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Writing Style Handbook

April 2006

Accreditation Statement
University of Phoenix is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. 30 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2400 Chicago, IL 60602 (312) 263-0456 www.ncahigherlearningcommission.org

2006 University of Phoenix. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The text of this publication, or any part thereof, may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, storage in an information retrieval system, or otherwise, without prior permission of University of Phoenix. Edited in accordance with The Apollo Group editorial standards and practices Revised: April 2006

3 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 7 Axia College Writing Competencies .......................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER 1: WRITING THE PAPER....................................................................................... 10 The Writing Assignment........................................................................................................... 10 The Purpose of Writing the Paper............................................................................................. 10 Common Types of Papers......................................................................................................... 11 Issue Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 12 Advocacy or Persuasion........................................................................................................ 12 Narrative Essay ..................................................................................................................... 12 Argumentative Essay ............................................................................................................ 12 Interpretive Essay.............................................................................................................. 12 Evaluative Essay ............................................................................................................... 13 Conducting Research ............................................................................................................ 13 Where to Go...................................................................................................................... 13 The Web............................................................................................................................ 13 Libraries ............................................................................................................................ 14 Evaluating Source Materials ................................................................................................. 14 Note-taking ........................................................................................................................... 14 Planning and Organizing .......................................................................................................... 15 Outlines ................................................................................................................................. 15 Unity and Coherence............................................................................................................. 15 Revising and Editing............................................................................................................. 16 CHAPTER 2: PREPARING A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS....................................................... 17 CHAPTER 3: FORM AND APPEARANCE ............................................................................... 18 Type of Paper............................................................................................................................ 18 Font Styles and Printing............................................................................................................ 18 Margins and Spacing. ............................................................................................................... 18 Pagination ................................................................................................................................. 19 Title Page .................................................................................................................................. 20 Table of Contents...................................................................................................................... 22 Headings ................................................................................................................................... 24 Numbers.................................................................................................................................... 26 Abbreviations............................................................................................................................ 26 Lists........................................................................................................................................... 27 Tables and Figures. ................................................................................................................... 27 Tables........................................................................................................................................ 28 Figures ...................................................................................................................................... 29

4 Appendix................................................................................................................................... 29 CHAPTER 4: GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION, AND SPELLING ............................................. 31 CHAPTER 5: PARAPHRASING or PLAGIARIZING? ............................................................. 32 Types of Sources....................................................................................................................... 32 Using Resources ....................................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER 6: DOCUMENTING THE PAPER ........................................................................... 34 Text Citations............................................................................................................................ 34 Paraphrase ............................................................................................................................. 34 Direct Quotation.................................................................................................................... 34 Paraphrasing.............................................................................................................................. 35 Author Named in Text .......................................................................................................... 35 Author Not Named in Text ................................................................................................... 35 Two Authors Named in Text ................................................................................................ 35 Three to Five Authors ........................................................................................................... 36 Six or More Authors ............................................................................................................. 36 Work with no Author, No Title, or Anonymous Work......................................................... 36 Using Direct Quotations ........................................................................................................... 37 Personal Interviews/Phone Conversations/Email/Electronic Discussion Groups ................ 38 Reference Entries Within The References Page ....................................................................... 39 Authors.................................................................................................................................. 40 Sequence ............................................................................................................................... 40 Capitalization ........................................................................................................................ 41 Edited Book .......................................................................................................................... 43 Article or Chapter in a Book ................................................................................................. 44 Report.................................................................................................................................... 45 Government Publication ....................................................................................................... 45 Evaluating Online Sources.................................................................................................... 48 Authorship......................................................................................................................... 48 Accuracy of Information................................................................................................... 48 Goals of the Site................................................................................................................ 48 Access ............................................................................................................................... 49 Electronic Sources ................................................................................................................ 49 Email Messages and Electronic Discussion Groups ............................................................. 49 Online Information Web Page ........................................................................................... 49 Online Information Journal or Magazine.......................................................................... 50 Computer Program, Software, or Programming Language .................................................. 50 CHAPTER 7: ADDITIONAL INTERNET WRITING RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS ......... 55 Online Sources for Help with Writing or Formatting............................................................... 55 References..................................................................................................................................... 56

5 Appendix A - Writing Sources ..................................................................................................... 57 Appendix B - Evaluation Sheet for Correct Use of APA ............................................................. 58 Appendix C- Essay Evaluation Form ........................................................................................... 59

6 List of Tables and Formatting Examples Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4

Writing Competencies - Graduate Programs .............................................................. 7 Writing Competencies - Undergraduate Programs ..................................................... 9 Purposes of Writing Assignments............................................................................. 11 Heading Levels ......................................................................................................... 25

Examples Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 Example 8 Example 9 Example 10 Example 11 Example 12 Example 13 Example 14 Example 15 Example 16 Example 17 Example 18 Example 19 Example 20 Example 21 Example 22 Example 23 Example 24 Example 25 Example 26 Example 27 Example 28 Example 29 Example 30

Inappropriate Widows and Orphans ..................................................................... 19 Page Header ......................................................................................................... 20 Title Page With Page Header................................................................................ 21 Table of Contents Page ......................................................................................... 23 List of Tables ........................................................................................................ 24 List of Figures ....................................................................................................... 24 Table ..................................................................................................................... 28 Figure .................................................................................................................... 29 Indication of Appendixes...................................................................................... 30 More Than One Appendix in the Table of Contents............................................. 30 Paraphrased Material ............................................................................................ 34 Direct Quotation.................................................................................................... 34 Author Named in Text .......................................................................................... 35 Author Not Named in Text ................................................................................... 35 Two Authors Named in Text ................................................................................ 35 Three to Five Authors ........................................................................................... 36 Six or More Authors ............................................................................................. 36 Work with No Author, No Title, or Anonymous Work........................................ 36 Direct Quotations From Electronic Source........................................................... 37 Block Quotation .................................................................................................... 38 Citation for Personal Communication Where Title is Known.............................. 39 Citation If Derived From Email or Electronic Discussion Group ........................ 39 Referencing Anonymous Author .......................................................................... 40 Referencing Multiple Authors .............................................................................. 40 Where Author Has More Than One Publication During One Year...................... 41 Samples of Capitalization ..................................................................................... 42 Use of Italics ......................................................................................................... 42 Article Citation...................................................................................................... 42 Citation of Publisher ............................................................................................. 43 Post Office Abbreviation Citation ........................................................................ 43

7 Example 31 Example 32 Example 33 Example 34 Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 Example 40 Citation for Edited Book....................................................................................... 43 Book Article or Chapter Citation.......................................................................... 45 Report Citation...................................................................................................... 45 Citation for Government Publication.................................................................... 45 References Page, Various Types of Sources......................................................... 46 Web Page Citation ................................................................................................ 50 Web Page Citation from Journal or Magazine...................................................... 50 Computer Program, Software, or Programming Language Citation .................... 50 Citation Where No Author and No Date Are Indicated........................................ 51 References Page with Online Sources .................................................................. 52

INTRODUCTION
Welcome to Axia Colleges Writing Style Handbook, which contains the guidelines for the accepted format required in Axia Colleges degree programs. It also contains additional writing guidelines and tips. This handbook is intended to provide basic clarifications to the APA Style and is modeled after the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001). It is NOT intended to provide detailed instructions about every question that may arise. Additional resources that may be useful to you are cited throughout this handbook. Axia College Writing Competencies Axia College requires that students, upon graduation, achieve competency in writing. There are specific writing competencies for the graduate and undergraduate programs (see Tables 1 and 2). Table 1 1. 2. Writing Competencies - Graduate Programs Critically select topics/issues in the major for all written papers. Synthesize selected information and findings in all written papers.

