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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

INTEGRATING IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION USING TEXTURE PRIMITIVES FOR NATURAL AND AERIAL IMAGES
S. RIZWANA1, Dr. S. PANNIRSELVAM2
1 Research Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli. 2 Associate Professor & HOD, Erode Arts and Science College, Erode

Abstrac : Image segmentation and classification is a


preliminary and critical step in image processing analysis. Its appropriate valuation guarantees that the finest segmentation outcome is employed in image classification. A key feature of semantic image segmentation is to incorporate restricted and inclusive features for the calculation of local segment labels. An approach is presented here to multi-part segmentation which integrates two methods: semantic based image segmentation for texture extraction with Regional and Multitude techniques involved in it and an image classification method which regards as inclusive features. In this paper we present a technique for incorporating a set of images, following the methods of image segmentation and classification. The proposed multi-part image segmentation analysis architecture combines algorithms for three levels: i) a multitude provincial texture feature drawing out technique based on the segmentation of natural and aerial images. Image granularity textures are used for homogeneous regions. Then a confined threshold texture segmentation for images is applied. Here extraction is proceeded with proportions analogous to the tarnish size are to be extracted. ii) mid-level phase, segmented images are classified using texture primitives and, iii) rich level, i.e. extraction of requisite information from the classified image. By the way, the user can extract description of rare multimedia process and utilize it, backed up by a knowledge repository. An experimental evaluation is conducted with training samples of images to demonstrate the performance of the proposed IISCTP scheme for natural and aerial images and compare the results with the existing classification of segmented images for analysis using hybrid methodology and Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation.

Keywords: texture feature extraction, segmentation, classification, texture primitives

image

1. INTRODUCTION
Image segmentation is a primary course in several computer vision applications. It divides an image into numerous components, which preferably correspond to Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

real-world objects. Region-based image segmentation is an approach to image segmentation, in which an image is divided into associated regions by aligning adjoining pixels of analogous features, and closest regions are then combined beneath some standard for instance the homogeneity of features in adjoining regions. Interesting features comprise texture, color, shape, etc. To attain fine-grain segmentation at the pixel point, we ought to be capable to describe features for instance color and texture on a per-pixel basis. Selling with information removed from a natural image, satellite data, a medical scan or a frame in a video series is the principle of image examination. In the genuine world, the incentive that is established by the image object is alleged as complete and absolute information. The purpose of segmentation methods is to establish a separation of an image into a restricted number of semantically significant regions for instance anatomical or practical structures in medical images or objects in natural images. The segmentation job has been considered for numerous decades; though it is still a demanding job. This task is necessary in several applications counting face recognition in video sequences, changes recognition in satellite images, anatomical or functional object taking out in medical images or object extraction in natural images. The assortment of processes concerned in the visual observation is frequently classified as either low level vision or high level vision. High level vision comprises of the elucidation of the image subsequent to some earlier knowledge. In low level vision, image processing is achieved to dig out some observable physical properties in the image such as shape and margins or to progress the feature of the image. A general segmentation technique, which executes fine in several contexts, does not subsist. The techniques usually reliant on: The processing of the image: richness in textures with diverse orientations and/or scales, unclear conversions among regions, occulted contours, etc.,

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
Extraction of features: edges (steps, lines, junctions), consistent regions in the logic of textures, grey levels, forms (curves, etc.), etc., Issues in segmentation: 3D renovation, pattern detection, image sympathetic, computerized object tracking, etc., The utilization constraints: computational difficulty, real time operation, materials restrictions associated to the attainment systems, memory capability, etc. In this work, a semantic integrating of images is done for image segmentation and classification. The proposed multi-part image segmentation analysis architecture combines algorithms for three levels which are briefly described under section 3. By the way, the user can extract description of rare multimedia process and utilize it, backed up by a knowledge repository. recognition and early discovery of diseases. We have utilized a diverse method to categorize the medical image so as to assist the former recognition of mass. The approach in [6] mines the mixture feature set from the preprocessed and segmented image. For feature and categorization of image, the author in [7] presented new particle swarm optimization technique. Automated seeded lesion segmentation [8] is also being used with the classification of image under different aspects. Several techniques have been presented to perform the image segmentation in a reliable way. The most widespread method utilized for medical image segmentation is holding up vector mechanism [9]. An association rule mining is also being used with decision tree structure [10] for image classification. Automatic classification system [11] is applied mainly for medical image segmentation. But this classification system consumes more time and the efficiency is also being less. Using similarity fusion and classifiers, the integration of segmentation and classification is achieved and presented in [12]. In this work, we are going to integrate the segmentation and classification process of the given natural and aerial images in the form of texture primitives.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Texture feature is a technique about association between the pixels in restricted area, dazzling the amends of image whole gray levels. The paper [1] presented a texture feature taking out system supported on local average binary gray point dissimilarity co-occurrence matrix, which shared the texture structural study method with geometric method. Initially, we determine the standard binary gray level distinction of eight-neighbors of a pixel to obtain the standard binary gray point distinction image which conveys the deviation prototype of the provincial gray levels. A key characteristic of semantic image segmentation is to incorporate restricted and universal features for the calculation of limited segment labels. The paper presented an approach [2] to multi-class segmentation which unites two techniques for this combination: a Conditional Random Field (CRF) which pairs to restricted image features and image categorization method judges universal features. A technique of regionbased image segmentation [3] with mean-shift clustering algorithm is commenced. This technique initially mines texture, color, and position features from every pixel to figure aspect vector by choosing proper color space. Then, these feature vectors are grouping with mean-shift clustering algorithm. To discover the diverse textures in an image, an undemanding approach is to execute texture dimensions on a poignant window and disperse scalar features to the entire image pixels equivalent to window centers. Three new texture skin textures for image processing are presented supported on gray level shell and compared in [4]. Image categorization is the most significant step for image examination. Classification is a computational system that divides the images into sets consistent with their features that mined. Classification acts as a vast position in the medical image diagnosis. In case of DICOM images [5] it is very dangerous for finest Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

3. PROPOSED INTEGRATING IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION FOR NATURAL AND AERIAL IMAGES
The proposed work is efficiently designed for integrating the image segmentation and classification using texture primitives. The proposed integrating image segmentation and classification for natural and aerial images is processed under three different phases. The first phase describes the process of image segmentation using multitude texture local drawing out process. After segmentation is done, the classification of image is done by the adaptation of texture primitives is described in the second phase. The third phase describes the process of extraction of requisite information of the image from the user. The architecture diagram of the proposed integrating image segmentation and classification for natural and aerial images (IISCTP) is shown in fig 3.1.

Fig 3.1 architecture diagram of the proposed IISCTP Page 13

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
From the above figure, it is being noted that the proposed IISCTP is efficiently designed for performing both the classification and segmentation process for the given natural and aerial images. The segmentation is process is done based on the threshold based technique. Threshold is a technique where decision is done on restrcited pixel information. This is an effective method when the intensity points of the items drop directly slight to the series of points in the background. For local statistics, lookup table is prepared to use in initial region. Then pixels are clustered that convince detailed homogeneity measures. At last it creates a homogeneous section, and including the adjoining regions, which contain analogous intensity values. The classification is done using texture primitives. Texture primitives (textons) are expressed in the form of filter-response space, and texture classes represented by frequency histograms of these textons. After image has been segmented based on the class, after that, for every class, a tree-structured belief network (TSBN) is sophisticated, where nodes set apart the analogous image regions, and edges, their geometric dependencies. A specified indefinite texture is classified concerning the highest posterior allocation of the TSBN. The overall process is described in the flowchart which is shown in fig 3.2. illustration techniques can be categorized into three levels, specifically statistical, structural, and multiresolution filtering methods. Different regions have different structure features in images. In order to extract the whole image texture characteristics, the texture features of each region should firstly be described. The brightness level at a point in an image is highly dependent on the brightness levels of neighboring points unless the image is simply random noise. Consequently, it is rational to explain the local texture features with the gray level amendments of pixels in the neighborhood. For aerial and natural image restricted threshold collection based segmentation practice has been developed (shown in Fig 3.2). Research table reins the conserved aerial and natural images that comprises of homogeneity and arithmetic values of every pixel. 11 x 11 pane size is used for computation of local statistics. This choice is based on the minute harmonized regions, which are formed by the granularity. The pane size must be huge enough for the dimension of homogeneity section principle and geometric similarity bound. The parameter collection of the parallel hop depends on the granularity or ruin into the images. The early mounting region demonstrates the huge number of copied harmonized region into the image, which was joined with their neighboring region by merging. The parameters for integrating principle count on the elevated regularity objects such as over segmentation. This algorithm can be employed for fully residential ruin images with competent segmentation. The combined regions decrease over segmentation devoid of using more leveling into the image. The absolute segmentation outcomes demonstrate precise standardized regions devoid of implementing texture-based analysis.

