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INTRODUCTION Grammar is the science of language.

The standard of grammatical accuracy of a language is the established practice of the best speaker and writers of the language. A usage becomes good and legal when it has been long and generally adopted. Grammar represents our linguistic competence, a set of rules that denotes the standard structure of o language.In grammar, we will discuss the speech sounds of language and its sound pattern, the basic unit of meaning such as words and the rules that combine them to make sentences. The grammar of language is the linguistic competence that we have of the language. The study of grammar can be viewed from a few perspectives. It can refer to the abstract system of rules that presumably exists in the mind of a speaker of a language, the knowledge that we refer to when we say someone knows a language. Grammar can also mean a language system that described the ideal set of rules prescribing correct or wrong usage of a language. We are going to analyze and discuss the linguistic of a set of rules, from morphemes to words, phrases, clauses, sentences and discourses used in English Language in terms of its definitions, forms, class, rules, meaning and functions.

MORPHEMES A morpheme can be defined as the smallest unit in language with indentifiable meaning. Many words contain more than one morpheme. For example, eating consists of eat + ing, where the first morpheme is the act of putting something in the mouth and swallowing it, and the second morpheme indicates something about the continuing nature of this action. In this instance, each morpheme belongs in a separate syllable of the word, but this is not always the case, so that, for example, cats is just one syllable but consists of two morphemes, cat + s (where the meaning of the second morpheme indicates that there is more than one animal); and even though table is two syllables, it is just a single morpheme, because we cannot identify any separate meaning for each syllable.

Type Of Morphemes There are four types of morphemes: >Free morphemes like town, dog can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, or "free". Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme, e.g. the plural marker in English is sometimes realized as /-z/, /-s/ or /-z/. >Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word. >Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on. (as in the dog morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme s becomes dogs). >Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness." Form And Rule Formation It is important to note that free morphemes are often transformed by the addition of bound morphemes through a process called affixation. >Affix A letter or sound, or group of letters or sounds ( = a morpheme), which is added to a word, and which changes the meaning or function of the word. Affix are bound form that can be added: >To the beginning of a word ( prefix ), e.g. English un- which usually changes the meaning of a word to its opposite: kind unkind. >To the end of a word ( suffix ), e.g. English ness which usually changes an adjective into a noun: kind kindness. >Base is a morpheme that gives a word its meaning. The base morpheme cat gives the word cat its meaning: a particular type of animal. The process of attaching affixes can either be inflectional or derivational which will influence the form of the free morpheme. Inflectional process only changes the function of the word not the meaning. In English there are eight inflectional endings and they are only suffixes; -s third person singular present kick + -s kicks

-ed past tense -ing progressive/continuous -en past participle -s plural -s possessive -er comparative -est superlative

kick + -ed kick + -ing eat + -en chair + -s Jason + -s tall + -er tall + -est

kicked kicking eaten chairs Jasons taller tallest

In derivational process, it is important to remember that when these morphemes are attached to a base, they create words with new meanings as the verb write (an action) to a noun writer (a person who perform the activity). . The Functions Function Nouns Plural Possessive Verb Present Tense (3rd person singular) Past tense Form -s -s -s -ed Combined Form kid + -s Rita+ -s swim+ -s climb + -ed write Past participle Present participle Adjectives Comparative Superlative -en -ing -er -est + change walk + ed eat + en climb+ -ing tall + -er long + -est Resulting word kids Ritas swims climbed vowel wrote walked eaten climbing taller longest

Morphemes can be added to a word to create ( derive ) another word, e.g. the addition of / er / , teach teacher , / ly / proud proudly, and / ss / kind kindness. This is called derivational process.


According to Reader's Digest University Dictionary (1999), a word is a sound or combination of sounds that symbolises and communicates a meaning and may consists of a combination of morphemes. ( Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary.(1999).USA: The Reader's Digest Association Limited. ) It is the smallest of linguistic units which can occur on its own speech or writing.To "know a word" is a familiar expression. A very simple approach to words is to see them as labeling things in the world. This works well for some words. Concrete nouns like chair, table, cupboard and bed are used to refer to certain furnitures / things that can readily be described. Type of words >Function words or Structure-class words provides essential information about the form class words with which they occur and signal the grammatical relationships among them. The important of structure class words lies in the grammatical operations they perform rather than in their lexical meaning. They are determiners, auxiliaries, qualifiers, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, relatives and interrogatives. They show no changes in form and have a limited or usually quite small number of members and that membership is essentially fixed. >Content words or Form class.These are principally nouns, verbs, adjective and adverb. All of these refer to concrete objects, actions or abstract concepts, feelings, ect. There is always some immediate content which can considered with the words. These words have lexical meaning, the kind of meaning that is given in a dictionary. They are open ended and not limited in the number of their member. They also can undergo important morphological form changes by the processes of derivation and inflection. Words are divided into two categories: Function Words and Content Words. Function words are closed class words (only about 300 in English) while content words are open class words (new words are being added in every language). Function examples

Words Prepositions Pronouns Determiners Conjunctions Modal verbs Auxilliary verbs Particles

of, at, in, without, between he, they, anybody, it, one the, a, that, my, more, much, either, neither and, that, when, while, although, or can, must, will, should, ought, need, used be (is, am, are), have, got, do no, not, nor, as examples John, room, answer, Selby happy, new, large, grey search, grow, hold, have really, completely, very, also, enough one, thousand, first eh, ugh, phew, well yes, no (as answers)

Content Words Nouns Adjectives Full verbs Adverbs Numerals Interjections Yes/No answers

The same lexical word can function as either content or function word depending on it's function in an utterance. Example 1 "I have come to see you" "I have three apples" "have" is a function word (auxiliary verb) "have" is a content word (full verb)

Example 2 "One has one's principles" "I have one apple" Example 3 "I have no more money" "No. I am not coming" "no" is a function word (a negative particle) "no" is a content word (Yes/No answer) "one" is a function word (pronoun) "one" is a content word (numeral)

There are other ways whereby words are formed..

Compounding we join two or more words into one new word. Example the word butter and fly becomes butterfly which refers to an insect. Zero Derivational we employ a word of a new category as a word of another category as in open They cook noodles. (verb). My mother is a good cook (noun) .

Stress shift: Here we do not need any affix to the base. The stress is very important as it shifts from one syllable to the other changing category, an in record a verb and record a noun.

Clipping is shortening of polysyllabic word as bike from bicycle. Blending where we connect parts of two already existing words to create a new word such as telephone and marathon becomes telethon, breakfast and lunch becomes brunch.

PHRASES According to Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary (1999), phrases is a group of two or more words in sequence that form a syntactic unit or group of syntactic units, especially in English, not containing a finite verb. (Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary.(1999).USA: The Reader's Digest Association Limited.) A group of word which form a grammatical unit and which contain a subject and a finite verb. Type Of Phrases >Prepositional phrases >Gerund phrases >Verb phrases >Adjective phrases >Participial phrases >Noun phrases

>Infinitive phrases

>Adverb phrases

Form And Rules Formation Phrases are form by adding other words to the head of the phrase such as modifiers like adjectives and determiners. The determiners can be a predeterminer or postdeterminer. Both state quantities. For example in a noun phrase; the bag the blue bag all (of) the girls the first call In a verb phrase; carried the girl carried the injured girl In an adverb phrase. Dollah speaks slow. Dollah speaks rather slow - /fast/ is an adverb - /rather/ is an intensifier. - /the/ is an article - /injured/ is an adjective - /the/ is an article - /blue/ is an adjective - /all/ is the predeterminer to /the/ - /first/ is the postdeterminer to /the/

Other phrases too have to follow the same rule so we can give an appropriate meaning or can express the phrases more precisely as intended.

The Functions Type Prepositional phrases Functions Acts mostly as adverbs, sometimes as adjectives or nouns Example I ran to the field (adverb) With angry, I ran away. (adjective) Absolute phrases Appositive phrases Has no grammatical connection to any part of speech. An appositive is a re-naming or amplification of a word that That old man, a generous businessman just donated a In the end, I walked away.

immediately precedes it. Noun phrases Act as subject and complement. Infinitive phrases Participle phrases Gerund phrases Acts as nouns Acts as adjectives Acts as nouns

lot of money. The kite flew on the sky. We planned to go. Running fast, the cheetah chased the impala. Achieving the best is my dream.

CLAUSE According to Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary (1999), a clause is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate that forms part of a compound or complex sentence. ( Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary.(1999).USA: The Reader's Digest Association Limited. ) In grammar, a clause is a group of words consisting of a subject and a predicate, although, in non-finite clauses, the subject is often not explicitly given. In null subject languages there may not be a subject, either explicit or implicit. A clause is either a whole sentence or in effect a sentence-within-a-sentence.Clauses are often contrasted with phrases, which do not express complete thoughts through combinations of subjects and predicates. Phrases generally do not contain verbs except as verbals (gerunds, participles, and infinitives).

Types Of Clauses There are two Types of Clauses: 1. Independent (or main) Clause Example: Kuala Lumpur is a highly populated city. 2. Dependent (or subordinate) Clause An independent clause makes a complete statement and can stand alone as a sentence.

Even though it contains a subject and a verb, a dependent clause does not make a complete statement and cannot stand alone. Example: Before they arrived in Beverly Hills.

The Functions Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses modify nouns or pronouns. An adjective clause nearly always appears immediately following the noun or pronoun. Example: The book that is on the floor should be returned to the library. Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses usually modify verbs, in which case they may appear anywhere in a sentence. Unlike adjective clauses, they are frequently movable within the sentence. Example: When the timer rings, we know the cake is done. or We know the cake is done when the timer rings. Noun Clauses Noun clauses are not modifiers, so they are not subordinators like adjectives and adverbs, and they cannot stand alone. A noun clause usually begins with a relative pronoun like that, which, who, whoever, whomever, whose, what, and whatsoever. It can also begin with the subordinating conjunctions how, when, where, whether, why. Example: Whoever wins the game will play in the tournament.

SENTENCE According to Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary (1999), a sentence is a complete and independent grammatical unit comprising a word or a group of words,and usually

consisting of at least one subject with its predicate, containing a finite verb or verb phrase. ( Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary.(1999).USA: The Reader's Digest Association Limited. ) Traditionally, each sentence is regarded as having a subject, an object and a verb, even if one of these is implied. The objects that modify the noun phrase collectively form the predicate of a sentence. Types Of Sentence Structures 1. A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses. A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. 2. A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation. A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping. 3. A complex sentence consists of one independent clause with at least one dependent clause. A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. 4. A complex-compound sentence (compound-complex sentence) consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clauses. A. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics. B. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf. C. The house which Abraham Lincoln was born in is still standing.


FORM AND RULE FORMATION Traditionally, each sentence is regarded as having two constituents - a subject which is the noun phrase and the object which is the verb phrase. But this varies depending on the types of sentences being used. S NP Jason VP swam

This formation changes in compound sentence; S S NP Jason VP swam and cc NP Nicky S VP played

There are two independent clauses. By adding the coordinating conjunction(cc) the structure become compound sentence. DISCOURSE Linguistic knowledge accounts for speakers ability to combine phonemes into morphemes, morphemes into words, and words into sentences. Knowing a language also permits combining sentences together to express complex thoughts and ideas. This linguistic ability makes language an excellent medium for communication.These larger linguistic units are called discourse. According to Ox. Dic, Discourses is the use of Language in speech and writing in order to produce meaning, language that studied in order to see how the different parts of a text are connected, spoken/written discourse and discourse analysis. A discourse is an instance of language use whose type can be classified on the basis of such factors as grammatical and lexical choices and their distribution in: > Main versus supportive materials. 11

