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HOBBES S LEVIATHAN
REPRINTED FROM THE E^ITTON OF
1651

WITH AN ESSAY BY THE LATE
VV. G.

POGSON SMITH
,
"I

HoU.cC>

Ur-r.-i

-..:.

7
fc

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
AMEN HOUSE,
E.G. \

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW LEIPZIG NEWYORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPETOWN BOMBAY
CALCUTTA MADRAS SHANGHAI

HUMPHREY MILFORD
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY

Impression of 7929
First edition,

1909

Printed in Great Britain

PREFACE
students of philosophy and history in Oxford, and to many others, that W. G. Pogson Smith had been for many years engaged
to
all

IT was well

known

in

preparing for an exhaustive treatment of the place of Hobbes in the history of European thought, and that he had accumulated a great mass of
materials towards this.

These materials
carefully

fill

many

notebooks,

and
it is

are

so

indexed that
of

clear that

arranged and with a few more months

he would have been able to produce a work worthy
a very high place in philosophical literature. Unhappily the work that he could have done him

self

cannot be done by any one else unless he has given something like the same time and brings to

the collection something like the same extensive and intimate knowledge of the philosophy of the
It is hoped period as Pogson Smith possessed. indeed that, by the permission of his representatives, this great mass of material will be deposited in the

Bodleian Library and made available for scholars, and that thus the task which he had undertaken may some time be carried out.
his papers has been found an essay which a very interesting and suggestive treatment presents a 2

Among

iv

PREFACE
it is

Hobbes. The essay is undated, uncertain for what audience it was quite prepared. It is this essay which is here published as an introduction to the Leviathan. It is printed
of the position of

and

with only the necessary verification of references, and one or two corrections of detail. It is always
judge how far it is right to print work which the author himself has not revised, but we
difficult to

feel that, while something must inevitably be lost, the essay has so much real value that, even as it stands, it should be published. Something may

even be gained for the reader in the fresh and unconstrained character of the paper. The pursuit
of

the ideal of
all

a perfect and

rounded
at,

criticism,

which

serious scholars

aim

has sometimes

the unfortunate result of depriving a man s work of In Oxford at any rate, and it some spontaneity.
is

probably the case everywhere,

many

a scholar

says his best things and expresses his most pene trating judgements in the least formal manner. Those who were Mr. Pogson Smith s friends or pupils
will find here

much of

the

man himself

his

quick insight, of his

something of unconventional directness,
something also of

of his
his

broad but

solid learning;

profound feeling for truth, of his scorn of the pretentious, of his keen but kindly humour.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES
AN ESSAY
does the greatness of Hobbes consist ? question I often put to myself, as I lay him down. It was a question which exercised his con
It is a

WHEREIN

temporaries
their wits

friends

or foes
If I

and drove them to
were asked to name

end to answer.

the highest and purest philosopher of the seventeenth century I should single out Spinoza without a

moment
world
;

s hesitation.

and

if

But Spinoza was not of the a man will be perverse enough to

bind the Spirit of Christ in the fetters of Euclid, how shall he find readers ? If I were asked to select the
true founders of
Galileo, Descartes,

modern science I should bracket and Newton, and resolutely oppose
If his studies

Hobbes
to

s

claim to be of the company.
s

in Vesalius

prepared him to extend his approbation Harvey demonstration of the circulation of the blood, his animosity to Oxford and her professors

would never allow him seriously to consider the claims of a science advanced by Dr. Wallis the
;

sight of a page of algebraic

symbols never

elicited

any feeling but one of sturdy contempt, and the remark that it looked as if a hen had been scratching there To the end of his days he dwelt among points
.

viii

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES
;

he two dimensions, and superficies of three Twas squared the circle and he doubled the cube. that said Sir and more, pity, Jonas Moore, many he had not began the study of mathematics sooner, for such a working head would have made great advancement in it. * Of inductive science he is very incredulous. Bacon,
of

contemplating

in his delicious walkes at

Gorham-

bury

,

down

might indeed better like Mr. Hobbes taking his thoughts than any other, because he
;

understood what he wrote

he probably learnt to

understand

my

Lord, who

simple natures,
conceits.
critics,
I

dictated his alphabet of his receipts for the discovery of
this

forms, his peddling experiments and his laborious

mention

because most

German

with perhaps more than their usual careless audacity of assumption, find a niche for Hobbes as
the spiritual fosterling of the great empiricist Bacon. Now if there was one thing for which Hobbes had neither sympathy nor even patience, it was experi

mental science. The possession of a great telescope was no doubt a curious and useful delight but not every one that brings from beyond seas a new gin,
;

or other jaunty device, is therefore a philosopher 2 Let the gentlemen of Gresham College, whose energy
.

it

must be granted shames the
let
s

sloth of our ancient

universities,

them apply themselves

to

Mr.

Hobbes
1

doctrine of motion, and then he will deign
s

Aubrey
Aubrey,

Brief Lives, in
i.

2 vols.,

edited

by A.

Clark, 1898

:

i.

332.

2

335-6.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES
to cast an eye

ix

on their experiments. He did not think their gropings would carry them very far. 1 If he ..-Experience concludeth nothing universally.
despaired of wringing her secret from Nature, he never doubted that he held the key to every corner of the human heart. He offers us a theory of man s

nature which

is

at once consistent, fascinating,

and

Only the greatest of realists could have revealed so much and blinded himself to so
outrageously false.

much more. You
core
;

and yet the

cry angrily It is false, false to the still small voice will suggest, But
?

how much of it is really true
so
it

It is poor,

immoral stuff

!

you might

say in the pulpit, but

you know

that

probes very deep. It is only the exploded Bentha mite philosophy with its hedonistic calculus tricked

nothing utilitarian automaton led by the nose a _^nore_jthan by suburban pleasures and pains, you have no sense
of power, of pathos, or of irony. of the
It is

out in antique piquancy of phrase hold this, if you think that JHobbes s

!

If

you
is

really

man

only the trick

cheap cynic, you retort in fine. Yes, it is but it is not cheap. Nature has made cynicism malTirpassionate creature, desirous not of pleasure
;.,
;

but of power

the passions themselves
for

are

not

simple emotions, but charged with and mastered

by the appetite

in the opinion"of

power jionour consisteth only, the worth of a man is, as power
; ;

of all other things, his price

;

that

is

to say, so

much
1

as

would be given
s

for the use of his
iv.

power

;

the

Hobbes

English Works,

18, ed.

Molesworth, 1839.

which interpreted is. is the lust and the burden of man. is the deliverance ? Spinoza found it in the truth shall make you free but philosophy What . I put for a general incli restless desire 1 mankind. to another. was bound to the hill Caucasus. : Leave men to themselves. a perpetual and power after power. the prudent man. but in sleep. vainglory Sober half-hours hush with their driving them. they struggle forj3owe. which looks repaired in the night too far before him. . feeding on liver. competition. 2 Such. Care for the future is never banished from thought felicity is a continual progress of the desire from one object . diffidence. For as Prometheus. where an eagle.82. .x THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES is public worth of a man. or other calamity day long. devoured in the day as much as was : so that man. that ceaseth only in death. 75- 2 P. lucid intervals the tumult of the passions . So that in the nation of of all first place. repose nor pause of his anxiety. which the value set on him by the commonwealth. hath his heart all the gnawed on by fear of and has no death. Pascal found it in the following of Christ but I doubt whether religion ever meant much more 1 p. in the care of future time. is that which men com monly call dignity. : Hobbes was a philosopher who had no truth. then. even so on earth they bring no beatitude. faith in . poverty. a his place of large prospect.

because he invented speech. his l is man own art s proudest triumph over nature. and science has wolves. logic. but Hobbes s state of nature was something far worse than that. advo some moods at least a return to nature. it by the invention of fictions. is fixed . and clothes. If man cannot fulfil his desire. . in truth man became 1 reason. whose survey of human nature often strangely and suspiciously resembles that of Hobbes. By he fetters himself with his own fictions the fictions of the tongue. from henceforth he . Rous seau. he can seek peace and ensue cated in Rousseau * s . You shall no longer hold that men acquired speech because man was a reason ing animal i. grievously he was not as he affronted its paramount claims of those who see virtue in the renunciation of mathe Passion-ridden intellect matics. had mastered man in a state of nature a passionwearied intellect might deliver man from it. Hobbes was never disloyal to intellect. . 24. nature was a pig-sty. . but curiosity. .e.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES xi than an engine of political order to Hobbes. It is not prudence. . bears. nor contract nor peace^ no more than amongst lions. He wonders he is possessed a passionate thought the word is born the idea leaps to the utterance . This most noble and profitable invention of speech. It was not . p. will boldly conclude come in the train of lan universally guage. without which there had been amongst men neither commonwealth nor society. capable of science. that distinguisheth man from beast.

for both speech and reason there no was without reason. Ao yos. all that deluded race is who dreamt of a law whose seat the : bosom all the world God. ! to be sought. Fiction is not.xii THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES . . . but no reasoning without speech. Are there innate ideas ? What is the ultimate criterion of truth 1 ? p. but made. . and boldly substituted his own.29. boldly conclude that truth is not Let men agree what is to be it and truth shall be. nature which in secular travail brought reason to but man saw nature s poverty of inven the birth tion. l Truth is a neces but necessary truth is a will-o -the-wisp. in its varied phrasing. it is There is truth and truth abounding when once only of universals. Voltaire profanely said that if there were no God it would be necessary to invent one convictions of similar cogency drove . Rather. as people hold. He created reason in the interests of peace. the image or the distortion of the real which it counter it is the very and only foundation of that feits Here is Hobbes s answer reality which is rational. has never ceased to trouble philosophy. . the Hobbean man to bow his neck to the dictator The Greeks have but one not that word. and that names are imposed hominum. sity Seekers after truth how Hobbes despised them. speech they thought ship of the neologist. that there arbitrio recognized that truth is is nothing in the world universal but names. her voice the harmony of things in heaven and earth doing her of homage truth. to that question which.

is quences. definitions first snuffed and purged from ambiguity to be satisfactory if it A must be held be clear. Let me remind you again that agreement on defini tions is the sine qua non of intelligible reasoning a deductive system of conse impossible. in Aristotle s sense we These definitions are our points of departure them. definition The master claims a free and absolute right The scholar queries Is the : true ? ? is it adequate ? does it assort : with reality To whom the master . and inference foreclosed. that you accept my rulrngj^ the use Are they not arbitrary ? Is not &quot. and then for the sake of peace and lucidity let me beg nay insist of names.37- .e.one s ? man fore s imposition as good as another at least for ? Mine there better than yours purposes of argument rather Hobbes knew what he was about . i. 1 p. For the start must light by agreeing upon for first principles. science.jtsjt your only right definitions are accepted as first principles. . testily replies is You clear are irrelevant ? Unless my to ask. by exact 1 . of arbitrary definition. : * of human minds definition is perspicuous words.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES Is there xiii a transcendent reason ? What is common ? sense ? Are there any undemonstrable and indu all bitable axioms fundamental to is thought How a synthetic a priori judgement possible ? The same temper which leads him to stifle thought with language carries him on to substitute definitions Prima philosophia metaphysics is first a body of definitions.

Man s privilege of reason is allayed by another and that is. For words are wise men . absurdity butjvant of definition. he must recognize some real. glance at Hobbes 3 s relentless application of this fundamental principle p. 2 As in copiousness of language. said the admiring John Aubrey. 394. or any other doctor whatsoever. uncon transcendent standard of truth some : by what right does he dis tinguish between truth and error ? And what is the meaning of the charges absurd and insignificant where for otherwise so freely lavished on opinions with ? which he dis agrees truth and falsehood. . . . that value them by the authority of an Aristotle. . want of adherence to definitions.The Thomas. 2 . A p. sense and absurdity.^ want or a of the power 1 of syllogizing. so they become more wise. was because he very clearly saw that in the prerogative of reignty in philosophy. they do but reckon by them but they are the money of fools. But. definition lay the sove ventional. s counters. you say. . 35. but man only. of of this endowment are causes.xiv THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES rare 1 he was at It definitions . or more mad than ordinary. a Cicero. Aubrey. are per fectly consistent with the doctrine I have been I can only reply that his distinctions between expounding. 3 . i. : . 29. For it : is most true that Cicero saith of them somewhere may men abound that there can be nothing so absurd but be found in the books of philosophers. by the privilege of absurdity to which no living creature is subject.

. . which title . and he ll take you on assume them for purposes of codification a hypo you : thesis of universal equality. feet are of clay but his the king of the proud This time he too is a fiction. might arrive at his conclusion by an easy deduction from the principles of Hobbes. For if he had studied Hobbes s code of fool with his tongue. which naturally refuses to discuss there is its own another justice. But the moral virtues and vices are universal names they take : their definition ex arbitrio will of the State. left to a there say they personal interpretation . the parody of explains itself with a humorous grin as the fiction of equality playing the peace-maker. 1 p. The nature with ordinary care he would have discovered that the justice of which Leviathan is begotten is There is carefully emptied of all ethical content. evil are terms of individual imposition by tacit agreement one may are. Good and . is no common rule of good and evil to be taken from the nature of the objects themselves. from the hath said in his heart. he is . X.e. an obligation arising out of contract. Leviathan is set At length man his feet on . say Y says he s quite good as any one else permit me to your match. and sometimes justice . indeed a justice. and to refer ! you to the golden rule for your future behaviour s pride and passions compel him to submit himself to government. You. i.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES will xv be sufficient. The l fool there also is no such thing as hominum. re as : and equity. in.

whatsoever agreed in the place of right reason. the right reason we have. the representative. The reason whereof mine nor the Bishop s is this. 126. the the conscience of the commonwealth i. It is the unity of the representer. . deny it) is the infallible rule of moral good The law is all ness. and as in playing their game their morality consist eth in not renouncing. and sends the mystical elements in it to the right about. and that his laws shall be unto us. . borrows from them their mystico-legal fiction of the persona moralis. . On this point Hobbes is unmistak ably emphatic. the . not the unity of the represented. to dictate to they be. so 1 p. : Once again there is no such thing as objective right therefore we must invent a substitute for it by establishing a sovereign who shall declare what shall be right for us. is the soul. as often as it disagreeth with his own reason. and (though he. sovereign is the sense which alone commonwealth is in that fictional truth in science and in practice. the person. In the same manner as men fore set in playing turn up trump. we have there up over ourselves a sovereign governor. that maketh the person one and unity cannot otherwise be understood in multitude.xvi THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOB BBS Hobbes resorts to the lawyers. the corporation. us what is really good.e. reign will. that is because neither fit reason right reason to be a rule of our moral actions. * The sove: .

if you would think clearly of rights and duties. Hobbes was no Carneades v. it We may be content to leave as a precious privilege to and have no concern yet no thinker on politics has ever probed its fundamental conceptions more thoroughly f and I say it advisedly.. definitions . It is only a very botcher in philosophy or a very genial personage who can really rest content with a merely sceptical attitude. and let that man define them. save that in matter of government. of riotous Molesworth. 194. 1 . vi. And &quot. For any philosophy which is worth the name must and every system of spring out of scepticism is worth which serious attention must philosophy the lawyers. you must begin with the criticism of Hobbes. For. and right reason has defined them. known before the offence committed. but give the authority of defining punish ments to any man whatsoever. who need with morality. 122. Bishop of Deny. sovereignty and law. suppose the definition be both made. It is idle to : philosophy save in so far as it is qualify or defend such a political rotten at the core. HOBBES b . It is valueless it stimulates to refutation.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES in our civil conversation our morality in is all xvii contained not disobeying of the laws. clubs are trumps. when nothing else is turned up. authority is and made For such to trump in card-playing. 2 Ibid. 2 A Dialogue of the Common Laws. Bramhall. achieve the conquest of scepticism. l Hobbes s debate with Dr.

the date of the Discours. body and a cardinal the was cardinal problem. Hobbes and Descartes. certainty might be here reason. Starting a basis of empiricism he developed a materialistic .xviii THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES no Montaigne of cheerful and humorous dialectic. independent. might punctum stans . Descartes had awarded each substance co-ordinate. absolute rights. the whole sceptic s progress it. and travelled Hobbes clutched tist s last straw. what might not be ! effected with matter and motion found find a . between matter and mind. David Hume imagined that it was left for him to send philosophy to its but in truth Hobbes had seen it all. Here. seen it. The future business of Cartesianism to was to find a trait d union an explanation for a rela in theory tion in fact which had been demonstrated inconceivable. and loathed it long ago. the relation soul. a fulcrum to explain the universe. resignation. nature revolted against it. Hobbes thought in an atmosphere of dualismyet Hobbes was a resolute opponent of dualism. From 1637. if anywhere. At first blush one might be inclined to say Hobbes remained untouched by the new method. euthanasia . mathematics as the dogma Spite of the wreck of objective at ideals. of His logic plunged him into the abyss but the fierce dogmatism of his scepticism . baffled and disillusioned.

of the a miracle to restore a unity which a philosophy worthy name was bound to demonstrate impossible ? A^svstem or philosophy must be coJae^eirL at a philosopher. whose business it was to any price words are wise men s define. : . Dualism was the he does not consecration of the irrational. transubstantiation. philosophy in perfect independence of idealisticthought which was flowing so stronplv It would be a mistaken view. the position turned. and which demanded animae . an emergency the question at Sensation need offer no difficulties : sensation is only motion .THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES xix of the current. e. method not Gasdualism he not away. principle. on the Continent. coherence. is with JHobbes the touchstone of philosophy. the test of truth. But Hobbes deals meet the to eye with in back blows . should see to that and the counters. in issue begged. rationalism and a rational a single and simple the fundamental postulate universe must be deduced from is . not comprehension. pro salute and was a system to be received which fell hopelessly apart in the middle. Hobbes is powerfully influenced Descartes prescribes for him his But with Descartes sendi or Bacon. To Hobbes. will by Descartes. he refuses to see eve the problem shall be eluded. dualist face to face him . philosopher must play to win . it can only be caused by b 2 . He suspected Descartes of palter- ing with philosophy to appeasethe Jesuits his philosophy must find a cornerforjthe mysteries of theTCathohc faith.g.

A wonderful hysteron prater on. Fancy. This bald paradox is a masterpiece of tactics. begets speech . THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES it is only a form. are really sense hath necessarily some carried with sense memory adhering to it. Speech is ushered in with the fanfaronade. Instinct says. 393. 1 Molesworth. this science or sapience. his audacity. speech because he is reasonable )( capable of science because he has in- Man acquires man becomes vented. x faculty of to another passed into Descartes and Gassendi). memory. speech begets reason. sapience and pru dence. is fundamental in his philosophy. judgement. speech. . surely we have another realm.xx motion. Seeing that thought (science) depends on lan guage. is Hobbes derives some account from 1. reason paradox in verts. And yet if we look more narrowly we shall find this marvellous endowment of man is really the child of language that most noble and profitable invention. it is evident that to clarify thought we must 2. and lo ! reason is dis covered clinging to her train. which marks man off from the brutes. i. And reason pure intellection the science surely here we must appeal source (cf. Hobbes emphatically it is assures us that this reason. We easily understand how error possible- no need of tedious discussion of error dogs the heels language. this capacity for general hypothetical reason. The distinction between science and experience. comparison. a manifestation of motion.

And Bacon and They are both . without forging a style. test. highly probable that Hobbes . I am adopting no every superficial when I boldly affirm that great thinker reveals his greatness in his style. try Hobbes s Those critics English by the touchstone of Bacon s. sententious they are both grave and didactic they both wield the weapons of imagery. they are both It is. apophthegm. who deny Bacon s title to a primacy in philosophy are generally ready enough to acknow ledge his high position as a writer. In my necessarily harsh review I may have seemed to have found no answer to my opening question. I let us admit it laboured think. not involve a petitio principii ? Is he great I am content to rest the issue on one after all ? Does test it alone the test of style. : it is it with to pit it against the fluent magnificence of Milton or the quaint and unexpected But it is fair to beauties of Sir Thomas Browne. It would be childish to measure the incommensurable . Now Hobbes s style is something quite I unique in our literature. same order.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES language re-definition xxi of the true_ task h. It is quite possible unhappily common to cultivate style without thought . . and epigram stylists. passionately. philosophy. deeply. Of course don . But no other seven teenth-century writer has a style like it inimitable. t mean it to read stands out of the seventeenth century a paragraph is to fix its date. Hobbes are writers of the . it is absolutely impossible to think really.

351. Many examples of this Now can be found in such an essay as Of Study turn to Hobbes but before you do so. Ibid. quotations. that he very much and deeply considered one thing at a time (scilicet a weeke or sometimes a fortnight). as his philosophy. and mucrones verborum. that bourgeois Machiavel. When that his solemn humbug. 339. He was working. and you mistake terseness of language for condensation But read again. stuffed with assorted anecdotes. open Aubrey and learn the open secret of his style. carried 2 Aubrey. conceits. always with this rule. took up pen to edify mankind. he first opened his com monplace books. must be admitted are brave it reads remarkably well. but ne er so well expressed It . . brief at first inspection : The sentences of thought. his thoughts were always He sayd that he sometimes would sett his thoughts upon researching and contemplating. But Hobbes s writing is just as decisively superior to Bacon s.. proceeded to set down what oft was thought.xxii THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES something of literary craftsmanship learnt from Bacon in those Gorhambury contemplations. in the 1 2 He walked much and head of his staff e a i. Bacon aimed at conceal ing the poverty of his thought by the adornment of his style : he wrote for ostentation. and then with an eye to the anthology. i. contemplated. and he had pen and inke-horne. . . 1 never idle .

the sentences jolt.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES xxiii always a note booke in his pocket. upon dependeth upon Scripture both which give credit to many. In sum. wherein there is no place for reason. orators. contrary to the custom in it. . 1 ? can compare Hobbes his style and method. the matters in question are not of fact. There 1 is scarce any of those old writers that contradicteth not sometimes both himAubrey. and as soon as a thought darted.) of late time. but never receive it from any writer. We s own defence of There tion. his thought. judgement. i. to convince Hobbes his wit display : Bacon invented epigram to coax the public ear Hobbes found his epigram after he had crystallized . he presently entred it into his booke. Secondly. but of right. is not obscure. 334. and philosophers. (whether I have done well or truth of ill proceedeth from reasons. 1 In Hobbes the clauses are clean.. Bacon wrote to the argument is inevitable. excepting the mischances of the press. That I have neglected the ornament of quoting ancient poets. the difference between the styles of Bacon and Hobbes is to be measured by the difference between ostentation and passionate thought. Thus that book (the Leviathan) was made. . and confute. either my first. is nothing I distrust more than my elocu which nevertheless I am confident. or witnesses. grounded on all many For doctrine .. or otherwise he might perhaps have lost it.

are not intrinsically the judgement of those that cite them. that pass. but from the com petition. I find not that the ancients they cite. about He had read much. to do the like with those that wrote before them. were more ancient when they wrote. I nothing due. if but his contemplation was 1 one considers his long life much more than his . 555-6. but words insufficient. unchanged. of other it an argument of indigestion. we will reverence the age. that generally they to whom such honour is given. the am than I am that am writing. from mouth to mouth. though I reverence men of ancient time. not sure. which makes their testimonies Fourthly. and mutual envy of the living. Seventhly. pp. it like is Fifthly. Sixthly. . or set us in a better way to find it out ourselves yet to the antiquity itself I think . But if it be well con sidered. l Aubrey has more his reading : to tell us. If the antiquity of the writer. such opinions as are taken only upon credit of antiquity. took it for an ornament. when Greek and Latin sentences unchewed come up again. For instance. as they is those use to do. gaping. the praise of ancient authors proceeds not from the reverence of the dead. Lastly. many times with a fraudulent design that men stick their corrupt doctrine with the cloves men s wit. For if present is the oldest. that either have written truth perspicuously.xxiv self THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES and others .

i. and bookes enough for him. and that though . For at the time of the Gunpowder Plot. Aubrey. the Roman 2 claims there i. xxv He was wont l much as other to say that if he had read as have knowne no more he should men. were pre-eminently occupied with ecclesi Born in 1588. than other men. like every honest Englishman he pursued Pope and Jesuit with an undying hate. interests His astical problems.. but he certainly entered into the quarrel with alacrity. Ibid. of Studying Hobbes as we do in historical manuals philosophy. 337-8. that at his lord s house in the country there was a good library. to recognize how in controversialist is ran his strongly the blood of Yet the veins. . the aversion to 1 Rome and 349. he conceived he could order his thinking as well 2 perhaps as another man.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES reading. with their extracted systems. an Oxford student an indignant witness of the struggle of that age between religion and science. Leviathan first and foremost a controversial episode a fighting work. yet he found a great defect. we fail usually the. the want of learned conversa was a very great inconvenience. and that his lordship stored the be library with what bookes he thought fitt to I bought tion but he sayd. Hobbes himself professed regret that his thoughts for those ten years of civil war were so unhinged from the mathematics. About c his love of ingeniose conversation : have heard him say.

possible with What peace was men who repudiated moral obligations. rendered their apologetic literature the poorest trash and the most immoral stuff that was ever justly consigned to oblivion. it will at once be evident to any unprejudiced mind Jewel. and rendered the position of English Catholics a respected if prohibited faith from recusants. Hooker. it may seem.xxvi THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES in was ample justification. : From the Jesuits which were to blame. Andrewes. By his Bull of Deposition 1570 Pope Pius V had challenged the struggle. they became recusants It was the Papal policy and its indefatigable agents untenable. precious treasures of English too must break a lance with And Hobbes was not the least vigorous or the worst equipped of the English champions. Strange company. For indeed Hobbes deserves a place among the Masters in English Theology. who The and hesitated at no crime ad maiorem Dei gloriam ? same dishonesty which covered their actions their name with infamy for succeeding gene rations. But if Hobbes be read in connexion with the line of great English apologists apologists for Protestantism and apologists for Anglicanism. traitors. that the lines of defence and attack on which the Fathers of Anglicanism . Hobbes Bellarmine in the Leviathan. Bellarmine and Baronius once were names to conjure with does any one respect them now ? Their only merit is that : they called for answer are and some of the answers among the most Theology.

