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PIPING INSTRUMENT ABBRVIATIONS Introduction Instruments are devices attached to equipment and pipes for indicating, reading, recording

and controlling the operating conditions in the piping systems. In instrumentation diagrams standard symbols are used. Complete industry standard for instruments symbols and lettering abbreviations are in the controlled document ANSI/ISA-5.1. Instruments are critical components in piping systems because they are needed to ensure smooth flow of fluid and maintain desired production levels. They are used to monitor and control parameters like flow rate, pressure and temperature. Instruments sense, transmit, indicate, record or control process parameters such as temperature, pressure, flow, and level. An instrument must detect a change in a parameter like temperature, pressure or flow to be useful. This change is converted into a signal like current or voltage that is calibrated for interpretation. Often there is the need to change a signal from one energy form to another. For example, a current signal may have to be converted to a pressure signal or verse versa. A transducer is used for this application. Process Variables Industrial processes are characterized by variables which describe the relevant attributes of the processes. For example, physical objects have mass and weight. In SI units, mass is measured in kilograms (kg) and weight is measured in newton (N). Mass is independent of the acceleration due to gravity, but weight is not. Mass or weight can be related to the volume of an object giving rise to a quantity described as density. Mass density is defined as mass per unit volume while weight density is weight per unit volume. The mass or weight of an object can be estimated from the product of the volume and mass or weight density, respectively. Thus mass or weight and density can be important attributes of a process and hence considered to be process variables. Temperature, pressure, flow velocity, flow rate, liquid level, and analysis are common variables in process systems that are measured for process control and product quality. Temperature is an indicator of the heat or thermal energy level in a system or of a substance. Intuitively, it gives the sense of hotness and coldness. Heat or thermal energy is due to molecular motion or kinetic activity in a substance or system. Pressure is the intensity of force over a surface. Pressure is described as a scalar quantity because it is defined by its size only; the direction of pressure at a point is not relevant. Fluid flow is the passage of fluid through a container. It is influenced by several factors such as flow velocity, fluid density, fluid viscosity, and pipe size. Viscosity is the internal resistance fluids experience when flowing. It is very sensitive to temperature; therefore viscosity is often stated at the relevant temperature. Level refers to the height or depth of substances in a container. This could be measured in units of length; meter in Metric units, and feet in English units, or as percentage. Level is an indirect measure of the volume or amount of a substance in a container. Analysis is the process of determining the types of substances and their proportion in a sample. There are two types of analysis, namely qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis determines the types of substances in a sample. Quantitative analysis determines the amount of each substance in a sample. Analyzer is the instrument used to carry out analysis on samples of substances. Sample analysis is used for monitoring various physical and chemical properties of process streams. Process Variables are represented with acronyms and abbreviations in piping schematics, diagrams and drawings. The common abbreviations are A for analysis or analyzer function, F for flow measure, L for level (L) or Capacity measure, P: for pressure, and T for temperature. Instruments abbreviations include G for gauges, A for alarm, I for indicator, R for recorder and C for controller.The sensing instruments or sensors are called primary elements such as flow element (FE), pressure element (PE), temperature element (TE), level element (LE), and analyzer or analysis element (AE). Gauges measure the pressure, temperature or liquid level in equipment. Indicators display the level of process parameters. Recorders record the level of process parameters while controllers are used to activate other devices so as to

maintain a specific level of a process parameter. Alarms produce light or sound signals when operating levels of process parameters are too high or too low. They are also activated when there is no flow or a back flow occurs. Also instrument indicators, such as pressure (PI), temperature (TI), volume flow (FI), and volume level (LI) are very vital for operating piping systems. They may be mounted directly on the pipe branch or on a central panel.

