Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

AP Environmental Science: Soil Chemistry Test Review!

Jan 9, 2013

Soil - dynamic ecosystems composed of a combination of minerals, organic matter, and living organisms. ! soils form continuously, but slowly Mineral Types - determined by the feel method Sand (absorbs most water) Silt Clay Loam (absorbs least water) Soil Properties Color Texture Structure Moisture Chemistry Biology Soil Porosity - the amount of open space between soil particles Permeability - the degree of connectivity between soil pores ! (highly permeable soil would have water owing through it) Primary Nutrients - richest soil is loamy soil Nitrogen- chlorophyll, helps rapid growth, increases seed production Phosphorus- encourages blooming and root growth, formation of oils Potassium- builds protein, increases fruit quality, reduces disease Micronutrients include boron, copper, iron, chloride, manganese, zinc ! ! recycling organic matter provides micronutrients Humus - formed from decomposition of plants and animals. Important in soil Soil pH - the pH of the soil determines if the soil is suitable for plant growth, and what nutrients will be limiting ! pH = -log[H+] In acidic soils, plants are more likely to take up toxic metals Depending on the pH of the soil, it may not be able to use certain nutrients if pH is above 5.5, Nitrogen may be used if pH is between 6 and 7, Phosphorus may be used Soil Prole - layers of soil, known as soil horizons which have different characteristics and composition Soil Quality - determined by the amount of oxygen in soil, which is identied by color The more red in color, the more aerated, or full of oxygen

AP Environmental Science: Soil Chemistry Test Review!

Jan 9, 2013

Soil Cation Exchange - ability of the soil to hold on to nutrients and prevent them from leaching beyond the roots. Cations attract nutrients like a magnet. The positive molecules attract positively charged nutrients, repelling negatively charged nutrients. High CEC- >25, good indicator that soil has high clay and organic content. Holds a lot of cations. Very fertile. Low CEC- <5, indicator that soil is sandy with little or no organic content. Holds few cations, not very fertile. Cation Exchange - interchange between cation solution and another cation on surface Leaching - removal of cations from soil, no longer attributing to OH ions Sources of Acidity in Soil Nitrication Organic material decomposition Floodplains Access to freshwater Fertile soil Terrain easy for development Close to rivers for transportation Arable Land Useable land Lost at rate of 100,000 km per year Loss of Arable Land Salinization / Waterlogging frequent unintended result of irrigation. Occurs when salts enter irrigation water or are drawn up from subsurface. As salts accumulate, the land is rendered less productive Desertication Aral Sea - Soviet Union cut rivers feeding Aral Sea, led to drainage Remediation - to control soil salinity, permit 10-20% of irrigation water to leach soil, drain and discharge through draining system. This allows salt to not accumulate Dust Bowl - 1930s event of massive dust storms Cause: signicant amount of topsoil lost through erosion due to poor management practices