8 3. 4. Write papers that have appropriate flow and effective organization. Use a consistent writing style that effectively communicates information and meaning to a variety of audiences. 5. 6. Consistently apply the Axia College Writing Style guidelines in all written papers. Correctly use standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

9 Table 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Writing Competencies - Undergraduate Programs Appropriately identify topics/issues in the major for all written papers. Present evaluative information and findings in all written papers. Logically organize all written papers. Write papers that target the intended audience and that effectively communicate specific information. 5. 6. Consistently apply the Axia College Writing Style guidelines in all written papers. Correctly use standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

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CHAPTER 1: WRITING THE PAPER


This chapter contains important writing guidelines and tips that will help you complete your written assignments. You will learn how to effectively organize, write, revise, and edit required papers. The Writing Assignment Carefully read the specific requirements for all of your written papers as outlined by your faculty member in his or her syllabus. Faculty members typically include the purpose of the paper, grading criteria, page length, number of references, and any other requirements important to a specific course. Each paper you write may have different requirements, depending on the course competencies and the purpose of the paper. Use this Writing Style Handbook, and apply its guidelines for the form and appearance of your paper and for documenting your sources. The Purpose of Writing the Paper The purpose of your paper influences the nature of your writing. Some writing is intended to entertain or to express feelings and/or ideas to the reader. However, most of your courses will require you to provide factual information in support of well-documented opinions. Examine your writing assignment requirements. From the expectations given, you can often tell the purpose(s) of the writing assignment. Table 3 (Aaron, 2001, pp. 9-10) provides examples of the primary purposes of academic writing assignments.

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Table 3

Purposes of Writing Assignments Writing Purpose

Writing Assignment Requirement Report Summarize Discuss Compare and Contrast Define Analyze Interpret Evaluate Argue

Survey, organize, and objectively present available evidence on the subject. Concisely state the main points in a text, argument, theory, or other work. Examine the main points, competing views, or implications of the subject. Explain the similarities and differences between two subjects. Specify the meaning of a term or conceptdistinctive characteristics, boundaries, and so on. Identify the elements of a subject, and discuss how they work together. Infer the subjects meaning or implications. Judge the quality or significance of the subject, considering the pros and cons. Take a position on the subject, and support your position with evidence. Common Types of Papers You may be required to write several different types of papers. These papers range

from course essays to thoroughly researched papers. All research papers emphasize critical thinking, but they may be different in their approaches. Issue analysis, advocacy or persuasion, or any of the various essay formats may be requested for research papers.

12 Issue Analysis This type of research paper asks that you highlight a particular issue or problem. The focus is on analyzing the issue and its solution, often from both an historical and current perspective. You are a neutral observer rather than an advocate for a particular position. Advocacy or Persuasion This type of research paper asks that you take a stand on an issue and defend it against opposing points of view. Issues are researched, and the objective is to provide supporting evidence in favor of the position selected as well as to anticipate counter arguments against your position. Narrative Essay You may also be asked to write an essay. Essays can be expository or literary, narrative or descriptive. In these kinds of papers, you are telling a story, based on your point of view or based on factual information. You may also be asked to write essays that present a comparison and/or a contrast between two issues or a cause-and-effect relationship between and among several issues. Argumentative Essay One specific type of paper is the argumentative essay, which means that the paper should have a clearly articulated thesis or idea defended within the paper body. Broadly speaking, the idea of a philosophical essay is either interpretive or evaluative. Interpretive Essay An interpretive essay seeks to explain or defend a certain reading of some text. For example, a student might argue that the author does not mean for the reader to accept the argument offered in that text itself. In order to justify this position, the student would obviously have to appeal to the text by quoting it to support claims about the objectives for which the text

13 was written. The student would also need to provide justification for an esoteric, rather than literal, interpretation. Evaluative Essay The evaluative/argumentative essay seeks to explain and evaluate one or more of the arguments offered in a philosophical context. In this type of paper, one might seek to explain/defend/or critique the argument offered to the reader. For example, if your paper advances the idea that citizens must always obey the government, you should consider how a critic of your view might respond. The objection you consider should present the strongest possible objection you can develop. Whatever approach you choose to take, you must offer reasons for the idea you wish to establish. The mark of a well-defended idea is attention to and response to potential criticisms. For this reason, a good argumentative essay should raise, consider, and respond to at least one substantive objection to the idea in question. Conducting Research Where to Go Unless you use interviews, surveys, or anecdotal information, you will use two primary sources for conducting your research: hard copies in libraries and Web-based sources. The Web The Web provides multiple directories, databases, and technical information contained in numerous libraries around the world, including the Library of Congress, allowing unprecedented breadth and depth in accessing data through keyword searches. Information is not always free, as many industry sites and print media charge subscriptions and/or per-article rates to get more than a brief descriptive paragraph. You will also need to be careful about copyright issues because plagiarism and other rules apply, as they do with traditional materials.

14 Libraries Libraries usually offer electronic access and extensive availability of original print materials often not available elsewhere; archived and other special materials are also available. In addition, some libraries will have extensive microfilm collections, diverse media and audiovisual resources, and special libraries, along with easily found government books and reports. Evaluating Source Materials It is becoming increasingly important to make sure that the sources you use are credible, accurate, and reliableno easy task! Whether using print materials, media, or the Internet, determine an authoritys credentials by perusing his or her specific academic training, professional affiliations, and other published works as well as those of the experts he or she quotes. Make sure the publication date is current; the article is published in a respected journal, periodical, or media group; and the article offers sufficient information relevant to your focus. On the Web, use recognized domains to help establish credibility: .gov for statistics and factual reporting and .edu for educational (preschool through university sites). Professional, political, and charitable organizations (.org) are excellent sources of information as long as you are able to balance their particular agendas with other sources. Commercial sites (.com) include useful industry analyses and contextual resources. Note-Taking When note-taking, whether you use notebooks, your computer, or easy-to-file-and-track note cards, ALWAYS include the following: 1. Consistent format/pattern to avoid missing any needed information 2. Primary sourcename, edition/volume, publication date