Fig. 1: Instrument symbols

Fig. 2: Instrument symbols

Fig. 3: Instrument symbols Process flow diagrams and piping drawings show instruments using symbols. Instrument symbols are combinations of balloons, lines, letters, and numbers. Balloons are basic shapes such as circles, pentagons, etc. used to enclose the letters and numbers of instrument symbols. The circle is the most popular balloon. A single circle indicates a stand-alone instrument. Touching balloons mean the instruments share a common housing. Other shapes often modify the circle. Balloons indicate a) location, b) accessibility, c) general characteristics such as shared or discrete mounting, or computerized. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and The Instrument Society of America publish the complete industry standard for instrument symbols and lettering abbreviations in the controlled document ANSI/ISA-S5.1 and ISO 14617-6. Table 1 shows common balloons associated with instrument symbols.

Table 1: Instrument and mounting

Referring to Table 1, a symbol of a circle inside a square describes an instrument that performs more than one function such as shared display or shared control. A computer function is represented by a hexagon and a programmable logic controller is represented by a diamond inside a square. Instruments may be mounted locally on the pipes and equipments in the field or on panels in control rooms. Locally mounted instruments are connected most often with small-diameter fittings on instrument lines. They must be placed where they can be seen and read easily. In the control rooms, panels, dashboards and consoles provide locations for access to the instruments. The console, panel, or board mounted instruments receive signals from the field instruments comprising mainly of sensors and transmitters. Panel or board mounted instruments have a horizontal line at the middle of the balloon symbol. If the horizontal line is of the broken or dashed type, the instrument is mounted behind at the panel or board. The letters in a symbol appear at the top of the balloon and identify the type and function(s) of the instrument. The letters must be interpreted in order, beginning with the first. The first letter identifies the process variable such as flow, pressure, analysis, etc. The second letter identifies the primary function of the instrument while subsequent letters can indicate other functions or are primary function qualifiers. Table 2 below gives some instrument function abbreviations. Letter First Order Use Succeeding Order Use A Analysis Alarm B Burner, Flame C User choice Controller D User choice Differential E Voltage Element F Flow G User Choice Gauge H Hand High I Current Indicator J Power K Time Control station L Level Low P Pressure Undefined Q Quantity Totalize, Quality R Radiation Recorder S Speed, Frequency Safety, Switch T Temperature Transmitter U Multivariable Multifunction V Vibration Valve, Viscosity W Weight Well Y Event, State Solenoid, Coil, Compute Z Position Table 2: Instrument function abbreviation The numbers inside a balloon are located at the bottom and identify the loop or tag number for the instrument. A loop number groups all instruments monitoring and controlling a process variable into one control unit. Equipment may have several loop numbers associated with it if more than one process variables must be controlled for proper functioning. Loop numbers are normally assigned by designers or engineers. Fig. 4 shows an example of an instrument symbol.

Fig. 4: Instrument symbol

Referring to Fig. 4; the letters are FE and the numbers are 150. FE. Flow Element (Function abbreviation) 150 Loop reference number The instrument symbol is linked to a device by a connection line of the appropriate signal type. The line represents a physical signal link that could be air (pneumatic), liquid (hydraulic), current, or voltage. Instrument pipes are normally smaller in size than the process lines. Instrument pipes may be connected with a coupling to the process lines. Common instrument pipe sizes are 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 nominal diameters. The control of process variable is done after a comparison is made between actual values and desired values. A difference in these values necessitates the need to effect a change and a control signal is transmitted to a final control device, usually a valve, in the control loop. The control signal is used to activate the final control devices that effect changes in the process conditions. In manual control, the final control device is physically adjusted by somebody. In automatic control, the final control device is activated by means of electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or some other mechanisms without human intervention. The figures below show how instruments are represented in flow diagrams. Control loops have two or more instruments connected to ensure the monitoring and control of a process variable. Control loops are numbered for documentation and reference purposes.

