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Unit 1 physics on the go

Physical quantities
It is a quantity that can be measured. All physical quantities can be expressed with a magnitude and a unit.
Without the correct unit any physical quantity is meaningless. Physical quatities split into two that is basic
and derived
Basic quantities
There are six basic quantities. These quantities cannot be measured using any other quantity. Below is the
list of basic quantities.
Mass, length, time, temperature, electric current and amount of substance
Derived qunatities
These are physical quantities derived out from basic quantities
Homogenous equation
The SI base units of each term of the equation are same those equations are said to be homogenous
equations
Experimental physics for unit 3b
Accuracy: getting all the readings correct
Precision: means getting all the readings close together
A good experimenter will have high precision but if his instruments are not good it will lead in poor
accuracy this leads to systemetic error, this is the error due to intruments. A poor experimenter will have
less precision and the reading will be scattered resulting random errors, this the error due to experimenter
or human error.
Systemetic errors can be minimised by taking sensible precautions, such as checking for zero erros, avoiding
parallax errors and by drawing suitable graphs.
Random errors can be minimised by taking a number of repeated readings and taking the average and by
drawing a graph that in effect averages the number of values
Uncertainity
Metre rule: 1mm %uncertainity =


Vernier calliper: 0.1mm For multiple readings
Micrometer screw guage: 0.01mm %uncertainity =





Micrometer screw guage
Reading = Main scale + (rotating scale x 0.01)
reading will be on mm.
To check for zero error join the studs anvil and
spindle with no object in between. If the zero of
rotating scale coincides with mainscale then
instrument do not have zero error. If the zero on
the rotating scale lies above the mainscale then
the zero error have to be added to the reading
and if the the zero on the rotating scale lies below the mainscale then the zero error have to be subtracted.

Vernier calliper
Reading = Main scale + (vernier scale x 0.01)
Reading will be on cm
To check for zero error join the sections A and
B if zeros in both scale coincides then it has no
zero error. If vernier scale zero is more to right
then the zero error have to be subtracted. If
vernier scale zero is more to left then the zero
error have to be added to the reading.

Percentage difference
1) %Difference =



2) %Difference =



This is used to confirm relationships, to check whether the materials are made of same or not, or to check
whether the readings are accurate or not compared with the standard value

If % difference is less than total % uncertainity then both are made of same material or relationship is
confirmed
If total % uncertainity is not given then compare % difference with 10%

Mechanics
Scalar quantity: physical quantity that has only magnitude
Vector quantity: physical quantity that have both magnitude and direction.

Rectilinear motion
Distance: length of the path travelled by and object
Displacement: shortest distance between two points in a specific direction
Speed: Distance travelled in unit time
Average Speed: Total distance travelled over total time taken
Velocity: rate of change of displacement
Uniform velocity: equal displacement in equal intervals of time
Instantaneous velocity: velocity at a particular instant
Acceleration: rate of change of velocity
Uniform acceleration: equal change in velocity in equal intervals of time
Motion graphs
Displacement time graphs: gradient gives velocity
Velocity time graphs: gradient gives acceleration, area under graph gives displacement
Acceleration time graphs: acceleration patterns can be read from it
Equations of motion
v = u+at
s =

(u+v) t
s = ut + at
2

v
2
= u
2
+ 2as
Free Fall
Falling under the influence of gravitational force only and no other forces like air resistance acts on it.
Projectile motion already covered in M1
Forces
A force is a push or a pull exerted on an object. There are two types of forces contact forces and non
contact forces. Contact forces include friction, normal reaction etc. non contact forces include gravitational
force, magnetic force and nuclear force.
Equilibrium: when number of forces act on a body and the vector sum of all these forces add up to zero
then the object is said to be in equilibrium. If object is in equilibrium then the line of action of all the forces
acting on the object will pass through one point.
Newtons first law of motion
An object will remain in a state of rest or continue to move with a constant velocity unless acted upon by a
resultant external force
Newtons second law of motion
Acceleration of a body of constant mass is directly proportional to the resultant force applied to it and it
acts in the direction of the resultant force.
Newtons third law of motion
If body A exerts a force on body B, body B will exert an equal and opposite force on body A.
Newtons third law pairs must always
- Act on two separate bodies
- Be of the same type
- Act along the same line
- Be equal in magnitude
- Act in opposite directions
Energy and Power
Work: it is the product of force and distance moved in the direction of force W = F x s
These equations are only applicable if the acceleration
is uniform
Power: rate of work done in unit time P =

or P = F x v
Energy: the ability to do work
Potential energy: the energy present in an object due to its position E
p
= mgh
Kinetic energy: the energy present in an object due to its motion or vibration E
k
= mv
2

Law of conservation of energy
Energy can never be created nor destroyed but it can be transformed from one form to the other. In short
total energy of the system is constant