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3. Authors name/title, relevant awards/positions (credibility) 4. Exact title of the document and inclusive page numbers Quotation marks must delineate any exact quotations. Use a consistent shorthand method to indicate a paraphrase (restating the ideas in your own words) and a summary (condensing the substance using distinctly different wording). Planning and Organizing Outlines An outline is helpful when planning your paper. An informal outline is for your own use. It helps you focus on the topic and purpose of your paper and is invaluable for organizing your notes in a logical sequence. As you review your notes, also review your main topic and stated objectives to be sure they are clear and focused. As you proceed with writing, the informal outline becomes the basis for a more formal outline and/or your Table of Contents. Unity and Coherence Unity and coherence in writing are critical elements. Unity means that each section and example used in your paper is relevant to your main idea or theme. Coherency means that your ideas follow a clear sequence and that each part of the paper is logically connected. Having coherence also means that your conclusions are clear and flow smoothly (Aaron, 2001). The following considerations will help you develop a coherent structure: 1. Keep the papers purpose and specific audience in mind. 2. Use only the information and ideas that pertain directly to your topic. 3. Allow plenty of time to reread as you write, think about, and rewrite troublesome sections, leaving some time between drafts. 4. Use carefully constructed transitions from one section or paragraph to another.

16 5. Use predominately your thoughts and ideas, supported by research documents and citations. 6. Ask one of your colleagues to read and comment on your next-to-final draft or even on particularly difficult sections as they arise. Revising and Editing It is during revision that you begin the process of critically reading your paper. Revision occurs when you write the last drafts of your paper and focus on macro-level issues, such as reading for meaning, organization, accuracy, and flow. In addition, you want to make sure to include logical transitions between sentences and between paragraphs. Editing focuses on micro-level issues, such as word choice, grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Spell-checkers are effective only to a certain point, so hands-on proofreading is required. Taking a break periodically will enhance your editing skills. You may want to become familiar with the Online Writing Labs (OWLs) available on the Internet. Use any search engine, and enter Online Writing Labs in the search field. These labs are developed by universities all over the country, and most are free of charge. They can provide you with tips on every aspect of writing, including ideas for paper themes, paper organization, and grammar and punctuation.

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CHAPTER 2: PREPARING A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS


A case study is a process by which the student analyzes a specific situation in order to apply decision-making skills and the theory learned in classes, demonstrating his or her knowledge. There are five basic elements to the case study. 1. Define the problem. In most case studies, there are many problems, so you, the student, must isolate the specific problem(s) you will be analyzing in the case study. 2. 3. Discuss the symptoms observed in the case study. Propose appropriate solution(s) to the problem. The solution should be logical and reasonable for the situation in the case study. 4. Recommend a solution(s). Here you would use material you have learned from your course(s) to provide rationale for the solution. 5. Suggest an action plan. Discuss how you would implement the selected solution. The follow-up would include methods of monitoring and correcting the situation. You might also suggest a contingency plan. Write a well-formatted report that has been proofed and edited. Be sure to review for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors; provide cites where needed; and use Axia College format. The idea behind the case study is to demonstrate your ability to thoroughly analyze a situation and focus on the relevant elements in the particular study. You should always end the case study with recommendations for action.

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CHAPTER 3: FORM AND APPEARANCE


This chapter contains Axia Colleges requirements for formatting written papers. You will learn Axia Colleges guidelines for the form and appearance of your written papers. Type of Paper Use 8 1/2 x11 white bond paper of at least 20-pound weight. Use the same type of paper throughout your submission. Font Styles and Printing All text must be printed in the same font, and the font style selected must be easy to read. A serif typeface, such as Courier or Times New Roman, should be used. The size of the font of your text should be one of the standard typewriter sizes (pica or elite) or 12 points if produced from a word-processing program. A different font may be used for tables and figures only if it improves readability and formatting. The font size for tables and figures can be smaller than the text, but no smaller than 8 points. Print only one side of your paper. Be sure the print has a dark impression with legible characters, especially if you are using a dot matrix printer. Color printing is not required for any written paper, but you may choose to use color printing for figures and tables only. Obtain approval from your instructor before you use color. Margins and Spacing. Use 1-inch margins on all sides of each page, except do not use a justified right margin. Instead, use left justification only. Indent the first line of each paragraph five to seven spaces. Double-space throughout the text. Leave one space between words and one space after all punctuation with the exception of the dash, hyphen, and apostrophe. Be sure that you do not have single lines or letters left at

19 the bottom or top of your page (see Example 1). These lines are called widows and orphans. Always have at least two lines at the top or the bottom of a page. Example 1 Inappropriate Widows and Orphans

Do not do the following at the bottom or the top of your pages: Bottom of a page:

. . The future of the automotive industry looks promising for the year 2001. Many new model cars, such as SUVs, are being purchased by young families. Further evidence of this can be seen by looking at the new cars on the roads

Top of a page: 5 and highways of both big and small cities and towns. Why are these young families purchasing these vehicles? It appears that the baby boomlet is supporting the need for larger and more serviceable cars.

Pagination Page numbers are placed in the upper, right-hand corner inside the margin of your paper as seen in this handbook. The numbers are in sequence, including the References page and any appendix. The title page is always considered page one of your text. The page header should be two or three words of the title and five spaces to the left of the page number, which is in the upper, right-hand corner of the paper (see Example 2). Be

20 sure to number every page, including your References page and any appendix. Do not use the abbreviation P. or p. or the word page with the page number. A running head is not equivalent to a page header. The running head is used on the title page and only on published articles; therefore, it is not used for Axia College course work. Example 21 Page Header Factors Influencing and then click on Header and Footer. In the dialogue box, type in the page header, five spaces, and the pound sign (#). Be sure to use right justification on the page header and page 3

Title Page Most faculty members require a title page (Example 3). If you need to have a title page, center the following information: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Title of the paper Your name Axia College of University of Phoenix The course prefix and name Faculty members name Date (due date of assignment)

Numbers 1, 2, and 3 meet APA formatting guidelines; numbers 4, 5, and 6 are also required for academic papers at Axia College.

In this Axia College Writing Style Handbook, examples are illustrated with borders to distinguish them from the rest of the text. The borders are used solely for the purpose of clarity and should not be used in your academic papers.

21 Example 3 Title Page With Page Header Factors Influencing 1

Factors Influencing the Economic Balance of Eastern European Countries Sharon Smythe Axia College of University of Phoenix INB 354 Economic Issues in International Business Dr. Jack Robinson September 20, 2004

22 Table of Contents A Table of Contents is required for papers that are 20 pages or longer. Check with your instructor regarding his/her requirements for other types of papers The Table of Contents reflects only what is in the text of the paper, so do not list anything that appears before it (such as acknowledgements, executive summary, etc.). Include only your major headings and subheadings (see Example 4). Your lists of tables and figures each appear on a separate page right after your Table of Contents, even if you have only one table or figure. The title for each is List of Tables (see Example 5) and List of Figures (see Example 6). If a table appears before a figure in your text, then the List of Tables will be placed immediately after the Table of Contents, with the List of Figures following (see Example 4). Examples of a Table of Contents, List of Tables, and List of Figures follow on the next page.

