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La Corduba amurallada del s. I d.C., inmersa en un proceso de expansin urbanstica y monumentalizacin auspiciado por el emperador Augusto, acogi al filsofo y escritor Lucio Anneo Sneca, considerado la figura ms importante de la Crdoba hispanorromana. Mximo representante del esplendor del que goz la urbe bajo el mandato imperial, dos monumentos honran en la actualidad su legado en la ciudad que lo vio nacer: la estatua de la Puerta de Almodvar (1), el conjunto escultrico de los Llanos de Pretorio (2) en el que aparece acompaado de Nern y una plaza con su nombre en la C/Ambrosio de Morales.

During the 1st century AD, Corduba, a walled city undergoing a major urban expansion promoted by Emperor Augustus who commissioned the construction of numerous monuments was a home to philosopher and writer Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the most important scholar of Cordobas HispanoRoman period. In his native city, two monuments pay tribute to the legacy of the most outstanding figure of the golden era enjoyed by the city under Imperial rule: the statue at the Puerta de Almodvar gate (1), an ensemble of sculptures in Llanos de Pretorio (2) where Seneca stands a c co m p a n i e d by Nero; and a plaza which bears his name in C/ Ambrosio de Morales.

BIOGRAFA. Hijo de Sneca El Viejo o El Retrico y la cordobesa Helvia Albina, Sneca naci en Crdoba entre el ao 4 y 1 a.C. Proceda de una distinguida y acaudalada familia asentada en la ciudad desde poca republicana los Annei-. Pronto march a Roma bajo la proteccin de su ta Marcia y su marido, junto a los que viajara a Alejandra. A sus estudios en Egipto y Roma sumara los conocimientos adquiridos en sus viajes a Grecia, completando as una formacin muy variada, rica y abierta hasta el punto de ser considerado el filsofo pagano cuyas ideas ms se acercaron al cristianismo, aportando una visin personal sobre el estoicismo. Sus obras pueden

dividirse en cuatro apartados: los dilogos morales, las cartas, las tragedias y los epigramas. Su trgico final est vinculado de forma directa a la azarosa vida poltica que desarroll en paralelo a los reinados de Calgula, que orden una ejecucin que ms tarde revoc; Claudio, que lo desterr a Crcega durante 8 aos y el emperador Nern, del que fue tutor y consejero y quin lo conden a muerte implicndole en una conjura que fracas. En el ao 65 d.C. Sneca escogi el suicidio para poner fin a su vida.
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BIOGRAPHY. The son of Seneca the Elder, known as the Rhetoric, and a Cordoban woman called Helvia Albina, Seneca was born in the city between 4 and 1 BC. He came from a distinguished, wealthy family the Annaei who had lived there since the earliest times of the Republic. He soon moved to Rome under the protection of his aunt Marcia and her husband, with whom he would travel to Alexandria. In addition to studying in Egypt and Rome, Seneca also benefited from the vast knowledge acquired during his journeys to Greece. This rich, varied and open-minded education led him to be regarded as the pagan philosopher whose ideas were the closest to the Christian principles, contributing his personal vision on stoicism.

His work can be divided into four different categories: moral dialogues, letters, tragedies, and epigrams. His tragic death is directly linked with an intense and eventful political life which he developed during the reigns of the following emperors: Caligula, who ordered his execution and subsequently revoked it; Claudius, who banished him to Corsica for 8 years; and Nero to whom he was tutor and advisor who accused him of being involved in a foiled conspiracy and condemned him to death. In the year 65 AD Seneca chose to commit suicide to end his life.
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la cOrdUba romana

Por el ao 206 a.C. Corduba fue conquistada por los romanos, sirviendo de emplazamiento estratgico a las tropas, como campamento de invierno junto al poblado ibrico originario (localizado en el actual Parque Cruz Conde). Pero su fundacin como ciudad por el pretor Marco Claudio Marcelo no se producira hasta mediados del s. II a.C., convirtindose en una colonia latina que perdur como tal hasta fines de la Repblica. Pocos son los vestigios que nos quedan de esta primera ciudad, que fue arrasada tras tomar parte por el bando perdedor en las guerras civiles entre Csar y Pompeyo (s. I a.C.). Esta recesin conocera su final al ganarse Corduba el favor del emperador Augusto, que la confirma como Colonia y eleva su rango al de Patricia, consagrndose en la etapa imperial como la capital de la Provincia Hispania Ulterior Baetica, lo que habra de traducirse en un importante programa de monumentalizacin y ampliacin de la ciudad y de sus servicios. La curia municipal era la ms floreciente de Andaluca, existan escuelas de gran nivel, brillando intelectuales de la talla de Sneca o su sobrino Lucano. De Crdoba partan los correos oficiales y albergaba los archivos administrativos con los censos provinciales. El comercio del aceite y los minerales adquiri una gran pujanza y a ello contribuy tambin la construccin de la Va Augusta que pasaba por el puente romano del ro Betis, luego llamado Guadalquivir. El recinto urbano se expande hacia el ro, crendose zonas residenciales fuera del recinto amurallado, se reorganiza la red viaria y se construye el primer acueducto. A la consolidacin y transformacin de los principales espacios pblicos como el foro se suman construcciones emblemticas como el teatro o el templo de la calle Claudio Marcelo, sin olvidar las estatuas que las nuevas lites coloniales erigen por toda la ciudad. Esta poca dorada se extender hasta el trnsito del s. III al IV d.C. (fecha de construccin del complejo de Cercadilla), cuando se inicia el declive, desplazndose la capitalidad a Hispalis (Sevilla) y coincidiendo con la expansin de cristianismo y las invasiones brbaras (ss. V-VI).