Fluid dynamics
A substance which can flow is known as a fluid. All liquids and gases are fluids
Floatation: when up thrust is exactly equal to the weight of the object.
Viscosity: it is the nature of the fluid which offers resistance to flow.
=

P =

in case of fluids P = gh
Up thrust is the force that helps object to float in water. The pressure of the liquid causes force at the top
and bottom of the object So U = F
2
F
1

Up thrust equals weight of fluid the object displaces
Derivation
U = F
2
F
1

U = gA (h
2
h
1
)
If height is known then area becomes volume
So
U = V g =mg
Note V is mass of fluid

Sinking
An object will sink in a fluid if its up thrust is less than its weight, so the resultant would act downwards resulting it to
accelerate downwards.

Stokes law
Viscous drag experienced by a spherical object is directly proportional to the radius (r), velocity (v) and
coefficient of viscosity (n) F o nrv

Terminal velocity is the constant maximum of object through fluid.
At terminal velocity W = U+F
For spherical object
v =

(
s
-
f
)
Unit of coefficient of viscosity is Pas
Stream line: represents the velocity of a fluid at each point within it.
Laminar flow
Flow lines are parallel to each other, velocity at a point on a stream line is equal. No eddies vortices formed
Turbulent flow
Eddies and vortices whirl pools formed. Velocities varies lines cross over each other no definite stream lines
F
1
= P
1
A = gh
1
A
F
2
= P
2
A = gh
2
A
Strength of materials
Hookes law
Extension is directly proportional to the force applied within the proportionality limit.
Proportionality limit: this is the point up to which the material obeys Hookes law. In this region extension is
directly proportional to force
Elastic limit: it is the maximum force at which the material regains original shape when the force is
removed.
Yield point: the point at which material behavior changes from elastic to plastic, for a given force a large
extension is produced beyond this point. So the material deforms permanently.
Breaking point: the point at which the material breaks is known as the breaking point this point always
occurs beyond elastic limit.

Elastic deformation: A material undergoing elastic deformation will return to its original dimensions when
the deforming force is removed.
Plastic deformation: A material undergoing plastic deformation will remain deformed when the deforming
force is removed and it will not gain its original dimensions.

Properties of solid materials
Hardness: the harder the material the more difficult it is to indent or scratch the material
Stiffness: A stiff material will have a high Youngs Modulus
Toughness: a tough material is able to absorb energy from impacts or shocks without breaking. Tough
materials are able to undergo considerable plastic deformation. A tough material has a large area under
stress strain graph that is energy stored per unit volume by the material
Brittleness: brittle material will shatter or crack when subjected to large forces. A brittle material undergo
no or very little plastic deformation before breaking
Ultimate tensile strength: this is the strength of the material. It is the maximum stress it can withstand
before breaking.
Malleability: ability of material which can be hammered out into thin sheets. Shows large plastic
deformation in stress strain graph
Ductile: ability of material which can be drawn into thin wires. Shows large plastic deformation in stress
strain graph





Elastic deformation Plastic deformation
Macroscopic level Shows change in shape when the force is
applied regains its original dimension when
force is removed
Material produces permanent extension.
Remains deformed even when force is
removed
Microscopic level When force is experienced distance between
atoms increases so the bonds between atoms
is stretched without breaking once the force
is removed atoms come to original position
Distance between atoms increases and the
bonds between them are broken, when force
is removed atoms cannot gain its initial
position.

Hookes Law applications
F=kx E=o/c
W= kx E/V = oc
W= kx
2

Note: Difference between stress strain graph and force extension graph
The stress strain graph represents properties of the material, which means the stress strain graph for a
material is always the same. Whereas the force extension graphs depends on the dimensions of the sample
used.
Hysteresis
Rubber absorbs energy during each cycle of loading and unloading this is known as hysteresis.

- The arrows indicating loading and unloading of the rubber band.
- Area under the loading curve indicates work done per unit volume on the band.
- Area under the unloading curve indicates work done per unit volume by the band as it relaxes.
- The shaded region is the Hysteresis loop.
- The Hysteresis loop for stress strain graph indicates the energy per unit volume transferred to
internal energy for each cycle.
MICROSCOPIC EXPLANATION FOR RUBBER
In rubber molecular chains are coiled up. When rubber is stretched molecular chains straighten up.
When it is relaxed molecular chains recoil backs to original length, but the manner by which it does this
is very different to a metal.
This shows that energy is absorbed during each cycle which is dissipated in the form of heat.
When rubber band is repeatedly stretched and relaxed in a short time, it will become warm.
The rubber with small hysteresis loop is more resilient and is used in car tires
The rubber with large hysteresis loop is less resilient and is used in shock absorbers