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BUBIMIR

THE UNDERWATER COMBAT SIMULATION


Technical Supplement
for IBM PC Compatibles
TEe II :\ I C \ LSI P P L E " E ""
Contents
Your Sub War 2050 pa cka ge should c ontain a Game Ma nua l , a cop y of
UnderCurrents, this Technical Supplement , a Key Guide, a set of 3. 5" high density
disks and a r egistration card.
Required Equipment
Computer
Sub War 2050 r equires an mM PC AT or a computer 100% compatible with this model.
The computer must have a high density floppy disk drive and a hard disk.
Sub War 2050 r equires an 80386 processor and at least 1Mb RAM.
Controls
Although Sub War 2050 can be run entirely from a standard or portable P C
keyboard, a mouse and joystick are strongly r ecommended .
Display
Sub War 2050 r equires a color monitor with a VGA graphics system. If you are using
a compatible graphics card/monitor, it must be 100% compatible with VGA systems.
Disk Drives
SubWar 2050 must be installed onto a hard disk with 12Mb of free space .
DOS
You must have Microsoft MS-DOS ver sion 5.0 or higher .
TEc:lI\lC\1. ~ I I ' I ' I . E ' I E \ T
Copy Protection
Sub War 2050 has no dis k copy protection . However , the program as ks you a
manual-I'elated ques tion . Use the manual to anSWel" the question . Mi croProse
l"egr ets that continuing casual and organized software piracy r equires that thi s
minimal form of copy protection is retained.
Installation
An installation program is included on the SubWar 2050 Disk A.
Insert Disk A into your fl oppy drive (dl"ive A or B) a nd designate that dl"ive (by
typing "A: [Return]" or " B: [Return],, ).
When the new prompt appears, type " INSTALL [Return]"
Please follow the on-scr een text which appears.
The default (pI"e-set) installation routine places SubWar 2050 in a directol"y named
C:\MP S\SUBW
Loading Instructions
Switch on yOUI" machine and wait until the C: \> prompt appear s.
Type " CD MPS \ SUBW [Return]" and then t ype "SUBWAR [Return ]" to mn
the game.
Note: If you have installed SubWar 2050 to another directory, you must t ype "CD
[name of your directory]" first.
If the game fail s to load, r ead the Problem Section of this Technical Suppl ement.
Sound
SubWcu 2050 s upport s the PC int e t'nal spea ke r , AdLib compatibl e cards ,
SoundBlaster compatible ca rds and the Roland LAPC-1 ca rd .
Operating Difficulties and Loading Problems
Q. Why can't I install the game to my hard disk?
1. You must check all system requirements, especiall y any mention of hard di sk
space r equired, listed in thi s Technical Supplement.
2. If you still have a pl'Oblem, you should make copies of the ol'iginal di sks and use
the duplica tes in place of the ot'iginals; sometimes you'U get a t'ead en-Ot' due to a
diffet'ence in head alignment.
3. If the game still does n' t work, make sure you are not l'lmning a compression
utilit y program on your hat"d disk .
4. Finally, tt"y installing the game on another machine to see if the problem recut's.
Q. How do I copy disks?
Fl'Om the C: \> pl'Ompt, use the DOS command DISKCOPY A: A: [Retum]. Follow
the on-sct"een pt'ompts.
Q. Why won't my game load?
You must have 612,096 b ytes (598K) of Conventional Memor'y and 10K UMB (Uppel"
Memor'y Block) or' 620,288 bytes (606K) Conventional Memo.y and no UMB.
To check that you have allocated an uppe r' memot"y block, look fOI" the line
DOS=UMB (MS-DOS 6) ot" DOS=HIGH, UMB (MS-DOS 5) in you,' PC's
CONFIG.SYS fil e.
Slow Running
If yo u al"e not I' unning ft'om a boot di s k , please e n s ut" e that yo u have
SMARTDRV.SYS or SMARTDRV.EXE loaded into yo ut" CONFIG.SYS or
AUTOEXEC.BAT.
TECII\IC\L
Conventional Memory
To check how much Conventional Memory is available, type MEM/C from the C: b
prompt and press the Return key. Look for the Largest Executable Program
details . If there is not enough Conventional Memory, you may need a Boot Disk.
Q. What is a Boot Disk?
This is a Start Up disk for your computer which contains alternative start up files to
those on your hard disk. The Boot Disk will allow you more Conventional Memory.
Making a Boot Disk
Instructions for making an MS-DOS Boot Disk (also known as a System Disk) will
be found in your Microsoft manual.
U sing a Boot Disk
Inse rt the Boot Di sk into yOUt' flopp y di sk drive A and the n switch on the
computer. You should leave the disk in the floppy drive during play.
Q. Can I run my game through Windows?
No, this is not r ecommended , unless specifically mentioned in the system r equirements.
Q. Does my game run with DR DOS?
Success is not guaranteed. MicroProse games are currentl y designed to run with
MS-DOS 5.0 or 100% compatible DOS.
TEC''''C\L ~ I PPLE"E''''
Q. What is Base Memory?
Thi s i s the original 1Mb ( 1024K) III yo ur ma chine . It is divide d up into
Conventional Memory (640K) , wher e MS-DOS and all P C programs load and
Upper Memory (384K), wher e system driver s (such as the mouse driver ) r eside.
In MS-DOS 5.0 the bulk of the operating syst em and associated driver s are
normall y loade d into Uppe r Me mor y. Othe r dri ve r s h eld in the area of
Conventional Memory will r educe your 640K available for the program.
Q. What is Extended Memory (XMS)?
Further memory, beyond the 1Mb of Base Memory on your PC is called Extended
Memory. XMS can be used to free more Conventional Memory so that bigger games
can be run. XMS can also be used to simulate Expanded Memory.
Q. What is Expanded Memory (EMS)?
EMS was originally designed to give the PC more memory to run programs. It has
been around far longer than XMS so most programs take advantage of it. Most
MicroProse games take advantage of EMS. The DOS command EMM386. EXE can
be used to turn XMS into EMS and should be in your CONFIG.SYS.
Remember that hard disk space is also measured in Megabytes (Mb). Don' t confuse
this with memory - the two are completely differ ent!
Technical Assistance
If you have read through the Problems Section of this technical supplement and
still experience difficulties with the game, you may need some help from us. As we
receive many calls every day, we can deal with your inquiry more efficiently if you
have the following information available:
1. The correct name of the game
2. The type of computer you are running it on
3. Your DOS version
4 . How much conventional memory you have
5. The exact error message reported (if any)
6. The version # of the game
Call us at (410) 771-1151, Monday through Friday 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. EST.
Have a pen and paper handy when you call. Alternately, you can write to Customer
Service at the address shown in this document.
Virus
Be aware that a virus may have transferred into your hardware from another piece
of software . Pirated copies of games are an incredibly common source of virus
problems, it always pays to own original software.
Software Fau It
In the unlikely event of a software fault please return the complete package, with
your receipt, to the place of purchase. MicroProse regrets that goods cannot be
replaced unless bought from the company directly.
The Read Me File
The latest notes regarding this program can he found in a file named
README. TXT in the SUBWAR directory. These notes may be read by using
eit h er standard DOS commands or the DOS 5.0 text editor (type EDIT
README. TXT).
TECII\IC\!. SII'I'I.E\lE\T
A 0 I v I s Ion 0 f S pee t rum Hoi 0 B Y t Inc.
180 Lakefront Drive, Hunt Valley, MD 21030
(410) 771-U51
Game Design and Program Copyright 1994 Particle Systems
Documentation, Packaging and Logo Copyright 1994 MicroProse
Thi s documentation, accompanying manuals a nd Ooppy disks are copyrighted . The owner o[ this
product is entitled to use this product for his or her per sonal use. Except [or back-up copies o[ the di sks
fo,' per sonal use and the quoting of b"ief passages [or the purposes of reviews, no one may transfe,',
copy, back-up, give or sell any part of the manual or the information on the disks, or transmit in any
fOlom or by a n y means, electronic, photocopying, r ecord_jng or othe r"wi se withoullhe prior
pe"mi ssion of the publisher. Any per son or pC"sons r eprod ucing any part of this program, in any media ,
for any reason, sha ll be guilty of copyright violation and shall be subj ect to civil li ability at the
discretion of the copyri ght holder.
Made in the USA
Bua_A
THE UNDERWATER COMBAT SIMULATION
MicroProse, 180 Lakefront Drive, Hunt Valley, MD 21030
(410) 771-1151
Game Design and Program Copyright 1994 Particle Systems
Documentation, Packaging and Logo Copyright 1994 MicroProse
This documentation, accompanying manual and floppy di sks are copyri ghted. The owner of thi s product
is entitled to use this product for his or her per sonal use. Except for back-up copies of the di sks for
per sonal use and the quoting of brief passages for the purposes of reviews , no one may transfer , copy,
back-up, give or sell any pa rt of the manual or the information on the disks, or transmit in any form or
by any means , electronic, mechanical , photocopying, recording or otherwise without the priolo
permission of the publisher . Any per son or persons r eproducing any part of this program, in any media ,
for any reason , shall be guilty of copyright violation and shall be subj ect to civil liability at the
di scretion of the copyright holder.
Made in the USA
(; \ 'I E 'I \, I \ L
CREDITS
Game Design & Programming Michael Powell for Particle Systems
3-D Shape Design Saul Markese
Michael Powell
Additional Shape Design Amanda Roberts
Kevin Ayre
Graphics and Animations Mark Scott
Eddie Garnier
Additional Graphics Martin Smillie
Mission Design Mike Brunton
Music and Sound Effects Matthew Walden
Quality Assurance Management Pet er Woods
Quality Assurance Testing Andrew Luckett
Darren Kirby
J ames Hawkins
Andrew Hieke
Pet er Moreland
Matt Showalter
J eff Dinger
Destin Strader
Brian Wilson
Documentation Kristian Ramsay-Jones
Packaging Design Julie Burness
Sarah Warburton
John Emory
Game Manual Design Sarah Kerr
Joe Morel
Undercurrents Design Sarah Warburton
Managing Editor Alkis Alkiviades
Product Marketing Manager John Davis
Producer Tim Roberts
Publishers Paul Hibbard
Peter Moreland
Special Thanks to Peter Hunter at the Institute of Oceanographic Studies for
Under sea Topological Data.
(; \ "E 'I \ ~ I \ L
CONTENTS
Quick Start ..... ... .......................................... ...................... ..... 5
Introduction ............ ...................... ..... .................... .. .................... . 9
The Manuals ............................... ........... ........... ..... ..... .. ......... 9
Controls ..... ... ..... .. .... .. ............................. .. ............... ..... ........ 10
The Controller . ........... . .... .. .......... ....... .... ......................... 10
The Selector ... .. ..... . ..... .. .... . ..................... ... .. ............... . ... 10
Getting Started ................... .. .... .. ..... .. ... ... ......... .......... ........... .. ... 11
Sorting the Materials .... ... ..... ....................... ..... .. ... ..... ... ........ 11
Installing/Loading Sub War 2050 ......................................... .. . 11
Copy Protection .... .. ..... .. ........... ..... .. .......... ........................ ... 11
The Command Center ...................... ....... ........... .. ................ ..... .. 12
New Campaign ............................ ...... ...... .. ... ................... .... .. 13
Quit ............ .............. ............. ................................... ............ 13
Game Options ................. ...... .... ....................... ........ .. ..... ..... . 14
Simulated Combat ...... ... ... .. ..... .. .............. .. ...... ....... .......... ..... 16
Pilot Roster ..... ..... ... ... ..... .. .......... ..................... .... ................ 16
Mission Briefing ....... ............. ... ... ....... ................................. .. 17
The Orders ....... . ................................ . ........................ .. ... 18
The Mission Map ... . .............. .. .... . ........................ . ... .. ........ 18
The 3-D Briefing .... . ........................................ . .... . ............ 19
Configure Subs ... ........ .. ................ ....................... ........ ..... .... 20
The Configuration Screen ...... . ..... .. ........ . ........ . .......... ..... .... 20
The Arming Screen . .. .. . ........... ....... .... ... ...... ...... . ....... . . . . . .... 21
Enter Mission .. ........................ ...... ....... .. .. ...... ..... ............ ...... 21
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CONTENTS
The Mission ..... ............ ............ ..... .................................... .. ........ . 22
Piloting Your Submarine ............................... ... .. ... .... ... .. ... .... 22
Pt-inlary Controls ... . ............................... . .... . .................... . 22
The 3-D Displa y .... . .... .. . . ..... . ... .......... ....... ..... ... ... .. . ........... 23
The Head-Up Display ......... . ............. . ................ ... .............. 24
The Cockpit Di splays ... . .... ... ................................ . ............. 26
Full-Sct'een Displays ...... .... . .... . ...................................... . .. . 30
Other Controls .................... . .... . ..................................... .. 31
Views ...... ........ ................... ...... ........ ......... ............................ 32
Cockpit Views . . ........ .. .... . ........ ....... ..................... ...... ....... 32
External Views ................................................................. 32
Returning to the Sub Carrier ... .... ............. .. .......................... 33
Mission Debriefing ........... .. ......... ... ..... ... ... ....... .. ................. ....... 34
ElUIEIHYAA
Quick Start
Training Missions Guide
1
Install and Load Sub War 2050 b y
referring to the Technical Supplement.
2
After the animated Int ro, you' ll be
taken to the Copy Protection scr een.
Quit
Mi ssion
Briefing
3
Your fir s t mission will b e a
Training Mission.
Move th e cur s or (using joys tick ,
mous e or k eyboat-d) to the top-left
of the sc r ee n. You will see
Type in the answer from the manual
r efer ence given and YOll ' U be taken into
YOlll' sub carrier Command Center.
The Command Center
Game
Options
Configure
Subs
Enter
Mission
< e w Campaign> hi ghlight e d in a
central message box.
Select (press Joystick Fire Button ,
Left Mouse Button or Return Key) to
enter the Campaign Screen.
4
Move your c ur s or ove r the top
button ( the arrow symbol) and
select until you see <Training> under
the pilot's name.
Select the second button to view a general
description of the Training scenario.
Select the lowest button t o r eturn to
the Command Center .
5
Move the cursor to the bottom left.
Highlight <Pilot Rostei'> and select.
Look at the Pilot Scr een .
Sel ec t the top l eft button , t yp e in
your name and press Return.
Select the bottom left button to r eturn
to the Command Center .
6
Mo ve the c ur s or to <Mi ssion
Bri efin g> (second from the l eft )
and select.
You' ll see an outline of your fIrst training
mission . This is a Navigation t est. You
must st eer through 3 gr een triangular
mission marker s (called <W aypoints
then back to the Sub Carrier.
Instruments
Target ing
Display
Navigati on
Display
Sel ect the second from the bottom
butt on to look at a 3-D diagr am of
yo ur propo se d mi ss ion. Don ' t
worr y about confi guring your s ub
for now.
Select the lowest button to r eturn to
the Command Center .
7
Move the cursor to <Begin Mission>
(bottom right ) and Select ; t o jump
into your cockpit.
In The Cockpit
8
You are advi sed to use the Pause
function as often as possible until
you ar e f a miliar with all the s ub
control s. You ' ll b egin the mi ssion
h aving been launched from just below
the sub carrier .
Press Key P to P ause the simulation.
Familiarize yourself with the cockpit
controls and look at the Game Manual
pages 18 to 30 if y ou want full
<Mission> details.
Press Key P to Unpause the simulation.
Weapon
Display
Sonar Cross
Section (SCS)
Display
Damage
Status
9
Make sure your Navigation Display
scr een (on the left of the cockpit) is
not set to Map Mode but shows Waypoint 1
(Waypoints are navigation points to be
passed through in the mi ssion .) Press
key M once, if it does show a Map
Thi s s cree n will s how ( in blue) th e
Waypoint numbe r ( 1), a co mpa ss
heading, the di st ance Range and its
d e pth . Mi ss ion Wa ypoint s will b e
s hown a s Green Triangles o n yo ur
Head-Up Di splay.
1 0
Your fir s t aim in this Training
mi ssion will be to pass through
all three GI"een Triangles "Waypoints"
and th en ba c k to th e s ub Carne l"
(marked by a fourth triangle) .
Now, look at the Instnlment Di splay
( the small sc r een on top of the main
di splay in the cockpit) .
This shows your current status:
your compass heading in degrees
s mall r e d l eft or ri ght arrows
pointing you in the dil'ection of the
first Waypoint
the sp eed of your s ub (in knots)
and your throttle setting
your curt"ent depth
11
You' r e not moving yet , so you' r e
advised to incr ease your throttle.
Press the Plus Key until the throttle is set
to 50.
Now, get used to your controller. Try to
turn in the direction of the tiny r ed arrow.
Look at the depth of Waypoint l.
Look at yOUI" depth.
Tr y to mat c h the d epth of the fit" s t
Waypoint.
12
If yo u aim for the co rrec t
headin g and get to the correc t
depth, you' ll eventually see a small gr een
triangle. This is your first Waypoint.
Head for this tri angle.
13
As yo u ge t close to the gr ee n
tl"iangle Waypoint, it will incr ease
in size and yo u must aim yo ur sub t o
pass through it. If you fail , try again.
Pa ss tht"ough the fir s t Waypoint.
Look at the Instrument di splay. Thi s
will now s how < Waypt 2 > , a n ew
Compass Heading, range and depth .
Repeat the above procedure until you
have passed through th e 3 mi ss ion
Wa ypoint s. You will then be given a
Fourth Wa ypoint. Thi s is your t"oute
bac k to yOUl" s ub carrieL When yo u
ha ve passed Wa ypoint 4 yo ur
Navigation Training miss ion i s over.
You will be returned to the catTier and
be Debriefed with full mi ssion details.
Once back in the Command Cente r
Scr'een, return to Mission Briefing. You
will still be playing the Training Scenario.
14
The n ex t mi ss ion will b e a
weapons test. You will have to go
t o Waypoint 3 and tor'pe d o three
dummy targe t s, then r e turn to ba se
( Wa ypoint 4). For mor e d e tail s on
weapons see the Game Manual page 21.
Re pea t the procedure f ollowed in
your' first mission and make your way
to Waypoint 3. When you have passed
tht"ough the third gr een tl"i angle, stop
your engines (press Shift/ Minus Key - )
and look at"ound you (stay in <Forward
View> for now).
Look at the dummy targets. If you are
close enough they will be colored red on
the HUD (Head-Up Display) with a line
leading to the nearest thermal grid (fot
full d etail s on thermal grids see the
Undet Curr-ents Magazine) .
15
The object marked with a
diamond-shape i s the current
target. Other objects will b e in a box-
sh ape. Other d e tail s appear on th e
main central targeting display (see page
28 Game Manual for details) .
You can press the ReturnfEnter key to select
each of the 3 objects in turn as targets.
Press the Return key 3 times and the
diamond will switch to all three obj ects.
Look at the l owest r eading on the
large central display marked < Conf >.
Thi s i s th e 'Confiden ce Fa c tor ' for
hitting that diamond-shaped target. If it
i s over a value of 100 - you are
guaranteed a hit. Move the sub until
you have a number over 100.
Look at the Weapon Display (on the
right of the cockpit). It will show <Torpedo
8> on the second line. IT it doesn't press
BackSpace Key lmtil it does.
Now, press the Space Bar to fire your
torpedo. Watch it hit the target.
The next target will be marked with a
diamond.
Repea t the above procedure for the
next targeted contact.
When you have destroyed all three
objects, h ead for Waypoint 4 (Your
sub-ca rr-ier ). The mission will end when
yo u pass through Waypoint 4. On ce
again you will be Debriefed (Look at the
money you' ve been allocated! ).
Tt'aining Missions continue in a similar
style, but in the next mission you will
be put under press ure. Get in, shoot a
robot sub and get out quickly!
Sonar
Whe n you b egin mi ssion s against
anything that i s going to shoot back ,
you 'n have to get to grips with Sonar
(Lower right on the Cockpit). Full details
are to be found in the Under Curt'ents
Magazine that came in your Sub War 2050
package (see page 6 Attack Tactics).
Basically, the quieter you are the less
chance ther e is of you being detected by
the enemy. Key S cycles through Sonar
Modes - Off - Passive - Active.
If you turn it Off you will not be able to
detect targets.
If you set it for Passive, you won' t give
away your position to the enemy during
high risk encountet s.
IT you set it for Active you' ll get the best
r es ult s but you'll b e in dange r of
detection.
The yellow bar scal e indicates how
' noisy' you are. It will change color to
r ed if you are being extremely noisy.
Extreme noise means early death!
16
Consult the "Read Me File" on
the installed game for the ver y
lates t gameplay information b y u sing
standard DOS commands.
For full tac ti cal and background
information cons ult the Under
Currents Magazine.
For full gameplay information consult
the Game Manual & Key Guide.
For full t eclmical information consult
the Teclmical Supplement.
INTRODUCTION
S
ubWar 2050 i s a unique simulation . It combines ele ments of s ubmarine
warfare, fli ght simulation and s trat egy game; se t in a r eali s ti c futur e
world scenario.
You take the part of one of the new breed of submarine r s, piloting the la t est in
ma rine t ec hnology; the fi ghte r sub. Working for huge co rporations a s an
independent mel'cenary, each mission you carry out is rewarded in hard cash .
One moment , you are battling using tactics which are drawn from air warfare . The
next , you are diving deep to reduce your cavitation and coming to a halt to r educe
your passive sonar visibility.
Va ri ed mi ssions in fOUl' theaters of war , simulated combat mode and a full
complement of training missions make SubWar 2050 the d efinitive unde rwater
combat simulation.
The Manuals
This manual is organized to help you stal't playing SubWar 2050 quickly: -
The section on The Command Cenlel' will introduce you to the differ ent levels of
play in Sub War 2050.
The section on The Mission explains how to operate your sub's control , navigation
and combat systems.
The sepal'ate UnderCurrents manual contains information which may be useful as
you get deeper into the game.
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Controls
The Controller
You can play SubWar 2050 using a combination of Keyboard, Mouse or Joystick.
For piloting submarines, it is recommended that you use a Joysti ck and for menu
selection it is r ecommended that you use a Mouse.
In this manual , which is applicable to all computer systems , these thtee devices ar e
known as the Controller.
The Select or
During the game, you may be asked to select from a list of options. You will be able
to use either the Keyboard Return/Enter key, the Left Mouse Button (abbreviated
to LMB) or the Joysti ck Fire Button.
In this manual , these devices are referred to as the Selector .
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GETTING STARTED
Sorting the Materials
Your Sub War 2050 package contains this Manual , a copy of UnderCurrents , a
Technical Supplement , a Key Guide and a set of disks to run the simulation.
Installing/Loading SubWar 2050
The Technical Supplement gives specific instructions fOI' installing and/or loading
Sub War 2050 for your particular computer.
Copy Protection
M telo the opening scr eens, you are taken to the Copy Protection scr een . Enter the
correct word fr om the manual using the r efer ence given.
Whe n yo u have complet ed the Copy Prot ection , you are t r ansferred t o The
Command Center , on board the sub carrier .
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THE COMMAND CENTER
The Command Cente r is the central room of your sub calTi er. The Command
Cente l" sCl"een contains a numbe l" of options which are accessed by moving the
CUI'SOI" ovel' an 'active' al"ea of the sceeen and pl"essing the Selector.
New
Campaign
Quit---
Simulated
Combat
Mission
Briefing
Game
Options
Whe n you move the CUI' SOI" ove l" an ' ac tive' al"ea of the Command Cente l" , its
functi on is displayed in the box at the top center' of the SCl'een.
12
(; \ "E 'I \ '\ I \ L
New Campaign
Select 'New Campaign' to begin a new campaign. You may choose from:-
North Pacific
Antarctica
North Atlantic
South China Sea
- Training
- The Hot Cold War
- The Treasure Trove
- Trouble in Paradise
North Pacific/Sea of Japan - Small Insults, Big Business
The training campaign is r ecommended for rookie sub pilots. Each of the other
four scenarios have their own unique chall enges and may be played in any order.
Click on the B icon to change the current campaign. You may change your
CUlTent campaign at any time; the position r eached in your previous campaign will
be saved.
rr=I_
Click on the 1=.1
Click on the ~
Quit
icon to view the scenario briefing text.
icon to l-eturn to the Command Center.
Select ' Quit ' to exit Subwar 2050 and return to your computer's operating syst em.
(; \ \. E \. \ \ t \ L
Game Options
Select ' Game Options' to make game configuration changes. To change a particular
game option , click on the G Icon.
Click on the ~ icon at the bottom of the Game Options scr een to r eturn to the
Command Center .
Calibrate Joystick
Select this option to calibra te an analogue joystick .
Control Mode - Mouse/Joystick/Keyboard
Select this option to change the submarine control mode.
Terrain Shading - Textured/PlainlWireframe
Select this option to change the 3-D terrain shading mode - fully textured terrain
can slow the frame update rate significantly, es pecially on slower machines .
Object Shading - Textured/PlainlWireframe
Select this option to change the 3-D obj ect shading mode.
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Collisions - On/Off
Selecting 'Collisions Off' prevents your submarine from sustaining damage if it hits
the seabed or another submarine.
Selec ting ' Colli sions On ' is more diffi cult to play, but will r es ult in a higher
mISSIOn scor e.
Enemy Skill Level - HighfMediumfLow
The enemy skill l evel affec t s the intelli gen ce, aggr ess ive ness a nd numbe r of
opponents you encounter during a mission.
Playing on a high skill level will r es ult in a higher mission score.
Screen Zoom - On/Off
Select ' Scr een Zoom off' to turn off the zoom effect between scr eens.
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Simulated Combat
Selecting ' Simulated Combat' puts you into a fighter sub simulator , in the middle of
a multi-s ub underwater dogfight. 'Simulated Combat' allows you to perfect your
underwater combat technique without getting killed.
The score which you get at the end of a ' Simulated Combat' session is dependent on
several fa ctors, including how many enemy subs you destroy and the number of
weapons it took to destroy them.
For more d e tail s on piloting s ubmarines, see the sec tion of thi s manual on
' The Mission' .
Pilot Roster
The Pilot Roster scr een allows you to select or cr eate a pilot.
If you wish to playa differ ent pilot , click on one of the eight number ed icons along
the bottom of the pilot status display. If the pilot is unavailable for action , they are
listed as either ' KIA' (Killed In Action) , ' MIA' (Missing In Action) or 'Captured'.
(; \ "E ,,\ '\ I \ L
If you want to create a new pilot , e1j ck on one of the eight numbered icons to select
the pilot you wish to delete, then click on the 8 icon. Type in the new pilot 's
name using the keyboard and press I Return I. The default campaign for new sub
pilots is ' Trailling'. Return to the Command Center and enter the 'New Campaign'
scr een if you wish to select a differ ent campaign.
If you wish to change the face of the selected pilot, click on the ~ icon.
Cli ck on the m icon to view the selected pilot's medals and awards.
Cli ck on the ~ icon to r eturn to the Command Center.
Mission Briefing
When you have cr eated or selected a pilot in the Pilot Roster and you have selected
a campaign , you are able to enter the Mission Briefing.
The Mission Briefing consists of three scr eens:-
the Order s - click on the ~ icon.
the Mission Map - click on the m Icon.
the 3-D Briefing - cli ck on the ~ Icon .
Cli ck on the ~ icon to r eturn to the Command Center.
(; \ "E ,,\:\ I \ L
The Orders
The Order s scr een consist s of a brief description of the mission's objectives, rules
of engagement and intelligence data on enemy activity. To view the next page of the
Mission Briefing, click on the B icon.
The Mission Map
The Mission Map is a top-down view of the mission area. You may also call up a
Mission Map when you are in the cockpit of your submarine.
(; \ \1 E \1 \ 'I \ L
The 3-D Briefmg
The 3-D Briefing augments the Mi ssion Map by providing a 3-D view of the
mission area. Additional data is provided on this screen concerning the depth of the
mission waypoints.
The 3-D view may be manipulated by using the ten icons in the top right of the 3-D
briefing screen :-
Select the m or
m
icons to move the display West or East.
Select the
~
or ffi icons to move the di splay Notth or South.
Select the
r!]
or
~
icons to move the display up or down.
Select the
~
or
~
icons to rotate the display to the right or left.
Select the
~
or
ffi
icons to tilt the display fot'ward or backward.
Note: To cycle through the mission waypoints, press the [Spacebar I.
( ; \ \1 E \1 \ '\ I \ L
Configure Subs
When you have completed your Mission Briefing, you may enter the ' Configure
Subs' screens. This consists of two displays:-
the Configuration Screen
the Arming Scr een
The Configuration Screen
This is the first screen in the 'Configure Subs' section. It consists of a 3-D display
of the sub(s) you are taking on yoU!" mission and their payload , orders, type and
formation position.
Click on the m or ~ icons to select the next/previous sub. The selected sub
is highlighted with a pair of yellow brackets.
Click on the @ icon to enter the Arming Screen.
Note: The ~ icon and the ~ icon are only used 011 the Wingmen Orders Screen
(See page 31).
:W
(; \ \. E \. \ 1\ I \ L
The Arming Screen
Tot-pede- 2 F'CoO: et..= ::::