el espacio pblico

PUBLIC SPACES

La red viaria: puentes y vas. La articulacin de la red viaria de Crdoba se organiza sobre el eje trazado por la Va Augusta, que a muy grandes rasgos coincide con la N-IV, reforzada por dos rutas 3 auxiliares paralelas a las riberas del Baetis (Corduba-Hispalis y Corduba-Castulo) y varios ejes. Para la reconstruccin de este entramado han sido vitales tanto las fuentes epigrficas, destacando los miliarios de la Va Augusta (3) que se pueden contemplar en la Puerta de las Palmas de la Mezquita-Catedral; como los puentes conservados: el Puente romano de la capital (4), peatonalizado recientemente, el del arroyo de Pedroche, el puente mocho sobre el Guadalmellato y el del arroyo de Rabanales. Especial relevancia poseen los restos de una red de caminos y varias insulae (manzanas de edificaciones delimitadas por calles) de poca alto imperial en la C/Antonio Maura esquina con Jimnez de Quesada (5) que se exponen en los stanos del edificio que la empresa constructora PRASA ha construido en el solar.

El abastecimiento de agua: fuentes y acueductos. Las obras pblicas de ingeniera fueron uno de los legados ms importantes que Roma dej en Corduba, destacando las infraestructuras hidrulicas como la piscina limaria de la Avenida de Amrica (9). Durante la poca de Augusto se construye el primer acueducto (Aqua Augusta) que se identifica con el conocido Acueducto de Valdepuentes, al que se sum (s. I d. C.) un segundo acueducto que se denomin Aqua Nova Domitiana Augusta (cuyos restos se han identificado con los del arroyo Pedroche). Entre los ss. II y III d. C. se construye un tercero para abastecer una zona residencial urbanizada fuera del permetro amurallado y a edificios pblicos. Los restos de este ltimo, integrados en el aparcamiento de la Estacin de Autobuses de Crdoba (10), destacan por su buen estado de conservacin y el mantenimiento de su funcionalidad a pesar de su antigedad, ya que an hoy proporciona agua a los estanques de la C/Cairun y a las albercas del Alczar de los Reyes Cristianos.
Water supply: fountains and aqueducts. Public engineering
works, particularly water infrastructures, are amongst the most impor tant legacies that the Romans bequeathed Corduba. Examples include the 4 limaria pool in Avenida de Amrica (9) and the first aqueduct (Aqua Augusta), which was built during the times of Augustus, and is now known as the Acueducto de Valdepuentes. A second aqueduct known as Aqua Nova Domitiana Augusta (whose remains have been found in the Pedroche stream) was built in the 1st century AD, and a third one was constructed between the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD to supply water to a newly developed residential area located outside the enclosed city and various public buildings. The latter, remains of which can be found integrated into the car park of Cordobas Bus Station (10) is particularly interesting due to its good state of preservation and the fact that, despite its antiquity, it is still used to supply water to the ponds in Calle Cairun and the pools in the Alczar de los Reyes Cristianos.

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Palacios. El principal atractivo del Yacimiento de Cercadilla excavado junto a la Estacin del AVE es el conjunto interpretado como Palacio del emperador Maximiano Herculeo (14), construido sobre una villa suburbana entre los ltimos aos del s. III y los inicios del s. IV d.C. Con una extensin de casi 10.000 m2, se articula en torno a un criptoprtico semicircular, de 109 m. de dimetro, cuyo eje central conectaba con un gran aula basilical donde se celebraban las audiencias. Las distintas dependencias como el aula basilical o las termas se distribuan alrededor del prtico. Parte del conjunto sera reutilizado como centro de culto y necrpolis cristianos, proporcionando las excavaciones importante informacin sobre los primeros obispos de Crdoba gracias al hallazgo de dos elementos de carcter epigrfico: la lpida del obispo Lampadio y el anillo-sello del obispo Sansn.
Palaces. The most attractive feature of the Cercadilla Site excavated next to the AVE station is a series of remains believed to have been part of the Palace of Emperor Maximianus Herculeus (14), which was constructed over a villa on the outskirts of the city between the last years of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th centuries. Covering an area of approximately 10,000 m2, it is structured around a semicircular cryptoportico, measuring 109 m. in diameter, the central area of which was linked to a large basilica-shaped room where audiences were held. The various quarters and rooms, such as the meeting room and the thermal baths, were distributed around the portico. Part of the complex was used as a place of worship and necropolis by the Christians, and excavations have provided important information about the first Bishops of Cordoba as a result of two findings of great epigraphic value: the tombstone of Bishop Lampadio and the seal-ring of Bishop Sansn.

Most of the testimonies giving accounts of the temples in Corduba come from the epigraphs, inscriptions, and statues of deities which have been found in the city. The citys only visible archaeological remains are those belonging to the temple located in Calle Claudio Marcelo (18). This clear example of imperial propaganda, whose construction began in the middle of the 1st century AD., formed part of the Provincial Forum together with other public buildings and the circus. Today we can still see some of the marble columns which provided access to the temple, part of the altar, and a number of the marble elements which crowned the columns. Beneath a number of adjacent buildings it is also possible to see the foundations of the porticos which framed the temple on three of its sides. Visible as well is the large retaining wall (8) of the upper terrace of the complex, next to the city hall. A grooved column belonging to the temple stands in Plaza de las Doblas (19). Other examples of vestiges of the temples include the basis of a Republican column at the entrance of Hotel NH Amistad in Calle Cairun (20) and the capitals in the courtyard of Casa de los Caballeros de Santiago in Plaza de Valdelasgranas (21).

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The Imperial Cult: temples.

s. III d.C.) con mosaicos de gran belleza y valor artstico que se exponen en el Centro de Interpretacin.Otras estructuras de domus conservadas en la ciudad son las de la casa integrada en el Palacio de los Marqueses del Carpio (31) y en el patio del Colegio de Santa Victoria (32).

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Los edificios de espectculos.Slo las grandes urbes disponan de estos edificios debido a lo costoso de su construccin, un honor del que disfrut la Corduba en la poca julio claudia al contar con teatro, anfiteatro y circo. Unas excavaciones en la parte trasera de la Antigua Facultad de Veterinaria y actual Rectorado han permitido hallar restos (muros del gradero) del que fuera, entre el s.I y IV d.C., el segundo anfiteatro (22) ms grande del Imperio romano, tras el Coliseo de Roma, con un aforo de 30.000 personas. En los bajos del Museo Arqueolgico se localizan los restos del Teatro (23) (parte de la cavea), mientras que del circo slo se conoce su emplazamiento junto a La Corredera.
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ROMAN CORDUBA
Around 206 BC Corduba had been conquered by the Romans, becoming a strategic enclave for the army, which set up a winter camp next to an indigenous Iberian settlement (located in the modern-day Cruz Conde Park). However, its foundation as a city by praetor Marcus Claudius Marcello did not take place until the middle of the 2nd century BC., becoming a Latin colony which remained as such until the final years of the Republic. Very few vestiges remain of the original city, which was razed following its support of the losing side in the civil wars waged between Caesar and Pompeii (1st century BC). This decline came to an end when Corduba earned the favour of Emperor Augustus, who declared it a Colony and raised its status to that of Patrician.

The road network: bridges and roads.

ORGANIZA / ORGANISED BY

Cordobas network of Roman roads was structured around the Va Augusta (the old Augustan Way), which today is largely the route of the N-IV. This was augmented by two auxiliary roads which ran parallel to the banks of the Baetis (CordubaHispalis and Corduba-Castulo) as well as various others. Vital in the research and reconstruction of the network are epigraphic sources, especially the old milestones of the Va Augusta (3) which can be seen in the Puerta de las Palmas Gate in the Cathedral-Mosque, and the bridges which are still standing: the citys Roman bridge (4), which has been recently pedestrianised; the bridge over the Pedroche stream, the puente mocho over the Guadalmellato, and the bridge over the Rabanales stream. Equally relevant are the remains of a network of pathways and several insulae (blocks of houses delimited by streets) from the Upper Imperial Period found on the corner between Calles Antonio Maura and Jimnez de Quesada (5) which can be seen in the basement of a building that the construction company PRASA has built on the site.

la CN-432 se enclavan las canteras romanas de Peatejada (11), cuya entrada se sita en los jardines del restaurante Cuevas Romanas. Este sorprendente yacimiento ofrece una clara imagen de cmo debieron ser las explotaciones mineras en la Crdoba romana.

Instalaciones industriales. A unos 3 km. de la capital, en

Industrial facilities.
Some 3 km from the city, on the CN-432, is the Roman Peatejada quarry (11), the entrance to which is via the gardens of the Cuevas Romanas Restaurant. This surprising site offers a clear picture of what the mining process must have been like in Roman Cordoba.