> Theme > Style > The framework of knowledge and expectations within which the addressee interprets the discourse. Much discourse serves all three functions--one cannot always identify the form with the function. Usual Function / Sentence Type 1)assertion / declarative - The room is cool. 2)question / interrogative - But isn't this room 007? 3)command / imperative /- Please keep quiet 4)exclamation / exclamatory - I'm really glad!

Types Of Discourses
>A compound discourse >A procedural discourse >A hortatory discourse >An expository discourse >A repartee discourse > A narrative discourse. Form and Rules Formation A well formed discourse has a coherent flow of information based on the type of discourse that is being used.The sentences should be; >Understandable - Including information which the user can understand. >Informative - Presenting new and interesting information to the user. >Valid - User can make the desired inferences. >Accurate Provide the appropriate statements. >Coherent Easy to understand for the users. >Relevant - Information that is relevant to the current discourse goal.


The Functions Basically discourse is used to interpret or extract the details from reading or listening to the radio or watching television, attending conference, seminars,courses or via Internet. We also use discourse to do summary, pronoun resolution and for the natural language generation. What is more important is we use discourse as a tool of communication. We are able to: >give command. >express thought and feeling and much more. >greet friends and neighbours >request for something. >express appreciation.

CONCLUSION How we use language depend on the purpose for which we use language. For that reason, some English sentences or words are strange for those who do not have good English. If the readers only know how to read Bahasa Melayu, then he or she will not be able to pronounce the words or phrases correctly. For them, those kinds of understanding are meaningless. In the nutshell, I can sum up here that, every human being except the native speaker (L1 user) will have setbacks with their speech production, either because of their ethnics background, mother tongue interferences, background knowledge and finally their own dialect itself.


The great Swiss linguist Saussure (1916) was the first to stress that in order to understand the role of sound in language it is necessary to focus not (just) on the positive properties of sounds, but on their differences. He suggested that in the study of individual languages, as opposed to general phonetics, utterances should he characterized in such a way that two such representations might differ only in ways that could potentially correspond to a difference between two distinct messages in the language in question. In conclusion, Kenworthy (1987) claims that the amount of exposure to English and motivation and concern for good pronunciation are the only two factors that the learners can change now.Nowadays, however , there is a general acceptance that language learners need plenty of opportunities for language use.By language use we mean the production and comprehension of language to achieve some communicative objective.There is a range of techniques for encouraging learners to produce language in the context of speaking skill. Teacher employs sophisticated information gap and opinion gap techniques to promote interaction on a range of topics and issues.We have on the one hand a basic methodology which focuses clearly on language forms. We have on the other hand a range of established techniques which provide opportunities for communication in the classroom.

REFERENCES Coulthard. ( 1985 ). An Introduction to Discourse Analysis, 2nd Edition. London: Longman. Morris, C. ( 1946 ). Signs, Language and Behaviour. New York: Braziller. Grice, P. ( 1989 ).Studies in the Way of Words, New York: Harvard University Press. Allen, E.D. & Vallete, R.M. (1977). Classroom Techniques: Foreign Languages and English as a Foreign Language. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: New York.


Brown, G. & Yule, G. (1983). Teaching the Spoken Language. CUP: Cambridge. Richard. Jack C, Rodgers. Theodore (1986) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, New York. Press Syndicate of The University of Cambridge. Lenneberg E 1967 Biological foundations of language. John Wiley New York. Oyama S 1976 A sensitive period in the acquisition of a non-native phonological system Ochs, Elinor and Bambi Schieffelin. (1984). "Language acquisition and socialization: Three developmental stories."

Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. 1999: How languages are learned. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.