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Proceedingsofthe10thAnnualGilderLehrmanCenterInternationalConferenceatYale University

SlaveryandtheSlaveTradesintheIndianOceanand ArabWorlds:GlobalConnectionsandDisconnections

November78,2008 YaleUniversity NewHaven,Connecticut

IslamicAbolitionismintheWesternIndianOceanfromc.1800

WilliamG.ClarenceSmith,SOAS,UniversityofLondon
Availableonlineathttp://www.yale.edu/glc/indianocean/clarencesmith.pdf
Donotciteorcirculatewithouttheauthorspermission


ForBernardLewis,Islamicabolitionismisacontradictioninterms,foritwasthe WestthatimposedabolitiononIslam,throughcolonialdecreesorbyexertingpressureon independentstates.1Hestandsinalonglineofweightyscholarship,whichstressesthe uniquelyWesternoriginsoftheendingslavery,andtheunchallengedlegalityofslaveryin Muslimeyespriortotheadventofmodernsecularismandsocialism.However,therehas alwaysbeenacontraryapproach,whichrecognizesthatIslamdevelopedpositionshostile tothepeculiarinstitutionfromwithinitsowntraditions.2Thispaperfollowsthelatterline ofthought,exploringIslamicviewsofslaveryinthewesternIndianOcean,broadly conceivedasstretchingfromEgypttoIndia. Islamicabolitionwasparticularlyimportantinturningabolitionistlawsintoalived

socialreality.Muslimrulerswererarelyattheforefrontofpassingabolitionistlegislation,

1BernardLewis,RaceandslaveryintheMiddleEast,anhistoricalenquiry(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress, 1990)pp.7884.

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and,iftheywere,theyoftenfailedtoenforcelawsthatwerefortheEnglishmantosee. Legislationwasmerelythefirststep,foritprovedremarkablydifficulttosuppresstheslave trade,letaloneslaveryitself,inthewesternIndianOcean.3Onlywhenthemajorityof Muslims,includingslavesthemselves,embracedtheprocessofreformdidsocialrelations reallychangeontheground. Muslimsdidnotmovefromunquestioningsupportforslaverytoagrudging acceptanceofabolition,forsomeofthefaithfulhadqueriedaspectsofthepracticeof slaverysincethetimeoftheProphethimself.Itisthusarguablethataminorityquasi abolitionisttraditionhademerged,whichconsideredthatenforcingtheproperconditions ofenslavementwouldeventuallycauseslaverytowitheraway.4Thiswasbecausethe ulamataughtthatthenormalconditionofhumanitywasfreedom,andthatenslavement wasonlypermittedthroughthecaptureofobdurateinfidelsinproperlyconstitutedholy wars,orthroughbirthfromsuchcaptives.Freepersonscouldnotsellthemselvesortheir childrenintoslavery,andcouldnotbeenslavedfordebtsorcrimes.NeitherQurannor Hadithsanctionedtheenslavementofnoncombatants,ortheacquisitionofslavesfrom thelandsoftheinfidelbypurchaseortribute,andthefoundersoftheschoolsoflawwere equallysilentonsuchissues.5 Althoughmisgivingsaboutmethodsofenslavementhadanestablishedpedigreein Islam,thesedoubtswereforcefullyrekindledbyawaveofholywarsthatrockedIslamin theeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies.Thesetitaniccivilwarsentailedthemassive

2WilliamG.ClarenceSmith,Islamandtheabolitionofslavery(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,2006)pp. 1619. 3R.W.Beachey,TheslavetradeofEasternAfrica(London:RexCollings,1976),andAcollectionofdocuments ontheslavetradeofEasternAfrica,London:RexCollings1976). 4JohnHunwick,IslamiclawandpolemicsoverraceandslaveryinNorthandWestAfrica,sixteenthto nineteenthcentury,PrincetonPapers,InterdisciplinaryJournalofMiddleEasternStudies,7,1999,pp.4368.

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enslavementofbadMuslims,fromSenegaltoSumatra,andfromSomaliatoSichuan. Moreover,thisperiodwitnessedtheonsetoftheWesternabolitionistcrusade,which challengedMuslimstoreopentheissue. Fromaroundthe1870s,afewMuslimreformersbegantomovebeyondquasi

abolitionismtoanoutrightassaultonslavery.Theearliestandmostradicalproposalscame frommodernistlayintellectualsinBritishIndia,causingafuriousbacklashfrom conservativeMuslimscholars.IntheNilevalley,Egyptianabolitionism,whicharoseinthe 1880s,wasmorecircumspect,anditinitiallyassociatedulamawiththelaity.Abolitionin theSudanwaseventuallyincorporatedintoafarreachingsecondmessageofIslam,which waspreachedbylayintellectuals,andwhichwasrejectedashereticalbysomebelievers. ShiiandSufivariantsofantislaveryaroseinPersia,whileaweakerIbadiversionemerged alongtheOmanZanzibaraxis. Despiteallthis,thebeliefthatslaverywaslicitinIslamiclaw,atleastinanabstract sense,provedtobetenacious.Thus,ShaykhHagiHassan,aleadingSomalialim,chidedthe Italianauthoritiesin1924intheseterms:Allourslaveshaveescaped,andhavegoneto you,andyouhaveorderedthattheybesetfree.Wearenothappyaboutthis.Wehave abandonedourlaw,becauseaccordingtoourlawwecanimprisonslavesandmakethem work.WearetrueMuslims,inthelineoftheProphetMuhammadandallthesaints.The governmenthasitslaw,andwehaveours.Weacceptnolawbutourown.Ourlawisthatof GodandtheProphet.Thevenerableoldshaykhwentontoprophesywarwiththeinfidel,if theslaveswerenotreturned,followedbytheendoftheworldin58yearstime.6

5R.Brunschvig,Abd,EncyclopaediaofIslam,volumeI,(Leiden:E.J.Brill,1960),pp.2440. 6CesareM.deVecchidiValCismon,Orizzontidimpero;cinqueanniinSomalia,(Milan:A.Mondadori,1935), pp.278.Thispassageispartiallycited,withadifferenttranslationfrommine,inOmarA.Eno,Theabolition ofslaveryandtheaftermathstigma:thecaseoftheBantu/JareerpeopleontheBenadircoastofsouthern

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TheSouthAsiantestingground ItwasinresponsetoaquixoticattemptbyaloneBritishmagistratetooutlawslaveryin Indiain1808thattheregistraroftheEastIndiaCompanysCalcuttacourtaskeditsMuslim muftisfortheiropiniononslavery.Inaclassicreaffirmationofthequasiabolitionist perspective,theyrepliedthatitwasonlylegaltoenslaveinfidelsfightingagainstthefaith, althoughthisdidnotclearlydistinguishbetweencaptivestakeninbattleandnon combatants.Thoseenslavedinthismannerpassedontheirstatustotheirdescendants,and couldbetransferredbysale,gift,orinheritance.However,theyrejectedthesaleofones selforoneschildrenintoslavery,commoninIndiaintimesoffamine,aswellas enslavementthroughdebt.ImportedAfricanswerenotlegallyslaves,iftheyhadbeen kidnappedortakenbyfraud.7 Thisfatwa,whichconflictedinplaceswiththewidelyusedtwelfthcenturyCEInner AsianHidayacode,increasinglydefinedBritishpolicy.TheHidaya,forexample,statedthat descendantsofthoseenslavedbeforetheadventofIslamwerelegallyslaves.Inan1830 appealtothecivilcourtinCalcutta,thejudgeschosethe1808fatwaovertheHidaya, addingthattheburdenofproofastoslaveoriginslaywiththeowner.8In1841,themuftis oftheCompanysMadrascourtconfirmedtherulingsoftheirCalcuttacolleagues.9In1843 44,theCompanyuppedthestakesbyceasingtorecognizeslaveryinlawindirectlyruled

Somalia,inGwynCampbell,ed.,AbolitionanditsaftermathinIndianOceanAfricaandAsia,(London: Routledge,2005)p.87. 7AmalK.Chattopadhyay,SlaveryintheBengalPresidency,17721843(London:TheGoldenEaglePublishing House,1977)pp.158,1707. 8D.R.Banaji,SlaveryinBritishIndia(Bombay:D.B.TaraporevalaSons&Co.,1933)p.43. 9IndraniChatterjee,Gender,slaveryandlawincolonialIndia(NewDelhi:OxfordUniversityPress,1999)p. 213.

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India,withoutpayingcompensation,andthengraduallybeganintroducingsimilar legislationforindirectlyruledprincelystatesfrom1855.10 AconservativeMuslimreactionagainstthesetrendswasseenmostforcefullyinthe

IndianMutinyof185758,which,forsomeMuslimparticipants,wasaholywartorestore thepowersoftheMughalemperorinDelhi.Bythesametoken,therisingwasanattempt toreturntoestablishedformsofslavery.Thus,ShahAhmadSaid,aninfluentialNaqshbandi Sufishaykh,wasoneofthosewhoaffixedhissealtoafatwajustifyingslavery,andalittle latertoanotherfatwadeclaringthe185758conflictwiththeBritishtobeajihad.11 BritishdefeatoftherebelscreatedanenlargedspaceformodernistMuslimlay intellectuals.AcceptingBritishruleasinevitable,theyweredeterminedtoattackslaveryas partofawiderreformofIslam.SayyidAmirAli(18491928),aShiafromBengal,published AcriticalexaminationofthelifeandteachingsofMohammedin1873,anditwasreprinted countlesstimesthereafterunderthemorecatchysubtitleortitleThespiritofIslam.In famouswords,oftencitedbylatergenerations,AmirAliwrotethat,theMoslems especially,forthehonouroftheirnobleProphet,shouldtrytoeffacethatdarkpagefrom theirhistoryapagewhichwouldneverhavebeenwrittenbutfortheircontraventionof thespiritofhislaws....Thedayiscomewhenthevoicewhichproclaimedliberty,equality, anduniversalbrotherhoodamongallmankindshouldbeheardwiththefreshvigour acquiredfromthespiritualexistenceandspiritualpervasionofthirteencenturies.It remainsfortheMoslemstoshowthefalsenessoftheaspersionscastonthememoryofthe

10Chattopadhyay,Slavery,pp.2503;BenedicteHjejle,SlaveryandagriculturalbondageinSouthIndiainthe nineteenthcentury(Copenhagen:ScandinavianInstituteofAsianStudies,1967),p.98. 11AvrilPowell,IndianMuslimmodernistsandtheissueofslaveryinIslam,inIndraniChatterjeeandRichard Eaton,eds.,SlaveryandSouthAsianhistory(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,2006),pp.2712.

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greatandnobleProphet,byproclaiminginexplicittermsthatslaveryisreprobatedbytheir faithanddiscountenancedbytheircode. Nevertheless,AmirAliconsideredthatonlyinhisowndaywerethetimesreallyripe forthisnobleendeavour.TheQuranclearlydisapprovedofslavery,butMuhammadcould notabolishtheinstitutionovernight.Thiswouldhavedisruptedsocietyandeconomy,and mighthaveturnedpeopleagainstIslam.TheProphetthusorderedanimmediate ameliorationinthestatusandtreatmentofslaves,andencouragedmanumission,trusting thatslaverywouldsoondieout.ReflectinghisShiibackground,AmirAliblamedthe UmayyadusurperMuawiyaforauthorizingthepurchaseofslavesfromtheinfidel,andthe employmentofservileeunuchs.Conversely,AmirAlipraisedtheShiilawgiverJafaral Sadiq,QarmatidissentersandMutazilirationalistsforraisingtheirvoicesagainstslavery, butwithoutcitinganyconvincingevidence.TofulfilltheProphetsexpectationsinhisown times,hedeclaredthat,itisearnestlytobehopedthatbeforelongasynodofMoslem doctorswillauthoritativelydeclarethatpolygamy,likeslavery,isabhorrenttothelawsof Islam.12 SayyidAhmadKhan(181798),theMuslimWilliamWilberforce,wasfromaSunni background,andprovedtobemoreradicalinhisthinkingonservitude.InLondonin1869 70,hewasshockedbythestrengthofpopularoppositiontoArabslaving.Onreturnto India,hedevelopedacritiqueofslaverycharacterizedbyapassionrareinhisusually unemotionalprose.Rejectinganyformofenslavementofwarcaptivesinanyage,as47:4in theQuranonlyspecifiedransomorimmediaterelease,hemaintainedthatthesefreedom

12AmeerAli,ThelifeandteachingsofMohammed,orthespiritofIslam(London:W.H.Allen,1891),pp.330 1,36680.

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versescouldneverbeabrogatedbylaterverses.13InArberrystranslation,47:4readsas follows:Whenyoumeettheunbelievers,smitetheirnecks;then,whenyouhavemade wideslaughteramongthem,tiefastthebonds;thensetthemfree,eitherbygraceor ransom,tillthewarlaysdownitsloads.14ForAhmadKhan,slaverywascontrarytothewill ofGod,andtheinstitutionshouldhaverapidlydisappearedafterhisrevelationstothe Prophet.Thisiniquitoussystemriskedplungingbothownersandslavesintodeep immorality.AhmadKhanexpresslyrejectedtheideathatslaverynolongerneededtobe discussed,becauseithadalreadybeenabolishedbycoloniallegislation.Instead,heargued thatwehavetobecertaininourheartsthatthispracticewascontrarytotheIslamic religion,andwasinessencebadandunworthy.15 TheantislaverywritingsofthetwoSayyidsinspiredanumberofdisciples,and

abolitionbecameanintegralpartofawiderIslamicagendaofsocialreforminSouthAsia.16 MawlwiChiraghAli(184495),employedinthesouthernprincelystateofHyderabad,wasa stoutsupporterofSayyidAhmadKhan,censuringfanaticalMoslemswhodefended concubinage,atopicthathismentorhadratherneglected.17MuhammadIqbal(18771938), celebratedpoetandintellectualfatherofPakistan,condemnedslavepurchasesin1909, andadmittedthatslaveryposedproblemsforIslamasareligionofsocialequality,although

13Powell,IndianMuslimmodernists,pp26571.Seealso,AhmedKhanBahador,LifeofMohammedand subjectssubsidiarythereto(Lahore:Sh.MubarakAli,1979reprintof1870ed.),pp.4227;ShanMuhammad, SirSyedAhmadKhan,apoliticalbiography(BegumBridge,Meerut:MeenakshiPrakashan,1969).Ahmad Khanusedthepluralformverses,becauseofanumberingofverseswherebythispassagewaspresentedas 47:45,whereasitisusualtodaytohaveitas47:4. 14A.J.Arberry,TheKoraninterpreted,(Toronto:Macmillan,1969)Vol.II,p.220. 15Powell,IndianMuslimmodernists,pp.2725;AzizAhmad,IslamicmodernisminIndiaandPakistan,1857 1964(London:OxfordUniversityPress,1967),pp.512;J.M.S.Baljon,ThereformsandreligiousideasofSir AhmadKhan(Lahore:Sh.MuhammadAshraf,1970),pp.434,143;BashirA.Dar,ReligiousthoughtofSayyid AhmadKhan(Lahore:Dr.KhalifaAbdulHakim,1957),pp.2369;25860;M.Mujeeb,TheIndianMuslims (London:GeorgeAllenandUnwin,1967),pp.4501. 16Powell,IndianMuslimmodernists,pp.2749;MujeebTheIndianMuslims,pp.4501.

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hissolutionwastodepictslaveryinIslamasaninstitutionsobenignastohavenothingin commonwithtrueservitude.18Thedebateflaredupagaininthe1930s,whenreformers fiercelyresistedattemptstorehabilitateconcubinage.19 MuslimsfromnonSunnibackgroundsalsoopposedslaveryinSouthAsia.The BengaliDilawarHusayn[DelawarrHosaen](18401914),ofShiiorigins,valiantlydefended SayyidAhmadKhan,andovertlyharkedbacktoMutaziliideas.20TheNizariIsmaili(Khoja) community,undertheWesterneducatedandliberalAgaKhanIII(r.18851957)opposed servitudeinIndia,atleastfrom1909.21TheLahoriAhmadi,whobrokeawayin1914,turned explicitlyandradicallyagainstservitude,whereastheQadiyanibranchofthesectwasfora longtimemorehesitant.22Ahmadimissionariesplayedafurtherroleinassiduously spreadingtheabolitionistmessagearoundtheIslamicworld. GhulamAhmadParwez(190385)wasthemostsignificantfiguretocarrytheradical

torchafterindependencein1947.OptingtoliveinPakistan,headamantlyopposed

17CherghAli,Theproposedpolitical,legalandsocialreformsintheOttomanempireandother Mohammadanstates(Bombay:EducationSocietysPress,1883),pp.xxxiiiii,14483,andAcriticalexposition ofthepopularjihad(Calcutta:Thacker,Spink&Co.,1885)pp.193215. 18MuhammadIqbal,Islamasamoralandpoliticalideal,inCharlesKurzman,ed.,ModernistIslam,1840 1940,asourcebook(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,2002),pp.304,3078. 19V.R.andL.B.BevanJones,WomeninIslam;amanualwithspecialreferencetoconditionsinIndia (Lucknow:LucknowPublishingHouse,1941),pp.20710;M.H.Zaidi,Mothersofthefaithful;beingadiscourse onpolygamy,withabiographicalsketchofthewivesofMuhammad(Calcutta:theauthor,1935),pp.856,89 91. 20AhamedMeerzaDelawarrHosaen,MuslimModernisminBengal;selectedwritingsofDelawarrHosaen AhamedMeerza,18401913,volume1(Dacca:DaccaUniversity,1980,ed.SultanJahanSalik),pp.iiivii,x,24, 5960,65. 21AgaKhanIII,AgaKhanIII;selectedspeechesandwritingsofSirSultanMuhammadShah(London:Kegan PaulInternational,1998,ed.K.K.Aziz),I,pp.11718,310;EldonRutter,SlaveryinArabia,Journalofthe RoyalCentralAsianSociety,20,3,(1933)pp.3234. 22Ali,Muhammad,TheHolyQuran,containingtheArabictextwithanEnglishtranslationandcommentary (Lahore:AhmadiyyaAnjumaniIshaatiIslam,1920,2nded.),pp.78,975,1192,andThereligionofIslam,a comprehensivediscussionofthesources,principlesandpracticesofIslam(Lahore:TheAhmadiyyaAnjuman IshaatIslam,1936),pp.587,66170;HazratMirzaBashirudDinMahmudAhmad,Ahmadiyyat,orthetrue Islam,Qadian:BookDepot,1924),pp.3313.

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demandsthatslaverybereinstatedinthenewIslamiccountry.23Criticisingliteralistand obscurantistulama,hepreachedtheprimacyofQuranoverHadith,emphasisedsocial justice,calledformonogamy,andtaughtthatslaveryhadbeenbannedfromthedawnof thenewfaith.HearguedthatreferencestoslavesintheQuranshouldactuallyread,those whomyourrighthandpossessed,thatisinthepasttense,andthusreferringonlyto peoplealreadyenslavedatthetimeoftheProphetsrevelations.Asfor47:4,itmeantthat, thedoorforfutureslaverywasthusclosedbytheQuranforever.Whateverhappenedin subsequenthistorywastheresponsibilityofMuslims,andnotoftheQuran.24 ConservativeSouthAsianMuslimsfoughtatenaciousrearguardbattleontheissue

ofslavery.SiddiqHasanKhan,princeconsortoftheBegumofBhopalandpartoftheAhli HadisLiteralistmovementofWahhabiinspiration,wasaccusedofimportingfemaleslaves in1885,andhedefendedthelegitimacyofslavery.25In1926,SayyidMuhammad Kifayatullah,presidentoftheJamiatulUlama,stressedtheneedtoobservetraditional rulesonslavery,interpretedinafairlyrestrictivemanner.26Inworkspublishedin1946and 1957,MawlanaSaidAhmadAkbarabadi,oftheinfluentialDeobandischool,deniedthatthe Prophethadeverorderedtheabolitionofslavery,oreveninspiredit,althoughIslamhad improvedthestatusofslavesandhadrecognizedtheirhumanity.27 Indeed,aproslaverypositionremainedparticularlyovertinSouthAsia,perhapsasa reactiontotheundoubtedstrengthofliberalopinioninthesubcontinent.Inarticlesfrom

23IshtiaqAhmed,TheconceptofanIslamicstate;ananalysisoftheideologicalcontroversyinPakistan (London:FrancesPinter,1987),p.133. 24GhulamA.Parwez,Islam,achallengetoreligion(NewDelhi:IslamicBookService,1989),pp.3456. 25BarbaraD.Metcalf,IslamicrevivalinBritishIndia;Deoband18601900(Princeton:PrincetonUniversity Press,1982)pp.2689,27880. 26OrienteModerno,rivistamensiled'informazioniedistudiperladiffusioneelaconoscenzadell'oriente, sopratuttomusulmano,pubblicataacuradell'Istitutoperl'Oriente(Rome)6,7(1926)p.358;AchilleSkaly,Le congrsdukhalifat(LeCaire1319mai1926)etlecongrsdumondemusulman(LaMekke,7juin5juillet 1926)(Paris:E.Leroux,1926),p.201.

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1935thatwererepublishedinEnglishin1972,MawlanaSayyidAbulAlaMawdudi, founderofthefundamentalistJamaatiIslamiinIndiain1941,upbraidedMuslimsfor beingashamedofslavery,holywar,polygynyandotherfundamentalaspectsoftheirfaith, accusingthemofbeingunawarethattoalteranypartofIslamwastounderminetheentire religiousedifice.28In1977,whenGeneralZiaulHaqqseizedpowerinPakistanandbeganto applysharialaw,someseizedtheopportunitytoarguethattheneedformanumission meansthatslaverycannotbeabolished,sincetodosowouldbetodenyfuture generationstheopportunitytocommitthevirtuousdeedoffreeingslaves.29 Onamoremundanelevel,fatawaof1975to1982,fromthepenofSayyidAbdal RahimQadriofGujarat,simplytakeslaveryforgranted.AscitedbytheardentHinducritic ofIslam,ArunShourie,onepassagereads:Aslavewomandoesnotneedmarriageforthe reasontheShariahhasmadethepossessionofaslavewomanthesubstituteofmarriage ceremony,andthelegalpermitforcoitionwithher.Thesayyidmerelynotedthat,itis difficulttocomebyslavegirlsinthepresenttimes,fortheconditionsrequiredforlawful slavegirlsaredifficulttoobtainnow.Theproblemwasthataslavewomanhadtobe capturedinajihadintheabodeofwar,broughttotheabodeofIslam,andapportionedas booty.30 FromcautiontoradicalismintheNilevalley

27Ahmad,Islamicmodernism,pp.2545;MujeebTheIndianMuslims,p.450. 28AbulAlaMaududi,PurdahandthestatusofwomaninIslam(Lahore:IslamicPublicationsLtd.,1972)pp. 202,28,21819.SeealsohisHumanrightsinIslam(Lahore:IslamicPublicationsLtd.,1977),pp.1719. 29JamalJ.Elias,Islam(London:Routledge,1999)p.108. 30ArunShourie,Theworldoffatwas,ortheshariahinaction(NewDelhi:ASAPublications,1995),pp.511, 531,5334.

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IncontrasttoIndia,thenumberofslavesinEgyptandtheSudanwasrisingfastinthe nineteenthcentury,sothatproposalsforabolitionmoredirectlyaffectedpowerfulmaterial andsocialinterests.Moreover,slaveownershipwaswidelydistributedthroughthefree population,makingitmoredifficulttopushthroughaprogrammeofabolition.Slavescame mainlyfromtheSudanesemarchestothesouth.DuringtheEgyptiancottonboomofthe 1860sand1870s,triggeredbytheabolitionofslaveryintheUnitedStates,evenmodest Egyptianpeasantsboughtslaves.Apartfromagriculturalwork,theyperformeddomestic tasksandsubstitutedascorveworkersforthestate.Moreover,WhiteCircassian concubinesfromtheCaucasusbecamestatussymbols,evenformenofquitemodest status.31TheEgyptianulama,someofwhomweresubstantialownersofslaves,remained circumspect.32 QuasiabolitionismwasslowtogathersteaminEgypt.EdwardLanereportedfrom

aroundthe1830sthattheslaveiseitherapersontakencaptiveinwarorcarriedoffby forcefromaforeignhostilecountry,andbeingatthetimeofcaptureaninfidel;orthe offspringofafemaleslavebyanotherslave,orbyanymanwhoisnotherowner,orbyher ownerifhedoesnotacknowledgehimselftobethefather.33Thiswordingallowedforthe enslavementofnoncombatants,whilesayingnothingabouttributeandpurchase. EnslavingfreeMuslimswasthemostobviousabuse.AbdalRahmanalJabarti (17541825),adistinguishedscholarofEthiopianorigins,denouncedMuhammadAli,Pasha

31GabrielBaer,Slaveryanditsabolition,inGabrielBaer,ed.,StudiesinthesocialhistoryofmodernEgypt (Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1969)pp.1636;RedaMowafi,Slavery,slavetradeandabolition attemptsinEgyptandtheSudan,18201882(Malm:ScandinavianUniversityBooks,1981)pp.1314,234; Beachey,Theslavetrade,pp.1301. 32DanielCrecelius,NonideologicalresponsesoftheEgyptianulamatomodernization,inNikkiKeddie,ed., Scholars,saintsandSufis;MuslimreligiousinstitutionsintheMiddleEastsince1500(Berkeley:Universityof CaliforniaPress,1972)pp.16970,178,1867. 33EdwardW.Lane,AnaccountofthemannersandcustomsofthemodernEgyptians(London:Alexander Gardner,1895,2nded.)p.115.

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ofEgypt,foractinginthiswayinconqueringtheSudanfrom1820.34Similarcomplaints camefromtheSudaneseside,withtheEgyptianforcesaccusedofraisingtaxesinslaves,or enslavingMuslimsforfailingtopayuncanonicaltaxes.35Whenillicitlytakenintobondage, freeMuslimscouldgainredressinshariacourts.Casesbroughtbythoseclaimingtobe havebeenwronglyenslavedwerecommoninCairofromatleast1749,withpious merchantspayingthelegalfees,andmanypetitionerswerereleased.36 Methodsofenslavinginfidelsalsocameintoquestion.TheTunisianShaykh Muhammadb.UmaralTunisi,residingintheSudanfrom1803toabout1820,notedofthe sultansofDarfurandWadaithatintheirraidsonidolaters,[they]donotobeywhatis prescribedbyGodsword.TheyneversummontheseidolaterstoadoptIslambefore attackingthem.Raidswereprecededneitherbypeacefulproselytism,norbyrepeated warningsastotheconsequencesofunbelief.37Similarly,Egyptianofficersroundedup Animistslikecattle,withnosuggestionthattheymightconverttoIslam,orliveaspeaceful tributaries.38Cowedsurvivorsofpunitiveraidsthenfurnishedaregulartributeinslaves.39 However,MustafaPashaFehmi,EgyptianForeignMinisterin1880,implicitlyadmittedthat theshariaprohibitedtheprovisionofslavesastribute,andhewasbackedinhisopinionby

34GilbertDelanoue,MoralistesetpolitiquesmusulmansdanslgypteduXIXesicle(Cairo:InstitutFranais dArchologieOrientale,1982)p.57. 35RudolphPeters,Islamandcolonialism;thedoctrineofjihadinmodernhistory(TheHague:Mouton,1979) pp.689;JaySpaulding,Slavery,landtenureandsocialclassinthenorthernTurkishSudan,International JournalofAfricanHistoricalStudies,15,1(1982)pp.4,1012. 36TerenceWalz,BlackslaveryinEgyptduringthenineteenthcentury,asreflectedintheMahkamaarchives ofCairo,inJohnR.Willis,ed.,SlavesandslaveryinMuslimAfrica,(London:FrankCass,1985)II,pp.1479, 158. 37MohammedibnOmarelTounsy,VoyageauDarfour(Paris:BenjaminDuprat,1845,ed.andtr.byS. Perron),pp.viiixi,26970,andVoyageauOuady(Paris:BenjaminDuprat,1851,ed.andtr.byS.Perron)pp. 4045,46790. 38JohnHunwickandEveTrouttPowell,TheAfricandiasporaintheMediterraneanlandsofIslam(Princeton: MarkusWiener,2002)pp.534. 39Baer,Slavery,pp.1645.

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CairosshaykhalIslam.40Bytheearly1880s,thevastmajorityofCairosulamaweresaid toacceptthatonlyunbelievingcaptivestakeninaholywarcouldlegitimatelybe enslaved.41 TheissuecametoaheadwiththeestablishmentofManumissionBureauxin1877, asaresultofconsiderableinternationalpressure.SomeulamabackedtheEgyptian government,citing47:4and24:33intheQurantoprovethatIslamdidnotsanctionslavery inmoderntimes,althoughthesecondpassagemerelyrecommendedthemanumissionof worthyslaves.42However,somejudgesinCairosshariacourtsrefusedtoallowthe marriageofslavewomenfreedbythesesecularinstitutions,insistingthatthewomenhad toobtaintheirownersconsent,andallegedlydrivingsomeofthemintoprostitution.43 AsashowdownwithBritainloomedin1881,opinionsweredivided.Theshaykhal Islamrefusedtoconcedethecivilrightsofapersonbornfreetothoseliberatedbythe state.Havingconsultedthemostlearnedscholars,hedeclaredthathewouldbeoverriding thelawindecreeingtheabolitionofslavery.44MuhammadalAnbabi,ShaykhalAzharin 1882,consideredexistingslaverytobeaperversionoftheinstitutionaspermittedinholy law,whichonlysanctionedtheenslavementofidolatersinwarforthepurposeof convertingthem.Headdedthatreducingcaptivestoslaverywasnotdirectlyenjoinedin holylaw,butwasamatterofcustom.45

40Y.HakanErdem,SlaveryintheOttomanempireanditsdemise,18001909(London:Macmillan,1996)pp. 8990. 41Baer,Slavery,p.188. 42Beachey,Acollection,p.33. 43JudithE.Tucker,WomeninnineteenthcenturyEgypt(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1985),pp. 1778,1878;BaerSlavery,pp.1835. 44Erdem,Slavery,pp.8990. 45Baer,Slavery,p.188;Tucker,Women,p.178.

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ItwasatthispointthatMuhammadAbduh(18491905),thekeyfigureinEgyptian

modernism,intervened,albeitinamorecautiousandequivocalmannerthanIndianlay radicals.Abduhcamefromahumblebackground,andwaspartoftheprofessionalstratum oftheulama.HewasalsocaughtbetweenEgyptiannationalismandBritishcolonialism.46 Thismayexplainwhyhewassocoyinhismostinfluentialwork,Thetheologyofunity.The onlyclearreferencetoslaverycomesinatantalizingrhetoricalquestion:Ifreligioneagerly anticipatestheliberationofslaves,whyhaveMuslimsspentcenturiesenslavingthefree? ThiscouldbereadasreferringonlytoreducingfreeMuslimssoservitude,andhisrather confusingansweristhatacarefulreadingoftheQuransupportshisinterpretation,and thathewillconfoundhiscriticsinanotherbook.47 Nevertheless,Abduhsreputationforopposingslaverywaswellknown.Indeed,a

conservativeauthor,ShaykhHusaynalJisrofTripoliinSyria,roundlycriticisedAbduhs modernistviewsonslavery,inabookpublishedin190405,aroundthetimeofAbduh's death.48Commentingon2:177intheQuran,whereransomingaslavewasnumbered amongactionsoftruepiety,Abduhtrodafinelinebetweentraditionalistexegesisand modernistinterpretation.Hearguedthatmanumissionwasaformofcharityobligatoryfor thefaithful.Fromthishededucedthatfreedomwasthenorm,indeedanecessityforthe perfectionofhumanity.Onlyinexceptionalcasescouldlibertybebreached,andonlyina transitorymanner.Ineffect,hetransformedcaptivesintomodernprisonersofwar.49Ina fatwa,foundamonghispapersafterhisdeath,Abduhalsoattackedconcubinage.Muslims

46M.A.ZakiBadawi,ThereformersofEgypt(London:CroomHelm,1978. 47MuhammadAbduh,Thetheologyofunity(London:G.AllenandUnwin,1966),pp.125,135,140,1524. 48A.Hourani,Arabicthoughtintheliberalage,17981939(London:OxfordUniversityPress,1970),pp.222 3. 49RiadNourallah,personalcommunication,summarizingIV,433,inAbduhscollectedworks,editedbyM. Amarah.

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hadabusedthiscustomabominablyforcenturies,corruptingtheethicsofthefaithful. Whileacceptingthatconcubinagecouldbealegitimatebyproductofwar,hecalledon politicalandreligiousauthoritiestostampoutthepracticeinthenameofpublicinterest.50 WhenparticipatinginagovernmentthatwasdesperatetopreventaBritishassault

in1882,AbduhsentalettertoWilfridBlunt,whowasattemptingtomediate.Thismissive wasmuchclosertoquasiabolitionismthantomodernistideas:ThepresentMinistryis tryinghardtosuppressdomesticslavery.TheMohammedanreligionoffersnoobstacleat alltothis;nay,accordingtoMohammedandogma,Moslemsarenotallowedtohaveslaves excepttakenfrominfidelsatwarwiththem.Infacttheyarecaptivesorprisonerstakenin legalwarfare,orwhobelongedtoinfidelpeoplesnotinfriendlyalliancewithMohammedan princes,norprotectedbytreatiesorcovenants.ButnoMoslemisallowedtobetakenasa slave.Moreover,ifapersonisaninfidel,butbelongstoanationinpeacefultreatywitha Mohammedanprince,hecannotbetakenasaslave.HencetheMohammedanreligionnot onlydoesnotopposeabolishingslaveryasitisinmoderntimes,butradicallycondemnsits continuance....AfetwawillinafewdaysbeissuedbytheSheykhelIslamtoprovethatthe abolitionofslaveryisaccordingtothespiritoftheKoran,toMohammedantradition,andto Mohammedandogma.'51 UnderstandingAbduhspositionisrenderedallthemoredifficultbythe

interventionofhisforcefuldisciple,theLebaneseMuhammadRashidRida(18651935), wholongoutlivedhismaster.Inresponsetoquestionsfromreadersaroundtheglobe,Rida publishedopinionsonslaveryoverseveraldecades,inthewidelydisseminatedCairo

50RiadNourallah,personalcommunication,summarizinga1927fatwainalManar;JacquesJomier,Le commentairecoraniqueduManr;tendancesmodernesdel'exgsecoraniqueengypte(Paris: MaisonneuveetCie,1954),pp.2312. 51WilfridBlunt,SecrethistoryoftheEnglishoccupationofEgypt(London:T.FisherUnwin,1907)pp.2534.

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journalalManar(thelighthouse).Generalizingfromthismedleyofstatements,muchthat wasinimicaltoslaveryappeared.Therewasnolongeracaliph,necessarytodeclareaholy warandtestifythattheenslavementofcaptiveswasinthepublicinterest.Evenledbya caliph,holywarsshouldbedefensive.Itwaswrongtoenslavenoncombatantwomenand childreninwar,kidnapchildren,buyslavesfromtheinfidel,orfailtoseekproofofservile descent.Moreover,freeingslaveswasthegreatestofferingtoGod.Suddenliberation wouldhavebeendisruptiveinIslamiclands,butgradualabolitionaccordedwiththespirit ofIslam,andwasthefinalgoalofthefaith.IfMuslimrulershadobeyedQuranandHadith, slaveryshouldhavediedoutovertime.Ameliorationinconditionsofservitudepavedthe wayforabolition,whichrulerswereatlibertytodecreeinthepublicinterest. Forallthat,Ridasviewscontainedambiguities,andprobablybecamemore

conservativeovertime.HerecalledAbduhsayingthatmenshouldfreeandmarry concubines,butcommentedthatrespectedjuristsrejectedthisinterpretation.Ridaclungto thenotionthattakingslavesinholywarsagainstinfidelaggressorswaslicit,aslongas captiveswerenotMuslims,Arabs,orcloserelatives.Childreninheritedservilestatusonlyif boththeirparentswereslaves,aborrowingfromShiilaw.In1922,hetookthelinethat Muslimswereobligedtoretainslaverywhenevertheirenemiesdidso,toimprovetheir bargainingposition.Towardstheendofhislife,Ridaevenopinedthatservitudecouldbea refugeforthepoorandweak,notablywomen,andcouldgiveallwomenachancetobear children.52

52AmalGhazal,DebatingslaveryintheArabMiddleEast;abolitionbetweenMuslimreformersand conservatives,inBehnazMirzai,IsmaelM.Montana,andPaulE.Lovejoy,eds.,Islam,slaveryanddiaspora (TrentonNJ:AfricaWorldPress,forthcoming);MazheruddinSiddiqi,Modernistreformistthoughtinthe Muslimworld(Islamabad:IslamicResearchInstitute,1982),p.182;A.ChrisEccel,Egypt,Islamandsocial change;alAzharinconflictandaccommodation(Berlin:KlausSchwarz,1984),pp.41617;Jomier,Le commentaire,pp.2312;Peters,Islam,pp.1267;Badawi,ThereformersofEgypt,p.114;Hourani,Arabic thought,pp.142,239.

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AnassociateofRida,AhmadShafiq(18601940),himselfthesonofaCircassian

concubine,revealedsimilarcontradictions.53Shockedbytheexperienceofattendingoneof CardinalCharlesLavigeriesfamousharanguesonMuslimslaveryin1888,Shafiqpublished ashortrebuttalin1891,writteninFrenchbutsoontranslatedintoArabic.Heconsidered thatinternationallawhadsuperseded47:4intheQuran,bydeterminingthetreatmentof prisonersofwar,andyetheclungtothejihadagainstunbelieversasalicitmannerof makingslaves,aslongaswarswereintheinterestofIslam,andwereprecededbya summonstoeitherconvertoracceptIslamicrule.Heconcededthatthismeantthatfew,if any,ofEgyptsslaveshadbeenproperlyenslaved,butwentontosuggestthattheWest shouldsupportEgyptseffortstocreateavastAfricanempireandconvertitsinhabitantsto Islam,giventhatfreeMuslimswerenottobeenslaved.54Thislittleworkwaswidely discussedanddisseminated.55AliAbdalWahidWafiwroteascholarlyFrenchthesison slaveryin1931,whichimplicitlyreproducedthepremisesofShafiqsbook,althoughit overtlyconfineditselftoearlyIslamictimes.56 MoreradicalcritiquesofslaveryslowlyemergedinmodernistEgyptiancircles,either derivingfromAbduh,orcomingfromSouthAsianmodernismthroughtheSudanandthe widerArabworld.QasimAmin(18651908)calledformonogamyintwocontroversialbooks

53EveM.TrouttPowell,Adifferentshadeofcolonialism;Egypt,GreatBritainandthemasteryoftheSudan (Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2003)pp.137,145,170;MartinKramer,Islamassembled;theadvent oftheMuslimcongresses(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1986),p.121. 54AhmedChafik,Lesclavageaupointdevuemusulman(Cairo:ImprimerieNationale,1938,2nded.). 55BrteSagaster,HerrenundSklaven:DerWandelimSklavenbildtrkischerLiterateninderSptzeitdes OsmanischenReiches(Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz,1997),p.31;EhudR.Toledano,Slaveryandabolitioninthe OttomanMiddleEast(Seattle:UniversityofWashingtonPress,1998),p.45;Powell,Adifferentshade,pp. 1456. 56AliAbdElwahed,Contributionunethoriesociologiquedelesclavage(Paris:ditionsAlbertMechelinck, 1931).

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in1899and1900,rejectingconcubinagebyimplication.57MansourFahmy,whodedicated his1913ParisthesistoQasimAmin,calledfortheabolitionofslavery,whichhadcorrupted Muslimwomen.Hesubsequentlylosthisjobattheuniversity,becausehehaddaredto criticizetheProphet,andwasnotreinstatedtill1919.58AnewArabiceditionofSayyid AhmadKhanspioneeringIbtalighulami,originallypublishedin1893,stirredinterestin 1958.59AsforSayyidAmirAli,hisstatementswerereproducedverbatiminathesis publishedinKhartumin1972.60 However,manyEgyptianulamastucktoolderpositions.AftertheBritishconquest of1882,onetoldthenewauthoritiesthat,astheProphethadnotprohibitedslavery, neithercouldthey.61ShaykhMuhammadAhmadalBulaqi,ofalAzhar,refutedmodernist thesesonwomenin1899,byimplicationdefendingconcubinage.62However,piousulama refrainedfromtakingasconcubinesgirlswhomighthavebeenwronglyenslaved.63Even thequestionofeunuchs,whohadtobeslavesinIslamiclaw,causeddivisions.Atacongress ofIslamicscholars,heldinEgyptin1908,themajoritypronouncedthatthesharia prohibitednotonlythemakingbutalsotheowningofeunuchs,butthisrulingwas

57AbdelhamidMAhmad,DieAuseinandersetzungzwischenalAzharunddermodernistischenBewegungin gypten(Hamburg,UniversittHamburg,1963)pp.1038;Hourani,Arabicthought,pp.16470. 58MansourFahmy,LaconditiondelafemmedanslIslam(Paris:ditionsAllia,1990)pp.912,93113,159 60. 59ForoughJahanbakhsh,Islam,democracyandreligiousmodernisminIran,19532000,fromBazarganto Soroush(Leiden:Brill,2001),p.38(n.74). 60AbbasI.M.Ali,TheBritish,theslavetradeandslaveryintheSudan,18201881(Khartoum:Khartoum UniversityPress,1972)pp.689. 61Erdem,Slavery,p.92. 62Ahmad,DieAuseinandersetzung,pp.101,1045. 63Chafik,Lesclavage,p.49.

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contested.64Anundatedtextfromaroundthistimeconvenientlyblamedtheuseof eunuchsontheOttomans.65 Matterscametoaheadin1894,whenseveralhighrankingEgyptians,includingthe presidentofthelegislativecouncil,werearrestedforbuyingslaves.Thesubsequentshow trialresultedinasingleconviction,andrevealedmuchsupportforbuyingslaves,albeitnot forsellingthem.66Thelegislativecouncilthenmeeklyacceptedabolitionistlegislationin 1895,bywhichtimerurallaboursurplusesandthedissolutionofguildshadmadeslavery economicallymarginal.67AlthoughtraditionalistscontinuedtoholdthatwhattheQuran specificallypermittedcouldnotbeoutlawed,abolitioncausedlittleovertcontestation, reflectingthepowerofthegreatinternationalopprobriumfeltfortheinstitution.68A guaranteeofindividuallibertywaslaterinscribedinthe1923Egyptianconstitution.69 Forallthis,thegreatuniversityofalAzharinCairoprevaricatedfordecades.A fatwaof1939declaredthatafathercouldnotsellhisson,butonlybecausenofreechild shouldbesold.70Nevertheless,thethirdeditionofatextbookofMalikilaw,publishedin Cairoin1980,heldthatIslamhadsetouttocureslavery.Avoidinganycounterreaction thatwouldshakethepillarsofsocietyandtearapartitsstructures,theulamarecognized therightsofownersandthedangersofvagrancy.Islamthusproceededbyreducingthe avenuestoenslavementandclosingthemoff,whilegraduallypreparingslavesfor

64DemetriusA.Zambaco,Leseunuquesd'aujourd'huietceuxdejadis(Paris:MassonetCie.,1911)pp.368. 65RichardMillant,Leseunuquestraverslesages(Paris:VigotFrres,1908),p.203. 66Powell,Adifferentshade,pp.1479,1505 67Baer,Slavery,pp.1819. 68Eccel,Egypt,p.417. 69Brunschvig,Abd,p.39. 70Jomier,Lecommentaire,p.232.

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freedom.71AnalAzharfatwa,availableontheinternetinIndonesianin2001,simply relegatedslaverytothedomainofhistory.72 EgyptsMuslimBrothers,closetoMawdudiintheirliteralistorfundamentalist views,wereequallyambivalent.HasanalBanna,thefounder,sidesteppedtheissueinan articleoriginallypublishedin1948,andmuchreprintedthereafter.Heelaboratedatlength ontheconditionsunderwhichholywarcouldbewaged,stressingdefensiveaspects,but leavingopenthepossibilityofaggressivecampaigns.Whenitcametoslaves,hemerelysaid that,wewilltalkaboutthemindetailonanotheroccasion.Fornowitsufficestosaythat Islamreplacedthehistoricalsentenceforacaptivefromcapitalpunishment(death)tolife imprisonmentthroughenslavement.However,Islamhasmadeitveryeasyfortheslaveto regainhisfreedom.73Ashediedthefollowingyear,itseemsthatalBannanever elaboratedonthisambiguousformulation. TheMuslimBrothersmostfamousideologuewasSayyidQutb(190666),executed

bytheEgyptiangovernment.InthefirstvolumeofanArabiccommentaryontheQuran,he declaredthatIslamwasinprincipleopposedtoslavery,andthatthosealreadyinbondage atthetimeoftheProphethadrapidlybeenfreed.However,enslavingprisonersofwar remainednecessarybecauseinfidelshadrefusedtogiveuptheinstitution.Muslimsshould notbeapologeticaboutpastformsofservitude,andtheywerenotresponsibleforrulers abusingtheharemsystem.74Thisaccountfailedtoaddressthelegitimacyofenslavingnon combatants.InSocialjusticeinIslam,firstpublishedin1945,Qutbhadasectionentitled humanequality,butslaverydidnotfigurethere.Hecriticizedidlearistocratsforwhom

71HunwickandPowell,TheAfricandiaspora,pp.1719. 72http://members.tripod.com/skypin/fatwa/fatwa17.html 73Banna,Hasanal,(1997)PeaceinIslamhttp://www.youngmuslims.ca/online_library/books/ peace_in_islam/

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alltheworkwasdonebytheirimportedslaves,butonlytolambastelitecorruption. ApologeticsnippetsaddressedthebanonenslavingfreeMuslims,manumission,good treatment,andthesocialintegrationofformerslaves.Ratherlamely,heconcludedthat slaverywasirrelevant,asthispracticehasnowdisappeared,owingtothecircumstancesof ourtime.75 Sayyidsbrother,MuhammadQutb,tackledtheissuemoresquarely,albeitequally

ambiguously.HedevotedalongandearlychaptertoslaveryinIslamthemisunderstood religion,publishedinArabicinCairoin1964,andreprintedandtranslatedmanytimes thereafter.AlthoughMuhammadQutbeventuallylefttheMuslimBrothersafterthe assassinationofAnwarSadatin1981,hisearlierviewsonslaveryarestillwidelyquoted. Whileappearingtocondemnslavery,anddenouncingMuslimrulerswhohadenslaved Muslimsandtradedinslaves,heaffirmedthesuperiorityofslaveryinIslam,andannounced thatMuslimswereobligedtoenslavecaptivestakeninwaragainstinfidelswhodidthe same,eventhoughhenotedinpassingthat47:4intheQuranrecommendedfreeingof prisonersofwar.WhennonMuslimnationsdecidedtoabolishslavery,Islamwelcomedit. Nevertheless,alongpassageonservileconcubinesrecommendedthepracticeassuperior toWesternadulteryandprostitution.76

TheMuslimBrothersgainedgreatpoliticalinfluenceintheSudan,whereHasan AbdallahalTurabi(1932)becametheregimesminencegrisefrom1989to2000.Even thoughthenewSudanesepenalcodeof1991failedtorecognizeslaveryaslicit,Arabmilitia unitstookandsoldslaves,duringcampaignsagainstnonMuslimsouthernrebels.Accounts

74YoussefChoueiri,personalcommunication. 75SayedKotb[SayyidQutb],SocialjusticeinIslam(NewYork:OctagonBooks,1970)pp.44,479,11213, 136,1569,214. 76MuhammadQutb,Islam,themisunderstoodreligion(Kuwait:alAssriya,1967)pp.6299,1017,110.

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ofdefactoenslavementproliferated,forproductive,domesticandsexualpurposes,and publicauctionsofchildrenwerereported.77Quizzedonthisin1994,alTurabianswered evasivelythatslaveryhadneverbeenasubstantialinstitutionintheSudanbeforethe Egyptianoccupation,andthatallmenwereequalinIslam.78 ThiscontrastedforcefullywiththeoriginallinetakenbyanengineerandSudanese nationalist,MahmudMuhammadTaha(c.190985).Hepublishedthefirsteditionofa controversialworkin1967,arguingthatthesecondmessageofIslamwastheradicalsocial programmeoutlinedintheearlyMeccanphaseoftheProphetsrevelations.Oncein politicalcontrolofMedina,Muhammadsrevelationshadbecomemoreappositetorulinga communitysteepedinancienttraditions.However,TahainsistedthattheMedinanverses hadonlypostponedtheimplementationoftheoriginalMeccanteachings,without abrogatingthempermanently.StronglyinfluencedbySufism,hesawthevictoryofthe secondmessageastheachievementofahigherplaneofconsciousness,whenbelievers wouldmoretrulysubmittoGodswill.Ongradualistlines,hearguedthattheProphethad beenforcedtocompromisewithasituationinwhichslaverywasintegraltosocialorder, butthatslaverywoulddisappearwiththetriumphofsecondmessage,althoughheonly mentionedthisinpassing.Inanyevent,PresidentJafarMuhammadNumayrisregime

77J.MillardBurrandRobertO.Collins,RevolutionarySudan;HasanalTurabiandtheIslamiststate,1989 2000(Leiden:Brill,2003)pp.75,276;JokM.Jok,WarandslaveryinSudan(Philadelphia:Universityof PennsylvaniaPress,2001)pp.viiiix,23,2833,126,164;RonaldSegal,Islam'sBlackslaves,theotherBlack diaspora(NewYork:Farrar,StrausandGiroux,2001)pp.21620;RobertO.Collins,TheNiloticslavetrade, pastandpresent,inElizabethSavage,ed.,Thehumancommodity;perspectivesonthetransSaharanslave trade(London:FrankCass,1992)pp.1559. 78JudithMiller,Godhasninetyninenames;reportingfromamilitantMiddleEast(NewYork:Simonand Schuster,1996)pp.129,160.

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sentencedTahatodeathforapostasyin1985,buryinghimatseaorinanunmarked grave.79 Tahasdisciplesgraduallydevelopedtheirmastersmessageonslaveryinamore

radicaldirection.Tobesure,AbdullahialNaim,whotookrefugeintheUnitedStatesin 1985,attackedradicalmodernistsforinterpreting47:4intheQuranasacommandfor immediateabolition.Numerousotherversesregulatedslavery,theProphetandhis companionspossessedslaves,andthefoundersoftheschoolsoflawallacceptedthe institution.However,alNaimconsideredthatthesecondmessageallowedmodern IslamiclawtoimplementthefundamentalIslamiclegislativeintenttoprohibitslavery forever.80MuhammadKhaliladoptedamoreradicalstance.HedeploredTahasconcession thattheMeccanverseshadeverbeenabrogatedatall,eventemporarily,citingthe teachingsofathirteenthcenturyHanbalijurist,forwhomversesexhortingjusticeand mercycouldneverbeabrogated.Publicinterestshouldalwaysbetheguidingprinciple,and slaveryhadthusbeenillegitimatesincethetimeoftheProphet.81 Shii,Sufi,andmillenarianattitudesinPersia PersiasMuhammadShah(r.183448)longresistedpressuretorestricttheslavetrade, eventhoughslaverywasmuchlesseconomicallysignificantinIranthanintheNilevalley. JustinSheil,BritishdiplomatinTehranfrom1844to1853,setouttoprovethatthesacred lawdistinguishedbetweenslavesboughtincommercialtransactionsandcaptivesmadein

79MahmoudM.Taha,ThesecondmessageofIslam(Syracuse:SyracuseUniversityPress,1987)pp.223;31, 47,1378,1614. 80AbdullahiA.anNaim,Shariaandbasichumanrightsconcerns,inCharlesKurzman,ed.,LiberalIslam,a sourcebook(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1998)pp.22831,234,237. 81MohamedI.Khalil,HumanrightsandIslamizationoftheSudanlegalsystem,inYusufFadlHasanand RichardGray,eds.,ReligionandconflictinSudan(Nairobi:PaulinesPublicationsAfrica,2002).

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war.KidnappedAfricanscouldnotfallintothelattercategory.Theshahagreedinprinciple, butrespondedthat,buyingwomenandmenisbasedontheShariaofthelastProphet.I cannotsaytomypeoplethatIamprohibitingsomethingwhichislawful.Theshahfurther consideredthatbyabolishingtheslavetrade,Iwouldpreventfivethousandpeopleayear frombecomingMuslims.Thiswouldbeagreatsin,andIwouldgetabadname. Incidentally,thisinformsusofwhattheshahsawasthelevelofimportsfromAfricaatthe time.ToldofprogressaccomplishedbyotherMuslimmonarchs,helambastedthe OttomansasSunnischismatics,andtheOmanisultanasaKharijite,andassuchlittlebetter thanakafir. SheilsquixoticattempttoreformShiislaverycametodividetheulama.In1847, heconsultedsixPersianinterpretersofthelaw,whocitedtheHadithoftheProphetthat thesellerofmenistheworstofmen,anddeducedfromthisthattheslavetradewasan abomination.However,amoreeminentmujtahidpronouncedthatinfidelstakeninwar couldbeenslaved,inordertoconvertthemtoIslam.Thematterwastakenhigher,tothe chiefmujtahidoftheholycityofNajaf,inIraq.Thisalimagreedthatslaverywas discouragedinIslamsfivefoldethicalsystem,andthattheHadithcondemningtheseller ofmenwasvalid.However,inadeftpieceofcasuistry,heassertedthatthebuyerofslaves wasexemptfromthecensureproclaimedupontheseller.Intheevent,MuhammadShah issuedavaguelywordedprohibitiononimportingslavesbyseashortlybeforehisdeath,in partinfluencedbyhisfirstministerandNimatullahiSufishaykh,HajjiMirzaAqasi(Aghasi), whomayhavebeenpersonallyopposedtotheslavetrade.82

82JohnB.Kelly,BritainandthePersianGulf,17951880(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1968)pp.495,594604; BehnazA.Mirzai,The1848abolitionistfarman:asteptowardsendingtheslavetradeinIran,inGwyn Campbell,ed.,AbolitionanditsaftermathinIndianOceanAfricaandAsia,(London:Routledge,2005)pp.94 102;VanessaMartin,TheQajarpact:bargaining,protestandthestateinnineteenthcenturyPersia(London: I.B.Tauris,2005),pp.15960,168(n.71).

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Persiawasagoodexampleofformallegislationhavinglittleimpactfordecades.The 1848decreespecificallyexcludedtheoverlandtradeinslaves,anditchangedlittleinterms ofimportsbysea.ThesamewastrueofanAngloPersiantreatyof1882,andthecomplete prohibitiononimportsthatfollowedtheBrusselsGeneralActof1890,towhichPersiawasa signatory.83Officialswerereluctanttoenforcelegislation,believingthetradetobe religiouslylicit.Slavesdismissedwithoutaletterofmanumissionsufferedfromsocial death,asnobodywouldemploythem.Atbest,Sunnicaptivesmightbelegallyfreedon adoptingtheShiicreed.84However,evenShiirebelsseemtohavebeenenslaved,asin 1853.85Moreover,bothSunniandShiigroupscontinuedtoselltheirdaughtersforreasons ofeconomicdistress.86AfewslaveswerestillobtainedoverlandfromCentralAsia,whether byraidingortrading,despitetheRussianconquest.87 AnambiguousmillenarianchallengetoslaveryoriginatedinPersia,althoughits effectsinthecountrywereprobablyverylimited.AliMuhammad(181950)initially declaredhimselftobetheBab(gate)oftheMahdiin184344,markingthemillenniumof theoccultationofthetwelfthImam,andthenclaimedtobetheMahdihimselfin1847, abrogatingtheholylaw.Theauthoritieshadhimexecutedin1850,andharshlysuppressed themovement.88TheBabdoesnotappeartohaveopposedslavery,andindeedowned Africanslaveshimself.ItwasBahaullah(181792),havingreceivedrevelationsofhisown, whotookthefirststeps.InPalestinianexile,hewrotetoQueenVictoriain1869,praising

83Martin,TheQajarpact,pp.1604. 84HeinzGeorgMigeod,DiepersischeGesellschaftunterNasirudDinSah,18481896(Berlin:KlausSchwarz, 1990)pp.333,33944;JakobE.Polak,Persien,dasLandundseineBewohner(Leipzig:F.A.Brockhaus,1865), I,pp.2489,2523. 85Martin,TheQajarpact,p.108(n.11). 86AfsanehNajmabadi,ThestoryofthedaughtersofQuchan:genderandnationalmemoryinIranianhistory (Syracuse:SyracuseUniversityPress,1998),p.4 87Migeod,DiepersischeGesellschaft,p.333;Polak,Persien,pp.2489;GeorgesDouin,Histoiredurgnedu KhdiveIsmail(RomeandCairo:SocitRoyaledeGographiedgypte,19361941),III2,p.664.

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herforabolishingthetradeinmaleandfemaleslaves,whichaccordedwithhisrevelations. Inapublicationof1873,heforbadetradinginslaves,forallarebutbondslavesbeforethe Lord.89Hissuccessor,AbdulBaha,glossedthisasaprohibitionofslaveryitself,perhapson avisittotheUnitedStatesin1912.90Bythisstage,however,theBahaihadformeda separatefaith,outsidetheboundsofIslam. WithinPersia,changewasmostevidentamongstthoseexposedtoWesternideas. Aroundtheturnofthecentury,TajalSaltana,aPersianprincessbornin1884andeducated onFrenchlines,opposedslavery.Shecriticizedthetreatmentofthoseboughtandsoldlike somuchcattle.ShewroteoftheAfricanslavesofthepalaceascreatureswhomGodhas madenodifferentlyfromothersexceptforthecolouroftheirskinsadistinctionthatinall honestydoesnotexistatthedivinethreshold.91 ThequestionoffreedomagitatedPersianMuslimsmoregenerallyinthecontextof

thegrantingofaconstitutionin1906,butthequestionwasapproachedfromanexclusively politicalperspective.92Thisissurprising,aspoliticalandreligiouscirclesbecameobsessed withthestoryofthedaughtersofQuchan.Thisexpressionreferredtohundredsofwomen andchildrenfromthenortheast,whowereeithersoldbytheirparentstopaytheirtaxesin thespringof1905,orseizedbyTrkmenraidersfromRussianterritoryintheautumnofthe sameyear.Howeveragitationinsideandoutsidethenewconsultativeassemblyturned aroundnationalshame,becauseallthesewomenhadallegedlybeensoldacrossthe

88HeinzHalm,Shiism(Edinburgh:EdinburghUniversityPress,1991),pp.10910. 89AnthonyA.Lee,Editor'snotes,forthesecondandthirdeditionsofAbulQasimAfnan,BlackPearls, servantsinthehouseholdoftheBabandBahaullah(LosAngeles:KalimatPress,1988and1999) http://bahailibrary.com/articles/black.pearls.html 90BahaullahandAbdulBaha,Bahaiworldfaith;selectedwritingsofBahaullahandAbdulBaha (Wilmette:BahaiPublishingTrust,1956),pp.53,269. 91TajalSaltana,Crowninganguish;memoirsofaPersianprincessfromtheharemtomodernity (Washington:Mage,1993;ed.byAbbasAmanat),pp.34,113.

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frontier,toeitherArmenianChristiansorSunniMuslims.Astonishingly,thequestionof slaveryinPersiaitselfwashardlyeverraised,althoughSayyidMuhammadTabatabai,one oftheleadingulamaofTeheran,madeobliquereferencestothis.93 Thefundamentallawsof1907establishedequalitybeforethelawandindividual freedom,albeitwithoutexpresslymentioningslavery.94BernardLewisallegesthatPersia therebyabolishedservitude,eventhoughRobertBrunschvighadearliercorrectlynoted thatthiswasnotthecase.95Indeed,aleadingconstitutionalistfromNajaf,Muhammad HusaynNaini,inafamoustextdatingfrom1909,ridiculedopponentswhosaidthatthe newlawswouldimposeapostasybyerasingasetofsocialdifferencesbetweenpeople, includingthosebetweenthefreeandthecoerced.Alltheseissues,heexclaimed,are furtherfromthequestforconstitutionalismthantheskyisfromtheearth.96 Incontrast,themujtahidandNimatullahiSufileader,AliNurAliShah(orWafaAli

Shah,18471918),issuedanuncompromisingfatwain1912,takingthequasiabolitionist argumenttoitslogicalconclusion.Asupporteroftheconstitution,hestatedthat,the purchaseandsaleofhumanbeingsiscontrarytothedictatesofreligionandthepracticeof civilisation;andthereforeinoureyesanypersons,menorwomenalike,whoareclaimedas slaves,areinlegalfactcompletelyfree,andtheequalsofallotherMuslimsoftheir community.Thiswasbecausetherehadbeennoproperlyconstitutedjihadafterthelast ShiiImamhadbeenocculted,anditwasimpossibletoproveunbrokendescentfromlegal

92VanessaMartin,Islamandmodernism;theIranianrevolutionof1906(Syracuse:SyracuseUniversityPress, 1989),pp.11338,165200. 93Najmabadi,Thestory,notablypp.401,48. 94EugneAubin,LaPersedaujourdhui;Iran,Mesopotamie(Paris:LibrairieArmandColin,1908),pp.21012; Martin,TheQajarpact,p.165. 95Lewis,Raceandslavery,p.79;Brunschvig,Abd,pp.389. 96MuhammadHusaynNaini,GovernmentintheIslamicperspective,inCharlesKurzman,ed.,Modernist Islam,18401940,asourcebook(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,2002),p.124.

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slavesonboththematernalandpaternalsideoveramillennium.However,AliShahwas poisonedsoonafterwards,in1918.97 ItwaslefttotheusurpingdictatorRizaShahtoenactclearabolitionistlegislationin

192829,albeitwithoutanyspecificallyreligiousunderpinning.98Thiswaspartofageneral slewoflawsenactedin192729,throughwhichtheshahsoughttoreorganizehiscountry onlinespioneeredinTurkey,althoughCroninsurprisinglyomitsanyreferenceto abolition.99TheshahwasalsoseekingconcessionsonthesearchingofPersianshipsbythe RoyalNavy,althoughweakPersianauthorityinBaluchistan,partitionedwithBritishIndia, resultedinthepersistenceofclandestineslaveexportstoArabia.100 NeitherAliNurAliShahsfatwanortheshahssecularlegislationendedthedebate

inPersia,whererationalistcritiquesofslaverytookalongtimetoemerge.Persian intellectualsreadSayyidAhmadKhansfrontalattacksonslaveryina1958Arabiceditionof his1893Ibtalighulami.101AliShariati(193377),whopropoundedapopularbrandofleft wingIslaminTehranfrom1967to1973,denouncedslaveryinquitevaguetermsasoneof theevilsofclasssocietythattrueIslamwouldoverthrow.102 Indeed,in1970,AliNurAliShahsowngrandson,SultanhusseinTabandeh,queried thevalidityofhisgrandfathersfatwaintermsofShiilaw,andexpresseddoubtsabout article4oftheUnitedNationasDeclarationofHumanRights.Tabandehconsideredthat

97SultanhusseinTabandeh,AMuslimcommentaryontheUniversalDeclarationofHumanRights(London:F. T.Goulding,1970),pp.viiviii,267.SeealsoonthisfigureNasrollahPourjavadyandPeterL.Wilson,Kingsof love;thepoetryandhistoryoftheNimatullahiSufiorder(Tehran:ImperialIranianAcademyofPhilosophy, 1978),pp.1603;JavadNurbakhsh,Mastersofthepath;ahistoryofthemastersoftheNimatullahiSufiorder (NewYork:KhaniqahiNimatullahiPublications,1980),pp.11314. 98MohamedAwad,Reportonslavery(NewYork:UnitedNations,1966)p.77;Brunschvig,Abd,p.39. 99StephanieCronin,TribalpoliticsinIran:ruralconflictandthenewstate,19211941(London:Routledge, 2007)pp.11314. 100SuzanneMiers,Slaveryinthetwentiethcentury;theevolutionofaglobalproblem(WalnutCreek: AltaMira,2003),pp.1656,3069. 101Jahanbakhsh,Islam,p.38.

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twokindsofslaverywerestilllicit.AnybodytakenprisonerfightingagainstIslamwitha viewtoitsextirpation,and[who]persistedinhissacrilegiousandinfidelconvictionswould stillbeaslave.Sowouldanyoneforwhomtherewaslegalproofthatallhisancestors withoutexceptionhadbeenslavesdescendedfromapersontakenprisoner.Tabandeh merelycommendedhisgrandfatherforhisgoodintentions,andratherfeeblyfellbackon thevirtuesofmanumission.103 ParticipantsintheIranianRevolutionfrom1979displayedgreatconfusionover

slavery.SayyidMahmudTaleqani,theredayatollahwhodiedshortlyafterthefallofthe shah,arguedthatIslamscommitmenttosocialequalitywasantitheticaltoslavery,andthat modernMuslimsshouldrejecttheinstitution.ReducingfellowMuslimstoslaverywasa Sunniabuse,aswastheslavetrade.Nevertheless,itwouldhavebeencounterproductive forMuhammadtoabolishtheinstitution.Moreover,Muslimstreatedslavesbetterthan adherentsofotherfaiths,andgavethemtheoptionofconversion.Taleqanievencondoned enslavementinaproperlyconstituteddefensivejihad,citing47:4intheQuranandlater elaborationsbyjurists.HealsorepeatedthedistinctionmadeatthetimeofSheils interventioninthe1840s,rejectingthesaleofslavesbutacceptingtheirpurchase.104 Despitehissobriquetofchampionoftheoppressed,AyatollahRuhollahKhomeini

himselfexpressedfewqualmsinacceptingslavery,atleastintheoreticalterms.Hegavehis imprimaturtoaquestionandanswerbookwrittenbysomebodyelse,inahackneyed genrepopularamongleadingayatollahsfromthe1950s.The1982editioncontained numerousdetailsontheconditionsforthesaleandmanumissionofhumanbeings,for

102AliShariati,OnthesociologyofIslam(Berkeley:MizanPress,1979),pp.1039. 103TabandehAMuslimcommentary,pp.viiviii,27. 104SeyyedMahmoodTaleqani,Islamandownership(Lexington:MazdaPublishers,1983),pp.xiixiii,186 200.

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slaverystillfiguredasanintegralpartoftheholylaw.105Amoreelaboratedefenseof traditionalIslamicnotionsofslaverywasincludedinabookbyaSouthAsianscholar, MuhammadHamidullah,whichwaspublishedinEnglishintheholyPersiancityofQumin 1982.106

TheIbadiconnectioninOmanandZanzibar TheOmaniempireinthewesternIndianOceanwasdominatedbyanIbadirulingclass,one ofthelastremnantsoftheKharijidissentersactiveinthefirstcenturiesofIslam.TheIbadi hadareputationforpoliticalradicalism,andtheirulamadenouncedthestandingarmyof slavesandmercenariesdevelopedbyOmanisultansfromtheseventeenthcentury,butthis wasforpoliticalreasons,andtheyhadnofundamentalobjectionstoslavery.Indeed,Ibadi entrepreneurscametofigureparticularlyprominentlyamongMuslimtradersinEast Africanslaves.107 TheOmaniempirewasthesceneofaprolongednineteenthcenturytusslewith Britainoverslavery,whichraisedproblemsofhowtojustifyrestrictivemeasuresinIbadi terms.Toexplainsigningthe1822MoresbyTreaty,whichrestrictedslaveexportstoa mainlyMuslimzoneofthewesternIndianOcean,SayyidSaidb.SultanAlBuSaid(r.1806 56),declaredthathewasprohibitingthesaleofslavestoChristiansofallnations.While

105RuhollahM.Khomeini,Aclarificationofquestions(Boulder:Westview,1984),pp.xvi,86,220,254,274, 278,353,354,429. 106MuhammadHamidullah,IntroductiontoIslam(Qum:AnsariyanPublication,1982),pp.27,36,72,88, 127,129,156,195. 107PatriciaRisso,OmanandMuscat;anearlymodernhistory(London:CroomHelm,1986)pp.27,46,and Merchantsandfaith;MuslimcommerceandcultureintheIndianOcean(Boulder:Westview,1995)pp.14,93; JohnC.Wilkinson,TheImamatetraditionofOman(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1987)p.222.

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thisundoubtedlyconformedwithshariaprescriptions,hispredecessorshadshownnosuch qualmsinsellingslavestotheFrenchfromthe1780s.108 EndingthetradewithIslamiclandswasanothermatter.SayyidSaidwrote plaintivelytoBombayin1826thathewouldbeforcedintoexile,asallMuslimswouldbe hisenemies,andtheBritishconsulnotedin1844thatthereexistednopartyfavourableto theabolitionofslavery.109ThesultanevenorderedhissubjectstopraythatWesterners shouldcometotheirsenses.110HisprivatesecretaryexclaimedthatArabshavecarriedon thetradesincethedaysofNoah.Arabsmusthaveslaves.111The1845treaty,prohibitingall exportsofslavesbeyondcoastalwaters,promptedtheSharifofMeccatosendanenvoyto remonstratewiththesultanin1850.112 RestrictedtoEastAfricanterritoriesafterSayyidSaidsdeath,therulersofZanzibar

wereincreasinglypressedtoendalltradinginslaves.SultanBarghash(r.187088)pleaded fortime,becauseoftheweightofMuslimopinion.113In1872,hiscouncilofshaikhswas unanimousinrefusingtocommitsuicide.114SultanBarghashopinedthattheKoran sanctionsslavery,evenifitearnestlyenjoinedmanumission,andhissubjectsprotested thatabolitionamountedtoforceandplunder.115Atbest,thesultanthreatenedprison

108C.S.Nicholls,TheSwahilicoast;politics,diplomacyandtradeontheEastAfricanlittoral,17981856 (London:AllenandUnwin,1971)pp.2224,231;BeatriceNicolini,IlsultanatodiZanzibarnelXIXsecolo; trafficicommercialierelazioniinternazionali(Turin:LHarmattanItalia,2002)pp.138,140;M.RedaBhacker, TradeandempireinMuscatandZanzibar;therootsofBritishdomination(London:Routledge,1992)p.103. 109Nicholls,TheSwahilicoast,pp.226,244. 110Nicolini,Ilsultanato,p.154. 111Bhacker,Trade,pp.12930. 112Beachey,Theslavetrade,pp.523. 113Kelly,BritainandthePersianGulf,p.632. 114AbdulSheriff,Slaves,spicesandivoryinZanzibar;integrationofanEastAfricancommercialEmpireinto theworldeconomy,17701873(London:JamesCurrey,1987)p.236. 115SirBartleFrere,CorrespondencerespectingSirBartleFreresmissiontotheEastCoastofAfrica,1872 73,inParliamentaryPapers,vol.61(C820,1873),pp.51,54.

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sentencesforthosecaughtkidnappingMuslimchildrenonthecoast.116AfterZanzibarhad adheredtotheBrusselsGeneralActin1890,SultanAlib.Said(r.189093)wasderidedas theslaveoftheBritishforissuingarestrictiveproclamation.117ConservativeBritishofficials delayedfullabolitionbywritingofthetwinperilsofeconomicchaosandtheundermining ofindirectrule.118SirArthurHardinge,BritishResidentinZanzibar,arguedthatthemeasure wouldberegardedasmanifestdespoliation.119 Despiteallthis,SultanHamidb.Muhammad(r.18961902)proclaimedtheabolition

ofslaveryontheislandsofZanzibarandPembain1897.WhenchosenbytheBritishto succeedtothethrone,heownednoslaves,whichtheAmericanconsulattributedto poverty.120Personalconvictionseemsamorelikelyexplanationforthislackofslaves,as eventhepoorestfreefamilyownedaslaveinZanzibaratthetime.121SultanHamid presentedabolitionasIslamic,butalsoasagenerouspersonalact,andonenecessaryto obtainfreelabourforcloveandcoconutplantations.122Inapreambletohisdecree,he wrote:AndwhereastheApostleMohamed...hassetbeforeusasmostpraiseworthythe liberationofslaves,andWeareOurselvesdesirousoffollowinghisprecepts,...123 Unfortunately,itremainsunclearexactlywhySultanHamidmighthavebecomepersonally convincedthatslaveryshouldgo.

116LyndonHarries,Swahiliprosetexts;aselectionfromthematerialcollectedbyCarlVeltenfrom1893to 1896(London:OxfordUniversityPress,1965)pp.2067. 117NormanR.Bennett,AhistoryoftheArabstateofZanzibar(London:Methuen,1978)pp.1656,169. 118FrederickCooper,Fromslavestosquatters;plantationlabourandagricultureinZanzibarandcoastal Kenya18901925(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1980)pp.3468. 119Beachey,Theslavetrade,p.295. 120Bennett,Ahistory,p.179. 121Bhacker,Trade,p.132. 122ArthurH.Hardinge,AdiplomatistintheEast(London:JonathanCape,1928)p.197;L.W.Hollingsworth, ZanzibarundertheForeignOffice,18901913(London:Macmillan,1953)p.217. 123Beachey,Acollection,p.125.

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AbolitionwasofficiallydecreedonthemainlandtenyearsafterZanzibar,butmet

withconsiderablepassiveresistancefromaMuslimpopulationthatbelongedmainlytothe ShafiischoolofSunniIslam.SomeEastAfricanownersrefusedBritishcompensation,while otherstookthemoneybutarguedthattheEuropeanshadboughttheirslaves,whocould thereforenotbecomeclientsofformerowners.124Evenslavesthemselvesbelievedthat waitingfortheirmastertomanumitthemwouldimprovetheirsocialstatusmorethanthe pieceofpaperprovidedbyanalienauthority.125Muslimsgenerallyspurnedmanumission certificatessignedbyofficials,orevenbythesultanofZanzibar,sothatthelatter persuadedownerstosigninstead.126Religiouscourtscontinuedtodealwithslavery, affectingtherighttotakeconcubines,theauthorizationofmarriageinreturnforafee, inheritingfromslaveswholackedanheir,andallocatingland.127 AttitudesamongstIbadiulamaonZanzibaronlygraduallybecamemorecriticalof

servitude.In1909,theIbadichiefqadi,ShaykhAlib.MsellumalKhalassi,daredtostand aloneinopendefianceagainstthebanonthestatusofslavery.Thisprobablycontributed toBritishthreatstoabolishhisposition.128However,theIbadichiefqadiofZanzibarin 1914,ShaykhAlib.MuhammadalMundhiri,provedtobemoreflexible.Hestatedthat slavesfreedbythegovernmentcouldnotbecomeclientsoftheirformerowners,butthatit waslegitimateforinfidelstobuyslavesandemancipatethem,eveniftheirowners

124AhmedI.Salim,SwahilispeakingpeoplesofKenya'scoast,18951965(Nairobi:EastAfricanPublishing House,1973)pp.112,114;PatriciaW.Romero,Lamu;history,society,andfamilyinanEastAfricanportcity (Princeton:MarkusWiener,1997)pp.123,12930;Cooper,Fromslavestosquatters,pp.52,746;Hardinge,A diplomatist,pp.3623. 125Cooper,Fromslavestosquatters,p.76. 126Beachey,Acollection,pp.389;Hardinge,Adiplomatist,pp.3634. 127J.SpencerTrimingham,IslaminEastAfrica(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1964)pp.1378,148;Margaret Strobel,MuslimwomeninMombasa,18901975(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1979)pp.514;Cooper, Fromslavestosquatters,pp.18990,229;Romero,Lamu,pp.1301,147,1589. 128RandallL.Pouwels,Hornandcrescent:culturalchangeandtraditionalIslamontheEastAfricancoast, 8001900(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1987)pp.120,191.

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objected,fortheaimwashonourableunderIslam.Liberatedindividualswereentitledto alltherightsoffreepersons.Inamorepragmaticvein,henotedthatanyqadiwhoopposed theauthoritiesriskeddismissal.129 GreaterflexibilitymayhavereflectedchangingopinionsinOman.Abdallahb.Hamid

alSalimi(1869/701914),ablindscholarinfluentialinOmansIbadirevivalatthistime,was askedbyZanzibaripetitionerswhetheritwaslawfultohireslavesfreedbytheEuropeans withouttheconsentofowners.Theyalsowantedtoknowwhethersuchslaveswere allowedtomarrywithouttheirownerspermission.AlSalimiansweredthatthisisa scourgethathasstrickenZanzibaris,asapunishmentfortheinjusticetheyinflictedupon theslaves,withoutspecifyingwhetherhemeantbadtreatmentorillegitimate enslavement,orperhapsboth.HeruledthatiftheintentionsofChristianswerehonourable infreeingslaves,thenthemeasurewasacceptable,whereasifextortionandinjustice weretheirmotives,thenitwasnotlegitimate.130 IttookagooddeallongerforIbadiopiniontoshifttooutrightabolition.In1963,an

Ibadiimam,fightingthesultanensconcedinMasqat,repudiatedslavery.131Thereasons forthisdecisionwerenotclear,butitmayhavebeenintendedtogainsupportfromPrince Faysalb.AbdalAziz,whohadhimselfratherunexpectedlyabolishedtheinstitutionayear earlierinSaudiArabia.132Itwasnottill1970thatapalacecoupplacedtheWestern educatedSultanQabusonthethroneofOman,resultingintheofficialendingof servitude.133

129Strobel,Muslimwomen,p.52. 130AmalGhazal,personalcommunication,citingAbdAllahalSalimi,ed.(1999)JawabatalImamalSalimi lilImamNuralDinAbdAllahb.HamidalSalimi,[n.p.],2nded..vol.5,p.396. 131Miers,Slavery,p.360. 132GeralddeGaury,Faisal,kingofSaudiArabia(London:ArthurBarker,1966)pp.151,155. 133Miers,Slavery,p.347.

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Conclusion TherewasanIslamicabolitionistcurrentatworkinthewesternIndianOcean,although howitactuallycontributedtothefreeingofslavesrequiresagreatdealmoredetailed research.Thereappearstohavebeenaconsiderablelagbetweentheofficialfreeingof slavesbydecreeandrealchangesinsocialrelationsinthelocalities,buttherehasbeen verylittleinvestigationintoexactlyhowthelatteroccurred.Afairamountofevidencehas beenamassedaboutMuslimswhorefusedtofreetheirslavesinanymeaningfulsense,but almostnoneintowhathappenedwhenattitudeschanged. AsmallexceptiontothisgeneralruleconcernsanalysesofhowSufiordersdealt withthepracticalandreligiousproblemsofformerslaves,atleastineasternAfrica.Sufis soughttointegrateexslavessocially,whileeducatingthemintheIslamicfaith.InGerman EastAfrica,theformerslaveRamiyyasymbolicallybecameashaykhoftheQadiriyyaorder, togetherwithRumaliza,onceagreatslavetrader.134InKenya,HabibSalih,theSharifofthe coconutcutters,workedamongformerslavesinLamufromaround1880,persuadingex slavesandexmasterstofrequentthesamemosque.135Somaliasmainorders,the Ahmadiyya,SalihiyyaandQadiriyya,formedlargeagriculturalsettlementsforexslaves.136

134K.S.Vikr,SufiBrotherhoodsinAfrica,inN.LevtzionandR.L.Powels,eds.,ThehistoryofIslaminAfrica (Athens:OhioUniversityPress,2000),pp.4489. 135A.H.M.elZein,Thesacredmeadows:astructuralanalysisofreligioussymbolisminanEastAfricantown (Evanston:NorthwesternUniversityPress,1974)pp.11743. 136LeeV.Cassanelli,TheendingofslaveryinItalianSomalia;libertyandthecontroloflabor,18901935,in SuzanneMiersandRichardRoberts,eds.,TheendofslaveryinAfrica(Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress, 1988)pp.3223;J.SpencerTrimingham,IslaminEthiopiaLondon:FrankCass,1965,reprintof1952ed.) 23844.

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Suchsettlementswereofteninareasinfestedbytsetseflies,andhenceunattractivefor Somalipastoralists.137 Intermsoftheideasthatsupportedliberation,aboutwhichalittlemoreisknown, quasiabolitionistpositionswerenotnewinIslam,buttheygainedgreatersupportfrom theeighteenthcentury.Thatsaid,quasiabolitionismwassomethingofaproblematic phenomenoninIslam.Insomecases,itwasmanipulatedasanexcuseforinaction.Inother cases,itleftopenthepossibilitythatslaverycouldberestoredinthefuture,ifsocialand politicalconditionsweretochange. AmoreunambiguousIslamicintellectualassaultonslaveryonlyappearstohave emergedinthe1870s.Theriseofsuchideaswaslinkedtogreaterautonomyonthepartof layleaders,astheulamaceasedtobesoimportantassourcesofethicalteachings.The penetrationofWesternabolitionistideaswassignificant,butmostofthiscurrentof thoughtremainedquiteclearlyIslamicinnature,ratherthanbecomingpurelysecular.The boundariesbetweenquasiabolitionismandabolitionismproperremainedcontestedand confused,however,withmanyMuslimsmixingelementsofthetwopositionsforalong time. Themajorityofthefaithfuleventuallyacceptedabolitionasreligiouslylegitimate,

butpinpointingthecrucialmomentoftransitionremainsdifficult.KhaledAbouelFadl, writingatthedawnofthethirdmillennium,isvague:Muslimsofpreviousgenerations reachedtheawarenessthatslaveryisimmoralandunlawful,asamatterofconscience.138 ReubenLevythoughtthatthishadhappenedaftertheSecondWorldWar,andyet

137G.P.Salvadei,Iltramontodellaschiavitnellecolonieitalianedidirettodominio,inAttidelquarto congressonazionaledellaSocietAntischiavistad'Italia(Rome:AnonimaRomanaEditoriale,1927)pp.1667. 138KhaledAbouelFadl,SpeakinginGod'sname;Islamiclaw,authorityandwomen(Oxford:Oneworld,2001) p.269.

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examplesofbeliefinthelegitimacyofslaveryaboundedinthe1950s.139The1960s probablyconstitutedthetruewatershed,whenanIslamicconsensusagainstslavery becamedominant,mainlyinformedbythecautiousgradualismofSayyidAmirAli,rather thantheradicalviewsofSayyidAhmadKhan.Theabolitionistvictorywasnotuncontested, however,andsomeMuslimscontinuetobelievethatwhatGodhasinstituted,nohuman beingcansetaside.140

139ReubenLevy,ThesocialstructureofIslam(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1957)pp.889. 140ClarenceSmith,Islam,pp.21921.

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