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La ornamentacin escultrica urbana. Por su condicin de Colonia Patricia debi contar con un autntico universo de esculturas distribuidas por sus principales espacios pblicos. Adems de las que se conservan en el Museo Arqueolgico, como la colosal estatua Thoracata (16), destacan la estatua togada de la Plaza Sneca (15), cuya indumentaria apunta a la de un magistrado romano; y la inscripcin romana de la C/Rey Heredia (17), en la que se menciona a uno de los evergetas (mecenas) que particip en la construccin del teatro.
Sculptures used as urban ornamentation. Due to its Colonia
Patricia status Corduba must have had an incredible variety of sculptures distributed around the main public spaces. In addition to the ones on display in the Archaeological Museum, such as the colossal Thoracata statue (16), other interesting examples include a toga-robed statue in Plaza Sneca (15), whose attire suggests that it 17 depicts a Roman magistrate; and the Roman inscription found in Calle Rey Heredia (17), which mentions one of the evergetae (patrons) who commissioned the construction of the theatre.

outside the walls the Romans built domus with porticoed patios, few windows, and simple facades which were completely covered with floor tiles and well suited to the Cordoban climate. Remains of mosaics in the northern vicus can be seen at Calle Reyes Catlicos n17 (24) and at Avenida Ronda de Tejares n22 (25), whilst excavations in the eastern vicus of a large house in the Plaza de la Corredera have yielded a magnificent set of mosaics from the 2nd and 3rd centuries which are now on display in the Saln de los Mosaicos in the Alczar de los Reyes Cristianos, together with a sarcophagus (27) which was discovered in the Huerta de San Rafael del Brillante. The School of Dramatic Art (Calle Blanco Belmonte n14) (26) and the Palacio de Viana also contain fine examples of mosaics (28). 29 Of special archaeological interest, thanks to its particularly good state of preservation, is the Bailo Roman house (29) which can be viewed from one of the courtyards of what was once the Castejn Palace, now the Hotel Palacio del Bailo, through a transparent floor. There is also the luxurious Santa Rosa Roman villa (30), from the end of the 3rd century AD, with mosaics of great beauty and artistic value, which will be on display in the Historical Interpretation Centre. Other examples of Roman houses in the city include one which forms part of the Palace of the Marquises of Carpio (31) and another in the patio of the Santa Victoria school (32).

The Roman House. In the vici or neighbourhoods situated

Rey Heredia, 22 E-14003 Crdoba Tel. 957 201 774 - Fax: 957 200 159 consorcio@turismodecordoba.org

Las murallas. La imponente muralla que desde su fundacin rode la ciudad sufri su reforma ms importante a partir del reinado de Tiberio, amplindose hasta las 79 ha. la superficie amurallada y abrindose nuevas puertas (las actuales Almodvar, Sevilla y Pescadera). El Paseo de la Victoria (6) y Ronda de los Tejares (7) (pueden verse los restos de sta en una oficina bancaria de CajaSur y en el edificio Riyahd) mantienen casi intactos los lados oeste y norte, respectivamente, de la muralla.
The walls. The imposing wall which enclosed the city since its foundation saw its most important reform during the rule of Tiberius, when the walled area was increased to cover 79 hectares and a number of new gates were constructed (those now known as Almodvar, Sevilla and Pescadera). The western and northern sides of the wall have been preserved almost intact in the Paseo de la Victoria promenade (6) and Ronda de los Tejares (7) (where remains can be seen in the offices of the CajaSur building society and in the Riyahd building). 37

Las termas. Para los romanos el bao era todo un ritual fsico
y social, por lo que es indudable que en la Corduba imperial existiran numerosas termas. Aunque hay vestigios que apuntan a su enclave en varias zonas (C/Cruz Conde, C/Amparo, Plaza del Escudo), lo cierto es que las nicas informaciones fidedignas de este tipo de instalaciones provienen de los restos de una piscina incompleta o natatio hallados en la C/Concepcin (12) y de la C/ Duque de Hornachuelos.

of buildings due to the enormous cost of their construction, and the importance of Corduba during the reign of the Julius Claudia dynasty is shown by the fact that it had a theatre, amphitheatre, and a circus. Excavations at the back of the old Veterinary Faculty (nowadays the Rectorado) have unearthed remains (the walls of the stands) of what was, between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, the second biggest amphitheatre (22) of the Roman Empire, after Romes Coliseum, with a capacity of 30,000 spectators. The remains of the theatre (23) (part of the cavea) are to be found in the basement of the Archaeological Museum, but the only thing known about the circus is its situation, next to the Plaza de La Corredera.

Public Performance Buildings. Only the larger cities had these kinds

el mundo funerario

THE FUNERARY WORLD

PATROCINA / SPONSORED BY

COLABORAN / COLLABORATORS

CONSEGERA DE CULTURA

Nuestro agradecimiento a la entidad patrocinadora y a los colaboradores, as como a la Unidad de Turismo y Patrimonio de la Humanidad y a la Unidad de Museos del Ayuntamiento de Crdoba, por el apoyo recibido para la puesta en marcha de la Ruta de la Crdoba de Sneca.