Fig. 5: Temperature indicator

Fig. 6: Flow indicator (Orifice meter)

Fig. 7: Pressure indicator

Fig. 8: Pressure recorder

Fig. 9: Instrument mounting symbols

Piping Abreviations The labeling requirements for all of the above are specified in ANSI A13.1-2007 and ASME A13.1-2007. The above pipe marking guide provides this ANSI and ASME pipe labeling information. Abbreviation and letter - label coloring based on ASME A13.1 - 2007 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems: Label Colors Label Abbreviation System, Pipe Contents (Background - Text) CHWR Chilled Water Return Green - White CHWS Chilled Water Supply Green - White CWR Condenser Water Return Green - White CWS Condenser Water Supply Green - White FOR Fuel Oil Return Yellow - Black FOS Fuel Oil Supply Yellow - Black HPC High Pressure Condensate Blue - White High Pressure Steam (above HPS Blue - White 125#) HWR Hot Water Heating Return Green - White HWS Hot Water Heating Supply Green - White LPC Low Pressure Condensate Blue - White LPS Low Pressure Steam (below 25#) Blue - White MPC Medium Pressure Condensate Blue - White Medium Pressure Steam MPS Blue - White (above 25# - below 125#) PCR Pumped Condensate Return Blue - White ACID Acid Waste Orange - Black BR Brine Water Orange - Black FIRE Fire Suppression Water Red - White HAZ Hazardous Waste Orange - Black DI or RO High Purity Water Green - White DCW Potable Cold Water Green - White DHW Potable Hot Water Supply Green - White DHWR Potable Hot Water Return Green - White NG Natural Gas Yellow - Black LN2 Nitrogen (liquid) Black - White Med Air Medical air Yellow - Black CO2 Carbon dioxide Gray - White He Helium Brown - White N2 Nitrogen Black - White N2O Nitrous oxide Blue - White O2 Oxygen Green - White Med Vac Medical?surgical vacuum White - Black WAGD Waste anesthetic gas disposal Violet - White Yellow and White Lab Air Laboratory air checkerboard - Black

Label Abbreviation Lab Vac IA CFHE BCE RE ETOE

System, Pipe Contents Laboratory vacuum Instrument air Chemical Fume Hood Exhaust Biosafety Cabinet Exhaust Radioisotope Exhaust ETO Exhaust

Label Colors (Background - Text) White and Black checkerboard - Black boxed Red - White Purple - White Purple - White Yellow - magenta Purple - white

ASME A13.1 - 2007 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems - is intended to establish a common system to assist in identification of hazardous materials conveyed in piping systems and their hazards when released in the environment -concerns identification of contents of piping systems in industrial and power plants - recommended for the identification of piping systems used in commercial and institutional installations and in buildings used for public assembly. Summary Instruments are devices attached to equipment and pipes for indicating, reading, recording and controlling the operating conditions in the piping systems. In instrumentation diagrams standard symbols are used. Complete industry standard for instruments symbols and lettering abbreviations are in the controlled document ANSI/ISA-5.1. The common process variables are: analysis (A), Analyzer function; flow (F), flow rate measure; level (L), capacity measure; pressure (P), operating pressure; and temperature (T), operating temperature. The common types of instruments in piping processes are: gauges (G), measures level or value of a variable; alarm (A), signals (light or sound) when variable value is out of range; indicators (I), indicate level or value of a variable; recorder (R), records level or value of a variable; and controllers (C), use variable signal level to control instrument. The sensing instruments or sensors are called primary elements such as flow element (FE), pressure element (PE), temperature element (TE), level element (LE), and analyzer or analysis element (AE). Gauges measure the pressure, temperature or liquid level in equipment. Indicators display the level of process parameters. Recorders record the level of process parameters while controllers are used to activate other devices so as to maintain a specific level of a process parameter. Alarms produce light or sound signals when operating levels of process parameters are too high or too low. They are also activated when there is no flow or a back flow occurs. Also instrument indicators, such as pressure (PI), temperature (TI), volume flow (FI), and volume level (LI) are very vital for operating piping systems. They may be mounted directly on the pipe branch or on a central panel. Standards of note in piping systems include: ASME B31.2 - gives standards for pressurized piping NFPA 54 - Is the National Fuel Gas Code NFPA 58 - Is the Liquified Petroleum Code These codes do not specify pipe labeling requirements. The labeling requirements for all of the above are specified in ANSI A13.1-2007 and ASME A13.1-2007.