Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 93

Section 03: The Muscular System

Chapter 18 Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Function Chapter 19 Neural Control of Human Movement Chapter 22 Muscular Strength: Training Muscles to Become Stronger (Part 2 Structural and Functional Adaptations to Resistance Training, pp. 539-553)

HPHE 6710 Exercise Physiology II Dr. Cheatham

Chapter 18
Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Function

Chapter Objectives
Be able to identify the different overall structures/level of organization of muscle Identify the different components of a muscle fiber Understand the influence of muscle pennation on force production and velocity of contraction Understand the Sliding-Filament Model Understand excitation-contraction coupling Understand the different muscle fiber types and the influence on muscle performance

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Levels of Organization
Connective tissue layers
Endomysium
Wraps each muscle fiber, separates from other fibers

Perimysium
Surrounds a bundle of fibers (up to 150) called a fasciculus

Epimysium
Surrounds all the bundles to form the entire muscle Tapers at both proximal and distal ends to form tendons (connect muscle to bone) Origin: More stable bone Insertion: Moving bone

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Levels of Organization (contd)
Sarcolemma
Thin elastic membrane that surrounds the muscle fiber Plasma membrane
Bilayer lipid structure that conducts the electrochemical wave of depolarization over the surface of the muscle fiber

Basement membrane
Proteins and strands of collagen fibrils that fuse with the outer covering of the tendon

Satellite Cells
Between the plasma and basement membranes Cellular growth, recovery, hypertrophy

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Levels of Organization (contd)
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Extensive latticelike network of tubules and vesicles Provides structural integrity Stores, releases, and reabsorbs Ca2+

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Chemical Composition
75% water 20% protein
Myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin, myoglobin

5% salts, phosphates, ions, macronutrients

Blood Supply
Skeletal muscle has a rich vascular network
200 to 500 capillaries per mm2 of muscle

Flow is rhythmic
Vessels compress during contraction phase Vessels open during relaxation phase

Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure


Myofibrils contain myofilaments.
Actin (thin filament) Myosin (thick filament)

Also of functional importance


Troponin Tropomyosin

In addition, there are several other structural proteins.

Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure

Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure


The Sarcomere
Most basic, functional unit of a muscle fiber Runs from Z line to Z line

Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure

Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure


Sarcomere (contd)
A Band (Dark)
Overlap of thick and thin filaments

H Zone
Lower density, lack of actin

M Band
Sarcomeres center

I Band (Light)
Lower density

Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure

Muscle Fiber Alignment


Long axis of a muscle
From origin to insertion Determines fiber arrangement
Fusiform: Fibers run parallel to long axis
Rapid muscle shortening

Pennate: Fibers are at an oblique angle to long axis


Bipennate, Multipennate Greater force production

Fiber arrangement influences


Force-generating capacity Physiologic cross sections

Muscle Fiber Alignment

Muscle Fiber Alignment

Actin-Myosin Orientation
Actin filaments lie in a hexagonal pattern around myosin. Crossbridges spiral around the myosin where actin and myosin overlap.

Actin-Myosin Orientation
Tropomyosin
Lies along actin in the groove formed by the double helix
Inhibits actinmyosin interaction

Troponin
Embedded at regular intervals along actin
Interacts with Ca2+ Moves tropomyosin, uncovering active actin sites

Actin-Myosin Orientation

Actin-Myosin Orientation
Intracellular Tubule Systems
The T tubular system is distributed around the myofibrils such that each sarcomere has two triads. Each triad contains
2 vesicles 1 T tubule

Actin-Myosin Orientation

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

Sliding Filament Model


Contraction occurs as myosin and actin slide past one another. Myosin crossbridges cyclically attach, rotate, and detach from actin filaments. Energy is provided by ATP hydrolysis.

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

Sarcomere Length-Isometric Tension

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

Link Between Actin, Myosin, and ATP


Myosin head bends around ATP molecule, becomes cocked Myosin interacts with actin. ATP is hydrolyzed. Energy release forces power stroke.