During the Imperial Period, the city became the capital of the Baetica Province in the Hispania Ulterior region and saw a major expansion and development programme with the construction of numerous monuments and elements of infrastructure. It had the most prosperous municipal curia in Andalusia, learned schools, and produced brilliant scholars such as Seneca and his nephew Lucan. Cordoba was the place from where official post was sent and the city was home to the administrative archives containing the provinces census. The trade in oil and minerals thrived, partly as a result of the construction of the Augustan Road which crossed the Roman bridge over the River Betis, later named the Guadalquivir. During this period the city expanded towards the river, with residential areas being constructed outside the walled precinct. The road network was reorganised and the first aqueduct was built. In addition to the consolidation and transformation of public spaces such as the forum, other emblematic constructions such as the theatre or the temple in Calle Claudio Marcelo, and numerous statues erected by the new colonial elite throughout the city also date from this time. This golden era lasted until the transition between the 3rd to the 4th centuries AD (during which the Cercadilla Complex was built), when the city fell into decline and the capital was moved to Hispalis (Seville), coinciding with the Christian expansion and the barbarian invasions (5th-6th centuries).

The Thermal Baths. Bathing was an important physical and social ritual for the Romans, and as such there is little doubt that there were a number of baths in Imperial Corduba. Although there are vestiges which point to various possible locations (Calles Cruz Conde and Amparo, Plaza del Escudo), the truth is that the only reliable information about these types of facilities come from the remains of an unfinished pool or natatio found in Calle Concepcin (12) and another discovered in Calle Duque de Hornachuelos.

hbitat privada y 0 vida cotidiana


PRIVATE HOUSES AND EVERYDAY LIFE
La casa romana. En los vici o barrios situados fuera del recinto amurallado se erigieron domus perfectamente pavimentadas y adaptadas al clima cordobs, con patio porticado, pocas ventanas y fachadas lisas. Si del vicus septentrional han perdurado restos de mosaicos en la Calle Reyes Catlicos n17 (24) y en la Avenida Ronda de Tejares n22 (25); de las excavaciones en el vicus oriental de una casa noble en la Plaza de la Corredera procede el magnfico conjunto de mosaicos de los ss. II-III que hoy se exponen en el Saln de los Mosaicos del Alczar de los Reyes Cristianos junto a un sarcfago (27) hallado en la Huerta de San Rafael del Brillante. La Escuela de Arte Dramtico (C/Blanco Belmonte n14) (26) y el Palacio de Viana poseen tambin valiosos mosaicos (28). Especial relevancia poseen por su inters arqueolgico y su buen estado de conservacin la casa romana del Bailo (29) que actualmente se puede 27 vislumbrar desde uno de los patios del antiguo Palacio de los Castejn, actual Hotel Palacio del Bailo, a travs de su pavimento transparente; y la lujosa villa romana de Santa Rosa (30) (finales del

Los foros. La proliferacin de plazas o foros no hace sino confirmar

la importancia del desarrollo urbano alcanzado por la Corduba imperial. Al Foro republicano de la Colonia se sum a inicios de la poca imperial el nuevo Foro Adiectum, cuyos restos se conservan en la sede del Colegio de Abogados (13) de la C/Morera. A mediados del s. I d.C. se erigi una tercera plaza, el Foro Provincial, al este de la ciudad.

Imperial Corduba reached an advanced level of urban development. In addition to the Republican Forum of the Colonia, the beginning of the imperial period saw the construction of the new Forum Adiectum, the remains of which can be seen inside the College of Lawyers (13) in Calle Morera. A third plaza, the Provincial Forum, was constructed to the east of the city in the middle of the 1st century AD.

The forums. The proliferation of plazas or forums clearly confirms that

parte de los testimonios referidos a los templos que existieron en Corduba proceden de los epgrafes, inscripciones y estatuas de divinidades halladas. El nico testimonio arqueolgico de este tipo hoy visible en la ciudad es el templo situado en la C/ Claudio Marcelo (18). Este claro ejemplo de propaganda imperial, que comenz a construirse a mediados del s. I d.C., formaba parte del Foro Provincial junto a otros edificios pblicos y el circo. Hoy podemos admirar algunas de las columnas de mrmol por las que se acceda al templo, parte del altar y algunos elementos marmreos del remate de las columnas. Adems, debajo de algunos edificios adyacentes, pueden observarse las cimentaciones de los prticos que enmarcaban al templo por tres de sus lados. Sobresale tambin el gran muro de contencin (8) de la terraza superior del complejo, junto al Ayuntamiento. En la Plaza de las Doblas se halla una columna estriada del templo (19). Otros vestigios de templos son los tambores de columna republicana de la puerta del Hotel NH Amistad de la C/Cairun (20) y los capiteles en el patio de la Casa de los Caballeros de Santiago de la Plaza de Valdelasgranas (21).

El culto imperial: los templos. Gran

Necrpolis y tumbas. Los tradicionales enterramientos extramuros dieron paso en la Corduba imperial a la creacin de vas funerarias de fuerte carga ideolgica y visual, conformadas por la sucesin de tumbas monumentales y colectivas erigidas como garanta personal o familiar de memoria. Buena prueba de ello son los Monumentos Funerarios de la Puerta de Gallegos (33), dos mausoleos de forma cilndrica rematados por un tmulo y levantados durante la poca del emperador Tiberio, uno de los cuales alberga el Centro de Interpretacin del Mundo Funerario. De este mundo funerario han llegado hasta nuestros das otros vestigios tales como la Tumba de la Puerta de Sevilla o Tumba Grande del Camino Viejo de Almodvar (34); la Tumba del Palacio de la Merced (35) (un hipogeo en el interior de su ltimo stano) junto a un posible baptisterio localizado en su primer stano; y las tumbas de la C/Bodega y C/Muices. 33
Necropolis and tombs . The traditional burials outside the city walls
gave way in imperial Corduba to the creation of funerary vias, which had a strong ideological and visual component, and were made up of a succession of monumental collective tombs which guaranteed the memory of the dead. A fine example are the funerary monuments of the Puerta de Gallegos gate (33), two cylindrically shaped mausoleums, topped with a tumulus, and built during the reign of the Emperor Tiberius, one of which now houses the Funerary Interpretation Centre. Other remains of funerary rituals include: the Tomb of the Puerta de Sevilla or the Great Tomb of the Camino Viejo de Almodvar (34); The Tomb of the Palacio de la Merced (35) (a hypogeum inside the last basement) next to a possible baptistery located in the first basement; and the tombs to be found in calles Bodega and Muices.

otros cordobeses ilustres


Other Illustrious Cordobans
Desde que el general romano Marco Claudio Marcelo fundara Corduba hasta que las invasiones brbaras y la ocupacin visigoda acabaran con el dominio del Imperio en el territorio, fueron muchos los personajes ilustres que dejaron su legado en la ciudad romana. Vinculados a la figura de Sneca encontramos en primer lugar a su padre Marco Anneo Sneca, ilustre ciudadano romano de familia acaudalada que dedic su vida al estudio de la declamacin y a la administracin de sus bienes. Lucio Junio Anneo Galin, el hermano mayor de Sneca lleg a ser cnsul de Roma, mientras que su sobrino Marco Anneo Lucano se convirti en el ms afamado escritor de su tiempo con su libro La Farsalia y tuvo el mismo final que su to, al suicidarse tras ordenar Nern su muerte. Por su relevancia sobresale asimismo Osio de Crdoba, obispo y principal consejero del emperador Constantino el Grande, quien convirti el cristianismo en la religin oficial del Imperio romano. Venerado como un santo confesor, posee una estatua en la Plaza de las Capuchinas (36).
From the time when the Roman General Marcus Claudius Marcelo founded Corduba, until the Barbarian invasions and Visigoth occupation finally ended the Imperial domination, numerous illustrious personalities left their imprint on the Roman city. Notable people associated with Seneca include his father, Marcus Aennaeus Seneca, a significant figure from a wealthy family who dedicated his life to the study of declamation and the assiduous management of the family wealth. Lucius Junio Aennaeus Galion, Senecas older brother, became a Roman Consul, whilst his nephew Marco Aennaeus Lucanus was the most acclaimed writer of his day with his book Pharsalia. He was to suffer the same fate as his uncle, and committed suicide after being condemned to death by Nero. Another important figure was Osio de Crdoba, bishop and principal advisor of the Emperor Constantine the Great, who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. Worshipped as a Holy Confessor, there is a statue to his memory in the Plaza de las Capuchinas (36). 36

el museo arqueolgico y etnolgico


Archaeological and Ethnological Museum
Con sede en el Palacio renacentista de los Pez de Castillejo, el Museo Arqueolgico y Etnolgico (37) es gracias a su completa coleccin de poca romana uno de los mejores testimonios del esplendor que lleg a alcanzar la Corduba imperial. Entre sus piezas ms valiosas est la Afrodita agachada, copia romana de una obra de Doidalsas de Bitinia realizada en mrmol blanco griego de la isla de Paros, que fue hallada en la C/Amparo. Todo parece indicar que decor una fuente o unas termas, radicando su originalidad en los pocos ejemplares existentes en el mundo. Sobresale tambin el conjunto escultrico de Mithras Taurctono (segunda mitad del s. II) hallado en el interior de una fuente de la Villa del Mitreo en Cabra. Representa al dios persa Sol tocado con el gorro frigio, sacrificando al toro en una representacin del ciclo de la vida y la muerte. No podemos olvidar, por ltimo, tanto los mosaicos romanos del Cortejo Bquico y las Cuatro Estaciones como la mscara del dios Pan descubierta en la C/ngel Saavedra.
Situated in the renaissance Pez de Castillejo Palace, the Archaeological and Ethnological Museum (37) is, thanks to its extensive Roman collection, a fascinating testimony to the great splendour attained by Imperial Corduba. Amongst its most valuable exhibits is the crouched Aphrodite, a Roman copy of a work by Doidalsas of Bithynia in white marble on the Greek island of Paros, which was discovered in Calle Amparo. It probably formed part of a decoration for a fountain or thermal baths, its originality lying in the fact that there are very few remaining examples in the world. Also of great interest is the sculpture of Mithras Taurctono, from the second half of the 2nd century AD, s. II, which was found in a fountain in the Villa del Mitreo, in Cabra. It is an image of the Persian Sun God wearing the Phrygian bonnet killing a bull, as a representation of the cycle of life and death. Finally, we mustnt forget either the Roman mosaics depicting Bacchus Cortege and the Four Seasons or the mask of the God Pan, discovered in Calle ngel Saavedra.