23 Example 4 Table of Contents Page

i Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview Introduction ................................................................................................................... 3 Background ................................................................................................................... 5 Purpose of the Paper ................................................................................................... 10 Benefits ....................................................................................................................... 11 Chapter 2: Historical Information about Management Pre-Industrial Revolution ............................................................................................ 14 Industrial Revolution .................................................................................................. 20 Communication Age ................................................................................................... 26 Information Age .......................................................................................................... 32 Chapter 3: Theories on Leadership Styles Trait Theory ................................................................................................................ 40 Situational Leadership ................................................................................................ 43 Transformational Leadership ...................................................................................... 47 Values-Based Leadership ............................................................................................ 49 Leadership in the Future ............................................................................................. 53 References ............................................................................................................................ 55 Appendix ............................................................................................................................. 60

24 Example 5 List of Tables ii List of Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 The Historical Time Periods of Popular Leadership Theories ......................... 14 Leadership Theories and their Definitions ....................................................... 41 Differences between Leadership and Management ......................................... 45 Leadership Qualities Needed for the 21st Century ........................................... 54

Example 6

List of Figures ii List of Figures

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Consumer Demographics.................................................................................. 45 Consumers Who Buy Favorite Actor Endorsed Products................................. 47 Consumers Drawn to Shop at a Store with Flashy Ads .................................... 48 Consumers Who Feel Advertisements Intentionally Deceive ........................ 51

Headings Be sure your headings represent the major sections of your paper. Headings should be short and reflect only what can be found in that section of your paper. Headings should never be labeled with letters or numbers, such as 3.1 or 3A., 3B., etc. Headings should be used in long papers to help the reader follow the thought process. You should use double-spacing between headings. Never strand a heading at the bottom of a page. Also, be consistent in your use of the selected levels of headings. Remember that each level of heading must have at least one counterpart in that section of your paper. In other words, every 1 needs a 2, every A needs a B.

25 Heading formats are determined by the number of heading levels you will need to organize your paper effectively. You can determine this organization by looking at your outline. If you have three sections in your paper, then you have one level of heading. If you have three sections, and one section has subsections, then you have two levels of heading. If one of your subsections has sub-subsections, then you have three levels of heading. The five levels of heading are shown in Table 4, beginning with Level 5 for demonstration purposes. For most of your academic papers, two or three levels will be sufficient. When you need only two levels of heading, use Level 1 (centered uppercase and lowercase heading) and Level 3 (flush left, italicized, uppercase and lowercase heading). If you require three levels, use Level 1, Level 3 and Level 4 (indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period). Most papers will require only three levels, but if four levels are needed, then use Levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 in their numeric order. Level 2 (centered, italicized, uppercase and lowercase heading) is used only when four levels of heading are necessary. Table 4 Level 5 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Heading Levels CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period.

When there are four or fewer heading levels in a document, Levels 1-4 are used. When the document has a total of five heading levels, all five levels are used, beginning with Level 5.

26 Numbers The following are guidelines for the use of numbers: 1. 2. 3 Use words to express all numbers below 10. Use figures to express all numbers 10 and above. If a number between 1 and 10 appears in the same sentence with a number greater than 9, the number less than 9 may be written in figures. For example, There were 65 adults and 4 children at the party. 4. 5. Exceptions to these rules include fractions, such as increased by one fourth. Exceptions to these rules also include universally accepted usage, such as the Fourth of July. 6. Spell out numbers that begin sentences, such as Five boys were included in the play. Never begin a sentence with figures. 7. You can combine figures and words, such as approximately 7 million people or thirty 4-year-olds. 8. Use figures when they refer to exact measurements, such as mathematical functions, time, dates, age, or numbers that precede a unit of measurement. Abbreviations The following are guidelines for the use of abbreviations: 1. Use standard abbreviations for titles immediately before and after proper names, such as Joe Smith, M.D. or Rev. May Lane. On the References page, do not use abbreviations of titles with the authors names. 2. When first using words that will have an acronym or initials, spell the word out, and follow the word with the acronym in parentheses. Thereafter, you may use only the acronym or initials. Abbreviations and acronyms that are familiar to the

27 reader are acceptable. For example, . . . the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). For HUD rules and regulations, contact . . . . 3. 4. When including time, use the abbreviations, such as a.m. and p.m. Reserve Latin abbreviations for source citations and comments in parentheses, such as i.e. (that is) or e.g. (for example). Lists Use numbered lists only for information you want to highlight or for information you believe will be better read as a list than as part of the text of your paper. Tables and Figures Whether your tables and/or figures appear in the text of the paper or in an appendix, the highlights of the table must first be explained in the text of the paper. After the explanation, the table and/or figure must be preceded with a reference that appears within parentheses, such as (see Table 1) or (see Appendix B). Both tables and figures are numbered consecutively with arabic numbers (1, 2, 3) and may be formatted in either portrait or landscape. Tables are numbered separately from figures. If a table or figure takes up a whole page, be sure to number the page in the upper, right-hand corner within the margins of the paper, usually formatted by the Header and Footer function, along with the rest of the paper (see Pagination section). Tables and figures are to be inserted into the text of the paper as soon after the reference as possible. Follow your text with the table or figure if there is room on the page for the entire table or figure. If the table or figure does not fit on that particular page, then continue with your text, and put the table or figure on the top of the next immediate page. Be sure that the information is clear, readable, and complete.

28 Tables Tables are typically lists or charts displaying information. Place the number of the table above the table, flush left. The title of the table appears next, single- or double-spaced under the table number, flush left, underlined. As noted in Example 7, the title uses initial capitals and should reflect the content of the table. Information about copyright or sources of information is labeled by using a note. The note is located immediately below the table, flush left. Example 7 Table 15 A Ranked Comparison of the Marketing Practices of Three Automotive Companies in Germany, Japan, and the United States Table

Germany Television Newspapers Magazines Direct Mail

Japan Newspapers Magazines Television Direct Mail

United States Television Magazines Newspapers Direct Mail

Note. From the 7th Annual Automotive Marketing Almanac, by J. J. Smith, p. 3, Copyright 1999 by General Motors Corporation.

29 Figures A figure is usually an illustration, pie chart, bar graph, or line graph. Place the number of the figure under the figure itself, position flush left, underline, and end with a period. The title of the figure immediately follows the number, is not underlined, and is in sentence format. The source for the figure follows in citation format (see Example 8). Example 8 Figure

Select Produce Purchased in 2004 100 80 60 40 20 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Grapes Apples Bananas

Figure 22. A Geographic Distribution of Unites States Revenue for XYZ Company. Note. From XYZ Corporation Annual Report, 1999.

