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PLUPERFECT

This tense is used to: - indicate a past action, event or situation that had happened before another past action started! e.g. Nous avions dj commenc manger quand mon pre est rentr la maison. We had already started eating (pluperfect tense/ le plus-queparfait) when my dad came back home (perfect tense/ le pass compos). - describe actions, events or situations in the past that had happened or had been true at a point in the past Forming the pluperfect tense/ le plus-que-parfait : 1. If a verb takes avoir/tre in the perfect tense (pass compos), then it will take avoir/tre in the pluperfect (plus-que-parfait) too! conjugate the auxiliary avoir/tre in the imperfect tense 2. use the past participle (dont forget the agreement if necessary!) auxiliary avoir/tre (imperfect) avoir avais avais avait avions aviez avaient tre tais tais tait tions tiez taient past participle donn fini bu pris eu t fait arriv (e/s) sorti (e/s) descendu (e/s)

APRS AVOIR + PAST PARTICIPLE


(= after having + past participle) This is used to talk about what somebody did. You use the expression: aprs avoir + past participle aprs tre + past participle = after having + P.P aprs (s)tre + past participle N.B: When you use tre, the agreement still applies! e.g. Aprs avoir pris mon petit djeuner, je suis all lcole. After having taken my breakfast I went to school. e.g. Aprs tre mont dans le train, jai compost mon ticket. After having gotten on the train I stamped my ticket. e.g. Aprs mtre rveill, je me suis lav. After having waken up, I showered.

AVANT DE + INFINITIVE
Subject je/j tu il/elle/on nous vous ils/elles ( = before verb+_ing ) To translate before doing something in French, use the expression: avant de + infinitive e.g. Avant de djeuner, je me lave les mains. Before having lunch I wash my hands. e.g. Avant dentrer dans une pice, je frappe la porte. Before entering a room, I knock on the door. e.g. Avant de mendormir, je lis un livre. Before sleeping I read a book.

There are two instances where the English past perfect will not be translated into French by the pluperfect but rather by the imperfect. 1. After expressions or affirmative statement like: - depuis + time - il y avait + time + que - a faisait + time + que e.g. Il travaillait Paris depuis cinq ans quand on lui a offert un poste Singapour. He had been working (imperfect tense/ limparfait) in Paris for five years when they offered (perfect tense/ le pass compos) him a job in Singapore. 2. To express the English had just + past participle, French uses the verb venir in the imperfect tense + de + infinitive e.g. Il venait de partir. He had just left. N.B: If you wish to talk about what somebody has just done, use the expression venir de + infinitive.

(PAST) CONDITIONAL TENSE (2)


Forming the past conditional tense/le conditionnel pass : auxiliary past avoir/tre (present participle conditional) Subject je/j avoir tre Dont forget tu the aurais serais il/elle/on agreement aurais serais nous with the aurait serait vous auxiliary aurions serions tre and ils/elles pronominal auriez seriez verbs. auraient seraient

(PAST) CONDITIONAL TENSE (1)


This is the equivalent of the English would have + past participle, e.g. I would have gone = Je serais all (e)/ She would have said = Elle aurait dit This tense is used to: - indicate a past actions or situations that would have happened but did not, because something prevented them from taking place! e.g. Nous serions sortis si il navait pas plu. We would have gone out (past conditional tense/ le conditionnel pass) if it hadnt rained (pluperfect tense/ le plus-que-parfait). - express a possibility or eventuality in the past: e.g. Tt ou tard, les gens auraient su son ge. Sooner or later, people would have found out (past conditional tense/ le conditionnel pass) her age. - The past conditional frequently expresses a reproach or regret about an action that wasnt performed in the past (often with the verb devoir = should have, vouloir = would have liked, pouvoir = could have). e.g. Tu aurais pu nous prvenir, on sest fait du souci. You could have informed us (past conditional tense/ le conditionnel pass), we were worried.

The past conditional is often introduced after the conjunction que = that and si = whether/ if that states a condition while the main clause states the consequence or result of this condition. The conditional can never be used in the si clause, it only appears in the main clause. si - clause present tense imperfect main clause future tense present conditional past conditional examples Sil fait beau, nous irons au cin. Sil faisait beau, nous irions au cin. Sil avait fait beau, nous serions alls au cin.

pluperfect