Again. when he asserts and proves that the unum necessarimn. as they did. Jeremy Taylor conducted the debate were adopted with a thoroughness all his and crossed the t s sounded their inferences. So that. and appended a few corollaries from which they themselves might have shrunk. which the Scripture maketh necessary to salvation. pp. s sharpened their logic. an Chapter xxxix. For the constant to extend the list the Roman Church was were de fide. . of matters which and to minimize the variable element as far as possible. that Jesus is the Christ. drove to an opposite conclusion. of Taylor. He dotted of the divines . is this. 361-3. fundamentals and non-fundamentals. was the real principle effort of of the Reformation. ( prince has power to change the public face of religion ). Chilling worth. Hobbes is taking the Anglican position occupied for instance by Chillingworth and Jeremy Not that he ever dreamt. articles of faith and matters of opinion. allowing the antithesis to become the premiss of With him as with Laud it religious freedom. The theory of a national and autonomous Church outlined by the Jewel and compendiously stated by Hooker the i own by Hobbes. the only article of faith. hardly allowed of clearer definition in Hobbes s brief chapter 1 on the identity of Church and Commonwealth and the consequences flowing therefrom.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES xxvii Laud. the distinction between the necessary and the variable. 1 If a practice.

reign. non-essential. Hobbes goes so far as to subject the whole canon of Scripture to a critical examination. . should be. There was a report (and surely true). i. Anglican polemics had been con strained to welcome the aid of philology against let us charitably assume in controversialists who Greek employed texts which were and emended those which were not. It is true his views on . if indifferent. And yet the Church of England always viewed this self-constituted ally with suspicion. something more than His Erastianism was of a type which only Selden and a few lawyers could appreciate. forgeries. s of the three persons thereof. In time Legate and He himself would have Wightman had been burnt made an unwilling martyr.xxviii THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES is opinion. must all then the commonwealth. the Trinity were of a Sabellian complexion and in one famous passage he was incautious enough to make Moses one Hobbes for less. Honest Baillie spoke of him as Hobbes the Atheist : there were those who hinted darkly that he was no other than Antichrist. Once again. and could not away ignorance of with the Athanasian Creed. then it is indifferent . was more than doubtful as to the Jeremy Taylor value of patristic testimony.e. which in its boldness anticipates the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus of Spinoza. that mattered was that a rule there matter. the sove What the rule was did not decide.

&quot. 3 Somers Tracts. i. 339. with satire and suggestion. vii. \ and f . thought . whatever they but certain it is they inquired into his that the University of Cambridge in 1669 books. Hobbes was sick in France the divines came to him and tormented him (both Roman all Catholic. With sophistry sense. single-handed. to recant his justice I : for despite his eloquent legal defence. some of the bishops made a motion to have the good old l I don t know gentleman burnt for a heretique. doubt whether the common lawyers would have been deterred from issuing comburendo. T. that they actually went as far as that. ed. and Geneva). not long after says Aubrey. Christi. Church of England. who tried : to buy them. how thoroughly he deserved to be burnt.&quot. (in fact it was 1668). the king was settled. of his books the writ de haeretico Happily the only result was to send up the price this from the good Pepys. i.THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES xxix that in Parliament. What did Pepys think of them ? Hobbes may well have been uncomfortable he A knew. 371. The Aubrey. Fellow of Corpus 2 Hobbism. Aubrey. and that Hobbes And with some himself was grievously alarmed. When Mr. . he had been fighting. 357. vol. better probably than even the bishops. in the cause of the lay intellect. me alone or else I will detect 3 your cheates from Aaron to 1 2 yourselves.Let Sayd he to them. compelled one Daniel Scargill. 1809-12. p.

out but National Religiori te not the re of reason. threatened attack and precise two books of the Leviathan. Nature indeed plants the seeds of ligion by reason religion craft and ignorance kingcraft and priest water and tend it. He may have irresponsibility of more evident that he was an Erastian. p. of&quot. p. 526. the pioneers of Natural Religion and Rational Theology. friends certainly believed that the good old gentle man was a sound Christian at heart. denouncing with equal emphasis the frauds of priestcraft and A the His private judgement. the religion of the State It captivate our reason. on Hell. p. 518. 312-14. For such a view I can find no evidence. Cf. the stalwart champion of national religion. 1 encourage you to read further. How thorough the assault was you may judge for the tone you may yourselves if you will read them estimate from a few illustrations. Soul. his sketch of the origin and history of Universities. been : it is : Natural Law : is indeed the law of reason^^found. detailed.sick . which may perhaps was delivered in the last . pp. Cf.xxx THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES vivacious. good-natured critic will refuse to see in Hobbes anything more than the sturdy Protestant. pp. : on Inspiration. 523. 351 on the on the Hot-houses of Vain Philosophy. on the Universities. 523-4. arid the is State bids us with the mysteries of pills for our religion as with wholesome 1 the . The religion reason is fear . p. p. 011 Aristotelity and Theology. 523. . Many of us most of us in fact are Erastians with certain limitations Hobbes was an Erastian without It is customary to count him among limitations.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HOBBES xxxi .287. more from Oxford it defenders. The stimulus of opposition roused him He hated error. to confute he shoul dered/his way into the very sanctuary of truth. : once burnt the Leviathan her students . Hobbes force of his fierce. and 1 rare at definitions 2 2 . nor his spirit But his hands were not pure . 394. she now prescribes to but the prescribed portion is very limited.understood him. which swallowed whole have the virtue to cure but chewed are for the most part cast up again without effect. and therefore. With all his intellectual power he is of the earth earthy at best the Lydian stone of of everlastingness . i. philosophy. concentrated builder in a master philosophy. most from his plagiarists. clean. it. A became by the sheer intellect great partisan by nature. Aubrey. He much from his opponents. patient research and absolute devotion were not in his nature to give he never felt the bright shoots . after all. . . It was. and there is no reason to suppose that she has ever . and resolutely closed his eyes to the high vision. p. to think. 1 Hobbes had his and the whirligig has suffered his bitter jest with his contemporaries. of time has had its revenges. a nemesis well deseWed.

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165-1. OF A & Power COMMON-WEALTH ECCLESIASTICALL AND C I VI LL.LEVIATHAN. Pauls Church-yard. OR The Matter.. of By THOMAS HOBBES Malmesbury . at the Green Dragon in St. LONDON. Printed for ANDREW C R o o K E . Forme. .

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and on the other side for too much Authority. alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. that with their noyse defended those within it. tis hard to passe between the my But yet. the points of both unwounded. and with devotion to your discourse selfe. YOUR most worthy when he lived. -I speak not of the men. I humbly Dedicate unto you this of Common-wealth. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him. but (in the great.) offending none. but inhaerent. or affected upon occasion. or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. not because they were they. and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. Abstract) of the Seat of Power. by by the Civill Power condemned reprehending it.TO MY MOST HONOR D FRIEND Mr Honored FRANCIS GO DOLPHIN of Godolphin. as you know. Sir. that did not manifestly appear in his conversation. (like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol. endeavour to advance the Civill Power. me thinks. Brother M r Sidney Godolphin. But I have B 2 . great in themselves. . or private Friendship. I know not how the. was pleas d to think my studies something. and otherwise to oblige me. but there. world will receive it. but those without. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man. either to the service of God. I think. nor how it may reflect on those that shall seem to favour it. to Civill Society. on one side for too great Liberty. not as acquired by necessity. are certain Texts of Holy Scripture. That which perhaps may most offend. declare they think that Power too Besides. For in a way beset with those that contend. or to the service of his Country. with reall testi monies of his good opinion. should not be nor private men.

. and have presum d on that. and think all true I say. T/. THO. that I honoured your Brother. and honour you. you find my labour generally . Paris. to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being. it with due submission. notwithstanding this. and I am a man that love my own opinions. 1651. . say decryed. I am.. HOBBES. from whence they impugne the Civill Power. Your most humble. Aprill Jf. and most obedient servant.THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. done . you may be pleased to excuse your selfe. and also (in order to my for they are the Outworks of the iHect) necessarily TV-. as SIR.

52 Of the Naturall Condition of Mankind as concerning their Felicity and Misery. O/ Imagination. 7. Dignity.ft o/ The Contents The of the Chapters first 353. 12 Of Speech. Of the Ends or Resolutions of Discourse. 40 Of Power.16. commonly called Intellectuall.gt. . 8. Generation. i^l np. 60 Of the first and second Naturall Lawes and of Con tract. 32 Of the sever all Subjects of Knowledge. Of other Lawes of Nature. 3. 4. 9. Authors. 15. and things Personated. 1 Introduction. 18 Of Reason and Science. Of the Causes.. jtp. commonly called the Passions . 14. Worth. i. Honour. . 6. Of MAN.. And the Speeches 23 by which they are expressed. 11. &amp. O/ #&0 interiour Beginnings of Voluntary Motions. 64 71 80 - The second Part. Of COMMON-WEALTH. and Worthinesses Of the Difference of Manners. and their contrary Defects. Chap. Of Sense. Of Persons. 47 Of Religion. 1 / 3 ^. 5. Page. 4 O/ /A0 Consequence or Train of Imaginations. and Definition wealth. 30 Of the Vert ues. 13. 12. of a Common 85 88 ) Oj the Rights of Soveraignes by Institution. Part.

or tend to the Dissolution of a Common-wealth. Politically and Private. and. Of the Office of our Blessed Saviour.lt. Hel. 25. 151 28. 40. Dominion j* 9/ ?)/ c / ^ Li Paternall. 42. Books of Holy Scripture. 33. Scope.THE CONTENTS. 222 Of the Word of God. 35. 207 36. The Of 32. O/ C^j// Lawes. and their use. 37. Of what is Necessary for a mans Reception into the Kingdome of Heaven. Authority. the Publique Ministers of Soveraign Power. O/ //jos things that Weaken. O/ /^ Kingdome of God by Nature. and the Kings of Judah. ? 2. r i $ * wealth. third Part. 195:281. and 101 .lt. Of Of Of Of the Principles of Christian Politiques. 249 261 41. Salvation. &amp. and of Prophets. 199 the signification. 38. 175 186 _3i. and Redemption. and Interpreters of the 34. 39. ^ 3v 26. and Inspiration in the Books of Holy Scripture. of Holy. in Abraham. Antiquity. Moses. and Extenuations. 233 Of the signification in Scripture of Eternall life. the World to come. Kinds of Common-wealth by Instit\ niy tb Succession to the Soveraign Power. and Sacrament. -&quot. the Number. Despoticall. forty o/ Subjects. 267 43. the High Priests. 247 Of the Rights of the Kingdome of God. 161 -29. and Procreation of a Common ^ 107 115 123 127 131 / &amp. severall o/ n&amp. Of Miracles. Systemes Subject. 167 30. 3h . 321 . Angell. the signification in Scripture of the Kingdome of 216 God. Rewards. Nutrition. Excuses. Sacred. 136 27. Of Punishments. A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH.lt. 238 Of the Signification in Scripture of the word Church. O/ Crimes. O/ Counsell. Of Power Ecclesiasticall. of Spirit. O/ //?^ Office of the Soveraign Representative.

46. 105. 1. for haven. higher. Darknesse from Misinterpretation of 333 of the Religion of Of D&monology. r. 1. deliver. The fourth Part. 30. 1. p. is. for our Saviours of life. i. for are involved. for Soveraign. 1. 1. of our Saviours life. 298. 234. r. r. for write. 276. 88. and Fabulous Traditions. 1. 1. p. but by mediation of. for i w generall. 1. 262. 35.lt. and other Reliques 352 Of Darknesse from Vain Philosophy. i. 200. 42. 361. where. dele of. Of 45. 287. p. These Bodies. the Soveraign. i/ left. for in. p. p. ver. 206. z w generall. for love Praise. p. if he shall. 5. PAGE 36. p. benefits. 14. p. 1. Page. r. p. for tisme. 204. 39. 1. 36. r. r. r. 35. for delivered. 75. 1. i. 272. 46. 1. r. 285. 49. 19. 1. &c. 44. r. r. 15. for Those Bodies. 389 Errata. p. 116. for putting. p. pulling. 48. are not involved. for other. r.?. for o/ /Ae. Spirituall Scripture. r. 15. 1. for signied. 1. 1. for but of. heaven. 38. 94. r. 45. 137. in the margin. p. 1. r. dele a/so. 10. 1. r. r. dele and. 1. 381 A Review and Conclusion. 4. for lands. for observe. 10. dele inter. p. 275. for to ay. for of Church. 1. to Lay. r. r. /?. for him. them. 1 1. 166. over the. 1. 1. r. 1. the Gentiles. for benefit. and. to whom it accreweth. r. p. r. 46. for p. p. 271. obey. 1. 1. forme. 1. 36. Of the Benefit proceeding from such Darknesse .n #. read love of Praise. for in. for [These errata have been corrected in the text of this reprint. contrary to the.] . r. 38. 1. p. for he had. in his. signified. that. 100. r. 1. 18. r. for ver. 36. he hath. p. 19. 48. dele are. In the Margin. Baptisme. Of THE KINGDOME OF DARKNESSE Chap. 46. 139.!. for if shall. 203. 1. r. 1. p. r. 48. r.THE CONTENTS. p. for and /e/f. 2. 18. t/ef&amp. 19. 1. 367 47. p. p. hands. p. 1. p. iorperforme. ze. p. 268. p. 1. r. 102. contrary the. o/ the Church. r. for //ia r. 28. 120.

.lt. .m THE INTRODUCTION. . . that all Automata (Engines that move themselves by springs and wheeles as doth a watch) have an artificiall life? For what is the Heart. the begining whereof is in some principall part within why may we not say. body The and Execu artificiall Joynts Reward and Punishment (by which fastned to the seate of the Soveraignty. NATURE Animal. (in Man . Death. but so many Wheeles. latine CIVITAS) which is but an Artificiall of greater stature and strength than the for whose protection and defence it was intended and in which. se1*t&amp. . . but a Spring and and the Nerves. an artificiall Reason and Will and Civill war. though . . Salus Populi (the peoples safety) its Businesse Strength Counsellors. resemble that Fiat. (the Art whereby God hath made and governes the World) is by the Art of man. For by Art is created that great LEVIATHAN called a COMMON-WEALTH. Soul. as in so in this also imitated. as giving life and motion to the whole Magistrates. Man. Lastly. that do the same in the Body Naturall Wealth and Riches of all the particular members. and united. Sicknesse . are the Memory Equity and Concord. Artificial For seeing life is but a motion of Limbs. and other Officers of Judicature tion. by which the parts of this Body Politique were at first made. imitating that Ration all and most excellent worke of Nature. such as was intended by the Artificer ? Art goes yet further. Naturall. by whom all things needful! for it to know. the Soveraignty is an Artificiall . the Sedition. are the . pronounced by God in the Creation. that it can many other make an things. . or . . giving motion to the whole Body. are suggested unto it. every joynt and member is moved to performe his duty) are the The Nerves. but so many Strings the Joynts. Pacts and Covenants. Health Lawes. STATE.jyjether. or the Let us make man.

Man. . hope. &c tion individuall. first. and considereth what he doth. desire. by which they might learn truly and to read one another. what are the thoughts. towards their inferiors or to encourage men of low degree. feare.] Matter thereof. and Passions of all other men. made what are the Rights and just Power or Authority and what it is that preserveth of a Soveraigne and dissolveth it.gt. and the Artificer it is . but Books. Thirdly. upon the like occasions. . if they would take the pains which was not that is. : meant. that the characters of rja^ns heart. which are the same in all men. and they are so easie to be kept from our knowledge. the I will I&amp. &c. are legible onely to him that searcheth hearts. and erroneous doctrines. hope. To describe the Nature of this Artificiall man. which are the for these the constitu things desired. to countenance. and Passions of another. take great delight to shew what they think they have read in men. whosoever looketh into himself. Nosce teipsum. hoped. But there is another saying not of late understood. blotted and con founded as they a^e^ ^th dissembling. : . both . grounds does think. not by reading of of Men. feared. And though by mens actions wee . &c not the similitude of the objects of the -Passions. when he . to a sawcie behaviour towards their betters But to teach us.THE INTRODUCTION. what is a Christian Common-wealth^ Lastly. How. and upon what he shall thereby read and know. Consequently whereunto. counter feiting. those persons. there is a saying much usurped That Wisedome is acquired. that for the similitude of the thoughts. Read thy self . by uncharitable censures of one another behind their backs. to the thoughts. as it is now used. consider First. either the barbarous state of men in power. what is the Kingdome of Darkness. reason. that for the most part can give no other proof of being wise. opine. feare. lying. Secondly. and particular education do so vary. and by what Covenants which is . Concerning the of late. and Passions of one man. I say the similitude of Passions.

must read in himself. and distinguishing all circumstances. and perspicuously. or by too much diffidence as he that reads. I shall have set down my own . harder but Man-kind than to learn any Language. not this. do discover their designe sometimes yet to do it with out comparing them with our own. and be for the most part deceived. it serves him onely with his acquaintance. when . is to decypher without a key. He that is to govern a whole Nation. the pains left another. ! perfectly. will be onely to For consider. if he also find not the same in himself. this kind of Doctrine. or that particular man which though it be hard to do. is himself a good or evil man. by too much trust. But let one man read another by his actions never so . : . which are but few. by which the case may come to be altered. admitteth no other Demonstration. or Science yet. reading orderly. .io THE INTRODUCTION.

. of Sense. Cold. . counter-pressure. they are every one a Representation or Apparence. And To the Eare. and other strings. to fill each part of my present method. Colowrfjj&amp. Nevertheless. called an Object. which presseth the organ proper to each Sense. or by parts. : place. produceth diversity of Apparences. as to tneTEye] in a Light. or endeavour of the to deliver it self which endeavour because Outmkd. either or mediately. seemeth to be some matter without. . To know the naturall cause of Sense. . as in the Tast and Touch in Seeing. I. I will consider them first Singly. been begotten upon the organs of Sense. which hath not at first.ured in an Odour to the rest of the body. OF MAN. CONCERNING the Thoughts of man. ^L_Jancy. as immediatly. continued inwards to the Bra^ and a causeth there or Beatt. the mediation of Nerves. as we discern by All which qualities called Sensible. in a Savour . i. and^rnembr^nes of the body. and such other qualities. or other which is commonly Accident of a body without us Which Object worketh on the Eyes. or dependance upon one another. consisteth. Chap. and Palat. And this seeming. resistance._\s that which men call hgart. of some quality. or . I will briefly deliver the of working. or Object. same in this The cause is the Extern all Body. totally. are in the Feeling. and .gt. CHAP. To the Tongue. and other parts of mans body . and by diversity Eares. is that which we call SENSE (For there is no conception in a mans mind. is not very and I have else necessary to the business now in hand where written of the same at large. : Sense . Of SENSE. and Smelling which pressure. Hearing. by . Hardnesse. and afterwards in Trayne. Softnesse.Part i. Singly.) The rest are derived from that originall. . in a Sound To the Nostrill. The Originall of them all. in Heat.

the same waking. For if those Colours. And as pressing.) But their apparence to us is Fancy. or hear. several motions divefsly. OF MAN. i. is Seeing. as by glasses. . frequency of insignificant Speech is one. an Audible aspect. sendeth forth an Audible species. . but because I am to proving the use of Universities a Common-wealth. Nay for the cause of Understanding also. And though at some certain distance. makes us standing. what amongst which the things would be amended in them . an which comming into the Under intelligible being seen I say not this. maketh Hearing. produceth nothing but motion. jthatJsTby the motjpn^jp^externail things^apon ourTTyes. originall f aricy^ cjiis2t(^^j^ve_^djjb^the_pressure. as disap Understand. or a being seen whereof into the Eye. . in office of their hereafter speak I must let you see on aL occasions by the way. and in . but so ^object that causeth them. cause of Vision.us . or Objects that cause them. or aspect. they could not bee severed from them. makes us fancy a light so do the bodies also we the Eare. though unobserved action. . were in the Bodies.rangi)fi^ sities of But fheTTiilosophy-schobles. : 1 . the reall. that the thing seen. grounded upon certain Texts of and say. many Chap. that is. and very object seem invested with the fancy it begets in Yet still the object is one thing. &quot. in the thing we see. that is. that the thing heard. = [4] that are~pressed. *othe mattelrngTjv^^ NeifneFm&quot. produce the same by their strong. is in one place another. the image or fancy us So that Sense in all cases^ is nothing els but is another. l^Fel&amp. or and pressing striking the Eye. For the Aristotle. but divers motions (for motion.Part ^ * i. they say the thing Understood sendeth forth intelligible species. that dreaming. sendeth forth on every side a visible species (in English) a visible shew.gt. rubbing. the receiving apparition. through all the Univer Christendome. or Audible being seen which entring at the Eare. . produceth a dinne see. Ecchoes by reflection. . are they any thing else. and Sounds. teach another doctrine . And for the cause of Hearing. where we know the apparence. wee see they are .

Schooles say. wee still retain an image of the thing seen. and seeks repose of its own accord little considering. wherein that desire of rest they find in From hence it is. that nothing can change it selfe. &c. (which is more than man has) to things inanimate. II. Chap. Dreams. from the image made in seeing and apply the same. is unlesse somewhat els a truth that no man is doubts of. degrees quite extinguish it though the wind cease. For after the object is removed. it will eternally be in motion. and because they find themselves sub ject after motion to pain. out of an appetite to rest. as waking. But the Greeks call When a Body els . when he Sees. place which is most proper for them ascribing appetite and Knowledge of what is good for their conservation. And this is it. is not the decay of the motion made in sense . and is as proper Fancy to one sense. to all the other senses. Heavy bodies fall downwards. but in time. But that when a thing in motion. CHAP. .Part i. that the themselves. 2. [5l . it moveth (unless and whatsoever hinder it) eternally hindreth it. whether it be not some other motion. it a thing lies still. &quot. The decay of Sense in men waking. then. will lye still for ever. unless somewhat els stay it. but an oBscurml it . as to another. which is made in the internall parts of a man. though the reason be the same. but all other things.) is not so easily assented to. THAT when stirre it. think every thing els growes weary of motion. not onely other men. and by And as wee see in the water. OF MAN. consisteth. or the eye shut. something is once in motion. (namely. cannot in an instant. the Latjnes call Imagination. IMAGINATION therefore is and is found in rrrerrpaTicr nothmg_but decaying sense manyotlier living Creatures. aswell sleeping. . absurdly. : . 13 Of IMAGINATION. and to conserve their nature in that : . and lassitude. For men by themselves measure.~^ . though improperly. the waves give not over rowling for a long time after so also it happeneth in that motion. which signifies apparence. though more obscure than when we see it.

hath one and the same effect in us. after the theweaker is the Imagination? For^fhe c5ntmuall change of mans body. which our night. or by parts at severall times .) Experience. or Sense of For as at a great distance of place. eyes. pastjsobscured^and ^is ln^fnTliioyseot object. is called fancy selfe. . The former. though the impression it made in us remain yet other objects more present succeeding. The other is Compounded as when from the sight of a man at one time. in the day. and signifie that the Sense is fading. . old. Actions. .I4 Part i. that the longejLlhe time is. than in the But because amongst manyv stroaks. many particular Streets and of at. such manner. 2. the^Jmagination of the . (I mean : wee call Imagination. and working on us. any : sight. Againe. the predominant onely is sensible the lighF^f the ~5uh being predominant. So that J[maginationa^__MemQnL are^but one thing. and of a horse at another. many when it particular Circumstances. which for divers Considerations hath divers &quot. eares. Memory. and past. and without distinction of the smaller parts and as Voyces grow weak. that which wee look appears dimme. .name?: Much memory. or memory of many things. trie made weak arthevoyce of a man dayT From whence it followeth. : . destroyes in time the So that distance of parts which in sense were moved time. . as the light of the Sun obscureth the light which starrs do no less exercise their of the Starres vertue by which they are visible. our imagina tion of the Past is weak and wee lose (for example) of Cities wee have seen. it is called Memory. sense. (which is the imagining the whole object. . as it was presented to the sense) is simple Imagination as when one imagineth a man. and other organs receive from externall therefore bodies. OF MAN. And any object being removed from our eyes. Chap. and inarticu late so also after great distance of time. we conceive in our mind a Centaure. and of place. So when a man com. . either all at once. we are not affected with the action of the starrs. or horse. which he hath seen before. Imagination being only of those things which have been formerly perceived by Sense. wee would express the thing This decaying it self. as I said before But when we would express the decay.

as at And because waking I often observe the other times absurdity of Dreames. in this silence of sense. (though waking) from the great As from gazing upon the Sun. sleep. or by parcells in the Sense. Dreaming. no Imagination therefore no Dreame.Part i. nor remember Objects. and Nerves. Places. (which happeneth often to Romants) them that are much taken with reading of it is a compound imagination. : . And because in sense. I do notl often. or an Alexander. so as there is no new object. are those_we call Dreams. i . parts. nor constantly think of the same Persons. a Dreame must needs be more cleare. but never dream of the absurdities . there can happen in sleep. and Objects. And these also (as all other Imaginations) have Been Hefore. 15 poundeth the image of his own person. with the image as when a man imagins of the actions of an other man himself e a Hercules. and properly t but a Fiction of thelnind. . For my part. j J . Dreams. The imaginations of them that sleep. and Actions that I do waking so long a trayne of coherent thoughts. than are our waking thoughts. OF MAN. impression made in sense the impression leaves an image of the Sun before our and from being long and vehe eyes a long time after mently attent upon Geometricall Figures. which can master and obscure them with a more vigorous impression. that in Dreames. the Brain. And hence it cometh to passe. the necessary Organs of sense. (though awake) have the Images of Lines. do keep the same in motion whereby the Imaginations there for saving merly made. 2. . and Angles before his eyes which kind of Fancy hath as being a thing that doth not no particular name : 6! . for the connexion they have with the Brayn. There be also other Imaginations that rise in men. as not easily to be moved by are so benummed in the action of Externall . a man shall in the dark. when I consider. but what proceeds from the agita which inward tion of the inward parts of mans body . . either totally. that it is a hard matter. Chap. appeare as if a man were waking that the Organs of Sense being now benummed. when they be distempered. which are commonly fall into mens discourse. and by many thought impossible to distinguish exactly between Sense and Dreaming. and other Organs.

in case any uncouth and exorbitant fancy come unto him. it was not hard for him. And seeing dreames are caused by the distemper of some of the inward parts of the Body divers distempers must needs cause different Dreams. . : . pensive and troubled with the horrour of his rash act. . And hence it is. . manner . 2. from his [7] waking thoughts. and industriously layes himself to sleep. . cannot easily think other than a Dream. For sitting in his tent. the over heating of the same parts causeth Anger. Dream. and raiseth up in the brain the Imagination of an Enemy. when we are awake causeth desire and desire makes heat in certain other parts of the body so also. The most difficult discerning of a mans Dream. raiseth in the brain an imagination of some kindness shewn. and notwithstanding murthered him. the thought and Image of some fearfull object (the motion from the brain to the inner parts. while wee sleep. or putting oft his clothes. that waking Thoughts being I know I dreame not though when I dreame. my awake. is then. and was also his favorite.no t that we have slept which is easie to happen to a man *u^ ^ f ear f u ll and whose conscience is much thoughts Visions troubled and that sleepeth. . that lying cold breedeth Dreams of Feare. as one that in a chayre. For he that taketh pains. the night before he gave battell to Augustus Ccesar. as naturall kindness. at another. without the circumstances. when we are awake so when we sleep. (one that had his life given him by Julius Ccesar. and raiseth awake. our Dreams are the The motion when reverse of our waking Imaginations and when we we are awake. Chap. beginning at one end .16 Part of -i. OF MAN.) how at Philippi. I think I am well satisfied. slumbering in the cold. when by some accident we observe Appan. In the same . which is commonly but considering che related by Historians as a Vision circumstances. In summe. We read of Marcus Brutus. . and from the inner parts to the Brain being reciprocal! :) And that as Anger causeth heat in some parts of the Body. noddeth of going to bed. hee saw a fearfull apparition. to dream of that which it : . one may easily judge to have been but a short Dream. too much heat in those parts. my selfe .

him wake by degrees so also it : : . Nymphs. Prognostiques from Dreams. If this superstitious fear of Spirits were taken away. Never thelesse. for the false belie fe they have. are so bold as to say any thing when it serves their turn. is no point of Christian faith. OF MAN. the greatest part of the Religion of the Gentiles in time tTTat worshipped Satyres. Chap. HOBBES and many other things depending p . and change. appear credible. . past. . more than they feare the stay. of the course of Nature. as make use of such superstitious feare. and with it. which he also can stay. the opinion of them has I think been on purpose. are subject to the like and believe they see spirits and dead mens fancies Ghosts walking in Church-yards whereas it is either their Fancy onely. and other such inventions of Ghostly men. did arise most affrighted him . as men need to feare such things. that they can do such mischief e. Ghosts.&quot. either taught. to keep in credit the use of Exorcisme. false Prophecies. and the like and now adayes the opinion that rude people have of Fayries. : : . he could have no cause to think it a Dream. and Goblins and of the power of Witches. For as for Witches. and alone in the dark. . and other sfrpng^Paricies/ From Vision and Sense. Fawnes. . of holy Water. joyned with their purpose to do it if they can their trade being neerer to a new Religion. and supperstitious. and walking Ghosts. 2. or not confuted. From this ignorance of how to distinguish Dreams. but God can make unnaturall Apparitions that he does it so often. if they be timorous. possessed with fearfull tales. than right reason makes that which they say. of Crosses. though they think it untrue It is the part of a wise man. to passe disguised in the night. there is no But doubt. And for Fayries. 17 which feare. I think not that their witchcraft is any reall power but yet that they are justly punished.Part i. or any thing but a Vision. or els the knavery of such persons. than to a Craft or Science. And this is no very rare Acci dent for even they that be perfectly awake. to places they would not be known to haunt. . as by degrees it made must needs make the Apparition And having no assurance that to vanish he slept. or change. to believe them no further. But evill men under pretext that God can do any thing.