-................ -
2
--
This scr een allows you to adjust the payload of your sub to suit you r parti cular
tactics or skill level. For example, when you have become a proficient sub pilot you
might p r efer to take rocket s on a mission inst ead of torpedoes .
Click on the m or i cons t o sel ect the n ext/previous weapon bay. The
selected weapon b ay is highlighted with a yellow box.
Cli ck on the icon to load more of the selected weapon onto your sub.
Click on the ffi icon to unload the selected weap on from your sub.
Click on the icon to r eturn to the Command Center.
Enter Mission
When you have configured your submarines, click on the bottom right-hand
monitor to begin your mission .
21
(;\\1": '1\,\1 \1,
THE MISSION
Piloting Your Submarine
You begin most missions under the submarine carrier, moments after launching.
Primary Controls
Submarine controls are split into three different groups -
Directional Controls which allow you to turn, dive and climb.
Engine Controls which allow you to control your speed.
Ballast Tank Controls which provide additional control over depth. These controls
may also be used when you are stationary, hiding from passive sonat".
Directional Controls
Joystick Keyboard Mouse
pitch down
roll right
pitch down
roll left
(; \ \1 E \1 \ '\ I \ L
Press [I] to lock your submarine into single-plane maneuvering. With this function
on, moving the contl"Oller to the left or l'ight will make the sub turn in that direction
with no change in its roll angle. Single-plane maneuvering is useful when you are
lining up on targets and when you are running on the surface.
Engine Controls
G
8
(Shift 18
CD
CD
(Shift 1 [iJ
Incr ease throttle
Decr ease throttl e
Set throttle to minimum power
Set throttle to 1/3 power
Set throttle to 2/3 power
Set throttle to maximum power
Ballast Tank Controls
Flood ballast tanks
Flood/blow ballast tanks to r emain at current depth
Blow ballast tanks
Note: If you want to dive or climb r eally fast , combine the dive controls with the
engine controls.
The 30 Display
It is too dark to navigate a submarine visually at depths below about 200 feet. For
thi s r ea son a 3-D seafloor di spl ay, generated fr om seafloor s urvey data, i s
projected onto the inside of your sub's cockpit. This 'virtual world' display is also
used to show your opponents' submarines via active sonar imaging.
(; \ "E ,. \ \ ( \ L
The Head-Up Display
The Head-Up Display is overlaid on the 3-D di splay and shows the following data: -
Artificial Horizon
When your sub is not at a high nose-up or nose-down angle , you will be able to see
the at"tificial hodzon bar. This is displayed on the HUD as a short (Oe d line,
allowing you to see if your sub is in a level attitude.
Waypoints
When you reach a waypoint , it will be displayed on your HUD as a gr een tria ngle.
If you fl y through the centre of this triangle, your sub's na vigation sys tem will
automatically switch to track the next mission waypoint.
Thermal Layers
Thermal layer s are boundaries between warm and cool water which are set up by
ocean currents. They are very important to sub pilots because they reflect sonar
just like a mirror r efl ec t s light. If you position your sub with a thermal layer
between it and the enemy, you will be invisible to their sonar.
Thermal layer boundaries may be one of two t ypes :-
From warm to cool water - displayed on your HUD as a gr een grid.
From cool to warm water - displayed on your HUD as a red grid.
The rmal layer s are also useful to ori entate yo urself. For exa mpl e, if you are
upside-down you will see r ed thermal layer s below you.
:! I
Waypoint
marker
Artifi cial
Horizon
(; \ "E ,,\, I \ L
Targeting
When your sonar detects an object , it will mark it with a box on the HUDo The
currently targeted object is marked with a diamond-shaped box, all other
o
contacts
are maroked with square boxeso The HUD targeting di splay al so presents the
foUowing target information:-
the object's distance from the nearest thermal boundaryo This is r epresented
by a line extending vertically from the sonar contact to the thermal boundaryo
If theroe is no theromal boundary nearby, this line will not be displayedo
target type, which may be one of the following:-
SUB - a submarine
BIO - a marine life form
SHP - a ship
HLI - a helij et
TRP - a torpedo or rocket
MNE - a mine or deptb charge
TRN - a transponder
Dey - a decoy
STR - a structure such as an underwater base
DBR - underwater debris
UNK - unknown
ta rget rating, denoted by the color of the tracking box:-
Blue - friendly object
Red - enemy object
GtOeen - neutral or unknown object
The Head-Up Display may be toggled on or off by pressing lE)o
0)-
_ 0)
(; \ 'I E 'I \ '\ I \ I.
The Cockpit Displays
Targeting
Sonar
Cross
Display
Section
(SCS)
Display
Navigation
Display
Damage
Status
The cockpit display consists of four large scr eens, augmenting the 3-D display and
the HUD. The r e are also two small di spla ys for instant a ssessment of your
detectability and damage status.
(; \ 'I E \1 \ \ I \ L
Navigation Display
The Navigation Display has two modes ; Waypoint and Map. Press [E:TI to toggle
between these two modes.
In Waypoinl mode, the Navigation Display lists the following information:-
WAYPT
BEARING
RANGE
DEPTH
TIME
CLRNC
- waypoint currently being tracked by the navigation system.
- the bearing along which you must travel to reach the waypoint.
- the distance to the waypoint.
- the depth of the waypoint.
- the elapsed mission time (you will be told in the briefing if you
have a set time to complete the mission).
- the clearance between the seabed and your sub. If you get within
100 feet of the seabed, this readout will change from yellow to red.
In Map mode, the Navigation Display shows a map of the immediate terrain with
your sub in the centre. As on the HUD, all objects are color coded:-
Yellow - your sub Blue - friendly object
Red - enemy object Green - neutral or unknown object
Instruments
The Instruments consist of three rows of figures:-
The top line shows your current heading in degrees. The direction you must turn to
reach the currently selected waypoint is also shown, as arrows to either side of the
heading readout.
The second line shows the speed of your sub in knots, followed by your throttl e
setting (between 0 and 120).
The last line shows your current depth in feet.
(; \ 'I E 'I \ '\ I \ L
Targeting Display
The targeting di splay gives a r eadout of data concerning the currently target ed
sonar contact. To change the currently target ed sonar contact , press I Return I.
CONTACT
TYPE
RATING
BEARING
COURSE
SPEED
RANGE
CONF
- the number of the currently tal"get ed contact followed by the
total number of sonar contacts.
- the type of contact (e.g. SUB - a submarine). This may change as
your sub gets closer to a contact and identifies it more positively.
- the target 's rating (fri endly, enemy, unknown).
- the bearing which you must follow to r each the contact.
- the course which the contact is following.
- the speed at which the contact is travelling.
- the distance from your sub to the contact, in nautical mil es.
- the confidence factor of your submarine's weapon systems in
hitting the targe t ed object with an a ctive homing torpe do .
Confidence fa ctol"s are based on many separate considerations
including the time the object has been tracked for and the amount
of noise it i s making. Confidence fa ctors in excess of 100 are
required to guarantee a hit.
Note: if a torpedo is fired at you, it will be targeted automatically to give you the
maximum chance of avoiding it. By making maximum use of the external views, you
should be able to anticipate the torpedo's maneuver s and outsmart it.
(; \ \I E \I \ \ I \ L
Weapon Display
The Weapon Display allows you to see what weapons you have selected and how
many are r emaining.
The top line of the di splay shows which weapon bay is selected . To change the
selected weapon bay, press I Backspace I.
The second line of the display shows the weapon carried in the selected bay and
number of these weapons r emaining. To fire a weapon, press I Spacebar I.
The third line of the di splay is the weapon status. This can be one of the following:-
READY
ARMING
EMPTY
DAMAGED
- the selected weapon is r eady to be launched
- the selected weapon has just been launched and is arming itself
- the selected weapon bay is empty
- the weapon systems are damaged
The final line of the Weapon Display is the sonar status. Press ~ to change your
sub's sonar mode. You may choose between: -
PASSIVE
ACTIVE
- passive (listening) sonar on
- active (echo) sonar on
If an enemy torpedo is launched at you ,press [QJ to release a decoy, then carry out a
hard turn. This should allow you to escape unscathed .
Sonar Cross-Section (SCS) Display
The SCS Display is a bar scale running from left to right which allows you to see the
amount of noise you are making. If the display is black , you are completel y silent.
If it is yellow, you are making some noise and you risk enemy detection . If it is r ed,
you are broadcasting your position to ever yone in the immediate vicinity. To keep
your noise level down , you must run slowly and use active sonar with extreme ca l:e.
Damage Status
The eight bars below the SCS Display r epresent the status of your sub's primary
systems. The bar scale is entirely green if the sys tem is undamaged , yellow if partl y
damaged , r ed if heavily damaged and black if destroyed. See Damage Status in the
next section for full details.
( ; \ "E ,,\ \ I \ L
Full Screen Displays
Map Screen
Press OJ to enter the mission map. This is similar to the Mission Map in the
Command Center, but has some additional functions :-
Click on the icon to incr ease the map magnification.
Click on the icon to decrease the map magnification.
Click on the ~ g icons to toggle the auto-centering function on or off.
Auto-centering keeps your sub at the center of the map display at all times .
Click on the ~ icon to r eturn to your sub's cockpit.
Damage Status Screen
Your sub is equipped with a complex network of damage assessment and automatic
repair sys tems. Press ~ to enter the scr een which contr'ols these sys t ems; the
Damage Status scr een .
The Damage Status screen allows you to assess your current damage status and modify
your sub's automatic damage r epair systems to r epair important systems first.
In the bottom of the Damage Status screen , there is a list of your sub' s primary systems.
These include such items as Hull Structure, Weapon Systems and Sensor Systems.
For each primary system, there is a display consisting of, from left to right: -
the name of the system.
a bar chart which shows the damage status. This is green if the system is fully
operational , yellow if partly damaged , red if heavily damaged and black if
destroyed.
a brief description of the r epair state. This may be:-
OPERATIONAL
UNDER REPAIR
MINOR DAMAGE
MAJOR DAMAGE
DESTROYED
- the system is fully operational
- the system is under repair
- the system h as suffered minor damage
- the system has suffer ed major damage
- the system is beyond r epair
;w
(; \ "E ,,\ '\ I \ I ,
To select a particular damage system, click on the m or ~ icons.
To make this syst em the priority system to r epair, click on the m icon . Rep airs
will now be made to this syst em before all other s.
Click on the ~ icon to r eturn t o your sub's cockpit.
Wingman Orders Screen
You will need to give order s to your wingmen during missions . Press @] to display
the Wingman Order s Scr een.
The Wingman Order s scr een consists of a 3-D di splay of the sub(s) on your mission
and their type, damage status, order s and formation position .
Click on the m or [E] icons to select the next/previous sub . The selected
sub is highlighted with a pair of yellow brackets .
Click on the ~ icon to ch ange the highlighted sub's position in the formation.
Click on the ~ icon to change the highlighted sub's order s .
Click on the ~ icon to r eturn to your sub' s cockpit.
Object Viewer Screen
Press @] to enter the Obj ect Viewe r ; a r efer ence library of 3-D images . You may
wish to consult this l i b r ~ ~ t o r eview the shapes of enemy vessels befor e engaging
the enemy. Click on the l1J or the [E] icon to vi ew the next/previous obj ect.
Click on the ~ icon to r eturn to your sub's cockpit.
Other Controls
Press [Shift 1 ~ to activate your submarine's ej ection capsule .
Press [Shift 10 to accelerate the passage of tinle.
Press ~ to pause the game.
Press [Shift 1 [Q) to either end or abort the current mission and return to the Control
Center.
Press [Escl t o display the 'Game Options' scr een , allowing you t o make ga me
configuration changes mid-mission
Press 0 to activate autopilot.
C; \ 'I E 'I \ '\ I \ L
VIEWS
Cockpit Views
When you are in the cockpit , you may move your viewpoint to the left , right , up
and down: -
GJ moves the view to the left
o moves the view to the right
G ['e-center s the view
CJ moves the viewpoint up or down, allowing you to see more or less of the 3-D world
m or QJ hides the cockpit completely, di splaying full-scr een 3-D
External Views
Flypast Camera View - Press m
a stationa r y viewpoint whi ch tracks your sub as it goes past.
Chase Camera View - Press [ill
a view whi ch follows your sub from just behind, allowing you to see all around
it. This view is ver y useful when maneuvering in a r estricted space.
Weapon Camera View - Press m
a view looking out of the nose of the last weapon you fired.
Tactical View - Press [ill
tracks the currently targeted sonar contact in the background with your sub in
the for egr ound and is a ver y useful view in underwater dogfight s.
(; \ "E \1 \ \ I \ L
Inverse Tactical View - Press m
tracks your sub in the background with the currently targeted sonar contact in
the for eground and is u sefu l for seeing what the en emy i s doing in an
underwater dogfight.
Current Contact View - Press [ill
a view through the nose of the cun-entl y targeted sonar contact , allowing you
to see if it is lining up on you. This is a very useful view when you have targeted
a hostile torpedo.
Returning to the Sub Carrier
When you want to land back aboard the sub carrier , you must bring yoU!" sub into
a p osi tion immediatel y b el ow the carrier 's h a ngar . The carrier 's automati c
docking system will then pilot your sub into its hangar bay. Press [Shift I [Q) to end
the mi ssion.
(; \ "E 'I \ \ l \ L
MISSION DEBRIEFING
W
he n yo u have compl e t ed yo ur mi ssion , yo u will be take n to the mi ss ion
debl"iefing scteen. The debri efin g presents a summary of the mi ssion and you
are paid depending on your mission performance.
If you achieve an outstanding I"es ult in your lni ssion, you may qualify fOI" an awal"d
from eithel" the mercenary's union 0" the compan y who you are cUlTently wodcing fOI".
To get a mel"Cenary award, it is only neCeSSa l"y to score high points on the mi ssion .
To ge l a mOl" e valuable CO rpOl"at e Awa l"d , yo u mu s t carTY o ut the mi ss ion
objectives with maxi mum damage to the enemy and minimum damage to fri endly
fOl"CeS, using the minimum amount of weapons (a nd ther efore money) .
Yo u may l"eview your medal s and awards by selecting Pilot Ros ter" tn the
Command Center.
(; \ 'I E 'I \ '\ I \ L
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:1(,
UNDERA
CURRENTS
Contents
World News
page 2
Improving
Your Tactics
page 5
Me,"cenar y pilot ' Tige,"'
Johnson describes the
tactics which have lead to
his noto,"iety
Subs of the World
page 12
Our annual review describes
the submarines and sub-
sur-face weapons serving
with the world's major
co'"pomte defence units
Underwater Warfare
page 33
Alan Cl"Ockelt tt"aces the
hi stot"y of the submat"ine
f,"om its ot"igins over
400 yea r s ago to today's
sub carriers
One Day
page 58
Corpor ate sub pil ot
Roberto Deladra gives us
an insight into life on an
Italian sub carrie."
CREDITS
Editor : KrUtiara Ranuay-J_
Aaaoeiate Editor: AlIcia AIIriIIiades
Admin: Julie Punerill
EI)ITC)HI \1.
Unwelcome
Intervention
As we predicted last issue, the Indonesian
government intervened to 'limit ' the underwater
conflict between Richteur International and
O'Sullivan pic. Company property suffered extensive
damage, as is always the case when govenunent
forces get involved. The end result is that 0 'SuUivan,
which was already experiencing financial
difficulties,has been forced out ofbusiness .
W
hy can ' t the
government
forces k eep
their noses out of our
a ffair s? Ours are private
confli ct s, us ually
involving no collateral
damage or ci vilian
ca su alti es. The feeling
among the staff h er e at
Under CUlTents is tha t
government forces get
in vol ved in corporate
conflict s to justify their
exist en ce to the p ublic -
making us out t o be the
bad gu ys, while their
p ropaga nda machines
turn them into heroes .
Desip and Typeeetting:
Sarah Warbunma
Sub moe: Martin Smillie and
Anps FisItlIwrue
Let us not for get the
lessons of the 20th
century; ever y
war in which
government for ces
were invol ved
r esulted in heavy
ci vilian casualties
and almost total
destruction of wha t
they wer e meant to
be defending!
If any government
officials are reading,
t a ke this advice - leave
corpora te defense to
the professionals.
Computer Graphics: Mark Sco"
Desip and Typesetting of
Game Manual: Sarah Kt!rr
Art Director: Julie Burne ..
All photographs in this manual are Crown Copyright, ltnperial War Mu-seum.
Court esy of the Trustees of t he lrnperiaJ War Museum, London.
\\ OHLI) :\ E\\ ~
Pacific Coastal
Mining Rights:-
All Allderson owned 'Tornado'figh. ter sub
SUB WAR LOOMS
As we went to press, the war of words
between the Ame r ican Anderson
Corporation and J apanese Industrial
Giant Hideyoshi was taking a new turn.
Almost 20 years ago ,
Hideyoshi agr eed by
treaty not to mine
within 50 miles of the
US West Coast. Over
the last year, Hideyoshi
has been establishing
mines closer to the West
Coast of the USA and
the latest mine, the
Ohka facility , is just
within the 50 mile limit.
Hideyoshi officials state
that this is due to
' adver se conditions
when operating far out
at sea ', but Ander son
officials insist that
ARCTIC CONFLICT
DRAWS CLOSER
In early March , Deeping-Drew Inc acquired the
prosp ecting rights t o the sought-after Sector 27 in
the Ar cti c Qua drant P x223 . This pitched them
right next to the Nicholson Extraction Corp,
who has been mining Sect or 26 for the last six
months. I gnoring warnings i ssued b y DD, Nicholson
vehicles h ave fr equently enter ed Sector 27 and
Hideyoshi i s ' way out of
line' in their mining
operations . An armed
conflict seems inevit-
able . Ander son and
Hideyoshi have sub-
stantial fighter sub
forces of their own, but
both have approached
mer cenary sub fighter
organiza tions, openl y
offering large sums of
money for the hottest
sub pilots .
raids b y DD fighter
subs have claimed
two Nicholson ' Floor
Crawler ' prosp ecting
vehicles . DD is moving
three Enterprise cl ass
sub carrier s into the
r egion, and it seems that
this situation will be
r esolved with a corpor at e
war ver y soon.
\\(11(1 , 11 \ E \ \ ~
New Freelance Sub Fighter
Organization Founded
As the Tokyo Sub Expo '50 opens, so too does a
new Japan- based mercenary sub
fighter organization.
The Sword and Shield r eputable and wealthy
Society has been set up employer s' . The Societ y
to cater for 'elite sub has a strict rule of
pilots who excel at their presenting member s
craft and wi sh to work with only the most
for only the most demanding contracts .
BSS DISCOVER
NEW LUDINUM
90 SEAM
Our SOUl'ces inform us
that a fresh seam of
Ludinum 90 has been
di scover ed by the
Berger-Smith-Scott Corp
'somewhet'e in the South
Atlantic' . This rumour
has sent BSS stocks
soaring in markets
acr oss the world but has
yet to be confirmed
by Under sea Mining
Federation auditors.
" Jimbo" Ramsay, BSS
Chief Executive, has
r efused to comment.
"limbo" Ramsay
0