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

http://youtu.be/0kFmbrRJq4w

Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxation

ExcitationContraction Coupling

Muscle Fiber Types


Fast-Twitch Fibers (Type II)
High capacity to transmit AP High myosin ATPase activity Rapid Ca2+ release and uptake by SR High rate of crossbridge turnover Capable of high force generation Rely on anaerobic metabolism Low myosin ATPase activity Slower Ca2+ release and uptake by SR Low glycolytic capacity Large and numerous of mitochondria

Slow-Twitch Fibers (Type I)

Muscle Fiber Types


Fast-Twitch Subdivisions
IIa fibers
Fast shortening speed Moderately well-developed capacity for both anaerobic and aerobic energy production

IIb fibers
Most rapid shortening velocity Rely on anaerobic energy production

Muscle Fiber Types

Muscle Fiber Types

http://youtu.be/6Ts_INXzhzM

Muscle Fiber Types

http://youtu.be/ewKFGVFtnII

Muscle Fiber Types

Muscle Fiber Types

Muscle Fiber Types

Chapter 19
Neural Control of Human Movement

Chapter Objectives
Review the CNS and peripheral nervous system Understand motor unit anatomy Review the action potential Understand the concept of excitationcontraction coupling Understand the activities of the motor unit as they relate to force production Be familiar with the characteristics of different muscle fiber types Understand proprioception

Neuromotor System Organization


Human nervous system has two major parts:
Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System

Neuromotor System Organization


CNS The Brain
Six main areas:
Medulla oblongata Pons Midbrain Cerebellum Diencephalon Telencephalon

Neuromotor System Organization


CNS The Brain (contd)
Cerebellum
Receives motor output signals from the central command in the cortex Obtains sensory input from peripheral receptors in muscles, tendons, joints, skin and from auditory, visual, and vestibular end organs Serves as the major comparing, evaluating, and integrating center for postural adjustments, locomotion, maintenance of equilibrium, perceptions of speed of body movement

Neuromotor System Organization


CNS The Brain (contd)
Diencephalon
Thalamus Hypothalamus
Regulates metabolic rate and body temperature Influences activity of the ANS Regulates and maintains the bodys internal milieu

Neuromotor System Organization


CNS The Brain (contd)
Telencephalon
Contains two hemispheres of cerebral cortex 4 lobes
Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital

Neuromotor System Organization


CNS The Brain (contd)
Brainstem
Medulla oblongata
Serves as bridge between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum

Pons Midbrain

Neuromotor System Organization


CNS The Spinal Cord
45 cm long, 1 cm diameter Encased by 33 vertebrae Provides for two-way flow of communication between brain and periphery via nerve tracts and sensory receptors Spinal cord contains three types of neurons
Motor neurons
Efferent fibers run to the skeletal muscle fibers

Sensory neurons
Afferent fibers that enter the spinal cord from the periphery

Interneurons

Neuromotor System Organization

Neuromotor System Organization


Peripheral Nervous System
31 pairs of spinal nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves Two types of efferent neurons
Somatic neurons: innervate skeletal muscle Autonomic neurons: activate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, sweat and salivary glands, and some endocrine glands

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

Neuromotor System Organization

Neuromotor System Organization

Neuromotor System Organization


The Reflex Arc

Nerve Supply to Muscle


One nerve innervates at least one of the bodys approximately 250 million muscle fibers Individuals possess approximately 420,000 motor neurons The number of muscle fibers per motor neuron generally relates to a muscles movement pattern Thinking question: Which neurons would only innervate a few muscle fibers? Which neurons would innervate several hundred muscle fibers?