Consequence or TRAYNE TRAYNE Thought of of Imaginations. but his conceptions and standing not onely his will thoughts. and other formes of And of this kinde of Understanding I shall Speech . And this ought to be the work of the Schooles but they rather nourish such doctrine. like handing of things from one to another. or other voluntary signes. I Consequence. some saying. is that we generally call and is common to Man and Beast. men would be much more fitted than they are for civill Obedience. is not altogether so casuall as it seems to be. that Imaginations rise of they teach Others that they rise themselves. . what they receive. by the sequell and contexture of the names of things into Affirmations. Not every Thought to every Thought sue- . by which. Chap. and deliver them to the Common -sense Common Sense delivers them over to the Fancy. For Understanding a dogge by custome will understand the call. which called from Discourse words) Mentall When a man thinketh on any thing whatsoever. in understand is to another. For (not knowing what Imagination. and the Memory to the Judgement. The Imagination that is raysed in man (or any other creature indued with the faculty of imagining) by words. . OF MAN. 2. and have no cause most commonly from the Will and that Good thoughts and Evill are blown (inspired) into a man. : speak hereafter. by God. or the Senses are). That Understanding which is peculiar to man. words making nothing understood. with many : : : . or the rating of his Master and so will many other Beasts. is the Under . and Evill ones by the Divell.18 [8] Part i. thereon. III. Understanding. and the Fancy to the Memory. His next Thought after. : . Some say the Senses receive the Species of and the things. or that succession of one distinguish Discourse. by God or that Good thoughts are thoughts by the Divell powred (infused) into a man. (to it BY Thoughts. Negations. Of the CHAP. crafty ambitious persors abuse the simple people.

and the dependance of one thought upon another. : . But because in sense. than to ask (as one did) what was the value of a Roman Penny ? Yet the Coherence to me was manifest enough. or other passion In which case the thoughts are said to wander. . : : thatjn the Imagining of any thing. whereof we never had the like before in our Senses. This Trayne of Thoughts.Part i. continue also together after Sense In so much as the former comming again to take place. Such are Commonly the thoughts of men. c 2 . or in so we have no Transition from one Imagination parts to another. and be predominant. . 3. in such manner. by coherence of the matter moved. Chap. For the Thought of the warre. without Designe. . The first is Unguided. a man play. or Mentall Discourse. as in a Dream. All Fancies are Motions within us. but also without care of any thing though even then their Thoughts are as busie as at other times. or in tune. at one time or another. and Thoughts Wherein there is no Passionate Thought. but without harmony as the sound which a Lute out of tune would yeeld to any man. as the end and scope of some desire. OF MAN. and seem imperti nent one to another. in whole. whereof we have not formerly had Sense. what could seem more imperti nent. is Tmyne of of two sorts. the later followeth. as water upon a plain Table is drawn which way any one part of it is guided by the finger. ceeds indifferently. 19 But as wee have no Imagination. it shall be something that succeeded the same before. brought in the Thought of the delivering up of Christ. tt inconstant to govern ariH direct those that follow. to it self. to one and the same thing perceived. some times another succeedeth. that are not onely without company. it comes to passe in time. . sometimes one thing. to one that could not And yet in this wild ranging of the mind. introduced the Thought of the delivering up the King to his Enemies The Thought of that. For in a Discourse of our present civill warre. may oft-times perceive the way of it. there is. and that again . reliques of those made in the Sense And those motions that immediately succeeded one another in the sense.no certainty [9] what we shall Imagine next Onely this is certain. The reason whereof is this.

they are quickly again reduced into the way: which observed by one of the seven wise men. look often upon what you would have. : From Desire. but in man onely for this is a curiosity hardly incident to the nature of any . strong or. that can by it be produced that is to say. and Solertia. wherein hee misses it. For the impression made by such things as wee desire. and time to time. and anger. comes often to mind. . . or feare. way to attain it. when imagining any thing whatsoever. lust. to find or of the effects. as to hinder and break our sleep. which was the price of that treason and thence easily followed that malicious question and all this in a moment of time for Thought . in case our thoughts begin to wander. is nothing but Seeking. : Chap. mean . when it is governed by designe. present or past . of some effect. thirst. wee seek the causes. is quick. and time. a hunting out of the causes. and per manent. living creature that has no other Passion but sensuall. (if it it is cease for a time. his mind runs back. In summe. The Trayn of regulated Thoughts is of two kinds One. the thought of means to that . ariseth the Thought of some means we have seen produce the like of that which we ayme at and from the thought of that. some present or past cause. or means that produce it: and this is common to Man and Beast. Some what he hath lost and from that place. . such as are hunger.20 Part i. your actions. the Thought of the 30 pence. . till within our own power. Of which I have not at any time seen any signe. by the greatnesse of the impression. we imagine what we can do with it. from place to place. or the faculty of Inven[10] tion. Tmyne of Thoughts The second is more constant as being regulated by some desire. now worne out. made him give men this praecept. OF MAN. Respice finem this is to say. and designe. when wee have it. The other is. as the thing that directs all your thoughts in the which in all is . the Discourse of the Mind. . And we come to some beginning because the End. wee seek all the possible effects. which the Latines call Sagacitas.) of quick return so sometimes. of times a man seeks . and so continually. when of an effect imagined. is strong. 3.

till he find a sent a man should run over the Alphabet. sometimes Wisdome though such conjecture. . to start a rime. the Officer. faile him. Again. From him onely. to the actions that are Present but certainty is done by him that has most Experience not with certainty enough. . re-cons what he has seen follow on the like Crime before having this order of thoughts. As he that foresees what wil become of a Criminal. . when the Event answereth our Expectation yet in its own nature. and that to say. proceeds Prophecy. Nature things Past have a being in the Memory onely. it is but Presumption. or Providence - . or Calling to mind some certain. when he had it . but things to come have no being at all the Future being but a fiction of the mind. and is called Foresight. : Latines call it Reminiscentia. the RememThis we call Remembrance. within the compasse whereof he is to seek and then his thoughts run over all the parts thereof. and supernaturally. The Crime. belongs onely to him by whose will they are to come. be very fallacious. OF MAN. through the difficulty of observing all circumstances. and Prudence. as it were a Re-conning bl/ance of our former actions. or other occasion might make him lose it. The Present onely has a being . and the Gallowes. Chap. and his expectations . . 21 where. in the same manner. applying the sequels of actions which with most Past. . in which to begin a method of seeking. or as as one would sweep a room. .Part i. Sometimes a man knows a place determinate. . . his thoughts run over the same places and times. . . the Prison. the Which kind of thoughts Judge. to find a Jewell or as a Spaniel ranges the field. the seldomer in . from thence. and the events thereof one after another supposing like events will follow like actions. is 3. to find what action. The best and the best Prophet naturally is the best guesser . to find and limited time and place. And though it be called Prudence. For the foresight of things to come. . action and then he thinketh of some like action past. which is Providence. . Sometime a man desires to know the event of an Prudence. But this is certain by how much one man has more experience of things past. than another by so much also he is more Prudent.

Signes. and the Trayne of thoughts. conSo there is tracted from the Experience of time Past a p raesum tion of things Past taken from other things For he that hath seen by (not future but) past also. to the exercise of it. distinguish men from all other living Creatures. and which seem proper to man onely. but to be born a man. and Thoughts. the mind of man has no other motion though by the help of Speech. For besides Sense. as to need no other thing. he that is most versed and studied in the matters for he hath most Signes to guesse by. the Consequent of the Antecedent. and Method. and the like courses have been there also. . Neverthelesse it is not Prudence that distinguisheth man from beast. : : Conjeeture of the time past.22 Part i. that at a year old observe more. whereby to and consequently is the guesse at the Future time most prudent And so much more prudent than he that is new in that kind of business. that I can remem ber. a flourishing State hath first come into civil warre. so. has most Signes. before the oftner they have been observed. than a child can do at ten. as not to be equalled by any advantage of naturall and extemporary wit though perhaps many young men think the contrary. he guesses at Signe. has the same incertainty almost with the both being grounded onely conjecture of the Future upon Experience. the like warre. OF MAN. of the Consequent . and industry and proceed all from the invention of Words. guesser. Those other Faculties. are acquired. : Chap. and encreased by study and and of most men learned by instruction. There is no other act of mans mind. . : . and pursue that which is for their good. and contrarily. the lesse uncertain And therefore he that has most experience is the Signe. is the Event Antecedent. when A L 11 ] And the like Consequences have been observed. of which I shall speak by and by. will guesse. more prudently. and then to ruine upon the sight of the ruines of any other State. naturally planted in him. and live with the use of his five Senses. in any kind of businesse. . . As Prudence is a Prtesumtion of the Future. what courses and degrees. . the same Facultyes may be improved to such a height. 3. discipline and Speech. But this conjecture. There be beasts. as to : .

and the conjunction of mankind. 4. A profitable Invention lor continuing the memory of time past.) but that we may honour him. or infinite When we say any thing is force. 23 Whatsoever we imagine. THE Invention of Printing. . but he must conceive it in some place and indued with some deter minate magnitude and which may be divided into nor that any thing is all in this place. is Finite. dispersed into so many. CHAP. Palat. is no great matter. IV.) from deceived Philoso phers. King of Phoenicia. Also because whatsoever (as I said before. not to make us and his conceive him (for he is Incomprehensible ceive the ends. but of our own inability. Therefore there is no Idea. greatnesse. . or more For things can be in one. though ingenious. Originall f Speech. No man can have in his mind an Image of infinite magnitude . compared with the invention of Letters. He that first brought them into Greece. is not known. the sonne of Agenor. No man therefore can conceive any thing. not subject to sense. . or by parts a man can have no thought. men say was Cadmus. and power are unconceivable . . . infinite. nor conceive infinite swiftness. or deceiving Schoolemen. and distant regions of the Earth and with all difficult. [12] Of SPEECH. . as proceeding from a watchfull observa tion of the divers motions of the Tongue. OF MAN. Lips. . either all at once. and bounds . has been perceived first by sense. infinite time. or infinite power. and the same place at once none of these things ever have. we signifie onely. that we are not able to con no Conception of the thing named having of the thing. Chap. representing any thing.Part i. taken upon credit (without any signification at all. or conception of any thing we call Infinite. and deceived. and other organs of Speech whereby to make as many . .) we conceive. . : . And therefore the Name of God is used. But who was the first that found the use of Letters. or can be incident to Sense but are absurd speeches. and all in parts another place at the same time nor that two.

4. And . every man was stricken for with an oblivion of his former language. The generall use of Speech. was that of SPEECH. Sounds. Relations as . as he had found use for though not so copious. . of Entity. The first author of Speech was God himself. But the differences of characters. . School. as need (the mother of all and in tract of time grew inventions) taught them his rebellion. . Numbers. OF MAN. as the experience and use of the creatures and to joyn them in such should give him occasion manner by degrees. being hereby forced to disperse themselves into severall parts of the world. out of which. neither Common-wealth. Infinitive. jnto Verbal into a Trayne of Words arfd that for two commodities . and Wolves. The use Speech. Interrogative. . in such manner. to name such creatures as he presented to For the Scripture goeth no further in this matter. and Optative. nor Society. to remember them.24 Part i. that the diversity of Tongues that now is. . most noble and profitable invention of all other. so much language might be gotten. when by the hand of God. as to make himself understood and so by succession of time. . no more than amongst Lyons. Intenother insignificant words of the Special!. For I do not find any thing in the Scripture. that instructed . . . Chap. Negative. of every where more copious. was again lost at the tower of Babel. Affirmative. is to transferre our Mentall or the Trayne of our Thoughts. . Quiddity. his sight . all which are usefull and least of tionality. But all this language gotten. there had been amongst men. nor Peace. of Fancies. Discourse. Adam how Colours. proceeded by degrees from them. Bears. Measures. consisting of Names or Appellations. Generally all. . it must needs be. and their Connexion whereby men register their Thoughts and also declare them recall them when they are past one to another for mutuall utility and conversation without which. and augmented by Adam and his posterity. much less the names Words and Speech. directly or by consequence can be gathered. But this was sufficient to direct him to adde more names. nor Contract. as an Orator or Philosopher has need of. that Adam was taught the names of all Figures.

and purposes. what they conceive. of one another. to Register. pleasure or ornament. they never conceived that is. or effect ing of Arts. which is not. to please and delight our selves.) one to another. when by words they declare that to be their will. some are Proper. is to serve for Markes. to make_known~To7 others our . : nature hath armed living creatures. Thirdly. the Registring of the Consequences of which being apt to slip out of our our Thoughts memory. wee find to be the cause of any thing. unlesse it be one whom wee are obliged to govern and then it is not to grieve. This man. to Counsell. Speciall uses of Speech are these what by cogitation. First. that the first use of names. and singular to one onely Names as Peter. by such words as they were marked by. The manner how Speech serveth to the remembrance of the consequence of causes and effects. when many use the same words. may again be So recalled. or have any other for this use they are called Signes. by which they register for their conceptions. but to correct and amend. . . when they use words metaphorically in other sense than that they are ordained for and thereby deceive others. feare. Secondly. Secondly. . is acquir past may produce. : . [13] 25 whereof one is. or think of each matter . . Of Names. OF MAN. and put us to a new labour. to grieve an enemy. : .Part i. there are also foure correspondent A buses Abuses. it is but an abuse of Speech. First. by the inconstancy of the signification of their words . consisteth in the imposing of Names. Another is. 4. some with horns. to shew to others that knowledge which we have attained which is. by playing with our words. And desire. and also what they passion for. to signifie (by their connexion and order. some with teefh. when they use them to grieve one another for seeing . when men register their thoughts wrong. and the Connexion of them. of . this Tree and some Proper & thing Common. John. To these Uses. innocently. to grieve him with the tongue. that we^may have the mutuall help Fourthly. . and others. Fourthly. . or Notes of remembrance. Chap. that which and so deceive themselves. Speech. and Teach one another. and some with hands. and what we find things present or present or past which in summe. Thirdly. for wills.

make but one Name. For all these words.) he may by meditation compare and find. Tree nevertheless . Just. the Universall. that such equality was consequent. onely And of Names Universall. comprehending mutually one another.26 Part are i. consequences of Appellations. are equall to those two right angles that stand by it. . whether the three angles of that also be equall to the same. that the three angles of that triangle. Singular. is . some are of more. when he observes. . that hath no use of Speech at all. . .) if he set before his eyes a triangle. we turn the reckoning of the conse quences of things imagined in the mind. alwayes understood. nor to any other particular thing in his triangle but onely to this. But of the a man another triangle be shewn him different in shape from the former. OF MAN. equivalent to this one word. and some of lesse extent the larger comprehending the less large : . as in Grammar. As for example. he cannot know without a new labour. comprehending each other reciprocally. Man. But he that hath the use of words. one onely Word but sometimes by circumlocution many words together. as 4. in respect of all of divers particular things it is called an Universall there being for the nothing in the world Universall but Names things named. . the Name Body is of larger signification than the word Man. Horse. Hee that in his . into a reckoning For example. not to the length of the sides. for their similitude in some quality. By this imposition of Names. Common name many things . are every one of them Individuall and which together. that by a Name is not of equall extent. (such. some of larger. (such as are the corners of a square figure. to Chap. and by it two right angles. One Universall name is imposed on many things.actions observeth the Lawes of his Country. that the sides were if . are of equall extent. or other accident And wheras a Proper Name bringeth to mind one thing Universals recall any one of those many. some of stricter signification. : it and the names Man and Rationall. and compre- and some again hendeth . [14! But here wee must take notice. every of which though but one Name. as is born and remains perfectly deafe and dumb.

there is no possibility of reckoning of Numbers much lesse of Magnitudes. and in some but five. if he recite them out of order. in any Nation. and substract. or Affirmation creature or thus. the reckonings whereof are necessary to the being. that such equality of angles is in all triangles whatsoever .Part i. and nod to it. and discharges our mentall reckoning. A man is a living quence. : . as an particular. one but can never know what houre it strikes. of Swiftnesse. Errour there may be. And he that can tell ten. and performe all other operations of Arithmetique. and then they begin again. there is neither Truth nor Falshood. two. A naturall foole that could never learn by heart the order of numerall words. But the use of words in registring our thoughts. saving the first found true here. For True and False are attributes of Speech. . that now our numerall words are but ten. If the later name Living creature. and now. Every triangle hath its three angles equall to two And thus the consequence found in one right angles. . straight. 4. and delivers us from all labour of the of time and place and makes that which was mind. is in nothing so evident as in Numbring. or well-being of man-kind. or consequence is true otherwise false. one. 27 and that that was all. places. OF MAN. Chap. and other things. . So that without words. comes to be registred and remembred. if he be a man. And where Speech is not. Universall rule . or say one. When two Names are joyned together into a Conse as thus. and the angles three will boldly conclude for which he named it a Triangle Universally. . there was a time when those names of number were not in and men were fayn to apply their fingers of one use or both hands. to those things they desired to keep account of and that thence it proceeded. . and three. will lose Much lesse himselfe. as when wee expect that which . and register his invention in these generall termes. [15] . and not know when he has done will he be able to adde. of Force. . as one. to be true in all times and . And it seems. . not of Things. . then the affirmation. signifie all that the former name Man signifieth. he is a living creature. may observe every stroak of the Clock.

28 Part i. For between true Science. they call Definitions them in the beginning of their reckoning. and not mistrusting their first grounds. and finding themselves inclosed in a chamber. . For the errours of Definitions multiply them and lead selves. . Naturall sense . or no Definitions. Necessity Seeing then that truth consisteth in the right ordering of Defini. . . . .o f na mes in our affirmations. to examine the Defini tions of former Authors and either to correct them. 4. settling of significations. the more he struggles. as a bird inlime-twiggs. do as they that cast up many little summs into a greater. a man that seeketh precise truth. where they are negligently set down or to make them himselfe. according as the reckoning proceeds men into absurdities. OF MAN. From whence it happens. and erroneous . Doctrines. . . : Chap. had need to remember what every name he uses and to place it accordingly or else he will stands for find himselfe entangled in words. . lyes the first use of Speech which is the And in wrong.) men begin which at settling the significations of their words shall not . : . for want of wit to consider which way they came in. . but in or suspect what has not been be neither case can a man be charged with Untruth. Ignorance is in the middle. without reckoning anew from the beginning which lyes the foundation of their errours. (which is the onely Science that it hath pleased God hitherto to bestow on mankind. And therefore in Geometry. flutter at the false light of a glasse window. and not from their own meditation. which at last they see. Acquisition of Science from which proceed all false and lyes the first abuse senslesse Tenets which make those men that take their instruction from the authority of books. to be as much below the con dition of ignorant men. the more belimed. . as men endued with true Science are above it. without considering whether those little summes were rightly cast up or not and at last finding the errour visible. and place By this it appears how necessary it is for any man that aspires to true Knowledge. . but cannot in avoyd. know not which way to cleere themselves but spend time in fluttering over their bookes as birds that entring by the chimney. So that in the right Definition of Names. that they which trust to books.

or (unless his memory be hurt by disease. . that they extended the word Ratio. . : . which we consider and for living put into the account for moved. or more mad than ordinary. 4. and thence it that is.. Nature and as men abound in copiousnesse selfe cannot erre of language so they become more wise. . by a little change or wresting. For words are wise mens counters. : . to the faculty of Reckoning in all other things.Part i. : Chap. or a Thomas. for being so long. or Body as living. . for both Speech and Reason not that they thought there was no Speech without Reason but no Reasoning without Speech And the act of reasoning they called Syllogisme which signifieth summing up of the consequences of one saying to another. for being hot. is whatsoever can enter into. : . sensible. be reduced to foure generall heads. and accounting. moved. motion for hot. or be Subject and be added one to another Names.. and leave a remainder. . or any other Doctor whatsoever. . : . Ratiocinatio that which we in bills or books of account call Items. : . to . length. OF MAN. a Cicero. considered in an account to make a summe or substracted one from another. . and diversified. quiet with all which names the word Matter. hot. &c and then. but they are the mony they do but reckon by them of fooles. for some accident or quality. that value them by the authority of an Aristotle. or ill constitution of organs) excellently foolish. 29 and imagination. . . Subject to Names. Names they called Nomina seems to proceed. rationall. Nor is it possible without Letters for any man to become either excellently wise. a thing may enter into account for Matter. if but a man. This diversity of names it . of the name of the thing it selfe. being names of Matter. . or be considered. heat for long. . which we conceive to be in it as for being moved. or Body is under stood all such. are the names of the may First. cold. it may enter into account. wee make a name for that accident. The Greeks have but one word Aoyos. are not subject to absurdity. Secondly. life and the like And all such Names. And because the same things may enter into account for divers accidents their names are (to shew that diversity) diversly wrested. The Latines called Accounts [16] and of mony Rationes.

One. . and pusled Philosophers. . . man. whose significations are contradictory and inconsistent . to generally we bring into account. put together and made one. czquivocall. three want foure. Chap. and the like are nevertheless of use in reckoning. called Negative . . an incorporeall body. and give to Speeches For. Interrogation^ Commandement. and properties. or may be conceived to be or of bodies. but) from the account of Matter. . we reckon not the thing : as when . names. or may be feigned to be or Words and Speech. which Negative are notes to signifie that a word is not the name of the Names with their as these words Nothing. : Fourthly. when they are new. Syllogisme. are but insignificant sounds insig. or sound onely. and distinguished from another.[17] those of two sorts. Sermon. though because they make us they be not names of any thing refuse to admit of Names not rightly used. . signifie . as Bodies that are. : it selfe the Colour. whensoever any affirmation is false. indocible. is any thing but the whereby we make such distinction Seen by us. 4. and a great number more. thing in question which infinite. . . or in correcting of reckoning and call to mind our past cogitations. wee reckon it not but the hearing. the two names of which it is composed. Names. Another. the Properties that are. when men make a name of two Names. . the Properties of our accidents Body is . and many other such. the Idea of it in the fancy and when any thing is heard. Names themselves. own bodies. Narration. whereof their meaning not explained by Definition there have been aboundance coyned by Schoole-men. Oration. And this is all the variety of Names Positive which are put to mark somewhat U se O f which is in Nature. are names of : And Affirmation. . These are called names Abstract because severed (not from Matter. OF MAN. no man. as this name. Thirdly. and yet mficant. are names of Speeches. and speciall. or (which is all one) an For incorporeall substance. by which one Matter. universall. There be also other Names. which is our fancy or conception and such are names of fancies. or may be feigned by the mind of Names Positive. consider. of it by the Eare sight.30 Part i. we bring into account. and Words All other Names.

but that one is Latin. the other French. be the same ceptions . hears our Saviour called by the name of Parole. or blown the words In-powred vertue. the word round quadrangle but is a meere sound. that is not made up A Frenchman seldome of some Latin or Greek names. For though the nature of that we conceive. In-blown up and down vertue. . if it be a false affirmation to say a quadrangle is round. Aver and of their use and sions. of inconstant signification. So likewise if signifies nothing it be false.) then is Understanding peculiar to him also. when we conceive the same things differently. gives every thing a tincture of our different passions. nor the same man at all names times. and prejudices of opinion. For seeing all names are imposed to signifie our conceptions and all our affections are but con abuse. have a signification also of the . and Passions of mans mind . The names of such things as affect us. yet the diversity of our reception of it. but conception caused by Speech. What kinds of Speeches signifie the Appetites. . because all men be not alike affected with the same thing. are in the common discourses of men. hath Underthose thoughts which the words of that Speech. speak when I have spoken of the Passions. OF MAN. Chap. When a man upon the hearing of any Speech. there can be no Understanding though many think they understand. I shall - . . And therefore in reasoning. And therefore of absurd and false affirmations. : . 4. in respect of different constitutions of body. connexion. then. a senslesse and insignificant word. or con them in their mind. we can harldy avoyd different naming of them. when they do but repeat the words softly. which inconslant please. as a round quadAnd therefore you shall hardly meet with rangle. . that is. are as absurd and insignificant. For example. And therefore if Speech be peculiar to man (as for ought I know it is. and displease us.Part i. . were ordained and constituted to signifie Then he is said to understand it Understanding being nothing else. 31 nothing at all. a man must take heed of words which besides the signification of what we imagine of their nature. and their standing. but by the name of Verbe often yet Verbe and Parole differ no more. . in case they be universall. to say that vertue can be powred.

