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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

To design solar (photovoltaic) - Wind hybrid power generation system


Chitesh Dubey1, Yogesh Tiwari2
1

ME Scholar, Department Of Electrical Engg., SSCET Bhilai, India


2

Asso. Prof., EEE Department, SSCET Bhilai, India

Abstract: In recent years generation of electricity using the


different types of renewable sources are specifically evaluated in the economical performance of the overall equipment. Solar power & wind power has received considerable attention worldwide. The presented methodology is applied to evaluate the potential of Solar (photovoltaic) wind hybrid system to produce electricity for a community and other state. Through this hybrid system we have reduce pollution and decrease the global warming. In this we have analyzing the data of wind and solar energy and evaluate the average energy by using hybrid system we have fulfills the energy demand into the future. In future by using of better quality sensor be can increase the potential. We use the small storage capacity. Because maintained cost becomes low using the better quality data logger is can increase the energy production. In future we have to install large solar and wind plant which are cheaper as compared to small plants. The Modeling and simulation of the Solar (photovoltaic) wind hybrid system is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Keyword: wind matlab/Simulink.

power,

solar

power,

battery,

conditions. For example, during cloudy periods and at night, a PV system would not generate any power. In addition, it is difficult to store the power generated by a PV system for future use. To overcome this problem, a PV system can be integrated with other alternate power sources and/or storage systems, such as electrolyses, hydrogen storage tank, Fuel Cell systems. Combined wind and solar systems are becoming more popular for standalone power generation applications, due to advances in renewable energy technologies and subsequent rise in prices of petroleum products. The Economic aspects of these technologies show sufficient promise to include them in developing power generation capacity for developing countries. Research and development efforts in solar, wind, and other renewable energy technologies are required to continue improving their performance, establishing techniques for accurately predicting their output and reliably integrating them with other conventional generating sources [6].

1. INTRODUCTION
Renewable Energy Sources are those energy sources which are not destroyed when their energy is harnessed. Human use of renewable energy requires technologies that harness natural phenomena, such as sunlight, wind, waves, water flow, and biological processes such as anaerobic digestion, biological hydrogen production and geothermal heat. Amongst the above mentioned sources of energy there has been a lot of development in the technology for harnessing energy from the Solar & wind [6]. Solar and wind energy are non-deflectable, sitedependent, non-polluting, and potential sources of alternative energy options. Many countries are pursuing the option of wind energy conversion systems; in an effort to minimize their dependence on fossil-based nonrenewable fuels. Also, presently thousands of photovoltaic (PV) deployments exist worldwide, providing power to small, remote, grid-independent or stand-alone applications. For both systems, variations in meteorological conditions (solar irradiation and average annual wind conditions) are important. The performance of solar and wind energy systems are strongly dependent on the climatic conditions at the location. The power generated by a PV system is highly dependent on weather Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

2. MODELING THE COMPONENTS OF A HYBRID POWER SYSTEM


2.1Modeling the Solar (PV) System A PV generator consists of an assembly of solar cells, connections, protective parts, supports etc. Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials (usually silicon), which are specially treated to form an electric field, positive on one side (backside) and negative on the other (towards the sun). Then solar energy (photons) hits the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material, creating electron-hole pairs. If electrical conductors are then attacked to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons are captured in the form of electric current (photocurrent) [4].The model of the solar cell can be realized by an equivalent circuit that consists of a current source in parallel with a diode (Fig.1).

Figure 1 Equivalent circuit diagram of a solar cell Page 101

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
The p-n junction has a certain depletion layer capacitance, which is typically neglected for modeling solar cells.At increased inverse voltage the depletion layer becomes wider so that the capacitance is reduced similar to stretching the electrodes of a plate capacitor. Thus solar cells represent variable capacitance whose magnitude depends on the present voltage. This effect is considered by the capacitor C located in parallel to the diode [4]. Series resistance RS consists of the contact resistance of the cables as well as of the resistance of the semiconductor material itself. Parallel or shunt resistance RP includes the leakage currents at the photovoltaic cell edges at which the ideal shunt reaction of the p-n junction may be reduced. This is usually within the k region and consequently has almost no effect on the current-voltage characteristic [1]. The diode is the one which determines the currentvoltage characteristic of the cell. The output of the current source is directly proportional to the light falling on the cell. The open circuit voltage increases logarithmically according to the Shockley equation which describes the interdependence of current and voltage in a solar cell [1]. (1) radiation. This is done by using standard Simulink and Matlab modules and functions. This block allows selecting different type of patterns for the solar radiation. The PV module implements the equivalent circuit of a solar cell, shown in Fig.1. Standard functions and blocks of Matlab and Simulink were used to obtain this model. Its structure is presented in Fig 3.The output of the PV module is processed by an energy conversion block implemented with a PWM IGBT inverter block from standard Simulink/Sim-Power Systems library [1].

Figure 3 Matlab Simulink implementation of the PV module 2.2 Modeling the Wind Energy System Modeling the wind energy converter is made considering the following assumptions - Friction is neglected; - Stationary wind flow; - Constant, shear-free wind flow; - Rotation-free flow; - Incompressible flow (q=1.22 kg/m3); - Free wind flow around the wind energy converter On the above condition the maximum physical achievable wind energy conversion can be derived using a theoretical model that is independent of the technical construction of a wind energy converter [1]. The flow air mass has certain energy. This energy is obtained from the air movement on the earths surface determined by the difference in speed and pressure. This is the main source of energy used by the wind turbines to obtain electric power [7]. Wind energy systems harness the kinetic energy of wind and convert it into electrical energy or use it to do other work, such as pump water, grind grains, etc. The k inetic energy of air of mass m moving at speed v can be expressed as (3) During time period t, the mass (m) of air through a given area A at speed v is:

(2) Where: k - Boltzmann constant (1.3806 10-23 J/K); T - Reference temperature of solar cell; q - Elementary charge (1.6021 10-19 As); V - Solar cell voltage (V); I0 - saturation current of the diode (A); IPV - Photovoltaic current (A). Equations (1) and (2) lead to the development of a Matlab Simulink model for the PV module presented in Fig. 2.

Figure 2 Matlab Simulink Library PV module. The solar system model consists of three Simulink blocks: the solar model b l o c k , the PV model block and energy conversion modules. The solar model block implements the mathematical model of the solar Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012 (4) Where is the density of air (kg/m3). Based on the above two equations, the wind power is

Page 102

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
The Wind Turbine Induction Generator model is much of complicated part of whole simulation model. It consists of Induction Generator & Wind Turbine. Wind Turbine shown in fig.5. The three inputs are the generator speed (r_pu) in pu of the nominal speed of the generator, the pitch angle in degrees and the wind speed in m/s. The tip speed ratio in pu of _nom is obtained by the division of the rational speed in pu of the base rotational speed (defined below) and the wind speed in pu of the base wind speed. The output is the torque applied to the generator shaft.
3 -Kwind_speed_pu wind_speed_pu

(5) The specific power or power density of a wind site is given as (6) (a) Power Extracted from Wind. From wind is the difference between the upstream and the down-stream wind powers [7] ) (7) Where v is the upstream wind velocity at the entrance of the rotor blades, v0 is the downstream wind velocity at the exit of the rotor blades. Hm is the mass flow rate, which can be expressed as ) (8) Where A is the area swept by the rotor blades. From (7) and (8), the mechanical power extracted by the rotor is given by: (9) Let (10) We have (11) Cp is called the power coefficient of the rotor or the rotor efficiency. It is the fraction of the upstream wind power, which is captured by the rotor blades and has a theoretical maximum value of 0.59. In practical designs, maximum achievable Cp is between 0.4 and 0.5 for high-speed, twoblade turbines and between 0.2 and 0.4 for low-speed turbines with more blades.[7] A Matlab Simulink model, based on the equations mentioned above, was developed for the wind generator module. This model is shown in Figure 4.