Appendix An appendix allows you to provide detailed information that is supplemental to your paper. Often the materials found in appendixes are too lengthy for the text of your paper and/or may be distracting to your main ideas. After the title and/or subject of the appendix is mentioned, follow it with a notation in parentheses that directs the reader to look for the information in the appendix (see Example 9).

30 Example 9 Indication of Appendixes

included in this information were background data on financials (see Appendix A and B for financial trends). The appendixes always follow the References page. Page numbering is consecutive. If there is only one appendix, simply title it Appendix, and list it that way in the Table of Contents (see this handbooks Table of Contents). If there is more than one appendix, then letter each as Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, etc. in the order in which the appendix is mentioned in the text of your paper (see Example 10). The title of the appendix must appear at the top of the first page of each appendix. Do not separate the appendixes with blank dividing pages. If an appendix has tables and figures, label each one A1, A2, etc. for Appendix A and B1, B2, etc. for Appendix B and so on. If there is more than one appendix, then you must indicate each of the appendixes in the Table of Contents. Example 10 More Than One Appendix in the Table of Contents

References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C

.................................................................................................................. 52 The Leadership Traits Survey ................................................................ 55 Supplemental References on Transformational Leadership .................. 56 Management Trends in Russia ............................................................... 62

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CHAPTER 4: GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION, AND SPELLING


You must use proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling for the formal papers you write at Axia College. Be sure you check each paper prior to submission for these important elements of writing. A paper having excellent content can be ineffective in transmitting its message because of poor word choice, grammar, punctuation, and spelling. When writing a formal research paper, always use third person. Never use first person (I or we) or second person (you). If you must refer to yourself, use the author or the researcher for research papers. In more informal papers, the use of first or second person may be permitted if there is a specific reason. If you have difficulties in grammar, punctuation, or spelling, be sure to use the resources available to you: 1. Use spelling and grammar check software after completing your paper. Be careful. These checks do not distinguish the misuse of a correctly spelled word. 2. Ask a colleague and/or a friend who has skill in these areas to review your paper. 4. 5. Use one of the resources listed at the end of this Writing Style Guide. Take a course in English grammar.

32

CHAPTER 5: PARAPHRASING or PLAGIARIZING?


Types of Sources There are many sources that can be used to collect information for a paper. These sources include primary sources, such as interviews and speeches; secondary sources, such as letters, observations, books, journals, and reports; and government documents and statistical reports. Another source of information is common knowledge, or standard information that most educated people would know. The information may be new to you, and you may even have to look it up to be sure you are correct, but if it can be found in several places, then no one owns the information, and it is common knowledge. An example of common knowledge is a historical event or historical date, such as the duration of World War II. You do not cite this information. Current sources (within the last 2-3 years) should always be used unless the sources provide background information and/or are historical in nature. Keep track of sources as you come across them, and evaluate how each source supports the purpose of your paper. Be sure you have the correct source and page number(s) orfor electronic sourcesthe paragraph number(s). Using Resources When you take notes, determine at that time whether or not you are going to paraphrase the information (put the information you have read in your own words) or if you are going to use a direct quotation. If you do use a direct quotation, take the information down word-forword, and carefully proofread. Direct quotations should be used only when you believe that the exact words are needed to emphasize or to support a point. Correct documentation includes page numbers or paragraph numbers (for electronic sources), so be sure to note them at the time.

33 Whether you paraphrase or use a direct quotation, you must always cite the source used. It is considered plagiarism if you do not. If you have an open book or article in front of you to which you are referring, for example, then cite it as an indirect source. Plagiarism occurs when you present someone elses ideas or words as your own. Webster calls it literary theft, and it is an unethical and unacceptable practice in writing. For the student who is learning a great deal of new information, the problem looms large: What do I have to cite, and what do I not cite? When in doubt, always provide a citation (see Chapter 6). One way to avoid plagiarizing is to ensure that you are giving all of your sources of information an appropriate reference: 1. Support any factual or informative material taken from another source with supporting documentation. This information includes direct quotations AND indirect quotations (paraphrasing). 2. Each time you use someone elses materials/information, identify the source documentation. 3. Include each source you use in your References page.

For more information on documentation of sources (citing), consult the Axia College policy on academic dishonesty and plagiarism, as well as other writing guides or handbooks for writing research papers. ESL students should note that American academic practice requires that you cite your sources for all information from someone else, even if that person is a scholar and/or expert.

34

CHAPTER 6: DOCUMENTING THE PAPER


Text Citations This chapter contains detailed information about text citations and inserting entries into your References page. You will learn the specific way to format text citations for indirect and direct quotations. In the format selected by Axia College, you will not use footnotes but rather author or title/year identification for paraphrases and/or author or title/year and page number(s) for direct quotations (see Examples 11 and 12). Paraphrase Example 11 Paraphrased Material

. . . meanwhile, the expected rate of growth is 5.5% (Smith, 2001).

Direct Quotation Example 12 Direct Quotation

. . . in the meantime, the anticipated growth rate is 5.5% (Smith, 2001, p. 231).

Please note that you are to use the guidelines provided in this chapter for any indirect or direct quotations from electronic sources. In this chapter, you will also learn how to list a variety of different types of entries in your References page. The examples included are not exhaustive. You can also check the online writing sources listed in this handbook.

35 Paraphrasing When you paraphrase another persons materials/information, you must always cite your source. Using more than two words from the original without quotation marks is plagiarism as is paraphrasing too closely to the original wording. You should digest the information and say it in your own words. The following examples demonstrate how to construct text citations for information you paraphrased in your text. If the information is from an electronic source, use this same approach. Do not use the URL as a citation. Author Named in Text Example 13 Author Named in Text

Smith (1999) states that, in the 20th century, the use of technology increased so quickly that it was difficult to keep pace.

Author Not Named in Text Example 14 Author Not Named in Text

In the 20th century, the use of technology increased so quickly that it was difficult to keep pace (Smith, 1999). Two Authors Named in Text Example 15 Two Authors Named in Text

Smith and Locke (1998) found that learning styles change as people get older. OR One study (Smith & Locke, 1998) found that learning styles change as people get older.

36 Three to Five Authors With three to five authors, use all names in the in-text citation the first time. Then, you can use the term et al. following the first authors name. The et al. cannot be used in the References page. Example 16 Three to Five Authors

The research shows that learning styles change as people get older (Corrao, Guindon, Sharma, & Shokoohi, 2000). . . . Ongoing research indicates that there is definite brain activity. How this activity occurs, no one has determined (Corrao et al., 2000). Six or More Authors With six or more authors, use et al. any time you use the citation. Example 17 Six or More Authors

Jones et al. (1997) stated that management styles have become more team-oriented.