monumentos
1. Mezquita, Catedral 2. Museo-Torre de la Calahorra 3. Puente romano 4. Puerta del Puente 5. Triunfo de San Rafael 6. Molinos y Noria de la Albolafia 7. Puerta de Sevilla 8. Alczar de los Reyes Cristianos 9. Caballerizas Reales 10. Hospital Mayor de San Sebastin 11. Museo Diocesano 12. Baos del Alczar Califal 13. Murallas y Puerta de Almodvar 14. Sinagoga 15. Casa Andalus 16. Casa de Sefarad 17. Antiguo Hospital del Cardenal Salazar y Capilla de San Bartolom 18. Museo Taurino 19. Zoco Municipal 20. Baos rabes de Santa Mara 21. Casa Museo Arte sobre Piel 22. Casa del Indiano 23. Iglesia de la Trinidad 24. Alminar de San Juan 25. Mausoleos romanos 26. Iglesia de San Nicols de la Villa 27. Iglesia de San Hiplito 28. Anfiteatro 29. Museo Arqueolgico 30. Iglesia del Salvador y Santo Domingo de Silos 31. Iglesia de San Miguel 32. Crculo de la Amistad y Liceo Artstico y Literario 33. Plaza de las Tendillas 34. Iglesia de Santa Victoria 35. Plaza de Capuchinos o del Cristo de los Faroles 36. Palacio de Bailo 37. Puerta del Rincn

monuments

38. Palacio de Torres Cabrera 39. Palacio y Jardines de la Merced 40. Torre de la Malmuerta 41. Iglesia Conventual de San Jos 42. Murallas de Marrubial 43. Iglesia de Nuestra Seora de Gracia 44. Iglesia de San Lorenzo 45. Iglesia de San Rafael o del Juramento 46. Iglesia de San Agustn 47. Palacio de Viana 48. Monumento a Manolete 49. Iglesia de Santa Marina 50. Convento de Santa Marta 51. Iglesia de San Andrs 52. Casa de los Luna 53. Iglesia de San Pablo 54. Palacio de los Villalones 55. Templo romano 56. Plaza de la Corredera y Casa de Doa Jacinta 57. Museo Regina de Joyera 58. Iglesia de la Magdalena 59. Iglesia de San Pedro 60. Palacio Marqueses de Benamej 61. Ermita de los Santos Mrtires 62. Iglesia de Santiago 63. Molino de Martos 64. Museo de Bellas Artes 65. Museo Julio Romero de Torres 66. Posada del Potro 67. Iglesia de San Francisco y San Eulogio de la Ajerqua 68. Arco del Portillo 69. Casa de los Marqueses del Carpio 70. Zona Arqueolgica de Cercadilla 71. Monasterio de San Jernimo de Valparaso 72. Ermitas 73. Museo del Aceite Carbonell 74. Medina Azahara

en la provincia in the province


villa romana de el ruedo, almedinilla (39)
Data de los ss. I al VII d.c. y cuenta con una de las superficies ms completas de la Pennsula Ibrica. Destaca la monumentalidad de los alzados de sus muros y la riqueza de sus elementos: mosaicos, pinturas y pavimentos. En ella se distinguen dos zonas: la Pars Urbana, que corresponde a la residencia de los propietarios, con lujos y siguiendo los modelos de casas helensticas y la Pars Rstica, zona productiva destinada a las dependencias agrcolas. Una de las caractersticas mas llamativas de la villa es la coleccin de esculturas que aport y que pueden ser admiradas en el Museo Histrico Arqueolgico. Junto a la villa apareci una necrpolis de los ss.IV - VII d.c.
Almedinilla

cisternas y criptoprtico romano, monturque (42)


Bajo el antiguo cementerio de la localidad se ubican las Cisternas romanas, uno de los ms valiosos ejemplos de la ingeniera hidrulica romana en la Pennsula Ibrica. Destaca su estado de conservacin gracias a su descubrimiento tardo a finales del s. XIX, as como su interesante musealizacin. Datan del s. I d.C. y su finalidad era recaudar y almacenar agua de lluvia para poder abastecer al pueblo. Al salir de las cisternas nos dirigiremos al Criptoprtico situado en el cercano mirador de Los Pasellos. Se trata de una galera semi-subterrnea que serva como almacn de vveres y contribua a salvaguardar el desnivel natural del terreno.

Montoro 41

Sta. Cruz

38

el yacimiento de ategua (38)

Monturque

42

43 Cabra

39 40 Puente Genil

Situado en los terrenos del Cortijo de Teba, prximo a la poblacin de Santa Cruz, a tan solo 25 km. al sur de Crdoba, se halla este yacimiento en el que se ha constatado la existencia de asentamientos humanos desde el Calcoltico hasta la Edad Media, gracias a los restos encontrados. Su excepcional situacin lo convirti en un enclave estratgico y cobr gran protagonismo en la Antigedad por el papel que jug en las guerras civiles entre pompeyanos y cesarinos, siendo definitivamente tomada por el ejrcito de Csar en el ao 45 a.C., tal como se relata en el Bellum Hispaniense. De esta poca se conservan numerosos vestigios como gran parte del recinto amurallado, restos del trazado urbano (destacando varias basas de columnas de un posible templo), cisternas y silos dedicados al almacenamiento de cereal.