New Sub
Carrier
Revealed
Tyler Underwater Ship-
yards has r evealed their
new sub carrier
for 2051 , at the Tokyo
Sub Expo ' 50. The
craft , known as the
Constellation class , is
capable of carrying and
ser vicing 12 fighter subs
and has more leisure
facilities than your local
mega complex. It t'etails
at a cool $2825 million.
Any taker s?
"()HI , I) l\ E" S
MOD2 STANDARD
LIGHTNING AVAILABLE
The other big news of
the show is the latest
version of the popular
American Lightning class
light-weight fighter sub.
As we know, when
Ferrara produced the
excellent Mk96 torpedo,
it would only function
correctly when fired from
the Ferrara Aquila class
fighter sub. This boosted
sales of the Aquila, but
did not help most of us;
the Lightning was already
being used by over 80%
of freelance fighter s.
SubAm has now modified
the design of the
Lightning's torp tubes, so
she can fire the Mk96
without any problems. The
mod2 Lightning r emains at
German U-boat Discovery:
FURTHER REVELATIONS
Espamarine SA has refused to comment on the latest
rumours surrounding the IIO-year old German
U-boat discover ed last month in the Eastern Atlantic
quadrant Nm527. We know that the sub was fleeing to
Brazil when it was caught b y a British anti-sub plane
and sunk, but the st ory does not end ther e. Our
sources have discover ed that the U-boat Captain
ca rried with him, st or ed in airtight container s, some
of the fines t works of art owned by Germany.
Presumably these wer e to be sold in Brazil .
the same price ($38
million) as the modI ,
anyone still operating the
modI can have it upgraded
by SubAm to mod2
standard for just $7700.
It is planned that the
sub will be raised and
preserved as a
centrepiece in the lobby
of the Atlantic Mining
Corporation head-
quarter s at Atlantic
Tower , New York. Wh at
will happen t o the
priceless artefact s in the
sub is yet to be
uncovet'ed. Espamarine
deep r ecover y vehicles
are known to be moving
into position right now.
Improving
Your Tactics
So you've just spent your last miUion on
the latest in fighter sub technology and
you're there - 2000 feet down at 80 knots
with the underwater world displayed in
glorious 3-D aU around you. Your briefed
target approaches; a transport - should be
an easy kiU. You go active, lock a torpedo
on and BOOM; you're hit by a rear
quarter attack you didn't even see coming.
You didn't check your most vulnerable
zone - behind you, in your 'baffles '.
During my I."
Now that I'm retiring
5 years as a
as a mere pilot, it's a
mercenary
good time to put down
pilot, it amazed me
on paper the rules that
that so few meres
I've been following
knew any tactics at
since my first under-
all. There were a
water engagements.
handful who could
All sub tactics are
pull off a few
based around stealth.
good tricks under You will be more
pressure, but I only effective if you manage
met two pilots who
to keep the element of
I thought were
surprise. The section
really good.
of this article on
BY
Chris 'Tiger' Johnson
Avoiding Detection
gives you details on
how to achieve this.
When it comes to sub
versus sub fights, there
are two tactics; attack
and defense. You've
got to know when to
switch between attack
and defense and you
shouldn't press home a
poorly planned attack;
you'll end up dead.
..
"lit It 0 \I \ (; .. 0 I It T \ C TIC S
Attack Tactics
Active Sonar sends out a
high-pitched 'ping' noise
and listens to the echo.
The data from
this sound profile is
projected onto the inside
I 'sil/g , t('lil' (' SOl/ar
of the submarine's
cockpit, enclosing the
pilot within a 3-D image
of the surrounding
underwater world.
If you are in a high-
threat environment, you
. should avoid using active
sonar; it broadcasts your
presence to the enemy
and may be used to
pinpoint your sub.
'ping'
~ f ~ s T
~
Passive sonar is simply an underwater microphone, listening out for the sound
of impellers or even the sound of turbulent water around the hull of a moving
submarine.
Passive sonar is less
effective than active
sonar, but does not
give away your
position to the enemy.
My personal pref-
erence is to stick with
passive sonar 90% of
the time, only 'going
active' when I am sure
that I am safe from
attack .
Attack Tactics
EXfJloilillf.( 1/'(' '/'(""'(lill
To set up an ambush, use
underwater rock or ice
to hide from
active sonar. Lie still and
use your passive sonar to
detect the enemy. Attack
while stationary and
watch the result of your
attack - don' t move
unless you are fired on;
you' ll give yourself away
and you may miss the
A good firing position
is one which strikes a
balance between
escaping enemy detec-
tion and being close
enough to minimize
the chances of the
enemy avoiding your
torpedo. If the enemy
has no towed sonar
array, then it is always
best to attack from
behind.
chance to carry out a
follow-up attack.
It is important to select
an appropriate weapon
system and fire at an
optimum time. Don't
waste torpedoes on
short-range shots when
rockets would be better.
flit (I II (''' l'(' r; 1If.(
If your opponent detects
you, a close-range
maneuvering battle could
take place. I have always
tried to avoid these, since
they are usually very
hard work and any slight
mistake will leave you
dead. One of my
colleagues described sub
vs . sub dogfights as being
like a 'knife fight in a
telephone booth'.
lIidd('1I EII(,IIIi(' . .;
Enemies who are hiding
from passive sonar by
lying 'dead in the water'
may be scared into
moving by firing a
homing torpedo ' blindly'
in their general
direction. Avoid 'going
active' yourself; this will
almost certainly result in
the enemy launching a
torpedo at you.
If you get into a
maneuvering battle, try
to get into your
opponent's'six-o-clock'
(immediately behind)
and match speed and
maneuvers exactly.
Don' t forget to keep
your wits about you;
another suh could easily
move into your 'six'
while you are pursuing
your target.
"II' H 0' PU; \ 0 I H T \ C TIC ~
Defensive Tactics
Defensive tactics are last resort measures which are carried out to
prevent your sub from being destroyed.
netllruillg Fin'
Firing a homing torpedo
down the bearing of a
running enemy torpedo
will often find a target.
Even if it does not, it will
delay the enemy sub's
follow-up attack while they
attempt to outmaneuver
your torpedo.
I
I
I
I
U,'iillg } 'ollr Strellgth ...
If you are piloting a deep
sea sub, dive out of the
enemy's range; you ca n
turn around and shoot
him from below. If you
are piloting a really fast
fighter, turn around and
speed off in the opposite
direction to the enemy.
Every sub has unique
features which you could
use to your advantage; it' s
up to you to exploit them.
Turning very tight in
the water generates a
pocket of turbulence
which can confuse
the active sonar of
homing torpedoes.
This pocket of
turbulent water is
known among fighter
sub cr ews as a
' knuckle'.
I"!'HO'I\(; 'Of H
Defensive Tactics
Defensive tactics are last resort measures which are carried out to
prevent your sub from being destroyed.
lIip:" ."lfJ""t1 ... il'"
1I till" II I' "
After cr eating a
' knuckle' or dropping a
decoy or noisema ker,
you should turn away
from the torpedo.
11.'iillp: /)('t'oy ... tllUl
S"i ... "IIHlJ.,'r ...
These should only be
used as a last r esort
countermeasure and are
most effective if
r eleased approximately
1 to 2 seconds before
torpedo impact.
Torpedo evasion t echnique
1. An enemy acti ve homing
has acqujred your submarine.
It is less than fi ve seconds _
'\ f.om impact. "" ...... -
, ,
, ,
.
2. T he torpedo It'acks
your sub until you
release a decoy. The
torpedo then aC{lwres the
decoy and homes onto
that instead .
3. You turn away from
the tOl' pedo, taking care
t hat it ca nnot r e-acqujre
you if it does not detonate
when it reaches the
decoy.

I" PH 0' I \ (; "0 I H T \ C TI C ~
Avoiding Detection
Avoiding detection is more important than any other
consideration. If the enemy sees you before you see them, the
chances are that you will lose the fight.
Thermal layers are the
boundaries which are
set up by ocean
currents between the
sunlight-heated surface
water and the cooler
deep water.
When sonar first came
into use, submarine
cr ews discovered that if
they dived deep enough ,
ship-based sonar
suddenl y r eached a point
where it could not det ect
them at all. The
submarine had
disappear ed from sonar
beneath a thetmal layer.
Because sound travels
slower in dense cold
water , the sonar signal
was being r eflect ed back
up to the lowet' density
warm wat er , Submarines
have been using the ocean's
thermal layer s to hide
from sonar ever since ,
Thermal layer s are
displayed on your fighter
sub's 3-D cockpit display
as a grid of either r ed or
gr een. A r ed grid denotes
a thet'mallayer from
lower to higher
temperature water , a
gr een grid is a thermal
layer from higher to
lower temperature water.
If you position your sub
so that ther e is a thermal
layer between you and
the enemy, neither sub
will be able to see each
other. This is an excellent
defensive tactic,
In general , it is bes t to
stay close to the
thermalla yer s a t all
times and st ealthil y
attack the enemy before
they get the ch ance t o
r eturn fire ,
opposite sides of a
Thermal Layel' are
invisible to each other
Avoiding Detection
Avoiding detection is more important than any other
consideration. If the enemy sees you before you see them, the
chances are that you will lose the fight.
I.,yi III-f '/)('(1(/ ill
lilt' H (11('1"
This must only be carried
out if the enemy is
uncertain of your exact
position. Remaining
motionless reduces your
passive sonar emissions
to zero, forcing the
enemy to 'go active' and
give away their position
to you . This allows you to
lock and launch a
torpedo at them.
Cavitation noise is the
sound made by air
bubbles forming as a
result of water boiling at
the tips of a sub's
propeller/impeller blades.
It can r eveal your
submarine's position to
the enemy even if they are
using only passive sonar.
The propulsion units of
modern fighter subs are
designed to minimize
Summary
You don' t need to
r emember ever y detail
of the tacti cs outlined
above, but a broad
under standing of them
could give you the edge
which leads to victory
in battles.
Even if you gain nothing
else from this article,
remember this:- your
'six-o-clock' is your most
vulnerable zone. I kill ed
more fighter subs by
shooting them in the
back than any other
way. If you want to
survive out ther e, you've
got to r emember to
'check six'.
cavitation, but will still
cavitate when running at
shallow depths and high
RPM. Old subs are most
susceptible to cavitation
due to their high RPM
'open' props.
To suppress your
cavitation noise you
must either r educe
your sp eed or dive to
the higher press ure
deep water.
(
Sl BS .)F TIlE \\.)HI,I)
Subs of
heWD
Since our first Sub review of May 2041, we have
established ourselves as the leader in gathering
information on modern sub-surface weapon systems.
- ,
All the entries in this review are both in prolluction
and freely available througho t the world.
Subs which are only availp,ble to go ernmen
large corporations are not included.
Last year aw several nology has not The emphasis these
new systems come advanced signifi- days seems to be on
into service including cantly, however, upgrading and irn-
one completely new with only one major proving existing
weapon: the PBRS new type coming equipment rather
(Particle Beam onto the world than developing
Rocket System). market over the completely new
Submarine tech- last two years. submarines.
!'il B!'i OF TilE \\OH!.!)
Enterprise Class
-Sub Carrier-
PRICE
$2360 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2039
DISPLACEMENT
60,000 tons (unloaded)
LENGTH
742 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear powered with
conventional screw drive
MAX. SPEED
35 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
4500 ft
ARMAMENT
10 fightet subs
20 crui se missiles
4 torpedo tubes
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar Surface radar
Surface RWR
QV-82 airborne drones
Mk96 underwater drones
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Tsunami Class
-Sub Carrier-
PRICE
$2170 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2042
DISPLACEMENT
55,000 tons (unloaded)
LENGTH
649 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion Nuclear power ed with
electro-magnetic/due ted impeller
drive
MAX. SPEED
37 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
4300 ft
ARMAMENT
8 fighter subs
10 cruise missiles
6 torpedo tubes
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
Surface radar Surface RWR
QV-82 airborne drones
Mk96 underwater drones
Sl BS OF TilE \\OHLD
Tornado Class
-Heavy Fighter Sub-
PRICE
$62 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2050
DISPLACEMENT
220 tons
LENGTH
86 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear powered
with electromagnetic/ducted
impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
80 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
4600 ft
ARMAMENT
4 torpedo tubes
Particle Beam Rocket System
Mine-laying capability
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
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Lightning Class
-Light Fighter Sub-
PRICE
$38 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2043
DISPLACEMENT
120 tons
LENGTH
65 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear powered with
electromagnetic/ d ucted
impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
100 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
2000 ft
ARMAMENT
2 torpedo tubes
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
~ l B ~ OF TIlE \\OHLJ)
Typhoon Class
-Heavy Fighter Sub-
PRICE
$45 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2048
DISPLACEMENT
210 tons
LENGTH
92 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear power ed
with electromagnetic/ducted
impeller dl'ive
MAX. SPEED
85 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
4200 ft
ARMAMENT
4 torpedo tubes
Mine-laying capability
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
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Hurricane Class
-Light Fighter Sub-
PRICE
$36 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2044
DISPLACEMENT
140 tons
LENGTH
69 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear powered
with electromagnetic/ducted
impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
90 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
1800 ft
ARMAMENT
3 torpedo tubes
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Noisemaker s
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
Sl BS C)F TilE "C)HI , I)
Trieste Class
-Ultra-Deep Sub-
PRICE
$230 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2042
DISPLACEMENT
1,400 tons
LENGTH
251 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric powered
with ducted impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
30 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
12500 ft
ARMAMENT
2 torpedo tubes
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
--
--
Sl BS OF TilE \\OHLI)
Whirlwind Class
-Ultra-Deep Sub-
PRICE
$198 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2039
DISPLACEMENT
1,200 tons
LENGTH
287 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric powered
with conventional scr ew drive
MAX. SPEED
20 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
11000 ft
ARMAMENT
4 torpedo tubes
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
~ ( B ~ CF TIlE \\CHI , I
Powers Class
-Reconnaissance Sub-
PRICE
$31 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2047
DISPLACEMENT
400 tons
LENGTH
160 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric power ed
with ducted impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
40 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
5500 ft
ARMAMENT
None
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
Surface radar
Surface RWR
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Thunderbolt Class
-Reconnaissance Sub-
PRICE
$29 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2045
DISPLACEMENT
330 tons
LENGTH
147 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electri c powered
with ducted impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
5200 ft
ARMAMENT
None
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Sidescan sonar
Active and passive sonar
Surface radar
Surface RWR
Mk96 underwater drones
cn= 40kts
~ I B ~ OF TilE \\OHLI)
Endurance Class
-Refueller Sub-
PRICE
$285 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2040
DISPLACEMENT
12,000 tons
LENGTH
566 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric powered
with conventional scr ew drive
MAX. SPEED
25 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
1500 ft
ARMAMENT
None
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Active and passive sonar
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Type 17
-Refueller Sub-
PRICE
$341 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2043
DISPLACEMENT
10,000 tons
LENGTH
510 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric power ed
with conventional scr ew drive
:! I
MAX. SPEED
28 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
1200 ft
ARMAMENT
None
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Active and passive sonar
Sf BS OF TilE \\OH!,!)
Fury Class
-Troop Carrier Sub-
PRICE
$27 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2046
DISPLACEMENT
150 tons
LENGTH
101 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric power ed
with conventional screw drive
MAX. SPEED
25 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
4500 ft
ARMAMENT
30 troops
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Active and passive sonar
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Jumbo Class
-Transport Sub-
PRICE
$314 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2037
DISPLACEMENT
32,000 tons
LENGTH
652 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric power ed
with con ventional scr ew drive
MAX. SPEED
20 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
3000 ft
ARMAMENT
None
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Active and passive sonar
Sl BS OF TilE \\Olttl)
Type 25
-Transport Sub-
PRICE
$331 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2044
DISPLACEMENT
38,000 tons
LENGTH
705 ft
PROPULSION
Gas turbine/electric powered
with conventional screw drive
MAX. SPEED
26 kt
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
2800 ft
ARMAMENT
None
DEFENSE & SENSOR
SYSTEMS
Active and passive sonar
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Revenge Class
-Heavy Missile Sub-
PRICE
$1549 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2038
DISPLACEMENT
15,000 tons
LENGTH
574 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear powered with
ducted impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
40 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
3500 ft
ARMAMENT
6 torpedo tubes
24 ballistic missiles
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemakers
Decoys
Active and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
~ I B ~ C_F TilE \\C_HI , I_
Tempest Class
-Heavy Missile Sub-
PRICE
$1384 million
IN-SERVICE DATE
2034
DISPLACEMENT
18,000 tons
LENGTH
610 ft
PROPULSION
Fusion nuclear power ed with
ducted impeller drive
MAX. SPEED
35 kts
MAX. DIVING DEPTH
3300 ft
ARMAMENT
4 torpedo tubes
28 ballistic missiles
DEFENSE & SENSOR SYSTEMS
Noisemaker s
Decoys
Acti ve and passive sonar
Sidescan sonar
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Mk96 Torpedo
The Mk96 is the most
widely used torpedo in
the world and is capable
of h-avelling in excess of
100 kts _ The sta ndard
Mk96 is fitted with an
active sonar seeker head
but may be modified to
accept passive sonal- or
thermal homing heads_
M704 Rocket
The M704 rocket is more
effective than a torpedo
at short range because,
even though it is
unguided , it is very fast.
The M704 may be fired
f,-om standard diameter
torpedo tubes_
Mk90 Anti-Torpedo
Torpedo
The Mk90 is a small
wal-head torpedo which
is very fast and
maneuverable_ It is
optimised to destt-oy
p
e
o
m
n
s
hostile tOl-pedoes, but
may be used to inflict
minor damage on subs _
Mk97 Cluster-
Rocket Torpedo
The Mk97 is a standard
torpedo with an armor-
piercing warhead which
contains multiple short
range l"Ockets _ This
allows it to destroy even
the thickest skinned
submal"ines_
UGM-167 Cruise
Missile
The UGM-167 has been in
use for over 10 years and
is still the world's
principal long-range
surface attack missile_ It is
launched from a
submarine, surfaces, then
deploys wings and cruises
at high speed and low level
to the target. It is suitable
fOl- use against any ship or
land-based installation_
: ~ u
UIM-194 Sur/ace-
to-Air Missile
Helij ets and heli coptel-s
equipped with dipping
sonar can pre ent a
signifi cant threa t to
submarines_
The UIM-194 allows an
underwater sub to
des troy any ail-borne
threat.
Particle Beam
Rocket System
(PBRS)
The PBRS s hort range
charged particle
pul se/rocket weapon
wa s developed t o allow
s ubmarines to s trike
unde rwater tal-ge ts
with the a ccu racy and
fir epower of airborne
weapons_
It function s by
tr a nsmitting an
extremely hi gh e ne rgy
pul se whi c h vaporizes
a cylinder of wate r t o
the target. An armor-
pi er cing roc ke t i s then
ins t an taneous l y fir ed
a t Ma ch 2 thl"Ough
th is tube_
Sensor
Systems
Active Sonar
Active sonar is a sound
transmission and analysis
device which uses sound
echoes to visualise the
underwater world.
Passive Sonar
Passive sonar is a sound
analysis device which is
used to track under-
water obj ects from their
noise signature.
Side-Scan Active
Sonar
Side-scan active sonar is
short-ranged active
sonar which enables a
submarine to sense
nearby subsea terrain.
Periscope
Fibre-optic video peri-
scopes have replaced
optical periscopes in all
but the oldest submarines.
The risk of detection by
enemy surface radar is
gr eatly reduced with the
fibt'e-optic periscope.
Sl BS 4.'" TilE \\4.HI , I.
Satellite Imaging
Infra-red data on ocean
currents, salinity, etc.
gather ed by satellites can
sometimes detect sub-
marines at shallow depths.
Magnetic Anomaly
Detector (MAD)
MAD devices are used to
locate older steel-hulled
vessels by detecting the
effect they have on the
earth's magneti c field.
Surface Radar
Radar is a radio wave
transmission and
analysis device. It may
be used to detect
airborne enemies when
you are submer ged at
periscope depth.
Swface Radnr Warning
Receiver (RWR)
A RWR is a radar
analysis device. It may
be used to detect enemy
radar emissions when
you are submerged at
periscope depth.
QV-82 Airborne Drone
The QV -82 is a pilotless
vertical take - off/
; ~ I
landing aircraft used for
r econnaissance.
Mk96 Undenvater
Drone
The underwater drone
ver sion of the ubiquitous
Mk96 torpedo is
equipped with multiple
r econnaissance sensors
in place of the warhead.
Defense
Systems
Noisemaker
The noisemaker is a
small bubble-generating
device which can
temporarily blind a
hostile active sonar
homing torpedo.
Decoy
Decoys are larger than
noi semaker s, but ar e
more effective since they
actually imitate the
sonar r eflection of your
sub, attracting enemy
active sonar homing
torpedoes.
Surface VHF Radio
Ver y High Frequency
radio: used for long-
range communication
when the sub is
surfaced .
ELF Radio
Extremely Low Freq-
uency radio: used to
r eceive long-range
transmissions when the
sub is submer ged.
~ l B ~ OF TilE \\nHLI)
Communication
Systems
Blue-Green Laser
Satellites may use this to
r elay messages if the
submarine's position is
known. Subs operating
together underwater
can also use this at
close range to inter -
communicate.
Acoustic Phone
Thi s h as been in use for
over a century. It
operates b y trans-
mitting audible sounds
at close range, but i s
seldom u sed today due
to the risk of enemy
det ection.