Work with no Author, No Title, or Anonymous Work When the work has no author or title or is anonymous or unsigned, use the first two or three words of the title or the source from which the information came, and follow with the year. Italicize all titles, and capitalize the significant words in all titles cited in the text. Example 18 Work with No Author, No Title, or Anonymous Work

In Work in the Trenches (1998), it was found that [Remember that, on the References page, only the first word of the title, the first word following a colon, and any proper words are capitalized.]

37 Using Direct Quotations Direct quotations are materials taken directly from the source. When you use direct quotations, use the same format as described above, but enclose the direct quotation with quotation marks. Also, include the page number(s) in parentheses. End with a period. If the information is from an electronic source, use the paragraph number. If the article is lengthy, include the closest heading in the citation, and then count the paragraph from the heading. For example, (Smith, 1999, Leadership Qualities, 5). With this practice, the reader is able to find your source more quickly. Example 19 Direct Quotations From Electronic Source

Smith (1999) stated that (Leadership Qualities, 5). OR Smith and Locke (1999) stated that .. (Leadership Qualities, 5). OR The values that parents hold are very different than those of their children. This is particularly true as we enter the 21st century (Smith, 1999, Leadership Qualities, 5). When words are missing within a sentence or between sentences, use ellipses (. . .). Ellipses should be used at the beginning or end of a sentence only to avoid misinterpretation or the quotation. For a quotation within a quotation, use single quotations to enclose it (When Edgar Allen Poe wrote The Tell-Tale Heart, he was determined to). If an original quotation includes errors, maintain the errors in your direct quotation, but use brackets and the term sic to indicate the original error: This car runs fast and quick [sic] Sic, in Latin, means thus it stands or this is the way I found it, errors and all.

38 Quotations that are more than 40 words must appear in a freestanding block, indented five spaces from the left margin and double-spaced. The right margin remains unjustified, and quotation marks are not used. The citation appears after the period that ends the quotation. This construction is an exception to the general rule of putting the period after the citation. The author(s), year, and page number(s) are included in the citation as in any citation. An example of a block quotation follows. Example 20 Block Quotation

Partitions are similar to groups in computing totals, where you specify a column to partition or group the data. The difference is that when you use GROUP BY you retrieve only the summarized results for each group. When you use PARTITION, you retrieve the individual rows organized by the select column. Figure 5.47 shows the difference. (Post, 2002, p. 207) Personal Interviews/Phone Conversations/Email/Electronic Discussion Groups When writing papers, you may use information obtained from individuals or unpublished sources. When using information you obtained from individuals, you should use the persons initials and last name and his or her professional title. Then, indicate that this source was a personal communication. Provide the full date of the interview or conversation that occurred. Because this information is not recoverable, it is not to be listed in the References page. Personal communications include any sources that are not published and are unrecoverable.

39 Example 21 Citation for Personal Communication Where Title is Known

The Director of Marketing for the Transaction Group shared that the trends for the future of the hospitality industry will triple over the next five years (J. M. Morris, personal communication, September 25, 2000). OR J. M. Morris, the Director of Marketing, shared that the trends for the future of the hospitality industry will triple over the next five years (personal communication, September 25, 2000).

If the communication was taken from an email or electronic discussion group, use the same approach as above. Example 22 Citation If Derived From Email or Electronic Discussion Group

It was gleaned from the e-commerce discussion group that there are many groups who are against sales tax (personal communication, October 17, 2000). Reference Entries Within The References Page The sources you cite in the paper must appear at the end of your paper and are titled References. References always begin on a new page. The title, References, is centered on the top of the page in upper and lower case. References include only those sources used in the text. Do not include any references that were not cited in your text. All references are alphabetized by the last name of the first author or by the first main word in the title of the work. Give the last name and the initials for all authors. Do not include any titles except Jr. All entries are double-spaced, and use the hanging indent. That means the first line is flush with the left margin; the next lines are indented five spaces.

40 The following is a step-by-step example, in sequence, of how to develop an entry to insert into your References page. Authors 1. List all authors by their last names first, and use initials for first and middle names. If the author is anonymous, list the work under its title, and alphabetize it by the first main word. Example 23 Referencing Anonymous Author

Work in the trenches in todays industries. (1997).

2.

For multiple authors, use commas to separate the names and a comma and an ampersand (&) before the last author. You cannot use et al. in the References section. You must identify all authors.

Example 24

Referencing Multiple Authors

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (1997). OR, if there are more than two authors Johnson, G. G., Smith, R., & Horne, B. (1997). Sequence When referencing books and articles, the year of publication follows the authors name and appears in parentheses. It is followed by a period and one space. If the article is in a magazine, include the month and day if it is available. If the author(s) has multiple publications, arrange them in order of their publication dates, the earliest first. If the author has

41 more than one publication in the same year, add a letter (a, b, c) within the parenthesis of the year listed. Example 25 Where Author Has More Than One Publication During One Year

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (1999). OR, if it is more than one publication in a year by the same authors Johnson, G. G, & Smith, R. (1998a). Johnson, G. G.,& Smith, R. (1998b). OR, if it is a journal Smith, R. (1996, June 16).

Capitalization Within the References page, only the first word of the title is capitalized for titles of books and articles. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of subtitles, and proper names. All other words begin with lower case. If there is a colon in the title, then capitalize the first word in the subtitle after the colon. A period and one space follow the title. If the work has an edition, it follows the title, appears in parentheses, and is followed by a period.

42 Example 26 Samples of Capitalization

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (1999). Organizational theory and behavior. OR, if the title has a colon Smith, R. (1998). Organizational theory and behavior: Ten case studies. OR, if the work has an edition Little, J. (1997). Management theories in the 20th century (2nd ed.).

For books, italicize the title and end with a period. Example 27 Use of Italics

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (1999). Organizational theory and behavior.

For articles, the title is not italicized and ends with a period. Follow the rules of capitalization for titles of books and articles, and italicize the journal name. End the journal name with a comma, and follow with the volume number, which is also italicized and followed by a comma. The last element in the entry for a journal article is the page number(s) of the article. End with a period. Do not use p. or pp. for journal articles. If the numbering is out of sequence, separate the page numbers with a comma. Use p. or pp. only if the source is a newspaper article. Example 28 Article Reference Example

Lurane, K., & Waddel, T. M. (1998). Marketing strategies at Coca Cola. Marketing Times, 77, 36-45. [If out of sequence, 36-45, 74.] OR, if it is a newspaper article Big news at CBS. (2000, July 12). The Arizona Republic, p. A7.