Fig 3.2 Flowchart of the proposed IISCTP 3.1 Multitude regional texture extraction using Region outliers and segregation Texture is a visual pattern attribute. It is a possession of regions, and comprises of sub-patterns which are connected to the pixel allocation in a region. So texture is a relative possessions and its description must engage gray values in a spatial neighborhoods. Texture Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

Fig 3.3 Architecture of segmented image Page 14

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
Image Features Consider a finite training set of images S = {s1, s2,sn} and can be represented by a set D. 1 ( si D i ) ( RGBi )wherei 1,2,.., n _______ (eqn 1)
2

Where denotes the intensity ranges and i denotes the alpha distribution and (RGB)i gives the RGB value for a single image Texture Extraction Texture extraction is done in two steps using the set D and summing it up. It is learned using S = {s1, s2, , sn}. Where Si, i = 1, 2 m are the patches extracted with size d * d . from texture images in training set. Sum up for all the coefficients for particular texture
n

in the stage, while associations among them symbolize parent-child geometric dependencies. The process of classifying the segmented image through texture primitives are shown in fig 3.3. In the fig 3.3, the texture primitive values are extracted in terms of local height, shade and indication which retorts over a set of images with diplomat perspectives and illumination. After extracting the texture primitives, the classification of image is done by constructing TSBN. The shaded parts of the classified image indicate the observable parts of the image and white node symbolizes the hidden variables of the classified image.

T ( S ) ( i ) _______________ (eqn 2)
i 1

Region Outlier & Segregation

Outlierrate

x * 100 n

______________ (eqn 3)

Where x denotes the number of outliers found and n denotes the total number of training images. Multitudes of Texture Pixels Texture coordinate C between two pixels C0 and C1 is given by C (1 )C 0 C1 _____________ (eqn 4) Using the above formulations, the process of the image segmentation is done efficiently. Our multitude regionbased method usually works as follows: the training image is further divided into regions by way of grouping the neighboring pixels that has the similar intensity ranges. The regions that are adjacent to the pixels are then merged based on some criterion such as the RGB value or the alpha distribution value obtained. Texture extraction is the identification of regions based on their texture. We have also shown that the texture extracted can also be used for certain tasks such as region segregation and region outliers. The texture extracted in applied for multitude of texture pixels with the function Multi Texture. The resultant image obtained is the segmented image. 3.2 Segmented image classification using texture primitives In this paper, texture class T is represented with a TSBN (tree-structured belief network) identified over viewpoints V and illumination I. TSBNs are geometric representations in computer vision and image processing [13]. The TSBN of an image comprises of concealed and evident random variables planned in the similar structure as that of the analogous segmentation tree of the image. Observables are the characteristic vectors of statistical and photometric properties of the analogous regions in the segmentation tree, and are commonly self-sufficient specified their consequent concealed variables. Hidden variables are specified as the texture primitives, expressed Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012 Fig 3.4 Process of classification of segmented image using TSBN The TSBN is entirely expressed by its joint allocation of hidden, A= {ai}, and observable, B = {bi} random variables, iT , where i specifies a node in the segmentation tree T . A hidden variable, ai, specifies the marker of a texture primitive. The marker of node i is hardened on the marker of its parent j, and is expressed by the conditional prospect, P (ai |aj). The combined possibility of A of a specified texture class T is expressed as P ( A | T , V , I ) i , jT P (a i | a j , T , V , I ) eqn 5 Where for the roots, we use priors P ( ai | T , V , I ) . As the observables bi is provisionally self-sufficient specified the analogous ai, the joint possibility of B can be expressed as P( B | A, T , V , I ) iT P(bi | a i k , T , V , I ) eqn 6 Where P (bi | a i k ) is represented as the Gaussian distribution with constraints programmed in the texture primitive k. It pursues that the TSBN for texture T and imaging parameters V and I is exemplified by

P ( A, B | T , V , I ) i , jT P (bi | ai ) P (a i | a j ) .. eqn
7 The constraints of likelihoods P (yi|xi, ) can be processed by using the clusters {Ck} K, obtained in the stage. Next, Page 15

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
the evolution prospects, P (ai|aj), can be processed by the usual belief propagation algorithm. Note that in the above formulation the number of models per class is the similar as the number of training images that diverge in V and I constraints. For the principles of texture classification, this symbolizes a modeling redundancy, since even substantial distinctions in texture emergence of one class might not decrease the classification accuracy if the other classes are sufficiently unusual from it. To decrease the number of representations per texture class, utilize the customary KMediod algorithm. In particular, the set of P (A|T, V, I) values, over all texture classes T and parameters V and I, might be grouped by the K-Medoid into M clusters, and characterized by M cluster centers. The update rule of the K-Medoid constantly progresses the cluster center to the adjacent data point in the group, but does not incorporate over the points as the K-Means algorithm. Indeed, in the K-Medoid, the cluster midpoints are forever data points themselves. Consequently, a preferred cluster center can be exclusively denied as an individual P(A|T,V,I) point, which, in turn, decides the most diplomat TSBN model with V and I values. Remind that the delineated process processes a diverse number of diplomat models per texture class. Thus, in the classification stage, a given natural or aerial image is first segmented to attain B values, then P (A, B |T, V, I) values are determined using the belief propagation for all M representative representations of all consistency classes, and, finally, the image is classified. On the image categorization step, two different processes were employed, as declared former. On the primary process, non-supervised classification, the algorithm has as measure the Mahalanobis distance that is the similar as lowest amount distance, except for the covariance matrix. From the segmented image of the previous step, it attempts to discover regions that are analogous. The texture primitives are used here for classifying the segmented image. The subsequent process, supervised classification, utilized some samples of the outcome acquired in the previous classification process as training fields. The results obtained by the use of this methodology were compared with the classification of segmented images for analysis using hybrid methodology and Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE). The percentage of concordance of accurate clear classified image parts among the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives was 80%. This strengthens the authority of the proposed integrating image segmentation and classification using texture primitives [IISCTP].

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


In this work, we have seen how efficiently we classified the segmented image using texture primitives by following the steps described briefly under section 3. An experimental evaluation is carried over with the set of natural and aerial images to estimate the performance of the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives and analyzed the outcomes. The performance of the proposed integrating image segmentationa and classification using texture primitives is measured in terms of i) Performance ii) classification accuracy iii) Time consumption iv) Recognition rate The below table and graph describes the effects of the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives and compared the results with an existing classification of segmented images for analysis using hybrid methodology and Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE). Table 5.1 No. of pixels vs. performance rate
No. of Pixels 100 200 300 400 500 Performance rate (%) Hybrid Existing MRTE approach SRGM 50 48 25 59 54 34 68 61 45 75 70 56 82 78 60

4. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
The experimentation conducted on Natural images to evaluate the performance of proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives. Implementation of the proposed algorithm is done in MATLAB. In addition to noise removal, the proposed model also present qualitative results for the texture extraction of the natural image edges. The localization accuracy of natural surface detection technique and evaluating the precision of determining virtual inner layers of separation is a clinically relevant task for which the system uses 2D imaging. The datasets used here are segmented homogeneous region, number of images and number of pixels in segmented region. The experimentation presented here gives a specify homogeneity criteria and produce the homogeneous region, and merging the neighboring regions, which have similar intensity values. During the segmentation step, much estimation was completed: degree of resemblance of 15, 20, 30 and 35, and minimum area of 40 and 50 pixels. The disintegration level measured sufficient to the lessons was, degree of resemblance 40 and minimum area of 45 pixels. After description of these thresholds, a segmented image was formed to ensure if the disintegration level was sufficient or not to the balance used and the authenticity. Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

Proposed IISCTP 56 68 75 84 90

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Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
The above table (table 5.1) describes the performance rate of the segmentation of the given natural and aerial images. The segmentation accuracy of the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives is comapred with the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM).
100
P e r fo r m a n c e ra te (% )

20 25

78 83

68 75

59 64

42 50

80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 No. of pixels Proposed IISCTP Hybrid approach MRTE existing SRGM 400 500 600

The above table (table 5.2) describes the classification accuracy of the segmented parts of the given natural and aerial images. The classification accuracy of the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives is comapred with the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM).
C la ss ifc ation ac cu rac y (% )

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 No. of features 20 25 30

Fig 5.1 No. of pixels vs. performance rate Fig 5.1 describes the performance rate of the segmentation of the given natural and aerial images. The performance of the scheme here is measured as the average segmentation accuracy across all image based on their pixels. The accuracy a is reviewed using the intersection/union metric,

Proposed IISCTP

Hybrid approach

MRTE

existing SRGM

Fig 5.2 No. of features vs. classification accuracy Fig 5.2 describes the classification accuracy of the segmented parts of the given natural and aerial images. Classification accuracy is measured based on the number of features obtained through image segmentation. Using texture primitives, the classification is performed in the proposed IISCTP. Since the image is already segmented efficiently in the form of multi-tude regional texture extraction method, the classification is done in a reliable manner. Compared to the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM) which concentrates only on the image segmentation, the proposed integrating image segmentation and classification using texture primitives performed classification well and accuracy achives 8590%. Table 5.3 Segmented parts of image vs. time consumption
Segmen ted parts of image 5 10 15 20 25 Time consumption (seconds) Proposed Proposed Existing Hybrid MRTE IISCTP SRGM approach 4.3 5.8 7 10.2 5.8 8.4 9.6 10.2 6.9 9.2 11.2 13.4 8.6 10.3 12.5 14.8 13.5 15.8 17.3 20.4

tp tp fp fn

Where tp, fp, and fn are true positives, false positives, and false negative, correspondingly. Based on the number of pixels in image, the segmentation of the image is done. Even the number of pixels increases, the segmentation accuracy in the proposed integrating image segmentation and classification using texture primitives is high. Since the proposed IISCTP followed the multitude regional texture extraction scheme, the segmentation is done absed on the extarction of texture feature and it is being processed well. Compared to the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM) which concentrates only on the image segmentation, the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives performed segmentation well and accuracy achives 90%. Table 5.2 No. of features vs. classification accuracy
No. of Feature s 5 10 15 Classification accuracy (%) Propose Hybrid Existin d approac MRTE g IISCTP h SRGM 45 48 40 25 57 53 48 31 62 60 51 38

The above table (table 5.3) describes the consumption of time to perform the integration of image classification Page 17

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Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
and segmentation based on the aerial and natural images. The segmentation accuracy of the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives is comapred with the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM).
Time consumption (sec)

100
Recognition rate (%)

80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 No. of texture primitives

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Segmented parts of image Proposed IISCTP Hybrid approach MRTE existing SRGM
Proposed IISCTP Hybrid approach MRTE existing SRGM

Fig 5.3 Segmented parts of image vs. time consumption Fig 5.3 describes the consumption of time to perform the integration of image classification and segmentation based on the aerial and natural images. The time consumption is measured based on the time taken to evaluate the segmentation and the time needed to determine the classification. So, the time consumption is measured as the total time taken to perform the classification of the given aerial and natural images. The time consumption is measured in terms of seconds. In the proposed IISCTP, the consumption of time to perform the appropriate operation is less compared to the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM). Table 5.4 No. of texture primitives vs. recognition rate
No. of texture primitive s 25 50 75 100 125 Recognition rate (%) Proposed Existing Hybrid MRTE SRGM approach 65 54 25 71 75 79 80 60 61 67 70 35 40 42 48

Fig 5.4 No. of texture primitives vs. recognition rate Fig 5.4 describes the recognition rate of the given natural and aerial images based on texture primitives. Even the global recognition rate rises as the number of training images per class develops into better, where, fascinatingly, ours is better than the one stated for a training set. This recommends that the proposed IISCTP are accomplished by confining more considerable information from a few training images. Compared to the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM) which concentrates only on the image segmentation, the proposed integrating image segmentation and classification using texture primitives has high recognition rate and the avriance is 80-85% high in the proposed IISCTP.

6. CONCLUSION
In this work, a primitive textures approach of segmentation and classification of natural and aerial images were presented. First the image is segmented and then, using non-supervised and supervised classification techniques, the image is classified was a comparative examination among the pixel-per-pixel and the region classification. The proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives consumes less effort by the user to attain the exact classification on homogeneous spectral regions. Thats as there isnt essential a huge number of samples, saving computation time. The areas acquired with the segmentation method using region-growing algorithm, illustrated enhanced results than the pixel classification. Concluding that, we can judge the universal results illustrated by utilizing region classification were acceptable. The proposed integrating image segmentation and classification using texture primitives methodology provides good prospective to be employed in equally activities and an experimental evaluation showed that the a better classification results on segmented image.

Propose d IISCTP 75 80 82 86 90

The above table (table 5.4) describes the recognition rate of the given natural and aerial images based on texture primitives. The recognition rate of the proposed integrating image segmentationa nd classification using texture primitives is comapred with the previous works hybrid methodology, Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation (MRTE) and existing seeded region growing model (SRGM).

REFERENCES
[1] Jian Yang, Jingfeng Guo, Image Texture Feature Extraction Method Based on Regional Average Binary Gray Level Difference Co-occurrence

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Matrix, The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 2011, 10(3):61-64. [2] Nils Plath ET. AL., Multi-class image segmentation using Conditional Random Fields and Global Classification, ICML 2009. [3] Yong-mei Zhou et. Al., A Region-Based Image Segmentation Method with Mean-Shift Clustering Algorithm, Fifth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, 2008. FSKD '08. [4] Mariana Tsaneva , Texture Features for Segmentation of Satellite Images, CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Volume 8, No.3 Sofia 2008. [5] J. Umamaheswari et. Al., A Hybrid Approach for Classification of DICOM Image, World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal (WCSIT) ISSN: 2221-0741, Vol. 1, No. 8,364-369, 2011. [6] M. Vasantha et. Al., Classifications of Mammogram Images using Hybrid Features, European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol.57 No.1 (2011), pp.87-96. [7] Geetha K. Thanushkodi and A. Kishorekumar, 2008. New Particle Swarm Optimization for Feature Selection and Classification of Microcalcifications in Mammograms, Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Signal processing, Communications and Networking, pp 458-463. [8] Kupinski, Matthew A. and Maryellen L. Giger, 1998. Automated Seeded Lesion Segmentation on Digital Mammogram, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 17:4: pp 510-517. [9] Vanitha.L. and Venmathi.A.R, Classification of Medical Images Using Support Vector Machine, International Conference on Information and Network Technology,Vol.4, P.63-67, 2011. [10] P. Rajendran, M.Madheswaran, Hybrid Medical Image Classification Using Association Rule Mining with Decision Tree Algorithm, Journal of Computing, Vol.2, No. 1, P. 127-136, 2010. [11] Bo QIU, Chang Sheng XU, Qi TIAN, An Automatic Classification System Applied In Medical Images, IEEE, ICME, P1045-1048, 2006. [12] Md. Mahmudur Rahman, Bipin C. Desai , Prabir Bhattacharya , Medical image retrieval with probabilistic multi-class support vector machine classifiers and adaptive similarity fusion, Elsevier Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics , Vol.32, P.95-108, 2008. [13] Sinisa Todorovic et. Al., 3D Texture Classification Using the Belief Net of a Segmentation Tree, 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006.

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