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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA M.E.

G AND CENTRE BANGALORE

PHYSICS PROJECT REPORT


2012-2013

Name : DEEPAK ASLIA Class : XII - B Reg.No :

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

Teacher in Charge

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I Deepak Aslia of class XII B has taken efforts in this project. However it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am indebted to Mrs. V BALASARASWATHY Mam for her guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and also for her support in completing the project.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project titled as Factors Affecting Resistance of Wire Submitted by Nikhil Singh to Physics Department of KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA M.E.G AND CENTRE BANGALORE was carried under the guidance and supervision during the academic year 2012-2013.

Teacher in charge

Head of Institute

CONTENTS:
1.Aim 2.Apparatus Required 3.theory 4.Diagram 5. procedure 6.Observation 7.Graph 8.Conclusion 9.Bibliography

INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE RESISTANCE OF WIRE

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.Ammeter 2.Voltmeter 3.Copper wires a.Thickness-28 SWG and 34 SWG b. Length -10cm,20cm , 30cm , 40cm &50cm

THEORY:
In the hydraulic analogy, current flowing through a wire (or resistor) is like water flowing through a pipe, and the voltage drop across the wire is like the pressure drop which pushes water through the pipe. Resistance is proportional to how much pressure is required to achieve a given flow. The voltage drop (i.e., difference in voltage between one side and the other), not the voltage itself, is the driving force pushing current through a resistor. In hydraulics, it is similar: The pressure difference between two sides of a pipe, not the pressure itself, determines the flow through it. For example, there may be a large water pressure above the pipe, which tries to push water down through the pipe. But there may be an equally large water pressure below the pipe, which tries to push water back up through the pipe. If these pressures are equal, no water will flow.

The resistance of a wire is generally determined by two factors: geometry (shape) and materials. Geometry is important because it is more difficult to push water through a long, narrow pipe than a wide, short pipe. In the same way, a long, thin copper wire has higher resistance (lower conductance) than a short, thick copper wire. Materials are important as well. A pipe filled with hair restricts the flow of water more than a clean pipe of the same shape and size. In a similar way, electrons can flow freely and easily through a copper wire, but cannot as easily flow through a steel wire of the same shape and size, and they essentially cannot flow at all through an insulator like rubber, regardless of its shape. The difference between, copper, steel, and rubber is related to their microscopic structure and electron configuration, and is quantified by a property called resistivity.

Formula Used:

V = I

R (Volt) (Amps) (Ohm)

V = Potential I = Current R = Resistance

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
A).EXPERIMENT 1: *Set up the circuit as drawn on the previous page. *Choose what length of resistance wire you will study first. Measure the wire with the meter stick and place the crocodile clips at the appropriate places on the wire to connect the resistance wire into the circuit. *Switch the power supply on and record the ammeter reading and the voltmeter reading in a table. *Change the power supply voltage to get a second reading and record the readings on the ammeter and voltmeter in observation table 1.

*Use the formula R = V/I to get the resistance of the results and record it. *Choose another length, and repeat the stages above.

B).EXPERIMENT 2: *Set up the circuit as shown in circuit diagram . *Choose what length and area of wire you will study first. Measure the wire with the meter stick and place the crocodile clips at the appropriate places on the wire to connect the resistance wire into the circuit. *Switch the power supply on and record the ammeter reading and the voltmeter reading in a table. *Change the power supply voltage to get a second reading and record the readings on the ammeter and voltmeter in observation table 2. *Use the formula R = V/I to get the resistance of the results and record it.

*Choose another length and Area repeat the stages above.

OBSERVATION:
1. TABLE 1:
Voltage(V) Current(A) Resistance 0 0 0 2 0.8 2.5 4 1.12 3.57 6 1.38 4.34 8 1.59 5.03

2. TABLE 2: Thickness-28SWG

Length Voltage Current

10 20 30 40 50 1.15 1.67 2.02 2.29 2.37 2.25 1.77 1.48 1.2 1.08

Resistance

0.51 0.94 0.36 0.9

2.19

Thickness-34SWG
Length Voltage Current Resistance 10 1.03 1.26 0.8 20 1.51 0.81 1.9 30 1.87 0.66 3 40 2.02 0.47 4.3 50 2.12 0.38 5.6

GRAPH:

CONCLUSION:
The resistance of wire is dependent on area and length of wire. Resistance increases with length and decreases with area.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Verma,HC(2012)Concept of physics. Faridabad , Bharati Bhavan. Serway,Jewett(2011)Principles of Physics, Thomson Brooks/cole