43 In books, the place of publication (typically the city) follows the title and is followed by a colon; the last item in the entry is the publishers name, followed by a period. Example 29 Reference Example of Publisher

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (1999). Organizational theory and behavior. Boston: William Long Publishers. Certain well-known cities do not require a state: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco, London, Philadelphia, Los Angeles among them. In other instances, use the post office abbreviation for the state. If many cities are listed, use only the first one for the reference. Example 30 Post Office Abbreviation Reference Example

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (1999). Organizational theory and behavior. Portland, ME: William Long Publishers. Other types of entries follow. The examples illustrated below are completely cited entries. Edited Book Use the authors last name, first initials, year, and title of work (insert in parentheses Ed. or Eds.), and follow with the remaining reference entry of City: Publisher name. Example 31 Reference Example for Edited Book

Johnson, G. G., & Smith, R. (Eds.). (1999). Organizational systems. Boston: Newton.

44 Article or Chapter in a Book Use the authors last name, first initials, year, and title of work (italicized). Follow with In and then the authors first initials, last name (Ed. or Eds.), title of work (italicized). Then, follow with the page numbers (pp.) in parentheses and City: Publisher name.

45 Example 32 Book Article or Chapter Reference Example

Langworth, D., & Speekle, J. (1997). Technology in the 21st Century: Is more better? In D. B. Taft (Ed.), The future of technology (pp. 306 308). Philadelphia: Squire Press. Report Use the same entry format as you would for a book, but include the report number in parentheses immediately following the title of the book. Example 33 Report Reference Example

Johns, B., Linnard, S., & Felina, B. (1999). Ethical issues and the Internet (Feld Foundation Rep. No. 99-5). Princeton, NJ: Feld Foundation, Inc. Government Publication Use the same entry format as you would for a book. If the author is the agency, use Author as the publishers name. In addition, include the publication number in parentheses between the publication title and city. Example 34 Reference Example for Government Publication

National Institute of Mental Health. (1992). The effects of psychotropic drugs on the elderly. (DHHS Publication No. ADM 92 779). Washington, D.C.: Author. The following example presents a sample References page with a list of references from various types of sources.

46 Example 35 use.] References Page, Various Types of Sources [Bracketed material is for student

References Anderson, O. (1998). Marketing services in the United States: A growth enterprise for a hundred years. In S. Litner & L. Robbins (Eds.), Marketing growth and policy (pp. 44-48). Albany, NY: Delacom Publishers. [Article or chapter in an edited book] Brakton, E. (1996). Community action. New York: Smith and Sons. [Book] Castex, G. M. (1994). Providing services to Hispanic/Latino populations: Profiles in diversity. Social Work, 39(3), 288-295. [Journal article] Cockerham, W. C. (1992). Medical sociology (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. [Book] Davis, A. J., Aroskar, M. A., Liaschenko, J., & Drought, T. S. (1997). Ethical dilemmas & nursing practice (4th ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange. [Book] Famighetti, R. (Ed.). (1995). World almanac and book of facts 1996. Mahwah: Funk & Wagnalls. [Reference book] Fiscus, C. (1999, September 30). Phoenix has plans for its rural communities. The Arizona Republic, pp. A13, A15. [Newspaper] Galanti, G. (1991). Caring for patients from different cultures: Case studies from American hospitals. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [Book] Hansell, S. (1999, November 22). A feeding frenzy made for consumers. e-commerce, 22, 10-13. [Journal article]

47

Herberg, P. (1989). Theoretical foundations of transcultural nursing. In J. S. Boyle & M. M. Andrews (Eds.), Transcultural concepts in nursing care (pp. 3-92). Glenview, IL: Scotts, Foresman/Little, Brown College Division. [Article or chapter in an edited book] Monrroy, L. (1983). Nursing care of Raza/Latino patients. In M. S. Orque, B. Bloch, & L. Monrroy (Eds.), Ethnic nursing care: A multicultural approach (pp. 115-148). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby. [Article or chapter in an edited book] Rubin, R., & Beddingfield, K. (1996). A look behind the listings. U.S. News and World Report, 12, 56-58. [Periodical article] U.S. General Accounting Office. (2000). Sales taxes: Electronic commerce growth presents challenges; revenue losses are uncertain. (GAO Publication No. GAO/GGD/OCE-00-165). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. [Government publication] The National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations. (1990). Delivering preventive health care to Hispanics: A manual for providers. Washington, D.C.: Author. [Work by group author] Transportation Accident Research Institute. (1995, February). Causes of truck accidents on U.S. highways. (Issue Brief No. 12). Philadelphia: Author. [Publication of limited circulation.]

Note: Students often use personal communications in their papers (interviews, memos, bulletins, phone calls). These sources are cited in the paper but are not cited in the References page.

48 Evaluating Online Sources When using online sources, it is important to evaluate them for use in your academic papers. There are four things to consider when evaluating Internet resources: Authorship Is the author or organization indicated? How reputable is the author? Are there other online or in-print works by this author? Can you contact this person or look up the address? Is there an organization sponsoring the page? What can you learn about the organization and who the members are? Does the organization take responsibility for what is on the site? Accuracy of Information Is there documentation to indicate the source of the information? Can you tell how well researched the information is? Are there criteria for including information? Is the information current? Is there any indication of bias on the site? Does the site have any credentials? Goals of the Site What is the purpose of the site? Are the goals of the site clearly indicated?

49 Who is the intended audience? Is there is a lot of flash and color and gimmicks to attract attention? Access Internet resources can be assessed through links from several sources, such as reputable sites, ads, search engines, or browsers. Regardless of your need for information or the convenience of using certain sites, you must be cautious and use the most reliable, authoritative sources available to suit your purpose. Be sure your sources are appropriate for your paper. A formal research paper requires more authoritative, scholarly sources. To this end, you must keep one eye on the information and the other eye on the author. A helpful source for evaluating online resources is found in http://www.library.cornell.edu/okuref/research/webcrit.html Electronic Sources When citing references from electronic sources, the same elements for entry are used as described previously. The difference is the specification of the path (full Web address) and date of access (the date you visited the Web site). Email Messages and Electronic Discussion Groups Emails and electronic discussion groups are considered personal communication. Therefore, no entry should appear on the References page. Online Information Web Page Author, I. (Date of Publication or Revision). Title of full work. Retrieved date in normal order from full Web address [The URL does not end with a period and is not underlined.]

50 Example 36 Web Page Reference Example

Jackson, F. (2000, March). Counseling techniques for blended families. Retrieved September 25, 2000, from http://www.behupdate Online Information Journal or Magazine Author, I., Author, I., & Author, I. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Name of Periodical, volume number (if provided). Retrieved date in normal order from full Web address. Example 37 Web Page Reference Example from Journal or Magazine

Smith, J. (1998, April). Electronic systems within manufacturing environments. Retrieved June 7, 1999, from http://www/elec.com Computer Program, Software, or Programming Language Author, I. (year). Title of program [Computer software]. City, State: Manufacturer. Example 38 Computer Program, Software, or Programming Language Reference Example

Stinson, J. (1998). Linkages [Computer Programming Language]. Trenton, NJ: Syntaxine Corporation.