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The Pioneers
The first underwater vessels were open-
ended barrels lowered from ships by a
rope, these became known as 'diving bells '.
T
he principle of the
diving bell is simple:
an empty cup forced into a
bowl of water upside down
will not fill , air is trapped
inside the cup. The diving
bell was basically a huge
cupful of air which could
be breathed for a limited
period of time by an
underwater explorer. As
eady as 320 BC,
Alexander the Great
descended into the sea in a
diving bell to observe
underwater life. The
diving bell is not a true
submarine, however ,
because it can only travel
up and down, like an
elevator.
The first submarine was
an tmderwater boat built
in 1620 for the English
King James I by
Dutchman Cornelius van
Drebbel. The submarine
was made from grease-
oaked leather stretched
onto a wooden frame.
Twelve oars protruded
through watertight holes
in the leather , and twelve
oarsmen sat inside to
pl'Ovide propulsive power.
But no matter how hard
the oarsmen rowed,
Drebbel's submarine
could not dive and only
managed to plunge down
to about fifteen feet.
One and a half centuries
later , David Bushness in
the USA designed a
submarine for attacking
British ships. This tiny
craft, named Turtle, had
two man-powered
propellers, one for going
forwards or backwards
and one for ascending or
descending. On
September 6th 1776,
Turtle came very close to
sinking the British man-
of-war Eagle, but failed to
attach an explosive device
due to the tough, metal-
sheathed hull of the Eagle.
The Turtle continued
trying to sink British
ships, but was eventually
destroyed.
Another American,
Robert Fulton, designed a
submarine in 1800 for
Napoleon. This vessel was
the first submarine to
carry the name Nautilus.
It had many of the
features found on
modern submarines
including water ballast
tanks (used to dive and
surface) and a conning
tower (for the captain
to navigate the sub when
on the surface). It
generated considerahle
interest among the French
military, especially when
Fulton sank an old French
schooner as a demon-
stration. Napoleon's
admirals were not
impressed however ; they
felt that the submarine
was an ungentlemanly
weapon and persuaded
Napoleon to stick to using
surface warships. One of
Napoleon's officer's wrote
' This type of warfare
carries with it an
objection: those who
tmdertake it, and also
(\I)EI(\\ \TEI( \\ \I(F\I(E _
those against whom it is
launched , will all perish.
And this cannot be called
a gallant death. '
Fulton approached the
British and American
govelnments, but interest
was limited due to the
per ception of the
submarine as an
' underhand' weapon. He
went on to design the first
commercially successful
paddle steamer, but never
forgot his submarines. He
spent all of his paddle
stearnel pl"Ofits on building
an 80 foot armored
submarine called Mute,
but died before she could
be launched.
During the American Civil
War , the Confederate
forces built an
experimental submarine;
the CSS Hunley. This
little man-powered sub
was capable of true
underwater travel , but
drowned several cr ews in
training including Captain
H.L. Hunley himself.
Finally, the Confederate
forces decided to take the
Hunley into action and on
February 17th 1864, the
brand new Federal steam
sloop USS Housatonic
was attacked. The weapon
used by the Hunley was a
nose spar filled with 90
pounds of explosives. This
was jabbed into the side of
the Housatonic, a huge
explosion followed and the
enemy ship immediately
started sinking.
Unfortunately the Hunley
and her crew were
dragged down with the
sinking Housatonic.
In 1888, the first
submersible torpedo boat,
Gymnote was launched in
France. This vessel was
powered by a combination
of a petrol engine when on
the surface and batteries
when underwater. The
French soon found that
the petrol engine was not
ideal for submarine
operations because it gave
off poisonous vapors and
was inefficient in
operation. In contrast, the
batteries were ideal for
submarine use; allowing
the submarine to run
underwater for extended
periods of time. As well as
an advanced propulsion
system, Gymnote was
armed with the latest in
sub weapon technology;
the torpedo. Designed by
Robert Whitehead in
1868, the torpedo carried
an explosive warhead on a
steady course at a
predetermined depth,
making it deadly when
used against surface ships.
In 1904, the French
launched the Aigrette
which was the first sub to
be powered by a
r evolutionary new engine
designed in Germany by
Rudolf Diesel. The Diesel
engine burned oil without
a spark, which meant
that it did not give off the
poisonous vapors of the
petrol engine and was far
more effi cient. However
the early Diesel engines
wer e unreliable, and the
French continued to use
the steam engine in most
of their early submarines.
As the Diesel engine was
improved it did gradually
appear in service and
was eventually used to
power German sub-
marines in 1912.
I \BEH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
World War I
At the outbreak of World War I , the
submarine was still very much in its infancy.
T
he types of submarine
operated by differ ent
countries varied widely
and more than half of all
the submarines in the
world were still the
inefficient, dangerous
petrol-engined variety.
Without a doubt , the
most formidable
submarines of World
Wal
o
I wer e the German
Unterseeboote (undersea
boats), known to the
Allies as 'U -boa ts ' . It
should be noted that
submarines are known to
sailors as ' boats' and
never as 'ships'.
The first success for the
U-boat came with the
sinking of a British
cruiser on September 5,
1914. Shortly after this,
on September 22, a single
U-boat sank three
armored cruiser s in less
than a quarter of an
hour. These events
proved that the
The crew of a World War 1 Royal Navy submarine preparing to dive.
submarine was truly a
force to be r eckoned
with. From now on , all
cruiser s were forced to
operate with a destroyer
escort to detect and deter
U-boats. Allied ships
were soon fitted with
' bulges' : light casings
filled with air and water
compartments to absorb
the impact of torpedoes.
U-boats started to make
their presence felt by
targeting Britain's food
supply. The British
fishing fleet was attacked
in the North Sea, but it
was in the Atlantic that
the U-boats did most
damage. The convoys
carrying supplies from
America to Britain soon
started to suffer heavy
losses . One of the most
tragic events of World
War I was the sinking of
the British passenger
liner Lusitania by a
U-boat , resulting in the
loss of 1, 198 passengers
and crew.
British submarines did
not have as many targets
as the U-boats, but still
managed to inflict heavy
I '\ I) E H \\ \ T E H \\ \ H F \ H E
losses. Patrols in the
North Sea sank German
fishing vessels and V-boats
wer e tracked down by
British hunter-killer
subs. During one raid in
the Mediterranean, the
t en year old British
submarine B-ll
penetrated five rows of
mines and sank the
Turkish battleship
Messoudieh .
In 1916, Allied destroyers
wer e fitted with the
' hydrophone', a device
for finding the position of
a V-boat from the noise
made by its propellers.
This device is still in use
today, as ' passive sonar' .
At the same time as
receiving the hydrophone,
Allied destroyer s wer e
issued with the first
depth charges . A depth
charge is basically a
drum of explosive fitted
with a h ydrostatic valve
to detonate it at a pre-
set depth.
The conditions for the
crews of World War I
submarines wer e
primitive when compared
to the surface ships. The
lack of proper Instead of concentrating
ventilation led to a build- on improving existing
up of condensation which V-boats, Germany was
not only made food working on several new
mouldy and bedding wet designs at once; from
but also caused electrical huge 'V-cruiser s' to
system faults . The early small , quick-build ' UB-
diesel engines wer e dirty boa ts ' . Although this
and unreliable and led to technologically
engine room cr ews would advanced subs, it also
soon be cover ed in grime meant that less boats
when working. The low could be produced. The
power output from the German navy was denied
batteries used in these submarines when they
subs meant that their most needed them. As the
underwater endurance Allied armies advanced
was limited and they through Europe, the
spent most of their time V-boats lost their bases
r unning under diesel on the French coast
power , on the surface. and their effectiveness
dropped dramatically.

A German Navy 'U-139' class U-Cruiser running unde r diesel
power Oft the surJace.
I 'I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
When Germany surr-
endered in 1918, U-boats
had sunk more than
5,000 Allied ships.
Although 199 U-boats
had been lost , the
Gel'man Navy still had
138 left. Even in these
pioneet'ing days of
inefficient powel' sources
and cramped conditions,
the submarine had
pl"Oved to be a
formidable huntel".
'U-35' , an early Type VlI U-Boat , ntnlling on the surface.
Post-World War I
By the end of World War I, the submarine
had acquired a bad reputation among the
general public.
T
he sinking of
mer chant shipping
was seen as morally wrong
and popular sentiment
was for banning
submarines altogether.
In 1922, America ,
Britain and Japan
signed the London Naval
Treaty agreeing not to
perform unrestricted
submarine warfare on
mer chant ships. In the
meantime , Germany was
being forced to limit its
armed forces to
t'elatively low levels.
German submarine
research continued ,
however.
In 1935, the US
launched the first of an
advanced new type of
submarine, the ' P' class.
This boat had a
lightweight diesel engine
and a high-performance
batter y. This made the
. : ~ a
'P' class faster and more
maneuverable than
other comparable
submarines . An air
conditioning sys tem took
car e of the condensation
problems which plagued
ea rlier submarines and a
Torpedo Data Computet
(TDC) made torpedoes
much more accurate.
In 1937, Germany
launched a very
powerful submarine; the
type VII U-boat. The
type VII had a
submerged displacement
of 871 tons, a maximum
speed of 17 kts surfaced
and 8 kts submer ged
and was armed with
l \I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
14 torpedoes. The cr ew
of 44 could stay at sea
for 20 days , allowing the
type VII to operate deep
into the Atlantic from
bases in France.
Sonar was deemed useful
enough to be fitted to
destroyer s, but early
models suffered by
being short-ranged and
easily confused .
One of the main
advances in post-World
War I naval technology
was SONAR (SOund
Navigation And
Ranging). This was a
device which used sound
to find the position of
submarines, tt'ansmitting
a loud 'ping' and
listening for the echo.
A Germ.an. Navy Type VII V-Boat in drydock.
World War II
By 1939, submarines were starting to evolve
into very sophisticated fighting machines.
M
st World War II
ubmarines had a
diesel engine for use on
the surface, with an
electric motor for use
while submerged.
The batteries which
powered the electric motor
wer e charged from the
diesel engine while the sub
was on the surface. The
batteries allowed the sub
to travel for about an hour
when submerged at
maximum speed. Because
of the inefficiency of
early batteries, all
World War II subs had
a higher maximum speed
when surfaced than
when submerged.
The maximum diving
depth of most
World War II subs was
around 400 feet. In most
conditions this would
allow the submarine to
dive below the cold water
layer. Cold water , being
denser , reflected the
probing sonar waves of
enemy sub hunter s.
Early in the war, torpedoes
were powered by a steam
turbine. Unfortunately, the
fuel burnt to produce this
steam left a trail of
bubbles in the wake of the
torpedo, ' pointing' back to
the firing submarine. Later
in the war, electric
torpedoes like the American
Mk18 of 1944 put an end
to this problem.
t ")EI(" \TEI(" \I(F\I(E
The War in
the Atlantic
At the beginning of World War II the
Germans had 56 submarines to Britain ~
57. But while the German V-boats had
thousands of freighters as targets, the
British submarines could not attack
German food supplies which arrived
by rail, not sea.
G
erma[)y picked up
where it had left off
in 1918. The Atlantic was
soon littered with the
wreckage of Allied
merchant ships, and the
Allies started desperately
searching for ways to
counter the ever present
German threat. Destroyer
escorts offered some
protection to the cruisers,
but the first year of the
Atlantic war belonged to
the U-boat. Sonar was
used on Allied destroyers,
but was not very effective
due to its limited range.
The T ype IX U- Boat 'U-383 , t akenjrom an attacking RAF 'Sunderland' flyill g boat .
I :\ I) E It \\ \ T E It \\ \ It F \ It E
V-boatcorrunanders The introduction of radar destroyers were not as
perfected the tactic of onto Allied destroyers in easy to hit as the
operating several late 1940 was the first merchant ships, so
submarines together , in real step toward defeating Allied shipping losses
groups known as ' wolf the V-boats, allowing the inunediately started
packs' . These generally Allies to catch them on to decline.
operated at night and by the surface. When the
During World War II,
sharing information on V-boats dived to escape,
British submarines
the position of Allied ships the short-ranged Allied
joined forces with
the V-boats could engage sonar could pinpoint the
refugee submarines from
many merchantmen as V-boat and an effective
all over Europe and
they passed by. As many depth charge attack could
ventured as far as
as twenty V-boats could be carried out.
Iceland and Norway in
be in a single ' wolf pack' .
To counter the Allied search of V-boats.
Learning from their
sonar, V-boats sometimes Norwegian freighter s
earlier mistakes, the
used Pillenwerfer, (pill carrying iron ore for
Germans concentrated
thrower) which consisted Germany were raided by
resources on building
of a perforated canister Allied subs but German
one class of V-boat, the
containing a chemical dive bombers and mines
type VII. These subs saw
rrrixt ure. WhenPillen- hampered operations in
extensive service initially
werfer was released, it these waters.
in coastal waters , but as
would react with the
The most successful raids
the pressure from Allied
water and generate a
by British subs were in
coastal escorts and air
huge cloud of fine
the Mediterranean Sea.
patrols increased they
bubbles to confuse
German and Italian ships
were forced to search for
Allied sonar.
bound for Mrica were at
targets further into the By 1941, the most sea for just one or two
Atlantic. Shore-based experienced V-boat crews days, and would travel in
anti-sub aircraft from had been killed and the small convoys at high
both Britain and the V-boats were ordered to speed. Even with these
VSA could not reach the change tactics. They were odds stacked against
mid-Atlantic and this told to hit the destroyers them, British submarines
region soon became first , and pick off accounted for 450/0 of all
known among Allied the merchant shipping German ships lost in the
merchant crews as ' The when this threat had Mediterranean.
Black Gap'. been eliminated. The
I \I)EI(\\ \TEI( \\ \I(I-'\I(E
A Hoyal Navy'/" Class submarine. Fifty three of these submarines fonned
I.he backbone of the Hoyal Navy submarine.fleet during World War II.
Throughout the war,
midget submarines wel'e
used extensively by the
British, Italians and
Germans. "Midgets" were
used to raid coastal
shipping, and a notable
success was the damaging
of the buge Gel'man
battleship Tirpitz at ABen
Fjord in Norway by the
British midget subs. A
typical midget sub was the
15 ton Gemlan Seehund
class with 2 torpedoes, 2
CI'ew, a maximwn speed of
6 kts and a range of just
500 miles. In January
1945, several of these
midget subs wer e operating
vel'y close to the British
shore, just off Margate and
in the Thames Estuary.
Meanwhile in the
Atlantic, the shipyards of
Britain, Canada and the
USA were producing ships
faster than the U-boats
could sink them. The
introduction of the
centimetric wave l'adal'
on Alli ed COI' vettes in
May 1941 gave the Allies
the ability to detect the
periscope of a U-boat
from a gr eat di stance.
Within a couple of years,
Allied anti-sub aircraft
were using radar to
detect U-boats and were
even Cal'fying out attacks
at night.
The U-boats tarted using
a new weapon in 1943; the
acoustic homing torpedo.
This weapon accounted
for several Alli ed ships,
lmtil the Allies l'ealised
what was happening and
bought ' Kangol' petrol-
driven hammel'S and
fitted them to floats,
towing them behind theil'
ships. The strongel'
acoustic signal from the
hammer attracted the
Genna" Navy 'Seehull.d' midget subs (t their base ill. occupied Europe.
I :!
(\I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
torpedo and it detonated
harmlessly, far away from
its intended target.
The Allies were still
having problems with
their sonar systems. They
were fmding that a slight
disturbance in the sea
would dl' amatically
reduce the effectiveness of
their sonar. This meant
that, due to the waves to
the side and r ear of a
destroyer, sonar was only
effective when the
destroyer was facing a
V-boat . The Allies
decided to put sonar onto
buoys, floating still in the
water, in 1944. This
device would radio the
position of submer ged
vessels back to Allied
destroyers or anti-sub
aircraft. Depth charges
could then be placed with
deadly accuracy. The
sonar buoy came to be
known as the 'sonobuoy'
and is still in use today.
In 1944, Allied radar
forced V- boats to start
using a device called a
Schnorkel. This allowed
them to run their diesel
engines while submerged
at periscope depth. The
Schnorkel was basically
a pipe, similar to the
'Snorkel ' used by divers,
but with the addition of
a valve to close off the
pipe when it went under
the water.
Towald the end of the
war, V-boats we I'e fitted
with the formidable
Schnee-Orgel10-tube
torpedo launcher , which
sent a heavy batter y of
torpedoes at the target.
This was highly effective
when it was used , but the
system did not come into
widespread use before the
end of the war .
The ultimate V-boat was
the type XXI, which
implemented all the
lessons learned from
early V-boats. The
improvements included a
streamlined hull ,
improved battery power
output, a Schnorkel and
a rapid-reloading system
for the torpedoes.
V2511 , the first type XXI
V-boat, was launched in
1945, one week before the
German surrender . It went
on to evade several sub
hunting vessels and made
an undetected dununy
attack on a British cruiser
before surrendering. The
history books wer e closed
for the V-boat, but the
type XXI heavily
influenced the design of all
future submarines.
The Type (XC V-Boat 'V505' being boarded by a party from the VSS
Guada.lcall.(/.l. This subm.arine is now all. pll.blic display in Ch.icago.
I '\I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
The Pacific War
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
on December 7, 1941 marned the oulbreak of
the war in the Pacific. The submarine was to be
one of the most important weapons of this war.
I
t was involved right at
the start when the
J apanese sent five midget
submarines to Pearl
Harbor , to attack any
survivors of the air raid.
Even though they
managed to penetrate
some harbor defenses, all
five midgets wer e
destroyed and no more
US ships wer e attacked.
The Japanese had more
than just midget subs,
however . The main
Japanese submarines wer e
known to the Allies as
' I-boats', and their design
was heavily influenced by
the German U-cruiser s of
World War I. The
Japanese even built a
submarine which
displaced 5000 tons and
could operate 3 seaplanes
from its deck. Heavily
armored, it was not a
practical vessel because it
was slow to dive and
clumsy to handle.
While Japanese
submarines did manage to
sink a number of US
carrier s they wer e not
used as effectively as the
German submarines in the
Atlantic. The Japanese
tended to use their subs
defensively, keeping them
close to surface vessels
and never fully exploiting
their offensive potential.
The Americans wer e
learning from the Atlantic
war, and US Navy
submarines in the Pacific
borrowed German tactics.
US subs experimented
with ' wolf packs' and
eventually settled on using
three boat ' wolf packs' . As
well as simply attacking
ships, American subs also
shadowed the main
Japanese battle fleets,
reporting their movements
to other US forces.
When US submarines
attacked a Japanese
convoy, they would target
the larger cargo vessels
first and dive to escape the
inevitable depth charges
which followed . This was
the same tactic as that
used by the U-boats
during the first years of
the Atlantic war. It was
ver y effective against the
J apanese supply lines.
In 1941 the first Gato class
submarine was launched .
The Gato class was the
basis for all other US fleet
subs built during World
War II. This meant that
American shipyards wer e
able to concentrate on
refining this design
throughout the Wal". The
Gato class subs wer e 50%
biggel" than their Bdtish
equivalent, the ' T' class,
because the US submarines
had to be lar ger for long
Pacific patrols.
The Gato class had a
submer ged displacement
of 2415 tons, a maximum
I \I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
The Japanese I-Boat '1-17' during its launching ceremony at Yokosuka on the 19th July 1939.
speed of 20 kts surfaced fitted to US submarines had developed the steam
and 10 kts submerged and had a maximum range of powered Mk14 torpedo
was armed with 24 just over 9 miles, allowing with a magnetic proximity
torpedoes. The crew of 80 it to be used well beyond detonator, designed to
could stay at sea for 60 visual range during day or explode beneath a ship
days before the Gato night. The Japanese and break its keel. In
needed to be refuelled. forces did not install service, however, the
November 1942 saw the
radar until July 1944, but Mk14 was found to be
introduction of surface
by then it was too late. highly unreliable.
radar into US Navy The Pacific war was not Eventually, in 1943, it was
submarines. Radar without problems for found that torpedoes
supplemented the existing American submarines. which were striking the
sonar and visual sighting The main problem was not sides of enemy vessels at
techniques, allowing a sub
with their excellent Gato angles were detonating,
to track enemy shipping
class subs, but with their while those hitting
from afar. The first radar
torpedoes. The US Navy
'straight on' were not.
I ;)
I 'I)EI(\\ \TEI( \\ \I(F\HE
The US Navy investigated midget subs into Kaiten would change course.
and found a design flaw one man suicide subs. After 3 hours of high
with the contact exploder , This machine was not speed pursuit she did.
which was actually being successful against US Archerfish cut in ahead
damaged when the shipping because it of Shinano, dived and
torpedo hit the target lacked long-range fired 6 torpedoes. Ever y
vessel , preventing the detection gear and had a torpedo struck home but
torpedo from detonating. ver y low performance. the huge Shinano still
Once this design fault had The design of the Kaiten took seven hours to sink.
been corrected , the Mk14 could not be improved Shinano was bot h the
was found to be highly for the simple r eason largest warship ever sunk
effective. The Mk14 was that its cr ew could not by a submarine and the
used throughout the r est r eturn to say what had youngest ; downed before
of the war and was even gone wrong. a single aircraft had
used by many sub
Toward the end of 1944,
flown from her deck.
captains in preference to
the USS Archerfish was Per sistent attacks by US
the electric (but slower )
on pat rol just off Tokyo submarines, minelaying
Mk18 of 1944.
Bay. For 29 days she aircraft and fast carrier
In 1944, the US Navy in
found nothing, t hen one attack forces eventually
the Pacific was order ed to
night in Novemher an wiped out the J apanese
destroy Japan's war-
enormous r adar contact naval air arm. Once
making capability. Now,
appear ed on her scr eens. Japanese fightel' cover
when US submarines
Ar cherfi sh gave chase. had been eliminated , US
sighted a convoy they
The r adar contact turned bomber s could attack the
tar geted the destroyer's
out to be the last hope of remnants of the Japanese
first. As well as cargo
the Japanese Fleet Ail' fleet , but even with its
vessels, US Navy subs
Arm, the 59,000 ton armed for ces in tattel'S,
began to sink some of the
super carrier Shinano. the Japanese kept on
most powerful ships in
She had j ust been fighting. The nuclea r
the Japanese Navy,
launched and was on her bombs unleashed on
including the 30,000 ton
way to be fitted with Hiroshima and Nagasaki
aircraft carriel' Shokaku,
catapults and planes. on 6th and 9th of August
in June 1944.
Ar ched"ish was moving 1945 malked the end of
Desperate at the failure much slower than the World War II and the
of their submarines, the Japanese carrier , but hel' beginning of a new era .
J apanese modified their Captain hoped Shinano
I :\ I) E It \\ \ T E It \\ \ It F \ It E
THE FIRST POST-WAR
SUBMARINES
During the post-war
In 1948 the US initiated The post-war movement
years, Germany and
the Greater Underwater towards streamlined hulls
Japan were prevented
Propulsive Power (GUPPY) started to make
program. This updated submarines capable of
from producing
current US Navy sub- higher speeds when
military hardware.
marines with the latest submerged than when
This left the USA,
developments from such surfaced. All that was
France, Britain and
vessels as the type XXI needed now was a power
the USSR as the only
U-boat. The GUPPY source which could be
modifications kept the used underwater for
nations developing
diesels of the 40's in ser- extended periods of time.
new submarines. vice for the next 30 years.

I '\I)E((\\ \TEH \\ \(('\HE
The End of the Cold War
The 1980 saw the last period of accelerated development of the nuclear
submarine, which slowed down when the Cold War came to an end in 1990.
In 1981 the US launched
the 560 foot USS Ohio.
Carrying 24 Trident
ballistic missiles, each
with 12 150 kiloton
nuclear warheads, Ohio
class subs wer e over
3 times as powerful as
their predecessors, the
Benjamin Franklin class.
Ohio class subs had a
submerged displacement
of 18,750 tons and a
maximum speed of 20 kts
on the surface and 30 kts
submerged . It was armed
with 24 Trident ballistic
nuclear missiles and
4 torpedo tubes. Ohio
had an endurance of
9 years, but the 155 cr ew
generally stayed at sea
for no more than about
70 days at a time.
Ohio was not the only
560 foot submarine at sea
in the 1980's, however.
On 23rd September 1980,
a sub was launched at
Severodvinsk in the
USSR which was large
even by today' s
The Royal Navy nuclear powered attack sub HMS 'Collquer.or', accompanied by
thefrigate HMS The 'Conqueror' became thefirst lIuclear sub to sink
an enemy vessel in action when it sallk the Argelltine 'General Belgrano' in 1982.
standards. Tipping the
scales at 26,500 tons and
carrying 20 multiple
nuclear warhead ballistic
missiles, the Typhoon
class was talked about in
hushed tones around the
offices of the Pentagon
during the early 80's.
The Typhoon class also
became the inspiration
for a book, The Hunt for
Red October , in which
writer Tom Clancy
foresees the silent drive
units which we take for
.1 H
granted today. As well as
the heaviest submarine of
the 20th century, the
Russians also built the
fastest ; the Alfa class.
With a titanium alloy
hull and nuclear power ,
the 260 foot Alfa was
capable of a maximum
submerged speed of
45 kts. As well as
travelling fast , Alfa could
also dive to 2,500 feet ,
over twice as deep as
most subs of
the time.
( \I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
THE 21 ST CENTURY
LD-12 loading rooots in the docking bay oj a modern submarille ca.rrier.
B
y the end of the
20th century,
Russian submarine
technology was at least
10 years ahead of the
USA. Submarines had
been using active sonar
absorbing surface
coatings since the earl y
1980's, but the search
was on for a way of
propelling a submarine
without a noisy exposed
propeller. Russian
scientists concentrated
their research efforts on
developing a practical
electromagnetic drive.
An electromagneti c drive
fWIctions by taking in
water , charging it with
negative ions and then
accelerating the charged
wate r by using a circular
electromagne t array.
Tlus high speed water is
then passed out of an
exhaust , propelling the
submarine forward. An
electromagne tic drive
has no moving parts; it is
silent in ope ration.
The prototype electro-
magnetic ' Sile nt Drive'
Ulut was given its first
sea trial in 2002, on a
modified Russian Alfa
class nuclear sub. The
Alfa escaped passive
sonar de tection at ranges
as close as 200m but had
one problem; the silent
drive used power at an
alarming rate and the
Alfa could go no faster
than 25kts.
Even though the electro-
magne tic drive degraded
- .)
. ) -
pe rformance , the
Russian navy went ahead
with production of an
operational sil ent drive
sub, the Akula III class
of 2004 . When the
Russo-American
technology sharing
agreement of 2005 was
signed, silent drive
r esearch data was
immediately made
available to US scientists.
Work started in the USA
on finding a way of
improving the powe r
output from an
electromagneti c drive.
US scientists spent two
years modifying magne t
po wer outputs and
finding alte rnative ways
of introducing negati ve
ions into wate r , but to
no avail. The
breakthrough came
when Eddy Sowleski , a
tal ented ae ro propulsion
engineer , proposed the
ElectroMagne tic-Ducted
Impeller (EMDI) dri ve.
The prototype EMDI
dri ve c onsis t e d of a
s tandard el ectro-
magnetic dri ve
e xhaus ting through a
I \I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
tube containing a
32-blade fan. Whil e
the EMDI drive was
not totall y sil e nt , t est s
proved that it was
t e rrifically powerful.
The design was
r e fined and soon it
was r ead y to be given
its fir st sea trial.
The attack sub USS
Minneapolis-Saint Paul
was chosen to be fitted
with the prototype
EMDI d'l"ive. This sub
promptly set up a new
world submarine speed
r ecord of 59 kts on
May 31st 2008, during
the first EMDI sea trial.
The first production
EMDI sub, the 19, 800
ton Nevada class of
2007 was also the first
EMDI sub to be fitted
with a variable pitch
fan. By stopping the fan
and rotating its blades
to align with the flow
through the impeller,
the Nevada could run in
total silence at speeds
up to 21 kts. Unde r full
EMDI power, Nevada
could run safely at up
to 57 kts.
The First Advanced
Technology Submarines
~ s silent drive subs
J-i.hecame more wide-
spread, pioneering
engineers at Legendre
Sous-Marins (LSM) in
France began work on
a new concept in
submarines. They
realised that, as well as
being stealthy, a
submarine needs to be
fast and maneuverable.
They established that the
main cause of drag on a
submarine was turbulence
close to the surface of
the hull . To get rid of this,
the new sub would be
coated with a very rough
skin, the texture of which
was inspired by the skin
of sharks.
With very large dive
planes for increased
maneuverability, power
from a lightweight fusion
r eactor linked to a
standard EMDI drive and
all-composite structure,
the new sub promised
unrivalled performance.
Construction began on a
prototype to test these
new theories. To further
emphasise the advanced
design of this sub, LSM
named it Nautilus.
The Nautilus was
launched at Chel"bourg
on January 21 , 2014,
exactly 60 years after the
USA launched their
nuclear Nautilus. The
new sub was as much of a
revelation as its 1954
nuclear namesake and
went on to raise the
tmderwatel' speed record
to 63 kts. More
importantly, its advanced
design allowed it to
outmaneuver any torpedo
then in existence.
The design of the Nautilus
was used as the basis for
the Requin Tigre class of
2017 which was produced
in very large numbers
and sold by LSM to,
among other s, Russia
and America.
I '\I)EH\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
Corporate Wars
A number of inter-
success could be achieved
national companies
DurIIt6 1M early
through the use of force.
established underwater
"""of J,,
Even though corporate
prospecting teams
ee,.,.",.,aIae
wars were forbidden by
to gather seafloor
goHrrtlINrdI o/.1Ie
international law , secr et
manganese and it was
II1Of'Id tNre
wars went on, especially
not long before these
be ...... lo0d0pt
in the poorer regions of
companies started to
a MOre aolerGld
the world where payoffs
undertake full-scale
auiIade IOIMrd
or the threat of a run
underwater mining.
each oIIactr. "tar
on the currency had
Seafloor mining com-
belu1Hla f:...,.,rie.
more influence.
plexes such as the
tU bece1lllnt1 rore
and after alae .".rW
In 2024, the Chinese
Australian Neptune wer e
upre .. ,. 01 alae
government passed a
built, housing over 300
workers, 1800 feet under
90i baubae ..
ruling that all
the sea. During the late
bepra 10 ftourith.
corporate wars should
b e r egi ster ed , allowing
2010's, the advances in
companies to legall y
underwater mining
submarines to strike a
battl e in China's
techniques were leading
pipeline owned by the
t e rritorial waters.
to some companies Chinese state-owned
The Chinese stated
reaping huge benefits for
conglomerate Norinco in
that the r esolution
relatively little outlay.
the South China Sea.
would "protect inn-
This slowly led to the
The situation degraded
ocent civilians by
under sea mining
into a confli ct , but at the
forcing corporations
companies becoming
end of it all ConDyn
to follow government
more economically
owned the right to mine
guidelines" , but the
powedul than any others
an extra 80,000 square
economic pressure
on the planet. miles of territory.
put on China by
In 2021 , a di spute over The progress of thi s
ConDyn International
mining telTitory led conflict was followed
and SubAm Inc helped
ConDyn International to closely by other mining
in pushing the
use its security fleet of compani es. The r esult
resolution through .
two Requin Tigre class proved that economic
;) I
I '\I)I-:H\\ \TEH \\ \HF\HE
The Chinese r esolution of business life. They are tyrannical multi-nationals.
was condemned by many less violent than the
The establishment of the
of the world's govern- national wars of the 20th
Mer cenaries Union in
ments, but over the next century because civilian
July 2026 r edressed the
year sever e economic casualties and collateral
balance and ensured that
pressure from several damage is rare. Mter all,
any company had access
oil-producing a company which has been
to an effective defense
multinational s forced bled to death in a war is
force. Mer cenary pilots
these countries to follow useless to the victor.
China 's lead.
now make up over 60%
By 2026, the smaller of the world's corporate
Corporate wars soon companies wer e suffering defense sub cr ews.

became an accepted part at the hands of the
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
FIGHTER SUBMARINE
In 2025 the first true gleaned from these was unsuitable for long
fi ghter sub, the Eagle sensors was proj ected journeys . Modified
was launched. It was within the two-cr ew transport ships wer e
similar in appearance to cockpit using a 3-D soon in widespread use
the Requin Tigr e class, proj ection system taken as a b ase for several
but while the French sub straight out of a flight Eagle class fightels.
was designed for simulator. During the Gulf War of
government fOl'ces,
Within a month of its
2028-29, however , all the
Eagle was purely for
launch , it had set an
sub carrier ships in the
corporate defense units.
underwater speed r ecord
r egion wer e targeted and
This meant that Eagle
of 68 kts and had the
sunk in the first hour of
weighed just 324 tons
maneuverability to
the war. Warfare had
compared to the 1225
match. Eagle was soon
grown too sophisticated
ton Requin Tigr e. The
being sold to mer cenary
for surface vessels to
Eagle was also fitted with
pilots, and was even
survive. The Eagle
the latest sensor systems
adopted by some
continued to be used for
to enable it to carry out
government forces .
short-range defense
a complete engagement
work, but it lacked the
of the enemy with total
Due to the cramped
endurance to be used as
st ealth. Information
cockpit of the Eagle, it
an effective weapon.