The villa dates from the period between the first and seventh centuries AD, and is one of the most complete examples in the whole Iberian Peninsula. It is notable for the monumental character of the height of its walls and the richness of its features: mosaics, paintings, and floors. Two different areas can be seen: the Pars Urbana, which was where its owners lived surrounded by luxury, and built along the lines of the Hellenic houses; and the Pars Rustica, the area dedicated to agricultural production. One of the most striking aspects of the villa is the collection of sculptures which have been found, which can now be seen in the Historical and Archaeological Museum. Next to the villa is a necropolis from the 4th to 7th centuries AD.

yacimiento arqueolgico de la villa de fuente lamo, puente genil (40)

Situado en un hermoso paraje natural, es una joya nica por su buen estado de conservacin, dividindose el yacimiento en tres pocas diferentes con construcciones de diferente uso. En la primera etapa (s. I d.C.) se construyeron las termas romanas o baos pblicos, mientras que en la segunda poca (principios del s. IV d.C.) se erigi la seorial villa romana, con numerosos mosaicos figurativos de temas mitolgicos adems del nico mosaico niltico conocido hasta hoy. De su ltima poca ha llegado hasta nosotros una almazara islmica.

Situated in beautiful natural surroundings, this site is unique for its exceptional state of conservation. It is divided into three time periods with buildings for various different uses. During the first stage, the 1st century AD, thermal or public baths were constructed, and it was not until the second period, the beginning of the 4th century, that the elegant Roman villa was built, with its numerous figurative mosaics representing mythological scenes and the only Nilotic mosaic ever to be discovered. The third period is represented by a Moorish oil press.
Situated on the Cortijo de Teba, near to the village of Santa Cruz, some 25 km to the south of Cordoba, is an archaeological site which has yielded finds which provide information about human settlements from the Chalcolithic right up to the Middle Ages. Its strategic situation made it a key site in ancient times and it played a major role in the civil war between the followers of Pompeii and Caesar. It was finally taken by Caesars army in the year 45 BC, as is described in the Bellum Hispaniense. There are numerous remnants from the period including a large section of defensive wall, various urban remains with a number of bases of columns from what was quite possibly a temple, as well as cisterns, and silos for storing grain.

The Roman cisterns are to be found beneath the villages old cemetery, and represent one of the finest examples of Roman hydraulic works in the whole of the Iberian Peninsula. Because they were not discovered until the end of the 19th century they have been extremely well preserved, and therefore have been converted into interesting museums. Dating from the 1st century AD their purpose was to collect and store rainwater for use in the village. After seeing the cisterns we move on to the crypto-portico situated in the nearby Los Pasellos mirador. It is a semi subterranean gallery which was used to store provisions and contributed to combat the natural steepness of the terrain.

SIMBOLOS / SYMBOLS
Oficina de turismo / Tourist office Museo / Museum Bus Medina Azahara Aparcamientos / Parking Autobuses / Buses Taxi /Taxi TaxiTour Ferrocarril / Railways Coches de Caballo / Horse Carriage Polica / Police Servicios sanitarios / Medical Assistance Gasolinera / Petrol station Reserva / Nature reserve Permetro amurallado Crdoba imperial / Walled perimeter Imperial Cordoba

museo arqueolgico, cabra (43)


Son innumerables los restos procedentes de villas romanas localizadas en sus cercanas, destacando las excavaciones de la Fuente de las Piedras (Villa de Mitreo), de la que se recuperaron impresionantes mosaicos (que se exponen en las paredes y patio central del museo), la escultura del Mithras Taurctonos del Museo Arqueolgico provincial, un dios Baco o Dionysos en mrmol blanco y Eros dormido. There are numerous remains from the surrounding Roman villas, and particularly the Mitreo Villa site in Fuente de las Piedras, where a number of remarkable mosaics were discovered which are now displayed on the walls and in the central courtyard of the museum. Other finds from the villa include a sculpture of Mithras Taurctonos (now in the Provincial Archaeological Museum), a statue of the god Bacchus or Dionysus in white marble, and a sleeping figure of Eros.

museo arqueolgico municipal, montoro (41)

Entre sus fondos hay que destacar una escultura romana con coraza (Thoracata) del s. I., que representa a un alto dignatario poltico o militar; la cabeza de un Lar y un fauno, as como una tgula con inscripcin. Y tambin una ficha de un ludus latrumculorum (juego romano parecido a las damas). The museums exhibits include a Roman sculpture with breastplate (Thoracata) from the 1st century depicting a high-ranking politician or military figure; the head of a Lar and a faun, and a tegula with an inscription. There is also a piece from a ludus latrumculorum (a Roman board game similar to draughts).

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