Nerve Supply to Muscle


Motor Unit Anatomy
Motor Unit: The functional unit of movement
Motor neuron and innervated muscle fibers

Motor Neuron Pool: The collection of alpha motor neurons that innervate a single muscle

Nerve Supply to Muscle


Motor Unit Anatomy (contd)
The Anterior Motor Neuron

Nerve Supply to Muscle


Motor Unit Anatomy (contd)
The Anterior Motor Neuron
Neuromuscular Junction

Action Potential Review

Action Potential Review

Action Potential Review

Nerve Supply to Muscle


Motor Unit Anatomy (contd)
The Anterior Motor Neuron
Excitation
Facilitation Temporal summation Spatial Summation Inhibition

Nerve Supply to Muscle

Nerve Supply to Muscle

Motor Unit Functional Characteristics


Twitch Characteristics

Motor Unit Functional Characteristics


Twitch Characteristics (contd)

Motor Unit Functional Characteristics


Tension Characteristics
All or none principle

Gradation of force
Motor unit recruitment
To increase force, more motor units are recruited Motor units are recruited from smaller axons to larger axons (size principle)

Discharge frequency

Motor Unit Functional Characteristics


Tension Characteristics (contd)
Neuromuscular Fatigue
Fatigue is the decline in muscle tension or force capacity with repeated stimulation Voluntary muscle contractions are the result of a chain of events/systems:
CNS Alterations in neurotransmitters, ammonia, cytokins (central fatigue) Peripheral Nervous System Fatigue ?? Neuromuscular Junction Fatigue ?? Muscle Fiber Glycogen depletion, PO2, H+, reduced enzyme activity, etc. (p. 409)

Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptors

Muscle Spindles
Provide sensory feedback about changes in muscle fiber length and tension

Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptors

Muscle Spindles (contd)


Stretch Reflex
Spindle responding to stretch Afferent nerve fiber Efferent spinal cord motor neuron

Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptors

Golgi Tendon Organs


Located at musculotendonous junction Detect difference in tension generated by active muscle Respond to tension generated by
Muscle contraction Passive stretch

Protect muscle from excessive load

Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptors

Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptors

Pacinian Corpuscles
Small ellipsoidal bodies Located near Golgi tendon organs Embedded in a single unmyelinated nerve fiber Detect changes in movement or pressure

Chapter 22
Muscular Strength: Training Muscles to Become Stronger (Part 2 Structural and Functional Adaptations to Resistance Training, pp. 539-547)

Section Objectives
Understand the mechanisms relating to muscle hypertrophy Understand the mechanisms relating to muscle fiber type alteration

Introduction

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Psychologic-Neural Factors

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Journal of Applied Physiology, 1961.

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Psychologic-Neural Factors (contd)

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Muscular Factors

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Muscular Factors Muscle Hypertrophy


The primary stimulus for muscle hypertrophy is an increase in muscular tension/force Mechanical stress triggers signaling proteins to activate genes that activate translation of mRNA and stimulate protein synthesis What, though, signals this response to occur
Will cover in a few slides (Muscle Cell Remodeling)

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Significant Metabolic Adaptations Occur


Fiber type alteration

I IIA IIX IIB

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Muscle Cell Remodeling: Current Thinking


Muscle is a dynamic tissue in that it can change It is well established that muscle hypertrophy can occur and most likely fiber types can change as well What changes actually occur?:
Fiber Type
Most likely changes in the myosin ATPase isoform expression

Increase in muscle size


Hypertrophy: the addition of more muscle proteins to existing muscle fibers Hyperplasia: new muscle fibers

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Muscle Cell Remodeling: Current Thinking


These changes to muscle have one thing in common:
There is a change in gene expression or mRNA which will lead to an increase (or decrease) in protein synthesis

The underlying question:


What signals cause gene expression to be turned on or turned off for a specific protein The answer to this question is not entirely clear

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Fiber Type Changes


Again, the change really is a change in the isoform of myosin ATPase
Intracellular calcium may play a role

Hypertrophy
Autocrine signals (IFG-1, Prostaglandins) Acute immune response (IL-6) Growth factors Early response genes Regulation of myostatin Activation of satellite cells

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength

Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength