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Hybrid Electric Vehicles


Brought to you by-
Ritesh Bhusari

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1. INTRODUCTION

Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. In


fact, many people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. For example, a
moped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a
gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider. Hybrid vehicles are all around us. These
include Giant mining trucks, Submarines, diesel-electric buses, locomotives etc.
The gasoline-electric hybrid car is just that a cross between a gasoline-
powered car and an electric car. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the internal
combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an
electric vehicle, resulting in twice the fuel economy of conventional vehicles. This
combination offers the extended range and rapid refueling that consumers expect from a
conventional vehicle, with a significant portion of the energy and environmental benefits of
an electric vehicle. The practical benefits of HEVs include improved fuel economy and
lower emissions compared to conventional vehicles. The inherent flexibility of HEVs will
allow them to be used in a wide range of applications, from personal transportation to
commercial hauling.
The flexibility in the design of hybrid vehicles comes from the ability of the
control strategy to manage how much power is flowing to or from each component. There
are many (often conflicting) objectives desirable for HEVs, the primary ones being:
· Maximize fuel economy
· Minimize emissions
· Minimize propulsion system cost to keep overall vehicle cost affordable to the
consumer market
· Do all of the above while maintaining or improving upon acceptable performance
(acceleration, range, handling, noise, etc.)

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2. NEED OF HYBRID VEHICLES

The most challenging task for automobile scientists is to provide pollution


free vehicle for the people in the next millennium. The fossil fuel like gasoline & diesel
which are being used in present are causing serious problem to environment condition by
polluting the atmosphere which is a quit dangerous to human life.
The reserves of petroleum products are also limited & hence cause serious
concerns in future if they are exhausted. The four closed linked problem of air pollution,
global warming resource depletion & noise pollution cannot be solved by continuation of
past trends i.e. program to improve new vehicle performances. So there is need to go
alternate possible solutions.
Other alternative fuel vehicle operating on natural gas, alcohol or dimethyl
ether (underdevelopment)are in category of conventional fuelled vehicles. To overcome
above problem is electrical vehicle, which is also called as zero emission vehicles. The
electrical power could be obtained either from batteries or fuel cells. Batteries still plagued
with limitations in terms of their energy performance cost, power performance as well as
durability. Fuel cells producing electricity directly by electrochemical oxidation of
hydrogen, for vehicular application is serious contenders the batteries. But fuel cells still in
their primary stage the lot of research is required for their feasible use.
But till situation become a worldwide phenomenon, hybrid electric vehicles,
equipped with a gasoline engine & electric motors are offering immediate relief reducing
the toxic emission. HEV’S solves the problem of range as well as cost giving a completely
feasible as well as optimum solution.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

3. WHAT IS HEV?

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are powered by two energy sources—an


energy conversion unit (such as a combustion engine or fuel cell) and an energy storage
device (such as batteries or ultracapacitors). The energy conversion unit may be powered by
gasoline, methanol, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or other alternative fuels. Hybrid
electric vehicles have the potential to be two to three times more fuel-efficient than
conventional vehicles.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

4. HEV COMPONENTS

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is an optimized mix of various components.


Continue reading to learn about components that are found in HEVs. The HEV drivetrain
consists
· Electric traction motors/controllers
· Electric energy storage systems, such as batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels
· Hybrid power units such as spark ignition engines, compression ignition direct
injection (diesel) engines, gas turbines, and fuel cells
· Fuel systems for hybrid power units , Transmissions

Other key developments are being made to help reduce emissions and improve the

efficiency of HEVs: Emission control systems

· Energy management and systems control

· Thermal management of components

· Lightweight and aerodynamic body/chassis

· Low rolling resistance (including tires

· Reduction of accessory load

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

5. DESIGN OF HEV

Auto manufacturers are making these HEVs with comparable performance,


safety, and cost because they know that these three elements are most important to
consumers.

5.1 DESIGN OF ENGINE :

For designing of engine following aspects are considered


1. low initial cost, low weight for given power output, less knocking
2. less objectionable exhaust gas order &less smoke
3. less vibration
4. easy starting ,higher fuel economy

For considering above aspect we can use Gasoline engine than C.I and SI
engine. By combining gasoline with electric power, hybrids will have the same or greater
range than traditional combustion engines. The HEV is able to operate approximately two
times more efficiently than conventional vehicles. Various advantages that fulfills the niche
for the prime mover in the vehicle are. Along with the above advantage the gasoline engine
has following limitations:
1. These limitations along with the measured to remedy them are as below.
2. high emission level of CO&HC
3. Lower fuel economy
4. another disadvantage is that the gasoline has lower density &fuel being sold volume
causes the higher cost.
To over come the emission problem the catalytic converter efficiency for all
the three CO,HC&NOX can be used atom the outlet As the operation of the engine is to be
done at constant speed & load ,rated maximum load of operation of the gasoline engine will
its efficiency .Better technogy will unable the complete combustion fuel giving improve
fuel economy.

Hybrid efficiency:
Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, today's hybrids use many other
tricks to increase fuel efficiency. Some of those tricks will help a car get better mileage.
1. Recover energy & store it in the battery, Sometimes shut off the engine.
2. Use advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag
3. Use low-rolling resistance tires Use lightweight materials

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

5.2 HEVs Performance Compared To Gasoline Vehicles:

Performance
Rating Compared to Gasoline Vehicle
Characteristic
Power Similar
Acceleration Similar
Cruising Speed Similar
Range Similar/Bett
Vehicles that employ hybrid electric technology can
be more fuel efficient than those with straight internal
combustion engines and in many cases can travel
farther before having to fuel.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

6. HOW DO HYBRID HEV WORK?

Hybrid electric vehicles combine the best features of internal combustion


engines (1) and electric motors (3). In the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius both the engine
(1) and the electric motor (3) are connected to the wheels by the same transmission (2).
With the assistance of the electric motor the engine can be smaller.
Intelligent power electronics (4) decide when to use the motor and engine and when to store
electricity in advanced batteries (6) for future use. The electric motor is used primarily for
low speed cruising or to provide extra power for acceleration or hill climbing.

When braking or coasting to a stop, the hybrid uses its electric motor (3) as a
generator to produce electricity, which is then stored in its battery pack (6).Unlike all-
electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles do not need to be plugged into an external source of
electricity. Gasoline stored in a conventional fuel tank (5) provides all the energy the hybrid
vehicle needs

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

7. HYBRID VEHICLE CONFIGURATIONS


There are two possible configurations for hybrid vehicles,

1. Series hybrid and


2. Parallel hybrid

7.1 SERIES CONFIGURATION:


An HEV with a series configuration uses the heat engine or fuel cell with a generator
to produce electricity for the battery pack and electric motor. Series HEVs have no
mechanical connection between the hybrid power unit and the wheels; this means that all
motive power is transferred from chemical energy to mechanical energy, to electrical
energy, and back to mechanical energy to drive the wheels. Here are some benefits of a
series configuration:
· The engine never idles, which reduces vehicle emissions.
· The engine drives a generator to run at optimum performance.
· The design allows for a variety of options when mounting the engine and vehicle
components.
· Some series hybrids do not need a transmission.
The downside is that series HEVs require larger, and therefore, heavier battery packs
than parallel vehicles. In addition, the engine works hard to maintain battery charge because
the system is not operating in parallel

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

7.2 PARALLEL CONFIGURATION:

An HEV with a parallel configuration has a direct mechanical connection between


the HPU and the wheels, as in a conventional vehicle, but also has an electric motor that
drives the wheels. For example, a parallel vehicle could use the power created from an
internal combustion engine for highway driving and the power from the electric motor for
accelerating. Some benefits of a parallel configuration are:
· The vehicle has more power because both the engine and the motor supply power
simultaneously.
· Most parallel vehicles do not need a separate generator because the motor
regenerates the batteries.
· Because the power is directly coupled to the road, it can be more efficient.
A combination alternator/starter/"flywheel" is being considered for parallel HEVs.
This is essentially an electric machine that can electronically balance the engine, start the
engine, and take power from the engine and turn it into electricity. It could also provide
extra power to the driveline when power assist is needed for hill climbing or quick
acceleration.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

8. FUTURE OF HEV

HEVs are now at the forefront of transportation technology development. Hybrids


have the potential to allow continued growth in the automotive sector, while also reducing
critical resource consumption, dependence on foreign oil, air pollution, and traffic
congestion. A few examples are listed here to give a flavor of some possibilities:
The car could be warmed up or cooled down while it's still in the garage (based on a
timer) to make the first few minutes of commute more enjoyable and energy
efficient.

For "lead-foot" drivers, the control strategy could always keep batteries as close to
fully charged as possible to allow maximum power for hard accelerations and keep
the APU running continuously to have full power available on demand.
For people who drive their cars with maximum fuel economy in mind, the vehicles
would use their onboard components in such a way that they would be operating in
their highest efficiency regions as much of the time as possible.
For people who normally drive long commutes, the vehicle could turn on the APU
before batteries get depleted in anticipation of extra on-board power being needed.

For those who have a short, repeatable commute, the vehicle could delay turning on
the APU to allow the commuter to use only "wall charged" electric energy except
when driving longer trips.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

9. HEV ADVANTAGES

HEVs have several advantages over conventional vehicles:


· Regenerative braking capability helps minimize energy loss and recover the energy
used to slow down or stop a vehicle.
· Engines can be sized to accommodate average load, not peak load, which reduces
the engine's weight.
· Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (hybrids consume significantly less fuel than
vehicles powered by gasoline alone).

· Emissions are greatly decreased.


· HEVs can reduce dependency on fossil fuels because they can run on alternative
fuels.
· Special lightweight materials are used to reduce the overall vehicle weight.

· The size is perfect. We feel safe, pollute a lot less than we used to
· The car is great so far in terms of performance and reliability
· It's smooth, cute, efficient, and it teaches as we drive.
· The air conditioner and other accessories are of the highest quality and it seats four
large adults comfortable

· It has excellent acceleration and handling in all types of traffic.


· HEVs produce fewer vehicle emissions than conventional gasoline and diesel
vehicles, so driving one helps reduce air pollution.

· HEVs require no special infrastructure changes because they typically run on


gasoline or diesel and can be refueled at any service station.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

10. CONCLUSION
Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. And by
combining gasoline with electric power, hybrids will have the same or greater range than
traditional combustion engines. The HEV is able to operate approximately two times more
efficiently than conventional vehicles. More efficient cars can make a big difference to
society in terms of environmental benefits. Hybrids will never be true zero-emission
vehicles, however, because of their internal combustion engine. But the first hybrids on the
market will cut emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half, and later models
may cut emissions by even more.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles

11. REFERENCES

1. “Hybrid Solution” by Ashok Nedugadi, Ph.D & Mark Wall.


Published in “Technology Today” (spring 1999}
2. Development of prototype series HEV by Maduri Marathe &Ujjawala Karte.
(ARAI}Pune.
3. “Analysis of Batteries for HEV” by Ashok Nagarkatti. HBL Nife Limited Hyderabad.
Published in proceeding of International Symposium &Exposition on automotive
Electronic &Alternative Energy vehicles.(19-21 Nov.99)

WEB SITES:

http://www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm
http://www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm
http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/drivehev_factsheet.pdf
http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/puthev_factsheet.pdf
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybridtech.shtml
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybrid_sbs.shtml
http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev/what.htmlhttp://www.ott.doe.gov/hev/components.html
http://www.fleets.doe.gov/fleet_tool.cgi?$$,benefits,1
http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev/faqs.htmlhttp://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/techhev_factsheet.pdf

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