Regent of Spain and Children View near Santiago

Moro Castle

Avenue of Palms, Havana

Corridor in the Casino

Alphonse XHI., King of Spain

A Narrow Street and Cathedral

Cuban Junta

Cisneros and Marti

Cubans in Ambush, Typical Fort, etc

Cell in Moro Castle

Valley of the Yumuri

39

47

59

73

89

97

119

133

145

155

169

183

1 93

203

211

225

241

257

267

285

297

313

20 LIST OF ILL USTRA TIONS.

Cubans Fighting from Tree-tops

Fruit Stand in Havana

A Close Encounter

Spanish Outpost near Remedios

Landing Arms, etc., from the Bermuda

Coffee Plantation

Cocoanut Palm

Destruction of a Railway Train by Dynamite

Defense of a Barricade of Sugar Barrels

Tobacco Plantation

Attack on a Fortified Railroad Train

Cuban Attack on Fort near Vueltas

President Cisneros and Cabinet

Templete Chapel

Calixto Garcia

Repulsing the Spaniards at Alto Songo

323

333

351

361

373

397

415

433

451

461

479

489

507

533

543

561

VERSITT

^UFORNiCA"

JNiv:

THE STORY OF CUBA

CHAPTER I.

FIRST EVENTS AND EARLY INFLUENCES.

The Discovery Columbus Enchanted His Dreams Beauty of Earth,

Ocean and Sky The Gentle Natives Smoke Cigarettes Some

Slow

Centuries The British Conquest Dawn of Revolution in the Ever

Faithful Island The Slavery Embarrassment Thomas Jefferson

and Charles Sumner A Despotic Political