If there is no author, list that entry as you would treat a book without an author. Begin the entry with a title of the source. If there is no title of the source, then identify and use the source of the information (e.g., Software Institute) as the title. For sources that do not include a date, put (n.d.) [no date] in parentheses after the author's name. If there is no author cited, use the following example:

51 Example 39 Reference Example for Which No Author and No Date Are Indicated

Organizational dynamics in business. (n.d.). Business Issues Today, 19, 7-9. Retrieved May 3, 1999, from http://www.org/od/html Below is a sample References page with online sources (see Example 40).

52 Example 40 References Page with Online Sources [Bracketed material is for student use.]

References Armstrong, D. (2000, May). The politics of Internet sales tax. Retrieved November 12, 2000, from http://foxmarketwire.com/050100/sportlight050100.sml [Web site] Beyea, S., & Nicoll, L. (1999). Using ethical analysis when there is no research. AORN Journal, 69(6), 1261-1263. Retrieved March 16, 2002, from Ovid database. [Journal article from database] Breeze, J. (1998). Can paternalism be justified in mental health care? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 260-265. Retrieved March 20, 2002, from EBSCOhost database. [Journal article from database] Brown, B. (n.d.) Model for ethical analysis of a case study. Retrieved March 31, 2002, from http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/philosophy/phlwrite/brown2.html [Web site] Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html [Web site] Coleman, M., & Ganong, L. H. (2000). Changing families, changing responsibilities? Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 80(3), 34-37. Retrieved March 30, 2002, from EBSCOhost database. [Journal article from database] Dunn, M. C. (1998). Knowledge helps health care professionals deal with ethical dilemmas. AORN Journal, 67(3), 658-661. Retrieved March 16, 2002, from Ovid database. [Journal article from database]

53 Fredrick, R. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating health. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org//volumn3/pre003000a.html [Web site] Genia, V. (2000). Religious issues in secularly based psychotherapy. Counseling & Values, 44(3), 213. Retrieved April 2, 2002, from EBSCOhost database. [Journal article from database] Glick, S. M. (2000). The morality of coercion. Journal of Medical Ethics, 26(5), 393-395. Retrieved April 2, 2002, from InfoTrac OneFile database. [Journal article from database] Kossek, E. E., & Nichol, V. (1992). The effects of on-site child care on employee attitudes and performance. Personnel Psychology, 45, 485. Retrieved Nov. 6, 1999, from EBSCOhost database. [Journal article from database] Pape, T. (1997). Legal and ethical considerations of informed consent. AORN Journal, 65(6), 1122-1127. Retrieved March 27, 2002, from Ovid database. [Journal article from database] Pescosolido, B. A., Monahan, J., Link, B. G., Stueve, A., & Kikuzawa, S. (1999). The publics view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of person with mental health problems. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 13391345. Retrieved March 30, 2002, from EBSCOhost database. [Journal article from database] Real World Publications. (2002). Whats the rule. Retrieved June 11, 2004, from the University of Phoenix Library Web site: https://axiaecampus.phoenix.edu [Online reference site]

54 Skolnick, A. (1990). Religious exemptions to child neglect laws still being passed despite convictions of parents. JAMA, 264(10), 1226, 1229, 1233. Retrieved March 16, 2002, from InfoTrac OneFile database [Journal article from database] Vermont Department of Developmental and Mental Health Services. (2000). Vermonts vision of a public system for developmental and mental health services without coercion. Retrieved April 10, 2002, from www.state.vt.us/dmh/rod.pdf [Web site]

55

CHAPTER 7: ADDITIONAL INTERNET WRITING RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS


Online Sources for Help with Writing or Formatting There are several Web sites dedicated to helping people with writing or formatting. These sites are sometimes called OWLsOnline Writing Labs. You should review the Web sites to find the ones that work for you. http://lib.nmsu.edu/instruction/eval.html http://www.vuw.ac.nz/~agsmith/evaln/index.htm http://www.library.cornell.edu/okuref/research/webeval.html http://mentalhelp.net/guide/pro25.html www.apa.org http://owl.english.purdue.edu/files/34.html http://library.lib.binghamton.edu/webdocs/citing.html http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite6.html#1 http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar

For additional writing sources, consult Appendix A for a partial list of sources available in any bookstore. An Evaluation Sheet for the Correct Use of APA can be found in Appendix B. In Appendix C, you will find an Essay Evaluation Form that many instructors use in grading papers. This form may help ensure you are doing the correct things when writing your papers.

56

References
Aaron, J. E. (2001). The Little, Brown compact handbook. (Revised Custom 4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. University of Phoenix. (2002-2003). University of Phoenix catalog. Phoenix, AZ: Author.

57

Appendix A - Writing Sources


Garbls writing resources online. (1999, October). Retrieved October 12, 2002, from www.garbl.com Harnak, A., & Kleppinger, E. (2000). Online! New York: Bedford/St. Martins Press. Kolin, P. C. (1998). Successful writing at work. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Li, X., & Crane, N. B. (1996). Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information (Rev. ed.). Medford, NJ: Information Today. Strunk, W., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style. New York: MacMillan.

58

Appendix B - Evaluation Sheet for Correct Use of APA


___ Does the title page show the title, the authors name, and the University centered both horizontally and vertically? ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Is the title page counted as page one? Are the finished margins set at 1 inch all around? Does the paper have page headers, five spaces, and then the page numbers? Are the page numbers in the upper, right-hand corner? Is the paper double-spaced throughout with no single-spacing? Is the title repeated at the top margin of the first page of text? Are there in-text citations for all direct and indirect quotations? Do the in-text citations include the authors name, year, and page number if it is a direct quotation? ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Do headings follow the rule for levels of headings? Is the heading for the References page centered? Are the references formatted in a hanging indent? Are the references double-spaced throughout? Does each reference begin with an author or, if there is no author, with the title of the article? Are references complete?

59

Appendix C- Essay Evaluation Form


Course: ____________ Session: ____________ Student: _________________________ _________________________________ Instructor: ___________________________ Essay Title:

Criteria: Subject matter Key elements of assignment are covered Content is comprehensive/accurate/persuasive Paper displays an understanding of relevant theory Student provides support with details and examples Writer has gone beyond textbook for resources and/or fulfilled specified source requirements Research is adequate, timely, and appropriate for academic paper Text citations are present Vocabulary is used appropriately Higher order thinking skills Writer compares/contrasts/integrates theory/subject matter with experiences Writer analyzes and synthesizes theory/practices to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing Organization The introduction provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points. Central theme/purpose is immediately clear Subsequent sections develop/support central theme Sentence structure clearly conveys meaning Conclusion reviews major points Style/mechanics The page format follows APA guidelines Citations/references follow APA guidelines Sentences are varied in structure and readable Transitions between sentences/paragraphs/sections help maintain the flow the thought Grammar and spelling are standard, and usage is correct

1 is never; 5 is always: 1 2 3 4 5

Total points possible Points earned Letter grade

100 ___ ___

60 Additional comments: