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Problems in analysing ship machinery vibration have been com- pounded in recent years by the introduction of new fuel-efficient

engine designs exploiting lower running speeds, longer stroke/bore ratios and higher combustion pressures. Another factor is the wider use of more complex machinery arrangements including, for example, power take-offs, shaft alternators, exhaust gas power turbines and multiple geared engines. MAN B&W Diesel emphasises that the key factor is the interaction with the ship and not the mere magnitude of the excitation source. Excitations generated by the engine can be divided into two categories: Primary excitations: forces and moments originating from the combustion pressure and the inertia forces of the rotating and reciprocating masses. These are characteristics of the given engine which can be calculated in advance and stated as part of the engine specification with reference to a certain speed and power. Secondary excitations: stemming from a forced vibratory response in a ship sub-structure. The vibration characteristics of sub- structures are almost independent of the remaining ship structure.

The vibration characteristics of low speed two-stroke engines, for practical purposes, can be split into four categories that may influence the hull : -External unbalanced moments: these can be classified as unbalanced 1st and 2nd order external moments which need to be considered only for engines with certain cylinder numbers. 1st order moments These moments act in both vertical and horizontal directions, and are of the same magnitude for MAN B&W two-stroke engines with standard balancing. 2nd order moments The 2nd order moment acts only in the vertical direction and precautions need only be considered for four-, five- and six-cylinder engines. - Guide force moments. Axial vibrations in the shaft system. Torsional vibrations in the shaft system. The influence of the excitation forces can be minimized or fully compensated if adequate countermeasures are considered from the early project stage

Permasalahan dalam getaran kapal menganalisis mesin telah diperburuk dalam beberapa tahun terakhir oleh pengenalan baru hemat bahan bakar desain mesin memanfaatkan kecepatan berjalan lebih rendah, stroke / bore rasio yg besar dan tekanan pembakaran yang lebih tinggi. Faktor lain adalah penggunaan yang lebih luas tentang pengaturan mesin yang kompleks, termasuk, misalnya, power take-offs, shaft alternators, exhaust gas power turbines and multiple geared engines