.) .)
I :\HEI(\\ \TEI( \\ \I(F\I(E
The First Sub Carriers
S
ubAm Inc, who had
the largest under-
water mining operation in the
world, was finding that their
sub carrier ships we I'e poor
operating platforms for such
a potentially effecti ve
sabotage weapon. In 2032,
they stalted work on a ver y
ambitious proj ect; the
construction of a submarine
which would CatTY fighter
subs into action. By 2038, the
proj ect had taken SubAm to
the bl'ink of bankruptcy but,
just as the company was
selling off their last mine, the
or'ders began to flood in fOI'
the new vessel. SubAm was
catapulted to the forefront of
sub manufacture, and has
not looked back. Today, they
offer a complete range of
subs including the fastest
pl"Oduction sub in the wodd.
The launch of the first
60,000 ton Enterprise class
sul) catTier took place on
October 1 2039, heralding a
new era in submarine
warfare. Capable of carrying
up to 6 Eagle class fighter
subs, it could take them to
trouble spots anywhet'e in
the world and operate them
indefinitely. As well as the
fighter subs, Enterprise
carried an al'senal of 20
cruise missiles, making it
a complete offensive
weapons system.
Upgl'ades to the
Enterprise class now allow it
to opel'ate ten fighter
submal'ines and even though
the Tsunami class has stolen
some sales from SubAm, the
Enterprise is still the world's
most popular submarine
catTier . The Entel-prise has
only one fault - the price tag
of $2360 million puts it out of
I'each of all but the ver y
richest buyers.

EuroMil
... Tomorrow's ..
*Weapons Today +:
* ~ * *
STRIKE FAST
STRIKE HARD
The Particle Beam Rocket System
(PBRS) is the newest weapon in
underwater warfare.
The PBRS uses a high energy
particle beam pulse to vaporise a
cylinder of water, then fires Mach 2
armor-piercing rockets along
this cylinder; neutralising any
underwater threat.
"MiJaro, as one of the
largest companies in
Italy, has been forced
to operate Submarine
Carrier s to protect our
marine facilities
against attack from
hostile companies . Our
two American built
Enterprise class sub
carriers are equipped
with a wide variety
of weapons to deter
any aggressor.
O\E \)\,

on board the
I
n the second of our ' One Day '
series, we look at a typical day
in the life of Captain Roberto
Deladra, a fighter sub pilot on the
Enterprise class sub carrr, er
Verona, operated by Milaro Inc.
Our main armament
consi st s of ten Italian-
made Aquila class
fighter subs, which
are comfortable and
handl e bea utifull y. I
was one of a team
of Italian pilots
who evaluated the
American Lightning
class back in 2046 and
even though the
Ameri can sub is faster,
I prefer the Aquila .
The Vel"Ona normally
patrols the ocean on its
own. The Roma, our
sister ship, will usually
be at port while we al'e at
sea, but she may be
called to assist us in time
of emergency.
O!\E 1)\'
Sub Carrier Verona
A sonar visualisation of Verona at 3600 feet taken from Captain Deladra's Aquila.
My day begins with the slept. Shifts run 14 hours spacious and comfortable
gentle sound of classical on and 10 hours off and quarters to get some
music, normally Vivaldi, are organized so that breakfast. The canteen is
from my alarm, the lights Verona always has well equipped, but serves
in my quarters slowly get qualified personnel at fish far too often. When I
brighter and soon I am every battle station. am at sea, I prefer to stick
awake. The time I get up Mter washing and to eating vege-meat with
is governed by when I last dressing, I leave my
pasta, rather than fish .
When I come on
dut y, I report to the
bri efing room for
updates on the tactical
situation. How I spend
the I:esl of the day is
dete rmined by thi s
briefing.
If thet'e is no
threat , I will either
spend the time sorting
out any cr ew problems
in my rol e as an
officer, or I might be
sch eduled to take an
Aquila out for a
training mi ssion . Most
of my non-combat time
is spent in the crew
room, wher e we have
the finest entertain-
ment systems available
toda y. As well as
holographic TV, we
have the latest
inte ractive video
systems . The software
from an Aquila
simulator is linked to
the intet'active video
()"' E I) \ ,
ONE DAY
... on board the Sub Carrier Verona
Iholo TV, and this gets
a lot of use from
the pilots .
If we are in a time
of tension, I may have
to crew one of two
' Ready Alert' subs,
fu11y at' med and r eady
to launch within 90
seconds of r eceiving
the call. Strapped in
for 5 hours at a time,
the cosy cockpit of the
Aquila is essential for
Ready Alert duti es .
If we are in a full
scale battle, I will brief
and fly missions with
both corporate and
mer cenary fight er
crews . During battle
ope rations over my last
two year s with Milaro,
I have claimed six
enemy subs including
two fight er subs.
I come off duty
after 14 houts of
operations. I might
ca tch a movi e in the
cinema , go to the
swimming pool or even
go fOl" a walk around
the 3 miles of corridor s
on the Verona before
r etiring to my quarter s
and going to sleep .
The pay as a Milaro
fi ghter sub cr ewman i s
pretty good. I earn as
much as a senior
executive, but of
course I am frequently
in very dangerous
situations, so it is not
unrea sonable to expect
a decent salary.
Mer cenary fi ghter s can
earn even more, but
it 's a tough life. For
us, a conflict may last
a week or two and
we' ve never been
involved in more than
two a year. The
freelance guys are
almost always at war
and I haven ' t met a
mer e who's survived
the business more than
a couple of years .
Overall , working as
a fi ghter sub pilot is
r ewarding, well paid
and can be very
demanding. I know
that I could never
r eturn to a desk job,
but it doesn ' t matter .
Even if my contract
with Milaro is
t erminated I know
ther e's plenty of work
available for me a s an
experienced fighter
sub pilot. "
Our thanks to
Captain Del adra and
Milaro for their help
in the preparation of
this article.
The Verona returns to its home port of Naples at the end of a 3 month cruise.

CLASSIFICATION 2-G
TRANSPORT SUB CAPTAINS
(experience of Jumbo class transport subs preferable).
CLASSIFICATION 77-M (or equivalent)
DRILLING MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERS
CLASSIFICATION 59-S (3)
GEOPHYSICISTS
CLASSIFICATION 1-M HEAVY
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
ENGINEERS
Applications should be made to:-
Atlantic Mining Corp.
Undersea Division, Atlantic Tower,
New York, NY, USA
ATLANTIC
111111
Mining Corporation
\C \ \,1
Worldwide underwater
employment opportunities.
Send now for FREE
details. McKinley Mining
Cor poration , Norfolk
Virginia 804-328-7448-
MKMC.
Get out of the water!
Sub Fighter Pilots wanted as
tacticians/advisors for new
me,cena r y Anti-Sub Outfit.
We' ve just bought three ex-
US Navy Boeing 777 Anti-
Sub Warfare (ASW) j ets and
we' r e r eady for action!
Contact Deathwatch ASW,
Tenerife on 0267-297302-
DASW.
' I' Qualified Fighter Suh
Instructors Required.
Training syllabus includes
general ops, combat
maneuvers and operating
high speed subs at depth.
Experience in Tornado or
Lightning class essential ,
experience in Typhoon,
Hurricane, Bataan or Asrin
class useful. Contact
Ri chteur International on
0473-572921-RICH.
Wanted: Fighter Suh Pilot
for highly paid site defense
work. We're not going to
the mercs - they've ripped
us off once too of Len.
Contact Box No. 7535,
c/o UnderCurrents.
\\')'1-.1)
Experienced, Transport
Suh Pilot, captain on
UST-23D commer cial subs,
seeking other opportunities
preferably in the corporate
defence sector. Replies to
Box No. 2730, c/o Under -
Currents.
Classification 2-E
Reconnaissance
Sub Pilot
Classification
39-H Undersea
Tractor Drivers
Classification
35-K Computer
Programmers
Send details to:-
Pacific Undersea
Mining Corp. , The
Queen Mary Building,
Long Beach, Los
Angeles, CA, USA
'JOICE !'IT!' \\ \\TEII
Classification 'B' Sub
Pilot, with over 8 , 000
hOll r s on Dragon class
hi gh-s peed r econ s ubs
and th e r eflexes of a
fight e r sllb pi l ot. Seeking
wOl'k in me rce nar y
/commercia l defe nce Te l
0430-750309-KRIS.
Sub P il o t Avail a bl e,
A, C and W q ua l ifi ed,
expe ri e nce of Ligh t ning
cl ass fi ghte r s, 11 months
co rpol' ate se rvi ce,
looking for a way out of
the 9 to 5 grind. Rep l ies
to Box No. 2517, c/o
Unde.'Currents.

CLASSIFICATION 24-M PIPELINE
MAINTENANCE SPECIALISTS
CLASSIFICATION 105-M SUBMARINE
OVERHAUL CREW
Details should be sent to:-
North Sea Underwater Mining pic
10-15 longthorne Street, london,
England, Europe
......... -.........

Underwater Mining pic
BUBWAJA
D
Primary Controls
SUBMARINE CONTROL GUIDE
FOR IBM PC COMPATIBLES
Mouse Controls
Single plane maneuver mode on/off Mouse forward
Mouse hackward
Mouse left
Pitch down
Pitch up
Roll/yaw left
Keyboard Controls
[!J Pitch down
0
Pitch up
[B Roll/yaw left
El
Roll/yaw right
Joystick Controls
Joystick forward
Joystick backward
Joystick left
Joystick right
Fire button 1
Fire button 2
Pitch down
Pitch up
Roll/yaw left
Roll/yaw right
Fire selected weapon
Select weapon
Mouse right Rolllyaw right
Left Mouse Button Fire selected weapon
Right Mouse Button Select weapon
Engine Controls
G
G
[ShiftlG
OJ
[I]
[shiftlG
Increase throttle
Decrease throttle
Set throttle to maximum power
Set throttle to 2/3 power
Set throttle to 113 power
Set throttle to minimum power
....... ~ P R O S E ..
-_-...-.
~ ~ ~ ~
--------
A Dlvilion 01 Spectrum HoleByt. _ Inc.
Copyright 1993 by MicroProse, all rights reserved.
Ballast Tank Controls
Flood ballast tanks
Floodlblow ballast tanks to current depth
Blow ballast tanks
Sonar Systems
Sonar mode - passive/active
Target next sonar contact
Weapon Systems
I Backspace]
I Spacebar ]
@)
Select weapon
Fire selected weapon
Release decoy
Cockpit Displays
Head-Up Display on/off
Navigation Display mode - waypoint/map
Display last waypoint
Full-Screen Cockpit Displays
ITl
@
~
@]
@)
039500005 0194
Mission Map
Damage Status
Wingman Orders
Object Viewer
View Mision Orders
Views
Cockpit Views
[IT]
[ill or 0
o
CD
G
CJ
Cockpit view
Full screen 3-D view
Look left
Look right
Re-center cockpit view
Move viewpoint up/down
External Views
o
[ill
(ill
m
m
(ill
Flypast view
Chase v i e ~
Weapon view
Tactical view
Inverse tactical view
Current contact view
Game Controls
IEl
IShift]0
I Shift ]@J
I Shift ]1Il
lEse]
llil
Pause game
Accelerated time on/off
Quit/end game
Activate ejection capsule
Display in-game options screen
Toggle terrain detail between wire-frame,
plain or textured
Auto Pilot
TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT
FOR MICRO PROSE CD ROM TITLES
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
All MicroProse CD ROM titles require the following: DOS 5.0 or higher, a hard drive, a CD ROM
drive, the Microsoft CD ROM Extension (MSCDEX) version 2.1 or higher, 2 MB of Expanded RAM,
and a VGA Graphics Card. Each product will call for different hardware configurations. Reference
the box label for specific hardware details. Enhanced CD ROM titles such as F-14 Fleet Defender
and BloodNet may require a Sound Blaster compatible sound card for certain game features.
INSTALLATION
The installation of MicroProse CD products is very simple. Just follow the instructions below, and
you'll soon be playing one of the coolest games known to mankind.
Turn on your computer, making sure that the Microsoft CD ROM Extension is loaded.
Place the CD in the CD ROM drive.
Make that drive the current drive. (Type the letter of that drive [usually OJ, followed by a colon,
then press [Enter].)
Type the word INSTALL and press [Enter].
Follow the on-screen instructions.
Several MicroProse titles will copy files to your hard drive. These are only the files that are
absolutely necessary to play the game and take up a minimum amount of hard disk space. Some
MicroProse CD titles, such as World Circuit, will allow you to decide how many files you want the
installation program to copy to your hard drive.
Many MicroProse CD ROM products will temporarily use expanded memory and hard disk space
to cache information. This "caching" process will take a few moments but will allow scenes to play
much faster and will enhance your gaming experience.
RUNNING THE GAMES
After the installation is complete, the install program will instruct you how to start each game or
game pack. Simply repeat those instructions each time you wish to replay the game.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
For customer service and technical support, call MicroProse at 410-771-1151 between 9:00 a.m.
and 5:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday .
034800004 0894
...
--_ ..

ENTERTAINMENT. SOFTWARE