u(1)^3 wind_speed^3

Pwin d_pu Pwind_pu Pm_pu Pm_pu

Wind speed (m/s) 1/wind_base

-Kpu->pu

Avoid division by zero


cp_pu

Product

1 Generator speed (pu)

-Kpu->pu Product

lambda_pu

-K-

lambda lambda

lambda cp beta

-K-

lambda_nom 2 Pitch angle (deg)

cp_pu

cp(l ambda,beta )

1/c p_nom

-1 Avoid division by zero

1 Tm (pu)

Figure 4 the Matlab/Simulink implementation of the wind turbine. 2.3 Modeling the Storage Device Batteries are the basic component of an energy storage system. A battery consists of one or more electrochemical cells that are electrically connected. The basic components of an electrolytic cell like a lead-acid cell are a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a porous separator and an electrolyte. During cell operation, ions are created and consumed at the two electrode/electrolyte interfaces by oxidation/reductions reactions. The electrolyte, which cans either, be a solid or liquid chemical, has high conductivity for ions but not for electrons, because if the electrolyte conducts electrons then the battery will self-discharge. The electrolyte completes the internal circuit between the electrodes. In figure 4.5 the Thevenin equivalent battery model is presented [2].

+ -

V ol tage M easurem ent Tm 1 Con n1 2 Con n3n2 Con 3


A m B C <Rot or s peed (wm)>

IG

A B C

Wind Turbine
Ge n e ra to r sp e e d ( pu) T m (p u) P itch a ngle (d e g) W in d spe e d (m / s) Co nsta nt 2

Win d
Speed

Figure 6 Thevenin equivalent battery model. The open circuit voltage, internal capacitor voltage and the terminal voltage are represented by VO, VP and Va . The charging, discharging and the internal Page 103

Figure 4 The Matlab Simulink model of the wind turbine Induction generator module. Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
resistance of the battery are represented by Rc, R d and Rb and the polarization capacitance of the battery is represented by C. The current Ia is taken as positive if discharging and negative otherwise [2]. The equation for the circuit model is: ] (12) (13) Based on this model and the equations above, a MatlabSimulink model was developed for the battery storage device. This model is shown in Figure 4.6.
+ Series RLC Branch Diode +
+ - v 1 volt

3. RESULT
For the simulation, the data solar irradiance, temperature and wind speed are used. The three data will be the input of the PV and Wind energy generation system. Figures shown below show the waveform of the output of the solar and wind energy generation system.
1.95 x 10
4

Time Series Plot:

1.94

1.93
s o la rp o w e r( W )

1.92

1.91

1.9

1.89

1.88

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Series RLC Branch2 Voltage Measurement

0.5 Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 9 waveform of solar power


Time Series Plot: 300

+ Series RLC Branch1 Diode2 + Controlled Voltage Source


s -

250

200
s o la r v o lt a g e (V )

Series RLC Branch3

150

100
1 In1

50

Figure 7 The Matlab Simulink model of the battery storage device. 2.4 Solar-Wind Hybrid Power System Using the RegenSim. Library a renewable energy hybrid system shown in Fig.8 . had developed. As shown, the simulation system contains power generation blocks from renewable energy sources such as sun, wind, battery blocks (providing the energy storage), measurements blocks for electrical parameters (voltage, current etc), inverter blocks (for power generation in DC voltage), energy consumer block.
Measur ements Power at Load Radiation Solar Radiation + + SPot

0 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 10 waveform of solar voltage


Time Series Plot: 400 300 200 100 0

Te rminator

SPin

Sc urrent

Solar Curren t

w in d v o lt a g e (V )

-100 -200 -300 -400

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Sola r Model

Photo voltaic (PV) Model

SV olt

Solar power
Pulses

0.5 Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mesuremen t1 sol ar Volt Discrete PWM Generator 6 pulses


+

Figure 11waveform of generated wind voltage.


v Vab inv erter a b c

Controlled volt. source


s g + A In1 v olt B C C B A

Vab-inv1

x 10

Time Series Plot: Active power Reactive power

battery

2
w in d a c t iv e & re a c t iv e p o w e r

Un iversal Bridge 3 arms

23 0V /230V 2MVA Transform er

WTIG1
Conn1 A a

Conn2

Conn3

230V /230V 2M VA Tra nsfo rmer1

Scop e3
+ v Vab_load

Continuous powergui

-1

Vab_load1
A B C

3-phase lo ad

-2

-3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 8 The Matlab Simulink model of the solar-wind hybrid power generation system. Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012

Figure 12 waveform of the active and reactive power. Page 104

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856
techniques of automatic control and computer engineering IJ-STA Vol. 2 No.2 pp 722-727 Dec. 2008. [4]. Shishir Kumar Pradhan, Modeling and Simulation of PV array with boost converter: An open Loop Study A thesis presented for the Bachelor of Technology Degree Department Of Electrical Engineering National Institute Of Technology Rourkela. [5]. Jinhong Jeon, Development of A Grid Connected wind/PV/BESS Hybrid Distributed Generation System. 19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Vienna 21-24 May 2007 paper 0539 [6]. Shalikram Dewangan, stability enhancement of a wind energy embedded distribution system A thesis presented for the Master of Engineering Degree Department Of Electrical Engineering SSCET Junwani Bhilai [7]. G.D. Rai, A book of Non conventional energy sources

Time Series Plot:Vab inverter 300

200

100
V a b in v e rt e r

-100

-200

-300

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 13 waveform of Inverter output voltage


Time Series Plot:Vab_load 300

200

100
V a b _ lo a d

-100

-200

-300

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 Time (seconds)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 14 Waveform of the load voltage.

4. CONCLUSION
The capitalization of renewable resources potential confers real premises to achieve some strategic aims, but also the durable development of energy sector and the protection of the environment. In order to exploit the economic potential of renewable resources in competitive conditions on the energy market, it is necessary to adopt and implement some energy policies and specific resources. The promotion of energy production from renewable resources represents an imperative objective in present times justified by environment protection, the increase of energetic independence by supplying sources diversity and, of course, economic and social cohesion reasons.

Chitesh Dubey received the B.E degrees in Electrical & Electronics Engineering from SSCET, Bhilai in 2007 and Pursing M.E. Degree in Power System Engineering from SSCET, Bhilai. During 2008, he joined as Lecturer in EEE department of CIT Rajnandgaon. Yogesh Tiwari is currently worked as an Asso. Prof. in EEE Department of SSCET Bhilai. He received the B.E degrees in Electrical Engineering from BIT, Durg in 1997 and M.Tech. Degree in Instrument & Control Engineering from BIT, Durg in 2006. Pursuing PhD in Electrical Engineering from C.V. Raman University Bilaspur. He has over 4 year industrial & 10 year teaching experience. He has published near 15 research papers in national & international conferences & journals.

REFERENCES
[1]. Dorin Bica, Cristian Drago Dumitru, Adrian, Isolated hybrid solarwind-hydro renewable energy systems. Scientific bulletin of the Petru Maior University of the Targu Mures Vol.7 (XXIV),No.2 2010 ISSN 1841-9267 [2]. Basker Vairamohan, State of Charge Estimation Of Batteries. A thesis presented for the Master of Science Degree, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. [3]. M. N. Mansouri Ecole, M. Mansouri Ecole, M.F.Mimouni Ecole, modeling and c o n t r o l energy management of a hybrid system associated a continuous load and coupled with the electrical network. International journal of sciences and Volume 1, Issue 4 November - December 2012 Page 105