V. mens duties and Lawyers. or Conclusion of a Syllogisme.) is con ceiving of the consequence of the names of all the parts. and taken one out of another. they profess their inconstancy : . such as nature. and interest of the speaker are the names of Vertues. what another calleth feare .32 Part i. Writers of Politiques. to the name of the whole or from the names of the whole and one part. . . as often as we can. to . For as Arith meticians teach to adde and substract in numbers so . to find what is right and wrong in the actions of private men. what another what another justice and one gravity. degrees of swiftnesse. And therefore such names can never be true grounds of any ratiocination. . and . the Geometricians teach the in lines. one prodigality. Lawes. The Logicians teach the same in Consequences of words . (as in numbers. . Wisdome. they substract one Proposition. . to finde the other. times. and SCIENCE. though in some things. Reason what it is. and facts. Tropes of speech but these are less dangerous. as Multi for Multi plying and Dividing yet they are the same and plication. OF MAN. force. Of REASON. magnanimity &c.) angles. but Substracting of one thing. .) besides Adding and Substracting. but to all manner of things that can be added together. These operations are not incident to Numbers onely. a man Reasoneth. find . disposition. And . and Vices For one man calleth and one cruelty. to make a Syllogisme and many Syllogismes to make a Demonstration and from the summe. is but Adding together of things equall Division. from Addition of parcels or conceive a Remainder. what another stupidicy. Chap. power. hee does nothing else but conceive a summe totall. men name other operations. to the name of the other part. because which the other do not. . adde together Factions. [18] CHAP. to make an Affirmation and two Affirmations. : WHEN . and the like . No more can Metaphors. from Substraction of one summe from another which (if it be done by Words. . adding together same two Names. . figures (solid and superficiall. proportions. 4.

when signifying of our thoughts and signifying. : And when men that think themselves wiser than all . or approve our reckonings to other men. that suite whereof they have most in their hand. may Not but that themselves. as when there is a controversy in an account.Reason defined. or be undecided. and most deceive most attentive. and inferre false Conclusions Reason it selfe is alwayes ^ight Reason. as it is in play after trump is turned. . 33 In summe. . to whose sentence they will both stand. For they do nothing els. it is as intolerable in the society of men. For REASON. when we we reckon~by our selves demonstrate. that will have every of their passions. for the marking and I say marking them. which we may define. HOBBES : . And as in Arithmetique. unpractised men must. . the parties must by their [19] own accord. set up for right Reason. others. : . .Part i.) what that . the ablest. Chap. the Reason of some Arbitrator. practised men. clamor and demand right Reason for judge yet seek no more. makes the certaintie is therefore well cast up. and that in their own controversies bewraying their want of right Reason. Adding and Substractingf of the Consequences of generall names agreed upon. nor the Reason of any one number of x no more than an account men. as well as Arithmetique is a certain and infallible Art &quot.But no one mans Reason. to be taken for right Reason. in this sense. or Judge. there Reason has nothing for . in what matter soever there is place and substraction. there also is place for Reason and where these have no place. which is meant by this word Reason. And therfore. is. or their controversie must either come to blowes. 5. but that things should be determined. for want of a right Reason constituted by Nature so is it also in all debates of what kind soever Out of all mine. (that is to say deter. to use for trump on every occasion. and cast up false Reaso where so also in any other subject of Reasoning. by no other mens reason but their own. as it comes to bear sway in them. because a great many men have unanimously approved it. addition at all to do. by the claym they lay to it. OF MAN. when wee reckon it amongst the Faculties of the mind. is nothing but Reckoning (that is. and Right Professors themselves may often erre.

Chap. or to come of which. and cuJes not know any thing . and doth not fetch them from the first Items in every Reckoning. Part I. . : are the significations of names settled by definitions). . And words whereby we conceive nothing but the sound.34 The use of Reason. But when we make a generall assertion. and settled significations of names but to begin at these and proceed from one . followes not or that which he thought likely to have preceded it. hath not preceded it. or senslesse Speech. . a true one. . he that takes up conclusions on the trust of Authors. it For Error is indeed an ABSURDITY. or not to come yet there was no impossibility discoverable. . . and Non-sense. but Of Error and Absurdity. trust so ing to every of the accountants skill and honesty also in Reasoning of all other things. . For there can be no certainty of the last Conclusion. . When a man reckons without the use of words. (which . this is called ERROR to which even the most . and inferred. The Use and End of Reason. wee conjecture what was likely to have preceded. is not the finding of the summe. into one sum is summed up. Insignificant. unlesse it be prudent men are subject. consequence to another. remote from the first definitions. in presuming that somewhat is past. by those that give them in account he advantages himself no nor what it is he payes for more. But when we Reason in Words of generall signification. and fall upon a generall inference which is false though it be commonly called Error. 1. than if he allowed the account in grosse. onely beleeveth.) if that which he thought likely to follow. and truth of one. (as when upon the sight o f any one thing. As when a master of a family. . casteth up the summs of all the bills of and not regarding how each bill expence. And therefore if a man should talk to me of a round Quad or Immateriall or accidents of Bread in Cheese rangle A free-Will or any Substances or of A free Subject . without a certainty of all those Affirmations and Negations. which may be done in particular things. on which it was grounded. in taking an account. though it were not past. OF MAN. . or a few consequences. . loses his labour . . is but a deception. the possibility of it is unconceivable. are those we call Absurd. or is likely to follow upon it . 5.

from settled significations of their words as if they could cast account. whereof one may be added unto. but that his words were not say he were in an Errour that is to say. divers absurdities proceed from the confusion. without know ing the value of the numerall words. . or reckon. that when he conceived any thing whatsoever. . without meaning I have said before. And of men. that say. I ascribe to the . but free from being hindred by opposition.) these considerations being diversly named. And whereas all bodies enter into account upon divers considerations. . that there can be nothing so absurd. Absurd. extension is body that giving of to bodies . And therefore The second cause of Absurd assertions. and three. . : names of bodies. he can Reason. or Aphorismes that is. to which no living priviledge of Absurdity creature is subject. For it is most true that Cicero sayth of them somewhere . one. whose Conclusions have thereby been Causes of absurditie. And the reason is manifest. and what effects he could do with it. from Definitions that is. (which I have mentioned in the precedent chapter . l made indisputable. but body and that. And now I adde this other degree of the same excel he lence. or breathed into inspired any thing. . 35 I should Free.) that a Man did excel!&quot. But this priviledge. [20] . or when nothing can be powred. that he can by words reduce the consequences findes to general! Rules. (in the second chapter. Chap. OF MAN. &c. by the . two. those are of all most subject to it. that professe Philosophy. 5. phantasmes are spirits. D 2 . in Geometry . For there is not one of them that begins his ratiocination from the Definitions. he was apt to enquire the consequences of it. to accidents or of accidents. . all other Animals in this faculty. not onely in number but in all other things. but may be found in the books of Philosophers. As they do. Faith is infused. . or Explications of the names they which is a method that hath been used onely are to use is. called Theor ernes. but man onely. . The first cause of Absurd conclusions I ascribe to the want of Method in that they begin not their Ratiocination .Part i. or substracted from another. is allayed by another and that . and unfit connexion of their names into assertions.

and Memory. and learned by rote from the Schooles. when they have good principles. Chap. By this it . detects his error to him ? appears that Reason is not as Sense. . which are Names. men appertaining to the subject in hand call SCIENCE. the nature of names and speeches a mans command is his will a thing is its definition and the like. when another Science. To him that can avoyd these things.) yet in reckoning. The fourth. first in apt as Prudence is but attayned by Industry and secondly by getting a good imposing of Names and orderly Method in proceeding from the Elements. Tropes. as hypostatical. or thither. The fifth. and the like canting of Schoolemen. or speeches that a living creature is Genus. the colour is in the body sound is in the ay re. . to as they do that say. The Proverb sayes this or that (whereas wayes cannot go. to as they do that say. &c. consubstantiate. . which are the Connexions of one Assertion to another. to the giving of the names of bodies. . or leadeth hither. as both to mistake in Geometry. . unlesse it be by the length of an the . wherein he may perhaps forget what went For all men by nature reason alike. to the use of Metaphors. The seventh. a generall thing. &c. account . . it is not easie to fall into any absurdity. or universall things . to the accidents of our own the bodies as they do that say. to names that signifie nothing but are 7. . . nor Proverbs speak . . and also to persist in it. 6. before. . . and well. borne with us nor gotten by Experience onely. For though it be lawfull to say.36 3. and seeking of truth. transubstantiate. The sixth. to the giving of the names of accidents. (for example) in common speech. in stead of words proper. 4- The third I ascribe to the giving of the names of the accidents of bodies without us. till we come to a knowledge of all the Consequences of names and that is it. way goeth. And whereas Sense and Memory are but . [21] taken up. For who is so stupid. OF MAN. Part i. 5. eternal-Now. and other Rhetoricall figures. to Assertions made by Connexion of one of them to another and so to Syllogismes. such speeches are not to be admitted. that there be names. 5.

and of rules. but by exact definitions first snuffed. those that are not so. and purged [22] from ambiguity Reason is the pace Encrease of and the Benefit of man-kind. . . upon what causes. 5. are in better. and the errors of one another. And the most part of men. they have attained the use of Speech but are called Reasonable Creatures. are in this point like children. The Light of humane minds is Perspicuous Words. : : we can presently do. . or by trusting them that reason wrong. and senslesse and . they have thought Conjuring they who have not been taught the beginnings. they are so farre from it. fall upon false and absurd generall rules. but found in the garden. Science. For ignorance of causes. as relying on false rules. the way And on the contrary. Geometry But for other Sciences. . the end. : . or certain rules of their actions. as in numbring to some degree yet it serves them to little use in common life in which they govern till : . we know how to do something else when we will. another time Because when we see how any thing comes about. but rather causes of the contrary. and irrevocable the knowledge of Consequences. OF MAN. . But yet they that have no Science. are made believe by the women. To conclude. themselves. out of that . some better.Part i. quicknesse of memory. does not set men so farre out of their way. 37 knowledge Science of Fact. For as for Science. is Chap. and than nobler condition with their naturall Prudence men. that they know not what it is. that they may see how they be acquired and generated. . or the like. Children therefore are not endued with Reason at all. which is a thing past. and some progresse in them. wee see how to make it produce the like effects. and dependance of one fact upon another by which. though they have the use of Reasoning a little way. that their brothers and sisters are not born. Metaphors. for the possibility apparent of having the use of Reason in time to come. that by mis-reasoning. according to their differences of experience. and taking for causes of what they aspire to. some worse. that having no thought of generation. and but specially according to inclinations to severall ends good or evill fortune. and by what manner when the like causes come into our power.

so. is impossible. demonstrate the truth thereof perspicuously to another Uncertain. are some.Part i. or be offended by his adversarie. The ability of the every possible posture. an acquired Science. And even of those men themselves. But they that trusting onely to the authority of books. the later to Science. when he that pretendeth the Science of any thing. or contempt. The signes of Science. would be to the ability of the later. than the successe of anothers businesse. and dexterity in handling his armes to have added to that dexterity. OF MAN. certain and infallible some. &amp. that either kills. Chap. . is a signe of folly. : . is wandering amongst innumerable absurdities and their end. . . the Common-wealth. with name of Wisedome for them both yet the Latines did . and subject to many exceptions. But in any businesse. and be guided by generall sentences read in Authors. or disgraces him. is Prudence For though wee usually have one Sapi Science. uncertain. whereof a man has not infallible : . very few do it in their domestique affaires. : owne wit. 5. and remember all circumstances that may alter the successe. their dif ference.lt. and generally scorned by the name of Pedantry. . much Experience. let us suppose one man endued with an excellent naturall and another use. Signes of prudence are all uncertain because to observe by experience. and sedition. Science to proceed by to forsake his own naturall judgement. Sapience. follow the blind blindly. alwayes distinguish between Prudentia and Sapientia ascribing the former to Experience. in . love to shew their reading of and History. are like him that trusting to the false rules of a master of Fence. are like ignes fatui . Signes of Science. ventures presumptuously upon an adversary. words. when onely some particular events answer to his pretence. as Prudence to Sapience both usefull but the later infallible. and upon many occasions prove so as he sayes they must. Certain. of where he can offend. But to make their difference appeare more cleerly. ence.S* . is much Prudence As. that in Councells of . contention. or guard former. where their particular interest is concerned but having Prudence enough for their private affaires in publique they study more the reputation of their Politiques . . can teach the same that is to say. and reasoning upon ambiguous them. .

speaking. And although un studied men. These words Appetite. This Endeavour. to which The other Motions there needs no help of Imagination is Animall motion. and the like Voluntary motions. caused by the action of the things we See. Hunger.Part i. to speak. within the body of Man. generally called AVERSION. being Appetite. . two sorts of Motions peculiar Motion Vitall and called Vitall begun in generation. and what it is . is is invisible . Aversion we have from the Latines and they both of . whereof that little one is part. the generall name and the other. are (for the shortnesse of it) insensible . . it is Thirst. namely Hunger and Thirst. ing. or DESIRE the later. remaining after Sense. . is called APPETITE. 39 [23] Of the Interiour monly called. Heare. Imagination is the first internall beginning of all Voluntary Motion. commonly called ENDEAVOUR. it is that the where the thing moved in. VI. as to go. of ten-times restrayned Desire. And the Speeches by which they are expressed. and Aversion. CHAP. Chap. has been already sayd in the first and second Chapters. in such manner as is first fancied in our minds. such as are the course of the Bloud. Nutrition. otherwise called Voluntary motion . &c : . And when the Endeavour is fromward something. to move any of our limbes. to signifie the Desire of Food. speaking. striking. and other visible actions. Beginnings of PASSIONS. when it is toward something which deavour causes it. Voluntary Motions com in Animals. These small beginnings of Motion. which way. or the space moved yet that doth not For let a space be never so little. evident. the Concoction. That Sense. Excretion. - . and continued without interruption through their whole life . but that such Motions are. the . 6. is Motion in the organs and interiour parts of mans body. And because going. OF MAN. hinder. doe not conceive any motion at all to be there. that which is moved over a greater space. depend alwayes upon a pre cedent thought of whither. the Pulse. must first be moved over that. (S-c And that Fancy is but the Reliques of the same Motion. before they appear in walking. the Breath THERE be them : to One .

or move. and Love. they are also sayd to LOVE and to HATE those things. The rest. 6. not many. For the Schooles find in meere Appetite to but because some go. most commonly the Presence of the same. the Presence of the Object. or other men. or believe not to be. (which may also and more properly be called Aversions. all and Aversions : much lesse can men consent. we signifie the Absence . are said to Those things which we neither Desire. For of things wee know not at all. than to tast arid try. Contempt. also by Aversion. potent objects And because the constitution of a mans Body. when they look for somewhat beyond Nature. and Motions cannot That which men Desire. Of Appetites. no actuall Motion at all signifie the them of retiring. . Hate. and a^op/my. from somewhat they feele in their Bodies . and Aversions. Appetite of excretion. we can have no further Desire. : . . [24] Motion they must acknowledge. one of approaching. OF MAN.) and some other Appetites. : . : Love. or contumacy of the Heart. . motions. perience. not onely but also that we do not which we know have hurt us know whether they will hurt us. things should alwayes cause in him the same Appetites. which are 6p/zr). are the same thing save that by Desire. or not. So that Desire. For Nature it selfe does often presse upon men those truths. by other more or from want of experience of them. we alwayes signifie the Absence of the Object by Love. So and by Hate. So also Chap. . is in it is impossible that all the same continuall mutation : . and exonera tion. But Aversion wee have for things. which . proceed from Ex and triall of their effects upon themselves. they call it Metaphoricall for though which is but an absurd speech Motion Words may be called metaphoricall Bodies. some are born with men as Appetite of food. are Appetites of particular things. we Contemne CONTEMPT being nothing else but an immobility. . nor Hate. the other do the Greek words for the same. they stumble at. in the Desire of almost any one and the same Object. in resisting and proceeding from that the action of certain things the Heart is already moved otherwise. for which they have Aversion. which afterwards. .40 Part i.

[25] . Vile and Inconsiderable. Profitable. in Sense. (where there is no Common-wealth . to be taken from the nature of but from the Person of the the objects themselves : . or from an Arbitrator or Judge. But for Pulchrum. whose significations but are not pre approach to those of Good and Evill .) or.un able. and make his sentence the Rule man thereof. we say in some things. as the end desired. Deformed. which by some ap. And the object of his Hate. &c so. And . is (as I have a ble. Ugly. that promiseth Good and Evil. Beautifull. : . or Handsome or Gallant. his Contempt. that which is really within us. but in apparence and Colour to the Eare. But in our Tongue we have not so cisely the same . The Latine Tongue has two words. Unpleas&quot.Part I. or Honourable. Evill. Amiable Nauseous. in their proper places signifie nothing els. OF MAN. Chap. sayd before) onely Motion. Troublesome and Evill in the Means. . those are Pulchrum and Turpe. As. and as many of Evil For Evill.Turpeparent signes promiseth Good and the later. which is called Utile. or Comely. 41 But whatsoever is the object of any mans Appetite or Desire that is it. So that of Good there be three kinds Good .) from the Person that representeth it. which he . Light externall objects. Sound to the Nostrill. as the subject shall require All which words.. or Countenance. which promiseth Evil. (in a Com mon-wealth. . . 6. Evill And of Evill. . Unprofitin the Promise. V Delightl . and Contemptible. and End. fi : . profit- . Inutile.:or his part calleth Good Good. whom men disagreeing shall by consent set up. and Aversion. that. : . which is called Jucundum. and for Turpe. and the like. . generall names to expresse them by. Whereof the former signifies that. . Pulchrum. . . Fayre in others. Foule. Pulchrum Good in Effect. when the action of the same object is continued from the Eyes. Eares. Base. and other organs to the Heart the . or . in Promise. is that they call Turpe Evil in Effect. are ever used with There being relation to the person that useth them nor any common nothing simply and absolutely so Rule of Good and Evill. . that is . Delightfull and Good as the Means. Hurtfull. is Molestum. but the Mine. Odour. Unpleasant. For these words of Good. caused by the action of to the Sight.

and Griefe. This Motion. or sense of Evill. (or Delight. in the Sight. when they divers considerations diversified. from the Alteration or succession it selfe. . they are diversly called from the opinion men have of the likelihood of attaining what they desire. Pleasure therefore. 6. from the object loved or hated. or from the object moving. . that condemn them. . : . Griefe. Offensive. and called PAYNE others. . as it is used by those onely of sense.) Of this kind are all Onerations and Exonerations of the body as also all that is pleasant. Thirdly. Love. Molesta. in the Expecta Paine. OF MAN. from the consideration of many of them to gether. Aversion. or Aversion. which consisteth Delight.Part i. is accompanied with some and all Hatred. hindering. or sense of that motion. Desire. in the Sense. to. (The word sensuall. Desire. Secondly. or Touch that proceeds from foresight of the End. But the apparence. Chap. one succeed another. and Pleasure. reall effect there is nothing but Motion. in Appetite. Delight more or lesse with more or lesse Displeasure and Offence. and Aversion.) from helping or and the contrary. a corroboration of Vitall motion. which is called Appetite. is that wee either call DELIGHT. or TROUBLE Displeas ure.} is the apparence. Of Pleasures. have their names for As first. and for the apparence of it Delight. . Joy. were not improperly called Jucunda. Appetite. . . from fortifying and troubling the motion vitall. Fourthly. tion of consequences. having no place till there be Lawes. called JOY. Smell. In the like manner. Hearing. OF MIND. . the sense of Good And consequently all apparence. or Consequence of things whether those things in the Sense Please or Pleasures Displease And these are Pleasures of the Mind of him of the and are generally that draweth those consequences Mind. These simple Passions called Appetite. (a Juvando. . Tast. Pleasure. seemeth to be. Others arise from the Expectation. some arise from the sense of an object Present And those may be called Pleasures Pleasures of Sense. or Delights. Offence. or and Molestation or Displeasure. or Endeavour . Hate. Displeasures. and Love. and a help thereunto and therefore such things as caused Delight. . are some Joy. and are called GRIEFE.

. Diffidence. or precedence. Pusillanimity. The same. is called Hope. MISER. as it is liked. CHARITY. 43 For Appetite with an opinion of attaining. 26 Anger for great hurt done to another. Desire of things that conduce but a little to our ends And fear of things that are but of little hindrance. to make him condemn some fact of his own. HOPE. in the same WRETCHEDNESSE. CONFIDENCE of our selves. be to be blamed. MagnaniMagnanimity. con-* Constant Hope. Desire of Office. ing for them. according to the means by which those Riches are sought. for the reason before men tioned.Misemble- ABLENESSE . without such opinion. JEALOUSIE. VALOUR. by doing hurt to another. AMBITION a name used also in the worse sense. . acquired from Rumination. Liberality. Desire. Despaire. PUSILLANIMITY. that is. or Wounds. Chap. : . and hindrances. FEARE. when we conceive t ! the same to be done by Injury. Naturall Luxury. or disliked. BENEVOLENCE. COURAGE. GOOD WILL. with desire to be singularly beloved. IndignaDesire of good to another. ANGER. Feare. LUXURY. in danger of Death. THE PASSION OF LOVE. REVENGEFULNESSE. If to man generally. The same. . DESPAIRE. GOOD NATURE. Love of Persons for Pleasing the sense onely. Desire of Riches. NATURALL L UST Love of the same. Constant Despayre. are displeased with one anothers attaining them though the desire in it selfe. Pusillanimity. COVETOUSNESSE a name used Good alwayes in signification of blame because men contend. fidence. DIFFIDENCE of our selves. with opinion of Hurt from the object. Imagination of Pleasure past. MAGNANIMITY. Contempt of little helps. Aversion.Nature. or allowed. or PARSIMONY . with fear that the love is not mutuall. Kindnesse. in the use of Riches. mi *yFORTITUDE. Love of one singularly. 6. nesse - Love of Persons for society. LIBERALITY. The same.Parti. The Passion f Jealous Revengefulnesse. INDIGNATION. KINDNESSE. Magnanimity. ence. Sudden Courage. : Covetousnesse - Ambition. OF MAN. with hope of avoyding that Hurt by resistCourage.

alwayes in him that so feareth. arising from imagination of a mans own power ability. is called DEJEC supposing of in the feigning or our selves. to in . feigned by the mind. True Re P unique Terrour. by pre dominance. not onely by his Reason in whom the singular Passion from other Animals appetite of food. . or Fictions of Gallant Persons and is corrected oftentimes by Age. or multitude of people. Vain glory. that by a perseverance of delight in the continuall and indefatigable generation of Knowledge. take away the care of knowing causes which is a Lust of the mind. or imagined from tales publiquely allowed. and is therefore rightly called Vaine. . PANIQUE TERROR called so from the Fables. there is Desire. The vain-glory which consisteth abilities in . 6. . or what. which name is properly given because whereas a well grounded Confidence begetteth Attempt the supposing of power does not. Glory. for delight in the consequences of it. TRUE RELIGION. from opinion of want of power. A dmiration. is called and : : . is that exultation of the mind which is called GLORYING which if grounded upon the experience of but his own former actions. VAINE-GLORY : . SUPERSTITION. CURIOSITY such as is so that Man is dis no living creature but Man but also by this tinguished. Joy. Feare. some apprehension of the cause. is most incident to young men. .44 Curiosity. Supersti tion. and other pleasures of Sense. ligion. because the cause. is the same with Confidence if grounded on the flattery of others or onely supposed by himself. and Employment. Religion. which we know are not. though the rest run away by Example And every one supposing his fellow to know why. is truly such as we imagine. : Chap. Grief e. ADMIRATION excites the appetite of knowing . and how. first. . and nourished by the Histories. without the apprehension of why. therefore this Passion happens to none but in a throng. Dejection. from apprehension it proper to Man. Part i. TION of mind. And when the power imagined. OF MAN. RELIGION not allowed. that make Pan the author of them whereas in truth. . Feare of power invisible. [27] of novelty. . . know why. . exceedeth the short vehemence of any carnall Pleasure. Joy.

one of the proper Pusillanimity. Grief e. is OF MAN. selves least obnoxious to the same. 6. for the discovery of some defect of ability. is PITTY l y arisethi from the imagination that the like calamity may and therefore is called also COMPASSION. causeth WEEPING Wee P m Ssuddenly take away some vehement hope. and Children. by But in all cases. Impuand dence Griefe. is a signe of For of great minds. who are scious of the fewest abilities in themselves forced to keep themselves in their own favour. that are con selves. both Laughter. Glory. 45 Sudden the passion which . : . or the passion that discovereth it selfe in BLUSH. And therefore much Laughter at the defects of others. - . by observing the imperfections of other men. as Dejection. Custome taking them Weeping. those have least Pitty. .Blushing. is Shame. . or some prop And they are most subject to it. is the passion that Sudden and is caused by such accidents. that think them . for the Calamity of another. pare themselves onely with the most able. . : . . some sudden act of their own. For no man Laughs at old jests for an old calamity. . SHAME. and com workes is. such as are Women. Chap. maketh those Sudden Grimaces called LAUGHTER and is caused either by . ING and consisteth in the apprehension of some thing and in young men. The Contempt of good Reputation is called IMPUDENCE. and Reconciliation. . befall himselfe and in the phrase of this present time a FELLOW-FEELING And therefore for Calamity arriving from great wicked and for the ness. . sudden stop made to their thoughts of revenge. the best men have the least Pitty same Calamity. by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud them And it is incident most to them.Part i. is a signe of the love dishonourable and commendable In old men it of good reputation but because it comes too late. to help and free others from scorn . that of their power rely principally on helps externall. . are sudden motions or Weeps both away. : . Sudden Dejection. On the contrary. that pleaseth them or by the apprehension of some deformed thing in another. Therefore some Weep for the losse of others for the Others for their unkindnesse Friends . is a signe of the same not commendable.

the last Appetite. I do not conceive it possible. without other end of his own. . or to the omission thereof. if it be joyned with Endeavour to enforce our own abilities to equall or exceed him. : . arise alternately and divers good and evill conse quences of the doing. When in the mind of man. that any man should take pleasure in other mens great harmes. we have an Appetite to from it sometimes Hope . In Deliberation. or thought. Griefe. Chap. honour. or thought impossible. or Aversion. And it is called Deliberate Deliberation because it is a putting an end to the it . OF MAN.) And Beasts that have Deliberation. . there is no Deliberation nor of because manifestly impossible to be changed because known to be so or thought things impossible. or Aversion. (not the faculty. 6. is that wee call the WILL the Act. is no lesse in other living Creatures then in Man and therefore Beasts also Deliberate. come successively into our thoughts so that sometimes . is either done. when that whereof they Deliberate. . Deliberation. or omitting. Appetites. . Aversions. is called Emula tion. according to our own Appetite. or think such Deliberation vain. or omitting the thing propounded. we may not knowing it is in vain. ENVIE. . But of things impossible. or omitting.46 Cruelty. or hinder a Competitor. is that which men call CRUELTY proceeding from Security of their own fortune. . must of Willing. or Aversion. imme diately adhaering to the action. EMULATION : But joyned with Endeavour to Envy. because till then wee retain the liberty of impossible doing. and Feares. . sometimes an Aversion some to be able to do it the whole times Despaire. for the successe of a Competitor in wealth. continued till the thing be either done. . For. . supplant. concerning one and the same thing. Every Deliberation is then sayd to End. Aversions. is that we call DELIBERATION. : . men know. The Will. or little sense of the calamity of others. Hopes and Fears. Hopes and Fears. Hopes. This alternate Succession of Appetites. according to our Appetite. or other good. Therefore of things past. Liberty we had of doing. Contempt. [28] Part i. and Aversions. or Feare to attempt it summe of Desires. which we think possible.

which makes no Action Voluntary because the action depends not of it. . are partly the same. is Command . But in stead of a Rationall Appetite. though we say in common Discourse. by which wee expresse our Thoughts. unlesse it be when they serve to make other inferences. which proceedeth from the Will. The language of Desire. other- . is not good. those. and Aversion. make any action Voluntary then by the same Reason all intervenient Aversions. For a Voluntary Act is that. then this will follow and differs not from the language of Reasoning. For if the but of the last Inclination. are volun tary actions. we shall say an Appetite resulting from a precedent Deliberation. then could there be no Voluntary Act against Reason. besides that of the Passion they proceed from. that neverthelesse he forbore to do yet that is properly but an Inclination. . . . or other Appetites to the thing propounded but also those that have their beginning from Aversion. 47 necessarily also have Will. and no if other. By this it is manifest. . intervenient Appetites. . 6. as generally all Passions may be expressed Indicatively . I feare. .Part i. or Feare of . And . party is obliged to do. And first. Lust. or Appetite. should be both Voluntary & Involuntary. Ambition. given commonly by the Schooles. I command but some of them have particular expressions by themselves. The Definition of the Will. I will. Chap. that it is a Rationall Appetite. // signifie suppositions. Deliberation is ex which is a speech proper to pressed Subjunctively as. The formes of Speech by which the Passions are Formes of in expressed. with their consequences this be done. is as Do this. I joy. that not onely actions that have their beginning from Covetousnesse. For if it were. then the Definition is the same that I have given here. I deliberate. . forbeare that which when the Imperative / love. or forbeare. which neverthelesse are not affirmations. Will therefore is the last Appetite in Deliberating. OF MAN. [29] those consequences that follow the omission. should make the same action Involuntary and so one and the same action. save that Reasoning is in but Deliberation for the most part is of generall words Particulars. a man had a Will once to do a thing. : . and partly different from Speech.

than enjoy. But for Good and so farre as a man seeth. and the like. which we otherwise know the man to have. . Writers call Apparent. wise Prayer The language of Vainor els Counsell. or Reason. or Seeming Good. signes they be not whether they that use them. if the Good in those consequences. best signes of Passions present. actions. the whole is Apparent or Seeming Evill so that he who hath by Experience. being joyes. : . and why so ? other language of the Passions I find none For Cursing. nor without Feare.48 Part i. And because in Deliberation. Optative But of the Desire to know. and sequels of the action whereof we Deliberate the good or evill effect thereof dependetli on the foresight of a long chain of consequences. What kind of Felicity God hath ordained to them that devoutly honour him. accustomed. and is able when he will. or but certain voluntary significations of our Passions because they may be used arbitrarily. are expressions. Reviling. [30] because Life it selfe is but Motion. Glory. have such Passions or not. Pitty and Revengefulness. And contrarily. a man shall no sooner know. Chap. What is it. : called Interrogative as. . Continuall sitccesse in obtaining those things which a man from time to time desireth. that is to say. there is a peculiar expression. how is it done. of which very seldome any man is able to see to the end. are either in the countenance. and ends. the Appetites. is that men call FELICITY the Felicity of this life. Felidty. and Aversions are raised by foresight of the good and evill consequences. coriI mean tinuall prospering. I say. or aimes. OF MAN. no more than without Sense. when the Evill exceedeth the Good. : . These formes of Speech. motions of the body. For there is no such thing as perpetuall Tranquillity of mind.be greater than the Evill. Swearing. while we live here . the greatest and surest prospect of Consequences. when shall it. . as the word of Schoole-men Beatificall Vision is unintelligible. do not signifie as Speech but as the actions of a tongue . Evill ap. of indignation. give the best counsell unto others. : The . and can never be without Desire. 6. that now are as incomprehen sible. the whole chaine is that which parent. to Deliberates best himselfe .

went. an End. CHAP. And that which is alternate Appetite. Chap. is called Deliberation whole chain of Opinions alternate. and Future. it is originally. That Praise. and has not been. OF MAN. . the same is Deliberating concerning Good and Evil alternate Opinion. or. wheresoever it be interrupted. 7. or JudgeResolute and Finall Sentence of him that discourseth. and Future. If the Discourse be meerly Mentall. or that So that it has been. Of the VII. is. . it consisteth of thoughts that the thing will be. in the Sentence so the question of Good. is called the Will so the last Opinion in search of the truth of Past. can End in absolute know ledge of Fact. is by the Greeks called ^aKapio-fids. for which wee have no name in The forme opinion of the - our tongue. 49 of Speech whereby men signifie their Goodnesse of any thing. or Bad. or Resolutions DISCOURSE. or And as the whole chain of Appetites alternate. wheresoever you break off the chayn of a mans Discourse. in Opinion. is PRAISE. True. or False. is called DOUBT. HOBBES E . it is not Absolute. has not been. catlon the opinion they have of a mans Felicity. there is an End for that time. . to have been said of the PASSIONS. Discourse. in the question of Doubt. you leave him in a Prsesumption of it will be. No Discourse whatsoever. it will All which is not be or it has been. is at last . called the JUDGEMENT. past. and will not be. or. either by attaining. is MAGNIFYING. as for the knowledge of Fact. For. or to come. of Ends. Sense and ever after. alternately. And for the knowledge of Consequence. but all OF there over. Memory.Part i. or by giving And in the chain of Discourse. whereby they signifie the power and greatnesse of any And that whereby they signifie Magnifithing. in the Enquiry of the truth of Past. . And thus much is sufficient for the present purpose. And as the last Appetite in Deliberation. governed by desire of Knowledge. which I have said before is called Science.

. without possibility of being under stood. . . though sometimes in absurd and senslesse words. has been alwayes hearkened unto very diligently in all times. when the Discourse is put into Speech. and secret thoughts and therefore it is Rhetorically said. Conditionall. is. but that they think so. in love with their own new opinions. And because such are fittest witnesses of the facts of one it was. that if This be. No man can know by Discourse. to another name of the same : . men made use of the same word metaphorically. Cowscience. . is that conditionall Knowledge. the End or last summe is called the Conclusion and the thought of the mind by it signified. gave those their opinions also that reverenced name of Con science. which is to know or that.50 Part i. . and of these again into Syllogismes. for the knowledge of their own secret facts. and begins with the Definitions of Words. or if the Definitions be Discourse. . OF MAN. That has been and that which is to know conditionally shall be but not the consequence of one thing to another of one name of a thing. [31] Science. for any man to speak against his Con Inso or to corrupt or force another so to do science much that the plea of Conscience. when they know at most.) and obstinately bent to maintain them. men. That This has been. or of a third a very Evill act. know of one and the same fact. or will be if but onely. then the End or Conclusion. they are said to be CONSCIOUS of it one to another which is as much as to know it together. to and so pretend to know change or speak against them they are true. . or more men. is again OPINION. That is absolutely if This shall be. as if they would have it seem unlawfull. has been. vehemently is a thousand witnesses. that the Conscience And last of all. and proceeds by Connexion of the same into generall Affirmations. But if the first ground of such . Afterwards. And therefore. and ever will be reputed another. (though never so absurd. be not Definitions not rightly joyned together into Syllogismes. Chap. namely of the truth of somewhat said. . or Knowledge of the consequence of words. which is commonly called SCIENCE. . thing. : . that this. 7. Opinion. When two. : .

Part

i.

OF MAN.

Chap.

7.

51

a mans Discourse beginneth not at Definitions, beginneth either at some other contemplation of his Or it beginneth own, and then it is still called Opinion at some saying of another, of whose ability to know the truth, and of whose honesty in not deceiving, he doubteth and then the Discourse is not so much concerning not And the Resolution is called the Thing, as the Person BELEEFE, and FAITH Faith, in the man Beleefe, both So that of the man, and of the truth of what he sayes. one of the saying of the in Beleefe are two opinions man the other of his vertue. To have faith in, or trust
it
;

When

;

;

:

;

Beiiefe.

Faith.

;

;

to,

man, signifie the same thing namely, an opinion of the veracity of the man: But to beleeve what is said, signifieth onely an opinion of the truth of the saying. But wee are to observe that this Phrase, / beleeve and the Greek, Trio-reuw as also the Latine, Credo in in of Divines. In stead eis, are never used but in the writings / trust of them, in other writings are put, / beleeve him him / have faith in him / rely on him and in Latin, and in Greek, Trio-re vw dvru and Credo illi fido illi that this singularity of the Ecclesiastique use of the word hath raised many disputes about the right object of the Christian Faith. But by Beleeving in, as it is in the Creed, is meant, but Confession and acknow not trust in the Person ledgement of the Doctrine. For not onely Christians, but all manner of men do so believe in God, as to hold all for truth they heare him say, whether they which is all the Faith and understand it, or not
or beleeve a
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

:

;

;

;

trust can possibly be

had

in

any person whatsoever
the

:

But

they

do

not

all

believe

Doctrine

of

the
[32]

Creed.

From whence we may inferre, that when wee believe any saying whatsoever it be, to be true, from arguments taken, not from the thing it selfe, or from the principles of naturall Reason, but from the Authority, and good then is the opinion wee have, of him that hath sayd it speaker, or person we believe in, or trust in, and whose word we take, the object of our Faith and the Honour done in Believing, is done to him onely. And conse quently, when wee Believe that the Scriptures are the E 2
;

;

Part

i.

OF MAN.

Chap.

7.

God, having no immediate revelation from God himselfe, our Beleefe, Faith, and Trust is in the Church whose word we take, and acquiesce therein. And they that believe that which a Prophet relates unto them in the name of God, take the word of the Prophet, do honour to him, and in him trust, and believe, touching the truth of what he relateth, whether he be a true, or a false Prophet. And so it is also with all other History. For

word

of

;

should not believe all that is written by Historians, I do not of the glorious acts of Alexander, or Ccesar think the Ghost of Alexander, or Casar, had any just cause to be offended or any body else, but the Historian.
if I
;
;

Livy say the Gods made once a Cow speak, and we believe it not wee distrust not God therein, but Livy. So that it is evident, that whatsoever we believe, upon no other reason, then what is drawn from authority of men onely, and their writings whether they be sent from God or not, is Faith in men onely.
If
;
;

CHAP.
Of
the

VIII.
called

VERTUES commonly
and

their contrary

INTELLECTUALL DEFECTS.
is

;

Intellectuall

VERTUE
that
is

generally, in all sorts of subjects,
;

somewhat

Vertue
defined.

and consisteth in com valued for eminence parison. For if all things were equally in all men, nothing would be prized. And by Vertues INTELLECTUALL, are alwayes understood such abilityes of the mind, as men and praise, value, and desire should be in themselves go commonly under the name of a good wit though the same word WIT, be used also, to distinguish one certain
; ;

ability
Wit, Naturall, or Ac
quired.

from the rest. These Vertues are of two sorts
Naturall,
:

;

Naturall,

and Acquired.
;

By

I

mean
is

not, that

which a

man hath from

men

wherein nothing else but Sense one from another, and from brute Beasts, as it is not to be reckoned amongst Vertues. But I mean, that Wit, which is gotten by Use onely, and
his Birth for that
differ so little

Part

i.

OF MAN.
;

Chap.

8.

53

without Method, Culture, or Instruction. Experience This NATURALL WIT, consisteth principally in two things Naturall Wlt of one Celerity of Imagining, (that is, swift succession some thought to another ;) and steddy direction to approved end. On the Contrary a slow Imagination, maketh that Defect, or fault of the mind, which is
;
-

commonly called DULNESSE, Stupidity, and sometimes by other names that signifie slownesse of motion, or
some and therefore some mens one thing, some another and are held to, thoughts run one way, some another and observe differently the things that passe through
;

difficulty to be moved. And this difference of quicknesse, that love difference of mens passions
:

is

caused by the
dislike,

[33]

and

;

their imagination.

And whereas
is

in this succession of

nothing to observe in the things they think on, but either in what they be like one another, or in what they be unlike, or what they serve for, or how Those that observe their they serve to such a purpose similitudes, in case they be such as are but rarely observed Wit, by others, are sayd to have a Good Wit by which, in Good But they that or Fanc ythis occasion, is meant a Good Fancy. which is observe their differences, and dissimilitudes called Distinguishing, and Discerning, and Judging between thing and thing in case, such discerning be not and particu- Good easie, are said to have a good Judgement ud e wherein, J larly in matter of conversation and businesse m times, places, and persons are to be discerned, this Vertue is called DISCRETION. The former, that is, Fancy, with- Discreout the help of Judgement, is not commended as a Vertue tlon but the later which is Judgement, and Discretion, is com mended for it selfe, without the help of Fancy. Besides
; ; ;

mens thoughts, there

;

:

;

-

:

the Discretion of times, places, and persons, necessary to a good Fancy, there is required also an often applica tion of his thoughts to their End that is to say, to some use to be made of them. This done he that hath this Vertue, will be easily fitted with similitudes, that will
;

;

please, not onely

by

illustration of his

discourse,
;

and

with new and apt metaphors but also, by the rarity of their invention. But without Steddinesse, and Direction to some End, a great Fancy is one kind of
adorning
it

54

Part

i.

OF MAN.
;

Chap.

8.

Madnesse such as they have, that entring into any dis course, are snatched from their purpose, by every thing that comes in their thought, into so many, and so long

and Parentheses, that they utterly lose Which kind of folly, I know no particular name for but the cause of it is, sometimes want of whereby that seemeth to a man new and experience sometimes Pusil rare, which doth not so to others by which that seems great to him, which lanimity other men think a trifle: and whatsoever is new, or great, and therefore thought fit to be told, withdrawes a man by degrees from the intended way of his
digressions,
:

themselves

:

;

:

;

discourse.

In a good Poem, whether it be Epique, or Dramatique as also in Sonnets, Epigrams, and other Pieces, both But the Fancy Judgement and Fancy are required must be more eminent because they please for the but ought not to displease by Indis Extravagancy cretion.
;
:

;

;

In a good History, the Judgement must be eminent because the goodnesse consisteth, in the Method, in the Truth, and in the Choyse of the actions that are most profitable to be known. Fancy has no place, but onely
;

adorning the stile. In Orations of Prayse, and in Invectives, the Fancy is predominant because the designe is not truth, but to Honour or Dishonour which is done by noble, or by vile comparisons. The Judgement does but suggest what circumstances make an action laudable,
in
; ;

or culpable.
[34]

In Hortatives, and Pleadings, as Truth, or Disguise serveth best to the Designe in hand so is the Judge ment, or the Fancy most required. In Demonstration, in Councell, and all rigourous search of Truth, Judgement does all except some times the understanding have need to be opened by some apt similitude and then there is so much use of Fancy. But for Metaphors, they are in this case For seeing they openly professe utterly excluded. to admit them into Councell, or Reasoning, deceipt were manifest folly.
;
;

;

;

Part

i.

OF MAN.

Chap.

8.

55

The secret thoughts of a man run over all things, holy, prophane, clean, obscene, grave, and light, without which verball discourse cannot do, shame, or blame farther than the Judgement shall approve of the Time, Place, and Persons. An Anatomist, or a Physitian may because speak, or write his judgement of unclean things it is not to please, but profit but for another man to write his extravagant, and pleasant fancies of the same, is as if a man, from being tumbled into the dirt, should
;
; :

And in any Discourse whatsoever, if the defect of Discretion be apparent, how extravagant soever the Fancy be, the whole discourse will be taken for a signe and so will it never when the Discretion of want of wit is manifest, though the Fancy be never so ordinary.
;

come and present himselfe before good company. And tis the want of Discretion that makes the difference. Again, in profest remissnesse of mind, and familiar com
pany, a

man may

and that significations of words encounters of extraordinary Fancy
;

play with the sounds, and sequivocall many times with but in a Sermon,
:

or in publique, or before persons unknown, or whom we ought to reverence, there is no Gingling of words that will not be accounted folly and the difference is onely in the want of Discretion. So that where Wit is wanting, it is not Fancy that is wanting, but Discretion. Judge ment therefore without Fancy is Wit, but Fancy without Judgement not. When the thoughts of a man, that has a designe in
:

hand, running over a multitude of things, observes how or what designe they they conduce to that designe may conduce unto if his observations be such as are not easie, or usuall, This wit of his is called PRUDENCE Prudence. and dependeth on much Experience, and Memory of the like things, and their consequences heretofore. In which there is not so much difference of Men, as there is in their Fancies and Judgements Because the Experience of men equall in age, is not much unequall, as to the but lyes in different occasions quantity every one having his private designes. To govern well a family, and a kingdome, are not different degrees of Prudence but different sorts of businesse no more then to draw
;
; ; ;
;

;

;

;

56

Part

i.

OF MAN.

Chap.

8.

a picture in little, or as great, or greater then the life, are different degrees of Art. plain husband-man is more Prudent in affaires of his own house, then a Privy Counseller in the affaires of another man.

A

Cm//. [3 5]

To Prudence, if you adde the use of unjust, or dishonest means, such as usually are prompted to men by Feare, or Want you have that Crooked Wisdome, which is which is a signe of Pusillanimity. For called CRAFT
;
;

Magnanimity is contempt of unjust, or dishonest helps. And that which the Latines call Versutia, (translated into English, Shifting,} and is a putting off of a present danger or incommodity, by engaging into a greater, as when a man robbs one to pay another, is but a shorter sighted Craft, called Versutia, from Versura, which signifies taking mony at usurie, for the present payment
of interest.

Acquired
w/ii>

As

for acquired Wit, (I

mean acquired by method and
;

which is grounded instruction,) there is none but Reason on the right use of Speech ; and produceth the Sciences. But of Reason and Science, I have. already spoken in the
fifth

and sixth Chapters.
of this
:

difference of Witts, are in the difference of Passions, proceedeth partly from the different Constitution of the body, and partly from different Education. For if the difference proceeded from the temper of the brain, and the organs of Sense, either exterior or interior, there would be no lesse difference of men in their Sight, Hearing, or other It Senses, than in their Fancies, and Discretions. which are proceeds therefore from the Passions different, not onely from the difference of mens com but also from their difference of customes, plexions

The causes

Passions

and the

;

;

and education.

The Passions that most of all cause the differences of Wit, are principally, the more or lesse Desire of Power,
of Riches, of

Knowledge, and
first,

of

Honour.
is

All

which

may

be reduced to the

that

For Riches, Knowledge and Honour sorts of Power. And therefore, a man who has no great Passion for any of these things but is as men terme it indifferent
;

Desire of Power. are but severall

;

Part

i,

OF MAN.
may be
;

Chap.
as to be free

8.

57

though he

so farre a

good man,

from

giving offence yet he cannot possibly have either a great Fancy, or much Judgement. For the Thoughts, are to the Desires, as Scouts, and Spies, to range abroad, and find the way to the things Desired All Stedinesse of the minds motion, and all quicknesse of the same, proceeding from thence. For as to have no Desire, is to be Dead and so to have weak Passions, is Dulnesse to have Passions indifferently for every thing, GIDDINESSE, Giddiand Distraction and to have stronger, and more vehe- nesse ment Passions for any thing, than is ordinarily seen in Madnesse. others, is that which men call MADNESSE. Whereof there be almost as many kinds, as of the Passions themselves. Sometimes the extraordinary and extravagant Passion, proceedeth from the evill constitu tion of the organs of the Body, or harme done them and sometimes the hurt, and indisposition of the Organs, is caused by the vehemence, or long continuance of the Passion. But in both cases the Madnesse is of one and the same nature.
:

:

;

-

;

;

Passion, whose violence, or continuance maketh is either great vaine-Glory which is commonly called Pride, and selfe-conceipt or great Dejection of

The

Madnesse,

;

;

mind.
is
it

it becomes habituall, hurteth the organs, and becomes Rage That excessive love, with jealousie, becomes also Rage Excessive opinion of a mans own selfe, for divine inspiration, for wisdome, learning, forme, and the like, becomes Distraction, and Giddinesse The same, joyned with Envy, Rage Vehement opinion of the truth of any thing, contradicted by
: : : :

when

Pride, subjecteth a man to Anger, the excesse whereof, the Madnesse called RAGE, and FURY. And thus flag*, comes to passe that excessive desire of Revenge, [36]

others, Rage.

Dejection, subjects a
is

man

a Madnesse
;

commonly
manners
;

also in divers

to causelesse fears which called MELANCHOLY, apparent Melanas in haunting of solitudes, and chol
;
y>

graves
one,

in superstitious

behaviour

;

and

some another particular thing. Passions that produce strange and unusuall behaviour,

some In summe, all
in fearing

58

Part

i.

OF MAN.

Chap.

8.

are called by the generall name of Madnesse. But of the severall kinds of Madnesse, he that would take the

might enrowle a legion. And if the Excesses be madnesse, there is no doubt but the Passions them selves, when they tend to Evill, are degrees of the same. (For example,) Though the effect of folly, in them that are possessed of an opinion of being inspired, be not visible alwayes in one man, by any very extravagant action, that proceedeth from such Passion yet when many of them conspire together, the Rage of the whole multitude is visible enough. For what argument of Madnesse can there be greater, than to clamour, strike, and throw stones at our best friends ? Yet this is some what lesse than such a multitude will do. For they will clamour, fight against, and destroy those, by whom all their life-time before, they have been protected, and secured from injury. And if this be Madnesse in the multitude, it is the same in every particular man. For as in the middest of the sea, though a man perceive no sound of that part of the water next him yet he is well assured, that part contributes as much, to the Roaring so of the Sea, as any other part, of the same quantity
paines,
; ;
:

though wee perceive no great unquietnesse, in one, or two men yet we may be well assured, that their
also,
;

singular Passions, are parts of the Seditious roaring of a troubled Nation. And if there were nothing else that bewrayed their madnesse yet that very arrogating such inspiration to themselves, is argument enough. If some man in Bedlam should entertaine you with sober dis course and you desire in taking leave, to know what he were, that you might another time requite his civility and he should tell you, he were God the Father I think you need expect no extravagant action for argument of
; ;
;

;

his

Madnesse. This opinion of Inspiration, called commonly, Private Spirit, begins very often, from some lucky finding of an Errour generally held by others and not knowing, or not remembring, by what conduct of reason, they came to so singular a truth, (as they think it, though it be many times an untruth they light on,) they presently
;

Part

i.

OF MAN.
;

Chap.

8.

59

admire themselves

God Almighty, who hath

as being in the speciall grace of revealed the same to them

supernaturally, by his Spirit. Again, that Madnesse is nothing else, but too much appearing Passion, may be gathered out of the effects of Wine, which are the same with those of the evill behaviour disposition of the organs. For the variety of in men that have drunk too much, is the same with that some of them Raging, others Loving, of Mad-men others Laughing, all extravagantly, but according to For the effect of their severall domineering Passions the wine, does but remove Dissimulation and take from them the sight of the deformity of their Passions. For, when they walk alone (I believe) the most sober men, without care and employment of the mind, would be unwilling the vanity and Extravagance of their thoughts which is a con at that time should be publiquely seen fession, that Passions unguided, are^for the most part
:

[37]

:

;

:

meere Madnesse.
both in antient and later madnesse, have been two. some, from Some, deriving them from the Passions Daemons, or Spirits, either good, or bad, which they thought might enter into a man, possesse him, and move his organs in such strange, and uncouth manner, as mad men use to do. The former sort therefore, called such but the Later, called them sometimes men, Mad-men Dcemoniacks, (that is, possessed with spirits ;) sometimes Energumeni, (that is, agitated, or moved with spirits ;) and now in Italy they are called not onely Pazzi, Mad men but also Spiritati, men possest. There was once a great conflux of people in Abdera, a City of the Greeks, at the acting of the Tragedy of Andromeda., upon an extream hot day whereupon,

The opinions of the world, ages, concerning the cause of

;

:

;

:

a great many of the spectators falling into Fevers, had this accident from the heat, and from the Tragedy together, that they did nothing but pronounce lambiques, which with the names of Perseus and Andromeda together with the Fever, was cured, by the comming on
;

of

And this madnesse was thought to proceed Winter from the Passion imprinted by the Tragedy. Likewise
:

60

Part

i.

OF MAN.
;

Chap.

8.

there raigned a fit of madnesse in another Grsecian City, and caused which seized onely the young Maidens many of them to hang themselves. This was by most then thought an act of the Divel. But one that suspected, that contempt of life in them, might proceed from some Passion of the mind, and supposing they did not contemne also their honour, gave counsell to the Magistrates, to strip such as so hang d themselves, and let them hang

out naked. This the story sayes cured that madnesse. But on the other side, the same Graecians, did often ascribe madnesse, to the operation of the Eumenides, or and sometimes of Ceres, Phcebus, and other Furyes Gods so much did men attribute to Phantasmes, as to and generally to call think them ae real living bodies them Spirits. And as the Romans in this, held the same so also did the Jewes For opinion with the Greeks
;
:

;

:

;

[38]

Prophets, or (according as they thought the spirits good or bad) Daemoniacks and some of them called both Prophets, and Daemoniacks. mad-men and some called the same man both Dasmoniack, and mad-man. But for the Gentiles, tis no wonder because and many Vices, and Vertues Diseases, and Health naturall accidents, were with them termed, and wor shipped as Daemons. So that a man was to understand by Daemon, as well (sometimes) an Ague, as a Divell. But for the Jewes to have such opinion, is somewhat strange. For neither Moses, nor Abraham pretended to Prophecy by possession of a Spirit but from the voyce of God Nor is there any thing or by a Vision or Dream

they called

mad-men

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

in his Law, Morall, or Ceremoniall, by which they were or any Pos taught, there was any such Enthusiasme session. When God is sayd, Numb. n. 25. to take from the Spirit that was in Moses, and give to the 70. Elders, the Spirit of God (taking it for the substance of God) is not divided. The Scriptures by the Spirit of God in man, mean a mans spirit, enclined to Godlinesse. And where it is said Exod. 28. 3. Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdome to make garments for Aaron, is not meant a spirit put into them, that can make garments but the wisdome of their own spirits in that kind of work. In the like sense, the spirit of man, when it produceth
.

;

;

Part

i.

OF MAN.

Chap.

8.

61

unclean actions, is ordinarily called an unclean spirit and so other spirits, though not alwayes, yet as often as the vertue or vice so stiled, is extraordinary, and Eminent. Neither did the other Prophets of the old
;

Testament pretend Enthusiasme
in

or, that God spake but to them by Voyce, Vision, or Dream and the Burthen of the Lord was not Possession, but Com mand. How then could the Jewes fall into this opinion of possession ? I can imagine no reason, but that which
;

them

;

;

is common to all men namely, the want of curiosity to and their placing Felicity, in the search naturall causes acquisition of the grosse pleasures of the Senses, and the For things that most immediately conduce thereto. they that see any strange, and unusuall ability, or defect in a mans mind unlesse they see withall, from what cause it may probably proceed, can hardly think it naturall and if not naturall, they must needs thinke it and then what can it be, but that either supernaturall God, or the Divell is in him ? And hence it came to passe, when our Saviour (Mark 3. 21.) was compassed about with the multitude, those of the house doubted he was mad, and went out to hold him but the Scribes said he had Belzebub, and that was it, by which he cast out divels as if the greater mad-man had awed the lesser. And that (John 10. 20.) some said, He hath a Divell, and is mad whereas others holding him for a Prophet, sayd, These are not the words of one that hath a Divell. So in the old Testament he that came to anoynt but some of the Jehu, 2 Kings 9. n. was a Prophet company asked Jehu, What came that mad-man for? So that in summe, it is manifest, that whosoever behaved himselfe in extraordinory manner, was thought by the Jewes to be possessed either with a good, or evill spirit except by the Sadduces, who erred so farre on the other hand, as not to believe there were at all any spirits, (which is very neere to direct Atheisme ;) and thereby perhaps the
; ; ; ; ;
:

;

;

;

;

rather than

more provoked others, to terme such men Daemoniacks, mad-men. But why then does our Saviour proceed in the curing of them, as if they were possest and not as if they were mad ? To which I can give no other kind of answer, but
;

39.62 Part i. or Suns motion make the day. as and subjection to God Almighty the thing for which the Scripture was written. the usuall phrase of all that cure by words onely. that abuse of words. So that I see nothing at all in the Scripture. and repeat by rote by as . that requireth a beliefe. or . that Daemoniacks were any other thing but Mad-men. . which is As for that our Saviour speaketh to the a person . The Scripture was written to shew unto men the kingdome of God. . . as to Insignifi- cant Speech. 8. . proceed from Passion. 26. from the to our obedience. And that is. There is yet another fault in the Discourses of some men which may also be numbred amongst the sorts o f Madnesse namely. is vanquished by the and becomes seven times worse than strength of them he was. Philosophy thereof. and the . 12.) to rebuke a Fever ? Yet this does not argue that a Fever is a Divel. alluding to a man. that after a little endeavour to quit his lusts. . disease.) to have rebuked the winds ? Is not he said also (Luk.) speaketh of an unclean Spirit. as Christ did. Whether the Earths. 4. and finding none man. to the disputation of men. And whereas many of those Divels are said to confesse Christ it is not necessary to interpret those places otherwise. and to prepare their mindes to become his obedient subjects leaving the world. wandreth through dry places. we worship him not) it is all one. And this . it is . from intention to deceive by obscurity. whereof I have spoken before in the fifth chapter. . by the Name of Absurdity. OF MAN. is Chap.) For is not Christ also said (Math. and night or whether the Exorbitant actions of men. others. through misunderstanding of the words they have received. have in them no signification at all but are fallen upon by some. Divell. seeking and returning into the same rest. And whereas our Saviour (Math. when men speak such words. with seven other spirits worse than himselfe It is manifestly a Parable. that which like given to those that urge the Scripture in [39] manner against the opinion of the motion of the Earth. for the exercising of their naturall Reason. whether they speak to a Divel or not. 8. (and Inchanters pretend to do. that having gone out of a man. put together. 43. than that those mad-men confessed him. (so .

or writing thus. but Lucide Intervals. So that this kind of Absurdity. . they forbear disputing. that being incorporeall. as the Schoole-men questions of abstruse Philosophy. The common sort of men seldome speak Insignificantly.. so as to make the same intelligible . Chap. Tudes.Part i. there would need some which if any man require. they that say. and Help of God. But to be assured their words are without any thing corre spondent to them in the mind. . all which are incorporeall. the Whitenesse. . Roundnesse. are neverthelesse moveable from one place to another. are they not Mad. What The first cause does not is the meaning of these words. that converse in questions or in of matters incomprehensible. Magnitude. Corruptibility. may rightly be numbred amongst the many sorts of Madnesse and all the time that . and Ties. &c. such as they were acquainted withall. When men write whole volumes of such stuffe. And thus much of the Vertues and Defects Intellectual! . and are therefore. or intend to make others so ? And particularly. . into the Body of our blessed Saviour. do they not make those Nesses. necessarily inflow any thing into the second. 8. to be so many spirits possessing his body ? For by Spirits. the nature of Christ Transubthe Deity Trinity stantiation Free-will. Motion. Quality. into any of the moderne or into any tongues. that lived when the Latine tongue was Vulgar. and see if he can translate as the any one chapter concerning any difficult point . OF MAN. . tolerable Latine. 63 is incident to none but those. go out of the Wafer. they mean alwayes things. by force of the Essentiall subordination of the second causes. [40] guided by clear Thoughts of their worldly lust. in the question of Transubstantiation where after certain words spoken. 6-c. . . Of the Concourse. let him take Examples a Schoole-man into his hands. by those other Egregious persons counted Idiots. by Which it may help it to worke ? They are the Translation of the Title of the sixth chapter of Suarez first Booke. .

Chap. // the figure showne be a Circle. \ . or Effects of Nature. then any straight line through the Center shall divide it into two And this is the Knowledge required in a equall parts. as have no Dependance on Mans Will Such as are the Histories of Metalls. men in Common The Registers of Science. . The Register of Knowledge of Fact is called History. and the Jike. but Sense and Memory. Regions. Reasoning. of him that pretends to Philosopher are of of THERE KNOWLEDGE two : Knowledge Fact . . are such Books as contain the Demonstrations of Consequences of one Affirmation. of SUBJECTS KNOWLEDGE. : . O/ //^ Severall IX. and is Absolute Knowledge as when we see a Fact doing. CHAP.64 Parti. The and is Conditionall as when later is called Science we know. History of the Voluntary Actions of wealths. . . is Civill History which is the : . . OF MAN. that is to say. . . The former is nothing else. kinds whereof one is the other Knowledge of the Conse quence of one A formation to another. to another and are commonly called Books of Philosophy whereof the sorts are many. Plants. The other. Animals. or remember it done And this is the Knowledge required in a Witnesse. 9. Whereof there be two sorts one called Naturall History which is the History of such Facts. according to the diversity of the Matter And may be divided in such manner as I have divided thejn in the following Table. that.

NEERS.ENGI Hg OH of 1 I &amp. RCHITECTURE.lt. III O AVIGATION. cience S tic II J8 .

. make still the : Mind as : .) is his some future apparent Good. in one person. is feared of many because it is a means to have the assistance. which acquired by these. or Civill. because it draweth Reputation of power. of the Faculties of __ extraordinary Strength. DIGNITY. more hast. or or the reputation of such quality. Power. THE POWER of a Man. Arts. Instru mentall are those Powers. and WORTHINESSE. WORTH. servants. and the secretworking of God. To have friends. Reputation.heavy increasing as it proceeds bodies. . . Power . Chap. or (to take it Universally. For the nature of Power. [41] Of POWER. what quality soever maketh a man beloved. Friends. Also. CHAP. or like the motion of.) for the same Reason. Liberality. . that has the such as is use of all their Powers depending on his will Or depending on the the Power of a Common-wealth such as is the Power of a Fac wills of each particular Therefore to have tion. eminence Instrumentall. 10. are means and Instruments to acquire more as Riches. is Power are strengths united. but because in this case they defend not not so expose men to Envy. or of divers factions leagued. united by consent. Nobility. which the further they go. is Power with it the adhserence of those that need protection. The Greatest of humane Powers. is Power procureth friends. Eloquence.66 Part i. (called Popularity. and servants Without liberality. So is Reputation of love of a mans Country. Prudence. present means. . HONOUR. as a Prey. which men call Good Luck. it : . is the Bocly. ~ or by fortune. is Power : for they because Also Riches joyned with liberality. X. . to obtain And is either Originally or Naturall Power. is in this point. : . is that which is compounded of the Powers of most men.&quot. . OF MAN. and service of many. Naturall. like to Fame. Forme.

more willingly than to . Value is no more than it is esteemed by others. but in a few and in them. Arts of publique use. as Fortification. is encrease of because it gaineth love. all places. For let a man (as most men do. so much as would be given for the use of his Power and therefore is not absolute but . 10. . a thing dependant on the need and judgement of another. so in men. Chap. it recommendeth men to the favour of women and Nobility is Power. as none can understand it to be. but onely in those has Priviledges for in such priviledges consisteth their Power. namely the Mathematiques yet. not the seller. OF MAN. his issue. A learned and uncorrupt Judge. but of a few things.) rate them selves at the highest Value they can yet their true . and Victory. or imminent but in Peace not so. is : . by the hand of the Artificer. And as in other things. The Sciences. or that WORTH of a man. is Power the government of our selves. making of because they Engines. we commit War. are Power And though the true Mother of them. .Part i. 67 because it maketh reputation successe is Power of Wisdome. not in it Common-wealths. Good Power others. they be esteemed (the Midwife passing with the vulgar for the Mother. because it is seeming Prudence. where . his Price is as of all other things. . or rely on him. is much Worth in time of Peace but not so much in War. F 2 . to say. : .) as . or good fortune which makes men either feare him. . are small Power becausejiot eminent and therefore. be Science. For Science is of that nature. . and other Instruments of War conferre to Defence. Affability of men already in power. but the buyer determines the Price. . Reputation of Prudence in the conduct of Peace or because to prudent men. . not acknowledged in any man nor are at all. : . Eloquence is power Forme is Power because being a promise of Good. is of great Price in time of War present. [42] strangers. . The Value. An able conductor of Souldiers. because they are brought into the Light. but such as in a good measure have attayned it. .

To speak to another with consideration. being a confession of greater power. To neglect. or lesse to love or feare. HONOUR ayde of any kind. publike Employment . or call happy. . the rate that each man setteth on himselfe. To obey. and humility. is to Honour him at a low rate. power. for tis undervaluing. rashly. or place to another. . To shew any signe of love. in this case. is to be understood by comparison to is . whom they think have no power to help. Dishonour . Dignity. To praise. is to Dishonour. is to Dishonour him. and to feare. is understood. OF MAN. is to value. then he expects. that which is commonly called Honouring. To revile. The publique worth of a man. impudently. and Dis honouring. and signifies an opinion of the need of small helps. or hurt them. To give little gifts. is to Dishonour because it is but Almes. 10. contemne. is to Dishonour. which is the Value set on him by the Common. for because a signe we have an opinion he has power to help and the more difficult the ayde is. is to .wealth. is to Honour or ayde. . To Value a man at a high rate. give way. for both to love. The manifestation of the Value we set on one another. to do any thing before him obscenely. slovenly.68 Part i. the more is the Honour. Titles. ToHonou and Dis honour. and acknowledging of Power. in any Commodity. introduced for distinction of such Value. is to Dishonour. or feare of another. is to To [43] Honour . and felicity is valued. To give great gifts to a man. But high. Chap.Tb~ pray to another. is to Dishonour. &quot. To be sedulous in promoting anothers good also to as a signe we seek his protection flatter. is to is To to Honour . . . to appear before him with decency. is to Dishonour. And this Value of him by the Common -wealth. And consequently to disobey. . . is to Honour him because tis buying of Protection. . magnifie. mock. and low. To arrogate. . or pitty. is that which men commonly call DIGNITY. is to Honour To speak to him him as signes of fear to offend. is to Honour because nothing but goodnesse.^ or by Names and Judicature. is to Honour because no man obeyes them. by offices of Command.

ordecay. supreme Authority. to rely on another. To do those things to another. is to Honour as a signe of opinion of his wisdome. is to Dishonour. is to Dishonour. or discourse of what kind soever. 10. as a signe of approbation of his judgement. upon one of the Kings Horses. with whatsoever Title. or witty. as being To agree with in opinion. is to because in approving the Honour done by Honour distrust. To hearken . or Office. or Action. or Employment. or other power. or eloquent. A Soveraigne doth Honour a Subject. to those . to one that demanded for some great service. . To and an upbraiding of errour dissent. Honoured appointed he should be conducted through the streets in the Kings Garment. or wise. when he The King of Persia. with a Crown on his head. or in actions of difficulty. and wisdome. or the same another time. proclayming. is to Honour . is to -Honour a signe of approving his judgement. that seek it. and a Prince before him. can make whatsoever they please. that he himselfe will have taken for a signe of his will to Honour him. To To approve. OF MAN. is to Dishonour. or not believe. Common-wealths. is Dishonour and (if the dissent be in many things) of folly. is to Honour To signe of opinion of his vertue and power. To deny employment in the same cases. To honour his Enemies. to stand for signes of Honour. or they that have the . is to Dishonour. there be other Honours. To . To refuse to do them. as a signe we think him To sleep. and as All these wayes of Honouring. honour those another honours. . for it is vehemently to is to Honour imitate ones Enemy. . or go forth. gave him leave M . talk the while. as without Common-wealths.Part i. 69 To him . or which the Law or Custome makes so. where he. to trust. to a mans counsell. is to Dishonour him. Thus shall it be done to him that the King will honour. he acknowledgeth the power which others acknowledge. To employ in counsell. And yet another King of Persia. is to Dishonour. Chap. others. to weare one of the Kings robes. believe. are naturall But in well within. is to Honour him imitate. . which he takes for signes of Honour.

Courage. and resolves and therefore not. acquired by Power is Dishonourable.wealth. is an argument and signe of Power. Fear. And therefore To be Honoured. are Honourable conscience of Power. Good fortune (if lasting. and losses. Hope. Timely Resolution. valuing of little Dishonour impedi little advantages For when a man has weighed things as long as the time permits. as having so many which favour signes of favour in the Common-wealth . for they proceed fro.a the Confidence. . is Honourable Honoured of few or none. Dishonourable. but with this addition. Dishonourable. which is ments. difficulties. the difference of weight is but little if he resolve not. and Victory is Honourable is . So it as the Kings foole that of Civ ill Honour. able . . . All Actions. : . for need. Discretion. Honourable is whatsoever possession. Gravity. Dishonourable. . Chap. Actions. he overvalues little things. Dis honourable. or seem to . Pusillanimity. . is Honourable . . are Honourable For all these are Powers. To be many. Pusillanimity. Ignorance. that proceed. action. and Scutchions painted and men Honour such as have them. Science. or Folly. Offices. Magnanimity. OF MAN. because Dominion. and called Soveraigne . . . as farre forth as it seems to proceed from a mind employed on some thing else. 10. for they are Power. . or feare. Ill fortune. and .) Honourable as a signe of the favour of God. Titles and in some places Coats. and dangers.7 Part i. loved. or quality. Parsimony. or feared of as arguments of Power. [44] Civill Honour such as are Magistracy. as a signe of too And much : Irresolution. Liberality. or determination of what a man is to do. that he should weare so to do and then it was Dishonour. are Dishonourable. and Speeches. Power. is Honourable as being the contempt of small . the Fountain is in the person of the Common. and Servitude. proceed from much Experience. Diffidence. or Wit. Honour able. Riches. are Honourable Poverty. or Words that proceed from Errour. Dishonourable. and dependeth on the Will of the and is therefore temporary.

and ambition of great as signes of power to obtain Honours. 10. is Dishonourable. is Dis conspicuous. is Dishonourable. great Actions. Chap. Thefts. Shifting. descended from obscure Parentage. neglect of Equity. joyned with losse. is Honour able because they the more easily attain the aydes. . is as a signe of the power for which he is Honourable On the contrary. that being born in the morning. . To be Conspicuous.) be just or unjust for Honour consisteth onely in the opinion of Power. Mercury. from his is . and Thefts in a hymne of Homer. Covetousnesse of great Riches. : : . the greatest is this. For the gravity of the former. for . and before night. like the steddinesse of a Ship ballasted with Sand. honourable. or any eminent Good. are Honourable . is Dishonourable. but greatly Honoured the Gods. it is Dis honourable. whether an action (so it be great and difficult. and consequently a signe of [45] much power. and ambition. Office. not onely amongst the Greeks. But if it seem to proceed from a purpose to appear grave. Therefore the ancient Heathen did not thinke they Dishonoured. Craft. and On the contrary. to be friends of their Ancestors. as his Adulteries nor in of whose praises. Wealth. On the contrary. when they introduced them in their Poems. are Honourable them. as signes of Magnanimity : for Magna nimity a signe of Power. stolne away the Cattell of Apollo. Actions proceeding from Equity. Nor does it alter the case of Honour. it was thought no dishonour to be a Pyrate. Covetousnesse. Obscurity. To be descended from conspicuous Parents. or preferments. or a High-way Theefe but rather a lawfull Trade. and other trash. till there were constituted great Common-wealths. to be known. is like the but of steddinesse of a Ship laden with Merchandise the later. but In so much as nothing is so unjust. of little gaines. committing Rapes. or unclean acts much celebrated in Jupiter. OF MAN. . he had invented Musique at noon. that is to say. : Herdsmen. as his Frauds. but also amongst . 71 because employment is a signe of Power.Part i. and other great. Also amongst men.

and alwayes will be Honourable. divided amongst an infinite number of little Lords. For Germany. private Duels are. Coats of Armes. had their Shields painted with such Devises . . when they were and Covered with Arms. or in Riches. . and of the fear of Dishonour. as all other Countries. or Coat. as they pleased insomuch as of Poverty. . where the Germans have not inhabited. or Lords. there is not. where the German Customes were unknown. OF MAN. ornament. Chap. and Coats of Armes haereditary. com monly called Gentry. in this part of the world. The antient Greek Commanders. being antiently. till such time as there shall be Honour ordained for them that refuse. or . with the picture of some Beast. and Ignominy for them that make the Challenge. France. though unlawfull. and America. in one. And at this day. or some such thing as is equally honoured in other men. nor was ever. . For there never was any such thing known. and of a common : : . Scutchions. be known by their followers their or their both for Armor. Spain and Italy. The Germans onely had that custome from whom it has been derived into . not the Devises of their Ancestors. or Masters of Families. or both the Combatants who engaged byrashnesse. principally to the end they might. in their beginnings. when they went to war. For Duels also are many times and the ground of Courage is alwayes effects of Courage Strength or Skill. are Honourable otherwise not for their Power consisteth either in such Priviledges. all other Nations as is manifest by the Histories of antient time. Amongst the people of Asia. . . has been derived from the Antient Germans. or made their own Con quests in these Westerne parts of the world. where they have any eminent Priviledges. Romans transmitted the Marks of their Families but they were the Images. any such thing. : was a signe an unpainted Buckler but Souldier The they transmitted not the Inheritance of them. that continually had wars one with another those Masters. England. painted partly Scutchion.72 Parti. This kind of Honour. which are Power though for the most part they be effects of rash speaking. Nor is it now any where in use. 10. Afrique. are driven into the Lists to avoyd disgrace. when in great numbers they either ayded the Romans.

. . to such as went forth to the War. to Ber. was made a private Office a part. . Marquis. And this orna ment both of the Armes. seems to have been a Title of the Gaules. or Castles. Belts. and French. and rapine Weapons. were Counts that governed the Which titles of Marches. to distinguish Scutchions. not onely Kings. . descended by inheri to the eldest pure. All which. Duke. and signifies a Great man such as were the Kings. upon them by the Soveraigne Power of the Common wealth Which Titles. as make mention of the German Nation. may be found in such antient Histories. 10. : . nothing being then in honour. is the great and antient Gentry which for the most part bear living creatures. Battlements. but popular Common wealths. [46] 73 and also put some eminent and visible other thing mark upon the Crest of their Helmets. made a greater Monarchy. that Vir in Latine and thence to Bero. such as bare the Generall company out of friendship and were left to govern and defend places conquered. and other notes of War . OF MAN. about the time of Constantine the Great. in their times. Greek and Latine. Afterwards. and Baro so that such men were called Berones. and Command. or returned from it. being Generalls in War Counts. or recompence to their service. And the issue of these Lords. derived some from the Romans. or Princes men. came into the Empire. some from the Germans. Marchiones. when many such Families. Titles of and Baron. Comites. courage. noted for . this duty of the Herealt. rest . such as are Duke. such as the Old master. and Crest. joyned together. But that is to say in Dutch. in Latine Duces. from the customes of the German Militia. Dukes. Count. Palisadoes. and to the tance to their Children with some note of diversity. : . Chap. Count. and Marquis. by an observing Reader. and Manners. were in old time titles of Ofnce. Titles of Honour.Part i. but vertue military. But Baron. and pacified Marquises. and Bar. or bounds of the Empire. the Here-alt thought fit. whom they employed in war about their persons and seems to be derived from Vir. that signified the same in the Language of the Gaules. . : : . Bars. for encourage ment. gave divers manners of Scutchions. are Honourable as signifying the value set Honour.

74 Part I. may find it. What is . OF MAN. J Manners. were turned into meer Titles serving for the most part. Unity. wherein they had neither possession. In processe oi time these offices of Honour. : . sse Counts. : is usually named FITNESSE. or to have . place. Marquises. . any other charge. [47] Worthiest to be a Commander. : Worthinesse. and Employment. Decency of behaviour how one man should salute another. a man may be Worthy of Riches. Of as XL MANNERS. that has the qualities most requisite for the well using of them any of which qualities being absent. or and also from his merit. whereof he is said to be worthy which particular ability. . praesupposeth a right. and order of subjects in the Common-wealth and men were made Dukes. and Barons of Places. to be a Judge. Again. Office. with the and qualities required to the well discharging of it Worthiest of Riches. and such other points of the Small Moralls But those here qualities of man-kind. in Mr. and valuable for some thing else. For Merit. or pick his teeth before company. or ability for that. or desert and value of a man consisteth in a particular power. . and after Barones and know more . is or Aptitude. WORTHINESSE. the difference of BY MANNERS. Chap. I mean not here. nor command and other Titles also. that concern their living together meant by j n p eace an d To which end we are to consider. and that the thing deserved is due by promise Of which I shall say more hereafter. is a thing different from the worth. particularly the origin all of Titles of Honour. should wash his mouth. were devised to the same end. : For he when I shall speak of Contracts. 10. Seldens most excellent Treatise of that subject. as I have done this. or how a man . that is best fitted. and for reasons of good and peaceable government. one may neverthelesse be a Worthy man. that never thelesse. can plead no right to have it before another and therefore cannot be said to merit or deserve it. that would But he (in Spanish) Varones. : . to distinguish the precedence. by occasion of trouble. CHAP.

And whose power is greatest.th present. whicl o. Command. Nor can a man any more live. competition of praise. . than he has already attained to or that he cannot content with a moderate but because he t assure the power __and power means to live well. I put for a generall inclina.) as is spoken of in the Books of the old Morall Philosophers. to the attaining ^jn_ of his desire. or abroad by Wars . OF MAN. the way of his future desire. Honour. effect desired. tend.A restlesse tion of all mankind. Enmity. that ceaseth onely in Death. Chap- 77 that the Felicity of this of a mind satisfied. And g^JJ^* the cause of this. than he. and War [48] Because the way of one Competitor. acquisition of more. or other ability of is . of admiration. The cause whereof is. which produce the ariseth partly . there succeedeth a . Particularly. For there consisteth not in the repose8 is no such Finis ultimus.Part i. : . that done. For men contend with ti n : - . (utmost ayme. subdue. enclineth to Contention. or opinion each one has of the causes. supplant. turn their endeavours to the and assuring it at home by Lawes. new the mind. Competition of Riches. or being flattered for excellence in some art. is to kill. is not alwayes that a man hopes for a more intensive delight. (greatest Good.) nor Summum Bonum. or repell the tion from other. voluntary actions. So that in the first place. in divers men and partly from the difference of the knowledge. whose Senses and Imaginations are at a stand. of ease some. but also to the assuring of a contented life and differ onely in the way which . a perpetuall and restlesse desire of desire of 11 Power after power. of Fame from new Conquest and sensuall pleasure in others. not onely to the procuring. that Kings. or other power. : from the diversity of passions. without the hence it is. and for one instant of time And therefore the ever. and inclinations of all men. That the object of mans desire. Felicity is a continuall progresse of the desire. is not to enjoy once but to assure for onely. whose Desires are at an end. life. being still but the way to the later. Hum : when in desire in others. enclineth Competito a reverence of Antiquity. from one oFject to another the attaining of the former. . .

a man ^ ot k a bandon the protection might be hoped for : Industry. Chap. and of the benefit that . containeth a desire of leasure and consequently protection from some other Power than their own. . OF MAN.such Desires. and hardy. imagination. and labour. &amp. to whom we think our selves equall. are enclined to continue the causes of warre and to stirre up trouble and sedition for there is no honour Military Fvom from his own Wounds. Desire of Fame after death does the same. that in declining the sight of his creditor. and obligation is thraldome . Desire of Praise. unrequitable obligation. praise given us on Earth. for of t ^lose men wnom we contemn. Hate. : .74 Parti. that they may obscure the glory of idience 6 of^ase the other. . or reason. and to the same and for the same feave of On the contrary. that are either swal lowed up in the unspeakable joyes of Heaven. there be no sense of the. perpetuall thraldome and which . disposeth . yet they imagine and any thing that pleasure in the sense. where he might never see him more. the same also is pleasure in the : now . Desire of Ease. Wounds. . not Death.ii. all men present condition that are ambitious of Military command. contented with their as also. greater benefits than there is hope to R ecl mte disposeth to counterfeit love but really secret hatred and puts a man into the estate of a desperate debtor. Desire of Knowledge. may redound they is which though thereby to their posterity see not. For benefits oblige . : but by warre nor any such hope to mend an ill game. not with the dead to these ascribing more than due. needy men. disposeth men to obey a common Power Because by . . . . enclineth And from love of men to obey a common Power For such Desire. and sensuall Delight. disposeth to laudable actions. . And though after death. from the foresight of it. Benefits. as by causing a new shuffle. or ex tinguished in the extreme torments of Hell yet is not such Fame vain because men have a present delight therein. ?ne living. such Love of as please them whose judgement they value Vertue. To have received from one. and Arts of Peace.gt. as being joyes. we contemn also the ^of praise Praises. : . Fear of Death. from difficulty in reat&quot. tacitely wishes him there.

engaging to retire if they can because not seeing the way of safety. n. without assured ground of hope from the true knowledge of themselves. hatefull. whence proceedeth an Emulation of who shall exceed in the most noble and profitable contention benefiting . OF MAN. or [49] for there is no other way fay Promptto . than any that can pro ceed from subtilty of Wit. And in sedition. (fearing first. or the fortune of some precedent action. they will rather hazard their honour. or difficulty. equall. because the obligation is no new depression and cheerfull acceptation. are in tumult. men being alwayes in the procincts of battell. or seek&quot. and service mutuall : . such as without being conscious Vain to themselves of great sufficiency. . possible wherein the victor is pleased with his victory. Also to receive benefits. as long as for in the intention of the receiver. but not to attempt Because when danger or they look for nothing but to have : glory. disposeth a man to anticipate. than he can.) is such an honour done to the obliger. To have done more hurt to a man. better disposed for victory. for superiour. or crafty. delight in supposing themselves gallant men. whom we acknowledge Chap. Feare of oppression. is A nd from c ~ willing to expiate. their insufficiency discovered. difficulty appears. and the other revenged by confessing it. to be hated.) consult. are enclined onely to ostenta- which a man by society : can secure his Men ^ ( tion . is a better stratagem. such as estimate their sufficiency by the flattery of other men. For these love to to to be strike the other circumvented. to hold together. or forgivenesse ferer. ^s^ving both which are hatefull.Part is i. are enclined to rash and in the approach of danger. than they that And from distrust of suppose themselves wise. Vain-glorious men. which may . as is taken generally for retribution. though from an there is hope of requitall.ayd life and liberty. enclineth the doer to hate the sufFor he must expect re|venge. (which men call Gratitude. hurt j rom that distrust their own subtilty. : . But to have received benefits from one. and sedition. Vain-glorious men. Fear. and use all advantages of force. 77 to ones equall. or inferiour. disposeth to love from the obligation is of ayd. enclines : to love .

which is. which is to be nourished and kept in vigor by Reward. Chap. Ignorance Military reputation. in matter of government. And therefore Eloquent speakers are enclined to Ambition for Eloquence seemeth wisedome. are disposed to Ambition. if they rely not on their own. the later seeming Kindnesse.. disposeth men to confide in them that have it because the former is seeming Wisdome. Pusillanimity disposeth men to Irresolution. the difference of matters. as require the . disfrom Ignorance poseth. and contion. (though in poor men a Vertue. rr -r . the honour of their wisdome is lost. and Irresolu- others. and which is more. from sequently to lose the occasions. . and fittest opportunities * ac ^ on For after men have been in deliberation till v aluin^ the time of action approach. than their lives. many men at once For it weakeneth their Endeavour. tis a signe. the non-sense of them they trust . that is. Men that have a strong opinion of their own wisdome Ambition. . and see not why he should deceive them. are not great Therefore not to resolve then. n. if it be not then manifest o/swa?/ what is best to be done. . And Want of Science. from opinion of Because without publique Employment in counsell or magistracy. or rather constraineth a man to rely on the of natural! and aut hority of others.1 i ji i truth concernes. [5] Ignorance of the signification of words m want f understanding. Eloquence. is to lose the occasion by : weighing of which is Pusillanimity.78 Parti.nesse and it disposeth men to adhaere. the one way and the other. both to themselves . whom they think wiser than themselves. For all men whom the causes. Adde to them strength of . of the marks of ~ ^an^Ki/nd&quot. OF MAN. disposeth men to take on trust. Motives.) maketh a man unapt to atchieve such actions. want ^/ not on ely the truth they know not but also* the errors ^Understanding. having given them caution against ^ an er fr m him the later gives them caution against danger from others. : Confi- dence in other. and subject themselves to those men that have them. for which be salved with an excuse no salve is sufficient. The two former. Ignorance of causes. : . must rely ^i on the opinion of some other. trifles Frugality. with flattery. .

is not so .Part i. that men cannot distinguish. . . rule. opinion From the same also it proceedeth. can without a perfect understanding of words. nor non-sense. ^ ^ . and the many actions of a number of Senators in killing Ccesar and therefore are disposed to take for the action of the people. and setting themselves against reason. Law. them Which is the cause. nature of ht and or (as the Lawyers which onely use this false measure of Justice barbarously call it) a Precedent like little children. but if it had been a rjrofit. . That the three Angles Figures. that which is a multitude of actions done by a multitude of men. that men give different names. or to the interest of men that have dominion. between the one action of all the Senators of Rome in killing Catiline. and : : because men care not. Equity. and originall constitution oiAdharRight. For I doubt not. is perpetually disputed. For neither Error. to one and the same thing. in that subject truth. as it serves their turn receding from custome when their interest requires it. From the same it proceedeth. and Justice. n. what be . from the difference As they that approve a private of their own passions but they that mislike it. Haereopinion. but the correction they receive from their Parents. thing contrary to any mans right of dominion. as to think that Unjust which it hath been ig orance the custome to punish and that Just. led perhaps by the perswasion of one. disposeth a man to ence to ome make Custome and the rule of his actions in : . . and from reason to custome. and Masters save that children are constant to their because grown strong. without study and great understanding. they appeale from custome to reason. that the doctrine of Right and Wrong. of the impunity of the and approbation whereof they can produce an Example. Chap. whereas men are not so and stubborn. Ignorance of the causes. 79 9 Example r such manner. as oft as reason is against . that have no other rule of good and evill man ners. and many actions of one multitude as for example. call it Opinion sie and yet haeresie signifies no more than private but has onely a greater tincture of choler. between one action of many men. as a thing that crosses no mans ambition. : . be detected. . or lust. . OF MAN. both by the Pen and the Sword Whereas the doctrine of Lines.

without being enclined thereby to believe there is one God Eternall though they cannot have any Idea of him in their mind. should be equall to two Angles of a Square that doctrine should have been. disposeth men to attribute ence to ^\\ events. : O f future^ time. yet by the burning of all books of Geometry. answerable to his nature. selfe Curiosity to r know. that in all places. to seek the and again. . n. company. that is to say. . hearing men talk of warming themselves by the fire. whom it concerned was able. . Collectors. and . so as to believe many times impossibilities For such know nothin to the contrary. and Instrumental! men From ^ or tnese are a ^ tne causes they perceive. there is somewhat there. For as a man that is born blind. and being brought to warm him self by the same.8o Part i. but that they may be true being unable to detect the Impossibility. fall also upon the Supreme Authority. the cause of that cause till of neces cause sity he must come to this thought at last. is able to make a man both to believe and sometimes also to invent them. may easily conceive. OF MAN. as Adhar- : . Farmers. which men call Fire. Credulity from punishment. discharge their anger of the Causes of U On the Publicans. And hence it comes to passe. lyes. p lce and other Officers of the publique Revenue and adhaere to such as find fault with the publike Government and thereby. or love of the knowledge of causes. but is eternall which is it men call God. Chap. draws a man from consideration of the effect. suppressed. and tell them Anxiety for the future time. So that it is impos sible to make any profound enquiry into naturall causes. disposeth them to lying so that Ignorance it without Malice. . . farre as he of a Triangle. Ignorance of naturall causes disposeth a man to Credulity. disposeth men to enquire in t the causes of things because the knowledge of in : . Curiosity. And Credulity. Ignorance of remote causes. or shame of receiving pardon. when they have engaged themselves beyond hope [51] of justification. that there is some cause. to the causes immediate. . and assure himselfe. whereof there is no former caus?. because men love to be hearkened unto for feare of : . them ma keth men the better able to order the present Naturall Rehgion. * same to their best advantage. men that are grieved Ignorance with payments to the Publique. if not disputed.

the cause of the heat he feeles it is what like . And they that make little. Chap. . By which means it hath come to passe. enclined thereby to nourish. .Part is i. dresse. yet from the feare that pro ceeds from the ignorance it selfe. severall kinds of and to stand in awe of their own Powers Invisible and in time of distresse to invoke them imaginations as also in the time of an expected good successe. that from the innumerable variety of Fancy. or at least in some eminent degree therof. peculiar quality. sisteth in no cause to doubt. . by the visible things as they have that see it of this world. are enclined to suppose. not to be found in other Living creatures. or Image of him in his mind. and forme it into Lawes and to adde to it of their own invention. Superstition. And this seed of Religion. OF RELIGION. And this Feare of things invisible. : . 81 but cannot imagine nor have an Idea of it in his mind. and their admirable order. is the naturall Seed of that. SEEING there in [52] are no Man signes. a man may conceive there is a cause of them. some HOBBES . there the seed of Religion. have been . of what it is that hath the power to do them much good or harm. which men call God and yet not have an Idea. . . to give them thanks making the creatures of their own fancy. but that w Man also onely in Man and con. Religion. . which and in them that every one in himself calleth Religion worship. XII. .onelV . by which they thought they should best be able to govern others. or feare that Power otherwise than they do. is is but onely . men have created in the world innumerable sorts of Gods. CHAP. and feign unto themselves. OF MAN. 12. and make unto themselves the greatest use of their Powers. any opinion of the causes of future events. having been observed by many some of those that have observed it. nor fruit of Religion. such so also. their Gods. or no enquiry into the naturall causes of things.

fortune. but all men so much. it is peculiar to the nature of Man. . observeth how one Event hath been produced by another and remembreth in them Antecedence and And when he cannot assure himselfe of Consequence the true causes of things. whereas there is no other Felicity of Beasts. Which This perpetuall feare. and procure the good he desire th. of thngs. things. . upon the sight of any thing that hath a consideraBeginning. Chap. observabut the enjoying of their quotidian Food. not the time to t o be in a perpetuall solicitude of the time to come So that every man. wno continually endeavoureth to secure himselfe against the Anxiety of the evill he feares. devoured in the So that day. must And therefore when the Power nee(^ s have for object something. as to be curious knowing in the search of the causes of their own good and evill Causes. or other calamity and has no repose. . The prudent man. make Anxiety. and memory of the order. as it were in the Dark. alwayes accompanying mankind in the ignorance of causes. to be inquisitive into the Causes of the Events they see.} was bound to the hill Caucasus. a place of large prospect. From his Thirdly.82 First. The The two first. . poverty. consequence. (for the causes of good and evill fortune for the most part are invisible. nor pause of his anxiety. Part i. . then when it did. to think also it had a cause. especially those that are over pro vident. such as he thinks to be his friends. hath his heart all the day long. From the Secondly. rather than sooner or later. Man . and havin S little or no foresight of the time to Lusts come. OF MAN. Ease. where. for want of observation. or sna ^ arrive hereafter it is impossible for a man. For as Prometheus. an Eagle feeding on his liver. some more some lesse . 12 from his And first. and wiser than himselfe. in the care of future time. and dependance of the things they see ^ . is. : . which looks too far before him. For being assured that naturall there be causes of all things that have arrived hitherto. (which interpreted. are in an estate like to that of Prometheus. either such as his own fancy suggesteth or trusteth to the Authority of other men. as much as was repayred in the night man. gnawed on by feare of death. but in sleep.) he supposes causes of them. which determme(^ t ^ie same to begin.

but some Power. thin aereall bodies and those Invisible Agents. which they feared. that is. of Ihvieither of their good. : . think to be reall. fall upon any other conceipt. . there is nothing to accuse. men not Looking-glasse. and operations from the feare of what was to befall them in time to come. . and an Eternall cause of all things which is that which men mean by the name of God And all this without thought of their fortune the solicitude whereof. . and from thence to the cause of that cause. both enclines to fear. of the many Gods of the Gentiles) is very true. to one that is awake knowing that such apparitions are nothing else but creatures of the Fancy. or substance of the Invisible A nd supose they could not by naturall cogita. come to this. with that which or in a appeareth in a Dream. but that it was the same with that of the Soule of man and that the Soule of man. . may more easily be derived. And for the matter. But the opinion that such Spirits were Incorporeall. that the Gods were at first created by humane Feare which spoken of the Gods. and externall and therefore call them Ghosts Substances as the Latines called them Imagines. or Immateriall. For he that from any effect hee seeth come to passe. to one that sleepeth which. - : : Infinite. G 2 .P Agents. and Umbra and thought them Spirits. and Omnipotent. should reason to the next and immediate cause thereof. was of the same substance. so fancyed tion. that Agent Invisible some of the old Poets said. . . . Chap. But the acknowledging of one God Eternal!. or s/ible thln S s In which sense perhaps it was. that there rnngt fop (as~~even the Heathen Philosophers confessed) one First Mover. .Part i. save that they appear. 12. and their severall vertues. plonge himselfe profoundly in the pursuit of causes . 83 there is nothing to be seen. though men may put together shall at last . OF MAN. and . and vanish when they please. that is. or evill fortune. as there be men that feigne them. . \ . and hinders them from and thereby the search of the causes of other things gives occasion of feigning of as many Gods. could never enter into the mind of any man by nature because. to bee like them . a First. from the desire men have to know the causes of naturall than bodies. [53] (that is to say.

premeditated . but such expressions of their reverence. and then confesse their definition to be or if they give him such a title. superstito come tiously. arrive to the acknowledgement of one Infinite. and above their than to define his Nature by Spirit understanding Incorporeall.. bread into a man. another Scipio and In others have done in divers other occasions since. as they would use towards men. But know Then. with intention to make the Divine Nature words poreall . . and if the name of God be amongst them Conjuring (the Leiturgy of Witches . OF MAN. demand another Phormio s : . 12. men that by thing answering to them their own meditation. But honour ^sThe honour men.) insomuch as to believe. Omnipotent. as remote as they can from the grossenesse of Bodies Visible. especially as Charming. to words spoken. sober Behaviour. like manner they attribute their fortune to a stander by. without seeing between the antecedent and subsequent And there Event. : . men understood . to a lucky or unlucky place. it can be no other. Words. anything. to honour him with attributes. Swearing (that is. in bringing things to passe. : but Piously. they expect the like things. Submission of Body. of significations. into any thing. almost all men) have no other rule to guesse by but by observing. and remembring what they have seen to pre cede the like effect at some other time.84 Part i. [54] that know not what ^ is that we cal1 causing (that is. and Eternall God. what immeway how dj a t e causes they used. Thanks. any dependance or connexion at all fore from the like things past. for the worship which naturally men exhibite to Powers invisible. assuring one another of their . or any thing. . choose rather to confesse he is Incomprehensible. or times before. Gifts. : Chap. and hope for good or evill luck. Considerate Addresses. as Spirit. Petitions. and Incoryet they can never have the imagination of any And therefore. it is not unintelligible Dogmatically. from things that have no part at all in the As the Athenians did for their war at causing of it The Pompeian fac Lepanto. they have power to turn a stone into bread. . tion for their warre in Afrique. of contradictory signification. for the way by which they think these Invisible not the Agents wrought their effects that is to say. Thirdly.

hath grown up into ceremonies so different. that those which are used by one man. Charity. Of the former sort. 85 Beyond that reason sugpromises. and Passions of severall men. and our Blessed Saviour by whom iave been derived unto us the Lawes of the Kingdome . gesteth nothing or for further ceremonies. oil men. : . And in these f oure things.ordinary events. after one or two encounters. or good or ill successe in any particular under. consisteth which by reason of the the &quot. . Moses. with a purpose to make those men that relyed on them. were Eaw-givers of the Gentiles . taking.Devotion towards what men fear. For these seeds have received culture from two sorts Made One sort have been they. but leaves them either to rest there . and civill Society. G^imon of Ghosts. and direction but both sorts have done it. and ordered them.braham. they are very apt. &amp. Ignorance Foure of second causes. for Prognostiques of the like encounter ever after. but also to believe the like Prog nostiques from other men. Lawes. t all especially concerning their good or evill fortune in extram generall. by the time past. . men are naturally at a stand . according to their own invention. and things. .) by invoking them. have done it. 12. to rely on those they believe to be wiser than themselves. and the Of the later sort. Judgements. Chap. save that using to conjecture of the time to come. Peace. that have nourished. concerning how these Invisible Powers declare b to men the things which shall hereafter come to passe. So that the Religion of the former sort. is a part of : humane and teacheth part of the duty Politiques which Earthly Kings require of their Subjects. The other.Natufall seed of Religion different Fancies. taking of things Casuall for Prognostiques. were all the founders of Common-wealths. And and the Religion of the later sort is Divine Politiques containeth Precepts to those that have yeelded them selves subjects in the Kingdome of God. not onely to take casuall things.f God. ^ . by Gods comman dement. of whom they have once conceived a good opinion. . are for the most part ridiculous to another. And attriLastly.Part i. the more apt to Obedience. OF MAN.gt.

Men. . by the name Furies own privy members by the name of Priapus of . and built Temples to meer such as are Time. 12. Night. Love. the Planets. Concord. or withholding that Good. and a whole kingdome of Fayries. with Tritons. or possessed by some Spirit or other. to Incubi. a Calf. Chap. that they filled almost all places. and the Furies places with Larvce. n ^ Gentii isme. . which consisteth in opinions concerning the nature of Powers Invisible.86 The absurd Part i. The same authors of the Religion of the Gentiles. or Satyres with Fawnes. and letting fall. with its Lares. their arid : insomuch attributed their pollutions. the Winds. they prayed to. . or a Divel. Besides. the Ocean. Contention. . a God. an Onion. which they did not: make either a God. or Divell or by their Poets feigned to be inanimated. and spirituall Officers. a Bird. by the name of Muses their own Ignorance. that has not been esteemed amongst the Gentiles. a Crocodile. with Pan. They have also ascribed Divinity. . which is men. Deified. with spirits called Demons the the Woods. . Ghosts of men deceased. with Ghosts. Lemures. or against which they prayed. The Heaven. Women. [55] And for that part of Religion. The unformed matter of the World. . as if there were Ghosts of those names hanging over their heads. or against. and in the night time. and Qualities Day.s and thereby their aptnesse to Ignorance of causes . by the name of Chaos. a Leeke. was a God. were so many Gods. as Charon. the Earth. with his Genius Hell. . and Succubcz as there was nothing. Accidents. and the like prayed for. or Evill. Vertue. the Fire. with a . by the name . and Bugbears. plains. which a Poet could introduce as a person in his Poem. Cupid their own Rage. and Nymphs the Sea. which when they Health. and Fount ayn. : . Honour. by the name of Fortune their own Lust. . Fever. They invoked also their own Wit. Ghost of his name. or Familiars every man. Rust. there is almost nothing that has a name. for. . a Dogge. and Panises. Peace. a Snake. OF MAN. and other Nymphs every River. . and with Nymphs every house. inhabited. all Cerberus. observing the second ground for Religion. . in one place or another.

and Beasts. to Apollo . a kind of second and ministeriall Gods. . partly upon pretended . and Sculpture that the more ignorant sort. ascribing the cause of Fcecundity. OF MAN. as Bacchus. . took occasion to obtrude on their ignorance.) besides. as amongst men are taken to be against Law. not onely the shapes. Sodomie. and the actions proceeding from them. Sex. rather than against Honour. : Prayers. . and as it were housed within them. from all other humane uses that is. as of businesse. on which there was no dependance at all apparent. (that is to say. Generation. and officers. or generality of the people. Adultery. Theft. Woods. Anger. to Venus . Revenge. which naturally men conceived fit to bee used towards their Gods. the most part. and women. and any vice that may be taken for an effect of Power. partly . stand in feare of them : And endowed them and revenues. namely Oblations. as Fraud. consecrated. . and the rest formerly named . 87 attribute their fortune to causes. and whole Hands them. . Speech. . holy to those their Idols and have attributed to Mountains. were really included. might so much the more same . to ^Eolus insomuch as there was amongst the Heathen almost as great variety of Gods. some of Men. upon pretended Experience. Thanks.Part i. of Subtilty and Craft. set apart with lands. Groves. or a cause of Pleasure and all such Vices. and others . and other passions of living creatures. to other Gods stormes. Chap. (and this not onely by mixing one with but also by another. and houses. . some of Monsters Passions of men and beasts as Sense. . [56] . to Mercury of Tempests and and of other effects. and but inmates of Heaven. to the Prognostiques of time to come are naturally. some of but also the Faculties.) thinking the Gods for whose representa tion they were made. And to the Worship. to propagate the kind of Gods mixing with men. Hercules. Lust. divine Revelation the same authors of the Religion of the Gentiles. which Lastly. and made as Caverns. to beget mongrill Gods. in stead of second causes. the cause of Arts. . but Conjectures upon the Experience of time past and supernaturally. the Legislators of the Gentiles have added their Images. both in Picture. . 12.

Conjuring. Meteors. called Portenta. uncouth Births. in meer Lottery. and other famous. were accounted Theomancy. because they thought them to Dortend. as Comets. and Witchcraft and is but juggling and confederate Sometimes in the Casuall flight. 12. rare such men as have gotten credit with them . : . by the intoxicating vapour of the place. supposed to be which Possession they possessed with a divine Spirit called Enthusiasme and these kinds of foretelling . . called Thumomancy. which is very frequent in sulphurous Cavernes Sometimes in the leaves of the Sibills of whose Prophecyes (like those perhaps of Nostradamus for the fragments now extant seem to be the invention of later times) there were some books in reputation in the time of the Roman Republique Sometimes in the insignificant Speeches of Mad-men. . . or Prophecy Sometimes in the aspect of the Starres at their Nativity which was called Horoscopy. Chap. : . and esteemed a part of Sometimes in their own hopes and judiciary Astrology Sometimes in feares. or feeding of knavery birds Sometimes in the Entrayles of called Augury a sacrificed beast Sometimes which was Aruspicina .Oracles which answers. or Sometimes in the Lineaments of chattering of Birds or by Palm the face which was called Metoposcopy in casuall words. called istry in the lines of the hand O.88 Part i. : . were made ambiguous by designe. . OF MAN. as Crosse and Pile dipping of Verses in Homer.nina Sometimes in Monsters. : . . to own the event both wayes or absurd. : . have added innumerable other superstitious wayes of Divination and made men believe they should find their fortunes. from : . and Ostenta. Delos. or unusuall accidents in : Dreams . that pretended conference with the dead which is called Necromancy. : . : . Revelation. which they Ecclipses. or Presage events. and can . : : the Prediction of Witches. Ammon. Earthquakes. Inundations. or foreshew some great Calamity to come count Somtimes. and ing holes in a sive and innumerable other such vaine conceipts. and the like. : Sometimes in Croaking of Ravens. . Virgil So easie are men to be drawn to believe any thing. . . sometimes in the ambiguous or senslesse answers of the Priests at Delphi.

that those precepts which they gave Religion f the concerning Religion. than the contrary. in forme of a Dove. to make it believed. whose ends were s n s the in have to and obedience. were the lesse apt to mutiny against their . or mistaking some point of the Ceremonies required. and ignorance. and Legislators of [57] The de ~ Common -wealths amongst the Gentiles. and Festivalls. and dexterity. First. might not be thought to proceed from their own device. And therefore the first Founders. And by these. 89 with gentlenesse. only e ^ u. or other Spirit of a higher nature than mere mortalls. but from the dictates of some or else that they themselves were God. Supplications. great contagions of Sicknesse. and each mans private Misery. that the same things were displeasing to the Gods. Chap. they obtayned in order to their end. which were forbidden by the Lawes. and which divers of great authority. people keep peace. OF MAN.) that the common people in their misfortunes. 12. to imprint in their thors of the places taken care minds a beliefe. (which was the peace of the Commonwealth. . that their Lawes might the more easily be received So Numa Pompilius pretended to receive the Ceremonies he instituted amongst the Romans. or errour in their Ceremonies. And though amongst the antient Romans.Part i. men were not forbidden to deny. . to prescribe Ceremonies. that which in the Poets is written of the paines. Sunne pretended to have conferences with the Holy Ghost. or the forgetting. . and such other Institutions. by which they were to believe. : : King and founder of the Kingdome of Peru. pleasures after this life and gravity in that state have in their Harangues openly derided yet that beliefe was alwaies more cherished. first : Thirdly. came from the and their Anger from the Neglect Anger of the Gods of their Worship. to set up his new Religion. or on their own disobedience to the lawes. . Earth quakes. the and that ill anger of the Gods might be appeased success in War. Sacri fices. Secondly. they have had a care. pre tended himselfe and his wife to be the children of the and Mahomet. from the Nymph Egeria and the ^ in all . laying the fault on neglect. take hold of their fear. .

and lawes Civill. Covenant. The From the propagation of Religion. God but of his chosen is King of all the Earth by his Power But to speake more people. . and Chap. made in honour of the Gods. . . . The true But where God himselfe.90 Part i. are a part of Religion and Spirituall [5 8 ] therefore the distinction of Temporal!. . subjection to any mortall King or State whatsoever. that had against the State. Religion. 12. as for such purpose are in reputation. and commotion And therefore the Romans. that God is King of all the Earth Yet may he be King of a peculiar. there he also made to himselfe planted Religion a P ecunar Kingdome and gave Lawes. and Policy. or Company of his own. by supernaturall Revelation. but that new Religions may againe be made to spring out of them. by the culture of such men. and chosen Nation. OF MAN. And being entertained with the pomp. I have in the following discourse assigned an other place. hath there no place. the kingdome another the same. Governors. should have withall a peculiar Regiment. conquered the greatest part of the then known World. . 35. murmuring. and Powers invisible. and pastime of Festivalls. largly of the Kingdome of God. than that he that hath the generall command of the whole Army. he is King by Covenant. needed nothing else but bread. and publike Games. Domination. both by Nature. but that of the Jewes who (being the peculiar Kingdome of God) thought it unlawfull to acknowledge made no .awes of behaviour towards himselfe but also towards one Gods and thereby in the Kingdome of God. that any Religion was there ment forbidden. . that could not consist with their Civill Govern nor do we read. . it is not hard to causes of understand the causes of the resolution of the same which are only an mto * ts ^ rst seeo s or principles Religion opinion of a Deity. It is true. For there is no more incongruity there in. scruple of tollerating any Religion whatsoever in the City of Rome it selfe unlesse it had something in it. and super naturall that can never be so abolished out of humane nature. not only of &quot. And thus you see how the Religion of the Gentiles was a part of their Policy. : : ^ . . to keep them from discontent. Chap.

Injoyning in him that formeth a Religion. upon For seeing all formed Religion. .they . : signes. OF MAN. must be and (without the feare of the suspected likewise Civill Sword) contradicted and rejected. and Luxury. or addeth to it when beleefc of w it is allready formed. that ^fj^ what they require other men to believe. to whom God himselfe vouchsafeth to declare his It followeth necessarily. that make men to fall in the way of as Injustice. or secure Pleasure. is the being detected of private ends as when the belie fe they require of others. 91 founded at first. . . is an argument of ignorance and discredits him in all detects the Author in that things else he shall propound as from revelation superwhich revelation a man may indeed have of naturall many things above. as proceed from any of these rootes. or that they shall be unable to that shew any probable token of Divine Revelation the Religion which they desire to uphold. is the enjoyning of a beliefe of 5Jj* For both parts of a contradiction contradictories and therefore to enjoyne the cannot possibly be true which beleife of them. That which taketh away the reputation of Sincerity. and to labour to procure their happiness. that he that doth ordinarily such actions. as appeare to be . because they be stumbling blocks. is Chap.Part i. their sincerity. and not for love of others. or say. but also to be a holy man. as he affrighteth other men wit hall. That which taketh away the reputation of Wisedome. Prophanesse. &quot. believeth there is any such Invisible Power to be feared. they are thought to own sakes. or their love suspected. . for lesser faults? That which taketh away the reputation of Love. conduceth or seemeth to conduce to the acquiring of Dominion. to themselves onely. when they will supernaturally that have the Goverment of Religion. or saying of such things. Avarice. 12. ings are therefore called Scandalous. : : . Riches. the faith which a multitude hath in some one person. but of nothing against naturall reason. Doing c ry is the doing. Dignity. Religion : establish. shall come to have either the wisedome of those men. is ^ e on i^ not believed by themselves all which doings. Cruelty. For who can believe. For that which : [59] men do for their reap benefit by to themselves. whom they believe not only to be a wise man. or specially.

than the operation of or true P ro P nec y (which also is a Miracle . men of judgement require naturall signes. was absent but 40. * being constituted by their father Judges in Bersabee. dayes. and judged unjustly. (which are Miracles. Faith also fayled Nations. from whom they had 1. they require signes supernaturall. setting up * a Golden Calfe for their God. Faith also failed. All which causes of the weakening of mens faith. obtain no greater belief e. to choose them a King after the manner of the So that Justice f ayling.92 of the testi- Part i. : . Chap.2. Calling. when the sons and therefore cryed out to of other people Samuel. and the number of Christians encreased wonderfully every day. OF MAN. * Judges 2. by the preaching of the Apostles. to those ordinary Felicity. and Lawes of the places. For as in naturall things. First. the testimony that men can render can be no other. the Oracles ceased in all parts of the Roman Empire. 1 1 and that generation which had seen the great works of God in Israel.) before they consent inwardly. received bribes. the people of Israel refused any more to have God to be their King. in other manner than he Again. . Insomuch. manifestly appear in the Examples following. and in every place. Lastly. Want ^Miracles points of Religion. than what the Custome. 12. * i Sam. as approve not their Calling by some Miracle. that had approved his Calling to them by Miracles. and by the happy conduct of them out of Egypt. of divine Miracles or extra . we have the Example of the children of Israel who when Moses. relapsed into the Idolatry of the Egyptians. after Moses. revolted from the worship of the true God. . 3- of Samuel. from reigning over them. as they deposed their God. So that Miracles f ayling. ] . was King . . do . 8.) And therefore. and served Baal. \--Joshua. * were dead another generation arose. and from their hearts. and arguments so in supernaturall things. in which they be educated. And whereas in the planting of Christian Religion. have wrought into them. which have been received from them that did such Miracles those that are added by such. And again. \ been so lately delivered. Aaron. . recommended to them by him and *Exod\2.

they might without warre. to have it believed. . Also the Religion of the Church of Rome. 95 a great part of that successe. if he be a Priest. as easily as For who is there that it has been excluded in England. by the Schoole-men from whence there arose so many contradictions. and of his spirituall subjects. and Custome did not more sustain . that were it not for the mutuall fidence emulation of those Princes. : ^ . intention either against the will of their own Princes. . . in what Subjects ? Country soever. maketh and partly from bringing of Faith faile in the People the Philosophy. and Vales of Purgatory with other signes of private interest. into which the Priests of the Gentiles of that time. and Regulars. if by the Court of Rome. to whose profit redound the Fees of private Masses. or trouble. manifestly to the advantage of the Pope.) for no cause and his Kingdome given to one of his That the Clergy.Part i. and Holland or with their will. or not. that a King hath not his Authority from Christ. between Princes. exclude all forraign Authority. if (as I sayd) the civill Magistrate. had brought them avarice. may and Evangelists reasonably be attributed. amongst the points by the Church of Rome [6c declared necessary for Salvation. residing in the territories of other m Christian Princes. and absurdities. and many other parts of Christendome much. . there be so many. . in cases criminall ? Or who does not see. the King be judged an Heretique ? That a King (as Chilperique of France] may be deposed by a Pope (as Pope Zachary. and of Fraudulent and enclined people to revolt from them. as the fayling of Vertue in the Pastors. to the contempt. was partly. and doctrine of Aristotle into Religion. Lastly. enough to mortifie the most lively Faith. does not see. . OF MAN. for the same cause abolished in inso England. as brought the Clergy into a reputation both of Ignorance. Chap. as in France. &quot. 12. as in England. by their uncleannesse. must be judged by Authority from Rome ? That Subjects may be freed from their Alleageance. to whose benefit it conduceth. and jugling selves. cannot Marry ? That whether a Prince be born in lawfull Marriage. unlesse a Bishop crown him ? That a King. shall be exempt from the Jurisdiction of their King.

. as concerning their Felicity. . 2. For Prudence. to which another may not pretend. and infallible rules. NATURALL CONDITION of Mankind. born with us (as Prudence. eloquent. . NATURE hath made men . that howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty. but even in that Church that hath presumed most of Reformation. XIII. or more . . and especially that skill of proceeding upon generall. That which may perhaps make such equality incredible. in the faculties of *Exod. to one and the same cause and that is. than any opinion they have of the Sanctity. as well as he. Chap.) while we look after somewhat els. and man. (setting aside the arts grounded upon words. than the Vulgar men but themselves. whom by Fame. Of the CHAP. unpleasing Priests and those not onely amongst Catholiques. ^ it. is but a vain conceipt of ones owne wisdome. they approve. that are in the same danger with himselfe. or of quicker mind then another yet when all is reckoned together. than that of strength.. and but in few things nor attained. in those things they equally apply themselves unto. is but Experience equally bestowes on all men. so equall. called Science which very few have. Yet they will hardly believe . as that one man can thereupon claim to himselfe any benefit. . the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest. which almost all men think they have that is. . either by secret machination. as being not a native faculty. and Misery.92 If the Part i. . such is the nature of men. And as to the faculties of the mind. is not so considerable. 12. than all in a greater degree. For or for concurring with themselves. Judges 2 ! iSam. and a few others. OF MAN. c [61] as that though there bee found one body. and mind man sometimes manifestly stronger in body. or Probity of their Teachers ? So that I may attribute all the changes of Religion in the world. or more learned . Wisdome.) I find yet a greater equality amongst men. the difference between man. or by confederacy with others. which equall time. For as to the strength of body. I.

And by consequence. to dispossesse. or subdue one an other. such augmentation of dominion over men. that where an Invader hath no more to if one plant. which they pursue farther than their security requires . For there is not ordinarily a greater signe of the equall distribution of any thing. than an other mans single power i build. Also because there be some. 13. or liberty. sow. . than that every man is contented with his share. Ends. that taking pleasure in contemplating their own power in the acts . by standing only on their defence. should not by invasion increase their power. or possesse a convenient Seat. Invader again is in the like danger of another. ariseth equality of hope From Diffidence. by force. Againe. till he see no other persons And this is no power great enough to endanger him more than his own conservation requireth. But this 7 pro\ eth rather that men are in that point equafl. but also of his life. feare.his companion should value him. so reasonable. men desire the same thing. and sometimes their delectation only. 95 For they see their be many so wise as themselves wit at hani. others may probably be expected to come prepared with forces united. ovvst From this equalityjof ability. there is no From . men have no pleasure. not only of the fruit of And the his labour. And from hence it comes to passe. looketh tha4. and deprive him.Part i. where there For every man is no power able to over-awe them all. it ought to be allowed him. and is gene rally allowed. And cannot both enjoy. than unequal!. OF MAN. (but on the contrary a great deale of griefe) in keeping company. and other mens at a distance. to subsist. And from this diffidence of one another. or wiles. in the attaining of our&quot. . they would not be able. if others. as Diffidence that is. : of conquest. so long. : Chap. to master ihe Warre Anticipation of all men he can. way for any man to secure himselfe. that otherwise would be glad to be at ease within modest bounds. they become enemies and in the way to their End. long time. (which is principally their owne conserva tion. therefore if any two Equality which neverthelesse they .) endeavour to destroy. being necessary to a mans conservation. at the And upon all signes same rate-^e sets upon himselfe : \ j 1 I J .

or by reflexion in their The first. children. and cattell the third. Glory. they at condition which is called Warre are and such fhere^s a warre For as is of every man.where the same every man is Enemy to every man tie fsuch s consequent to the time.. : 1 . their Profession. Secondly. a smile. than what their own strength. wherein the Will to and therefore contend byHBatteH is sufficiently known o every the notion of Time. for Safety . as a word. Hereby it without a m^ &amp. during fighting all the time there is no assurance to the contrary. maketh men invade for Gain the second. Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre. and the third. wives. or undervaluing. and any other signe of undervalue. The first use Violence. t Par. : . . either direct in their Persons. consisteth not in actuall but in the known disposition thereto. to persons.) to extort a greater value from his contemners. against every man. lyeth not in a showre or two but in an inclination thereto of many dayes of rain together So the nature of War.^ commodi. we find three . nor use of the comiriv dities that Out of is Civil ^ J&amp. . All other time is PEACE. . or their manifest. ^ bySo that in the nature of . defend them a different opinion. for Reputation.. Competition dence Thirdly. principall causes of quarrell. for trifles.gt. First. is to be considered in the nature of Warre as it is in the nature of Weather. . of contempt. their Nation.96 Part i. that during the time men live to keep them all in awe. but_jn_a Jjact of _ time. is fav enou^vt to the example. consisteth not in Battell onely. or the act of every 01 fighting. In such con because the fruit dition. . ahoayesl Warre J/ WARRE. Kindred. The In. and their own invention shall furnish them withall. their Friends. : . Name. man. to make themselves Masters of other mens the second.gt. Diffi .iz. common Power . OF MAN. naturally endeavtherne. \ . there is no place for Industry and consequently no C \lture of the thereof is uncertain Earth no Navigation. far as he dares (which amongst them that havnu^o common power to keep them in quiet. by dommage ani from others. For as the nature of Foule weather. make them destroy each other. - . wherein men live without other security.

brutish. when taking a journey. Does he not there as much accuse mankind by his actions. when he rides armed and of his children. . may be imported by Sea no commodious Building no Instruments of moving. to revenge all injuries shall bee done him what opinion he has of of his fellow his fellow subjects. as I do by my words ? But neither of us accuse mans nature in . much Earth . and short. nor condition of warre as this and I believe it was never generally so. For the savage people in many places of America. when he locks his chests. till they have agreed upon the Person that shall make it. Howsoever. . desire perhaps to Let him have the same confirmed by Experience. and publike Officers. of violent death danger poore. . . are in them No more are the Actions. that proceed Sin. and other Passions of man. made from the Passions. when he locks his dores and servants. : Jat this and live pn naturall lust.99 Part i. as I said before. till they know a Law that forbids no i which till Lawes be made they cannot know nor can any Law be made. except the govern ment of . require . and destroy one another and he may therefore. and render men apt to invade. It may seem strange to some man. there was never such a time. . . he armes himself e. It may peradventure be thought. those Passions. it may be perceived what manner of life there would be. which men that have . . 13. nasty. . . continuall feare. solitary. * . Citizens. it. . . The selves from Desires. when going to sleep. - . and seeks to go well accompanied .small Families. he locks his dores when even in and this when he knowes his house he locks his chests there bee Lawes. and removing such things as no Knowledge of the face of the force no account of Time no Arts no Letters no and which is worst of all. the concord whereof dependeth them : : f [63] . that has not well that Nature should thus disso weighed these things ciate. and Society And the life of man. where there were no common Power to feare by the manner of life. armed. OF MAN. . where they live so now. Chap. HOBBES . not trusting to this Inference. have no government at all day in that brutish manner. : therefore consider with himself e. over all the world but there are many places.

cuubec|lieiil nothing -5 is notions oi Rignt ana wrong. and Justice. continuall Spyes a posture of there does not follow the Industry of their Subjects from it. in a civill Warre. it. are Feare oi Death Desire of such things as are necessary to com modious living and a Hope by their Industry to obtain . They are Qualities. Peace. wherein particular men were in a condition of warre one against another yet in all times. and Persons of Soveraigne authority. their Forts.Jlo Law : where no Law. na Injustice. formerly lived under a peacefull government. are in continuall jealousies. which man by meer Nature is actually placed in though with a possi bility to come out of it. i: ^ i there no place. . that there be no Propriety. Where there is no common Power. The Passions tha incline /^The them. use to degenerate into. no Dominion. Peace. no Mine and Thine distinct but onely that to be every and for so long. and Injustice are none of the Faculties neither of the Body. . Garrisons. . Passions that encline men to Peace. consisting partly in the Passions. Fraud.6 Part i. But though there had never been any time. . which otherwise are called the Lawes of Nature whereof I shall speak more particu larly. that relate to men in It is consequent also to the Society. that misery. which accompanies the Liberty of . because of their Independency. fixed eyes and Guns upon the Frontiers of their Kingdomes and . : And Reason suggesteth convenient upon which men may be drawn to Articles of . Kings. in the two following Chapters. To this warre of every man against every man. . there Is&quot. not in Solitude. Justice and Injustice have (S **. and in the state and posture of Gladiators having their weapons pointing. . But because they uphold thereby. they might be in a man that were alone in the world. as he can keep mans. These Articles. If they were. and Passions. The also Warre. nor Mind. OF MAN. are they. agreement. particular men. 13. that he can get . . same condition. this In such a thai nothing can be Unjust. Chap. . as well as his Senses.- 4 is. which is upon their neighbours War. Force. And thus much for the ill condition. and their on one another that is. &quot. men to partly in his Reason. are in warre the two Cardinall vertues.

and Lex. may oft take away Impediments art of a mans power to do what hee would but annot hinder him from using the power left him. hee shall conceive to be the 5t means thereunto. Chap. it is reciprocally transferred. eit^ Qwn Reason and there not be a hel that the^ against his en emyes It . as Obligation. man cai. that.\lri because the condition of Man. CHAP. a &quot. (as hath been Naturally man :i *h e precedent Chapter) is a condition of every man st e in which case one Whensoever. y ^LIBERTY. . which in his own Judgement. T &quot. Reason. : ^S ht . which is destructive of his life. ition? e veryman has a Ri ght some Good to himselfe. found _out_.} is a Precept. i |o confound Jus. of his own Life and THE RIGHT OF NATURE. for the preservation of what his own Nature that is to say. or to forbeare so that Law. and Reason. by which he thinketh it may be best prerved. A LAW OF NATURE. XIV. by.Part I. . Difference f a/l p Whereas LAW. 99 [64] Of the first and second NATURALL LA WES. - . or enerall Rule.gt. deterliberty to do. . that. is understood. as Tie will himself e. . #fHng as his judgement. to use his Mature own power. and of CONTRACTS. of &amp. which is Jus Naturale. which no man to e & ht of e or other signes. the absence of externall which Impediments. and ineth. For though they that speak of this subject. And 1 &quot. 1 nouncethit. . and taketh away the means of preserving the same o omit. differ as much. 14. A Law Nature. good he hopeth for and of the voluntary a. of&amp. mothers And there . OF MAN. according to the proper signmcation~~bT the word. and reason shall dictate o him. Writers commonly call Right of the Liberty each man hath. and Liberty one and the same matter are inconsistent. consequently. Right and Law yet they because RIGHT. Rights.lt. (Lex Naturalis.gt. use : Liberty what - . to have a first a man cannot lay dov body&amp. by which a man forbidden to do. of doing any thing.r . and bindeth to one of them which ight. consisteth ught to be distinguished .

ought to endeavour Peace. of doing&quot. thing endureth. that\ do ye o them.ioo Part i. And consequently it is a precept. By all means we can. The Second. is but so much ^otherwise are called the the use of his own which every man li own are wMheir hi* &amp. * our are selves. From this Fundamentall Law of Nature. the summe of the Right of Nature which is. and use. which Nature ordinarily alloweth men to live. Chap. h^ a Rigat which he had not I/ - &quot. containeth the . The first branch of which Rule. as for Peace. ^e Right ishall speak more particu- . . or generall rule of Reason. To lay downe a mans Right to any thing. . alteri ne feceris. to defend . and advantages of Warre. Whatsoever you require that others should do to you. of Right. all helps. secon d Law That a man be willing. This is that Law of the Gospell . is to deves\ himselfe of the Liberty. . For as Ic-ng . .mah liketh holdeth this Right. : t non What it is vis.) of living out the time. is derived ti.gt.gt. The second Nature as farre-forth. 14. when others are so as~every&quot. by which T ^n commanded to endeavour Peace. as farre as he fo as fo p e O j obtaining it . as we! then there is no Reason for any one. any thing he so long are all men in the condition of Warre. Quod tibi fier.rp nothing to his but onely standeth out of to Peace are Fear e of necessary to cornoriginall Right. to obtain industry not without hindrance from f which redoundeth to one m/ convenient Articles of drawn to agreement.follo. That every man. to lay down this right to all things . shall think it necessary.e^and. which is. and be contented with so much liberty against other men.. of hindring another of the benefit the same&amp. and defence of himselfe he [S^too. (how strong or wise soever he be. as he_wguld allow other men against himselfe. _o_ Urst. But if other men will not lay down their Right. giveth not to any other ma*] r ^^/&quot. The FundaLflwo/ Nature. and when he cannot obtain it^ that he may seek. For he that renounce!! of his own Ri S ht \ or passeth away his Right. to devest as he For that were to expose himselfe to himselfe of his Prey. there can be no security to any man. OF MAN.w_it. (which no man is bound to) rather than to dis-jj pose himselfe to Peace. And that Law of all men. and Fundament all Law of Nature seek Peac.apters.

. or Re. : Rights. And therefore there be some . or Transferre hath so Renounced. and Injury. it . 14. As first a man cannot lay down the right of resisting them. Bonds. . or other signes. Renounceth. then is he said to be OBLIGED. By Simply RENOUNhe cares not to whom the benefit thereof 8 a it is By TRANSFERRING man hath in either . voluntarily to undo that.Part i. and INJURY. INJUSTICE. to whom such Right is tlon and that granted. And when a manner abandoned. which no man can be understood by any words. that he doth so Renounce. rupture. which from the beginning he had volun The way by which a man either simply tarily done. as being Sine Jure or transferred. to Absurdity. beii^g before renounced. in the controversies of the world. not to hinder those. that by which men are bound. from the benefit of it he Ought. is somewhat like to that. by some voluntary and sufficient signe. to have abandoned. to him that accepteth it. or transferred. (for nothing is more easily broken then a mans word. it is called Injustice. which in the disputations of Scholers is called For as it is there called an Absurdity. So that Injury. or Actions onely both Words. . For it is a voluntary act and of the voluntary acts of every man. Obligagranted away his Right or BOUND. not to make voyd that Duty. or Injustice. is a Declaration. : have not from their own Nature. And these Signes are either Words or (as it happeneth most often) onely. is OF MAN. and obliged : . and Actions. it Chap. or Transferred the same.Not all either in consideration of some Right Rights are or for some other reciprocally transferred to himself e good he hopeth for thereby. r ing Right or what. or Transferreth his Right. nounceth it is . to another. so contradict what one maintained in the Beginning in the world. and that such hindrance is voluntary act of his own the Right Injustice. layd aside. the object is some Good to himselfe.) but from Feare of some evill consequence upon the their strength. Trans fer . when he intendeth w^ a( the benefit thereof to some certain person. fvP3 Right or . - : : . his Right. Whensoever a man Transferreth it . or or signes. or persons. and it is his DUTY. And the same are the BONDS. or Signification. either by simply Renouncing Renounc by Transferring CING when redoundeth. or abandoned.

the Thing For the Thing may be delivery of the Thing it selfe. . or other signes. and in the means of so pre serving life. to take away his life because he cannot be understood to ayme thereby. and transferring of Right is introduced. or im as also because a man cannot tell. or in hope to gain the reputation of Charity. is not mutuall but one of the parties trans ferreth. 14. or lands that assault . There is difference. and leave the other to perform his part at some determinate time after.02 Part i. and Imprisonment as there is to the benefit consequent to such patience patience of suffering another to be wounded. Contract what. . as not to be weary of it. in his life. in hope to gain thereby friendship. : after. and in the mean and then the Contract on his part. or service from another. . of Faith. seem to despoyle him selfe of the End. may deliver the Thing contracted for on his part. or from his friends . or that it but that he was ignorant of how such was his will words and actions were to be interpreted. : . his perform and the ance is called Keeping of Promise. him by force. And therefore if a man by words. is nothing else but the security of a mans person. The mutuall transferring of Right. Chap. is time be trusted Covenant called PACT. or tradition. one of the Contractors. when he prisoned seeth men proceed against him by violence. for which those signes were intended he is not to be understood as if he meant it. OF MAN. he that is to performe in time to come. and to himselfe. that is. delivered together with the Translation of the Right or exchange as in buying and selling with ready mony and it may be delivered some time of goods. being trusted. Again. both because there is no Chayns. is that which mon call CONTRACT. whether they intend his death or not. or COVENANT Or both parts may contract what. : : . . between transferring of Right to and transferring. at any Good The same may be sayd of Wounds. now. . And lastly the motive. to performe hereafter in which cases.100 . . and end for which this renouncing. or Magna- . . When the transferring of Right. or Faith fayling of performance (if it be voluntary) Violation .

in the former give it thee to morrow manner of speech. Signes of Contract. and Free gift contain a bare promise. But if the words be of the time Present. 14. morrow. / have given. GRACE signifie one and the same thing. signifies an act of the will Present but in the later. are a signe I have not given yet. . and consequently that my right is not transferred. Words alone. Volo hoc tuum esse eras. are sometimes the consequence sometimes the consequence of Silence some. but remaineth till I transferre it by some other Act. 103 or to deliver his mind from the pain of com . it signifies a promise of an act of the will to Come and therefore the former words. / Give. I Grant. f r. are either Expresse. : .[67] nes times the consequence of Actions somtimes the conse^Sn of an Action a and quence Forbearing generally signe b by Inference. argues the will of the Contractor. they or p a st. that be of Present. This is not which words Free-gift. or Past. Words . is whatsoever sufficiently ence Signes by . But if there be other signes of the Will to transferre a Right. : . To morrow I will Give. / will For the word / will. or Past as. yet may the Right be understood to passe by words of the future as if a man propound a Prize to him that comes first to the will that this be thine to : between / . called of PROMISE. transferre a future right the Future. FREE-GIFT. if they be of the time to come. Signes of Contract Expresse.Part I. words. as. Contract. or in hope of reward in heaven . Chap. besides Words . though the gift be Free. or do give to be delivered to morrow. or by Inference. and Cras dabo . I will Grant : which words of the future. . as. of any Contract. I will that this be yours : Or of the future as. Inference. transferre nothing. are an insufficient signe of P assef h by a Free-gift and therefore not obligatory. And there is a great difference in the signification of these that is. : j^ . For if they %p?e / ent be of the time to Come. I have Granted. away to day though there were no other argument of my will. then is my to morrows Right given and that by the vertue of the words. passion . OF MAN. are nimity : - : . I have Given. are words spoken with understanding of what Ex esse And such words are either of the time P* they signifie Present. . / will Give. then. being of the the later. and. but GIFT.

yet the Right passeth for if he would not have his words so be understood. But there is between these two sorts of Merit. and Meritum condigni. I merit at the Contractors the Giver In this [68] hand that hee should depart with his right case of Gift. or Past but also where are f tne Future all Contract is mutual! because bothofthd and therefore he that Past. For the Right is transferred in the Propounding of the Prize. rather than anothers. 14. performance of the other Also when a Prize is propounded to many. and Limits pre- . I Merit by vertue of my own power. : . the right passeth. and other acts of Contract. Pre.translation. ^Y : . in buying. that In Contract. is to be understood as if he intended the for unlesse he Right should passe had been content to have his words so understood. . : . js . . which is to be given to him onely that winneth or mony is thrown amongst many. And for that cause. to be enjoyed by them that catch it though this be a Free gift yet so to Win. and the Contractors need but in this case of Free gift. .104 Part I- OF MAN. . benefit for which he promiseth. the other would not have performed his part first. having promised Paradise to those men (hoodwinkt with carnall desires. And this I think to be the meaning of that distinction of the Schooles. and selling. it his right should be mine. He . In Contracts. or change of Right sent. For God Almighty. that performeth first in the case of a Contract. and therefore obligatory. The gift is Free and though the words be of the Future. a Promise is equivalent to a Covenant end \ . and to have it as DUE. I am enabled to Merit onely by the benignity of In Contract. . of a race. sa id ^0 MERIT that which he is to receive by the and he hath it as Due. is to Merit. not onely where the Signes of Contract WO rds are of the time Present. or so to Catch. and in throwing down the mony though it be not determined to whom. I Merit not that the giver should part with but that when he has parted with it. because he hath already received the Future. he should not have let them runne. Merit wlat.) that can walk through this world according to the Precepts. . and promiseth onely. this difference. : Chap. between Meritum congrui. but by the Event of the contention.

does but betray himselfe to his enemy contrary to the demand a . with out the feare of some coerceive Power which in the condition of meer Nature. . and where there is a Power set up to constrain those that would otherwise violate their and for that faith. If a Covenant be made. : . Right (he can never abandon) of defending his life. with right and force sufficient to it is not Voyd. that feare is no more reasonable cause. is obliged so to do. . as onely this I say a prize to be contended for. has no assurance the other will performe after because the bonds of words are too weak to bridle mens ambition. but trust one another dition of meer Nature. . or other signe of the Will not to performe else it cannot make the invalid. no man can Merit Paradise ex condigno. it is Voyd set over them both. but by the Free Grace of God onely they say. (which is a condition of Warre of every man against every man. . he that shall so walk. . . in a civill estate. For that which could not hinder a man from promising. The cause of feare. For he that percompell performance formeth first. by his own Righteousnesse. shall But because no man can congruo. anger. which maketh such a Covenant must be alwayes something arising after the Covenant made as some new fact. ought not to be admitted as a hindrance of performing. : . Chap. right to it. This I say. means But of living. and may claime the Prize as Due. 105 scribed by him Merit Paradise Ex they say. wherein neither of the parties Covenants in the con. he which by the Covenant is to perform first.Part i. I think is the meaning of that distinction . 14. and other Passions. where all men are equall. avarice. but because Disputers do not agree upon the signification of their own termes of Art. cannot possibly be supposed. And therfore he which performeth first.) upon any reasonable But if there be a common Power suspition.ofMutuall performe presently. he that winneth Meriteth. . . and judges of the justnesse of their own fears. : Covenant voyd. OF MAN. . or any other power in himselfe. longer than it serves their I will not affirme any thing of their meaning turn when a gift is given indefinitely.

they understand Beasts. which before was thought possible. it selfe. Means. 14. to the unfeigned endeavour of performing as much as is for to more no man can be obliged. Performing is For Performance. are understood to give him the right of levying mony to maintain Souldiers and of appointing Magis . As he that selleth Land. Containeth Right to the of enjoying it. . not. and bindeth. either by Revela govern under him. binds them. to promise that is r And how made voyd. Chap. is an act of the Will and the last act. Future. Revela tion. the . acceptation. as farre as lyeth in his power. . per forme. Vow in vain Law of Nature. and in his Name For otherwise we know not whether our Covenants be accepted. The matter. To make Covenant with God. but by is Mediation of such as out special tion supernatural!. the Covenant is valid. . To make Covenants with bruit Beasts. is understood to transferre the Herbage. sible afterwards. : trates for the administration of Justice. if that also be impossible. nor can [69] translate any Right to another and without mutuall . possible Covenants Men are freed of their Covenants two wayes by . nor accept of any translation of Right . and whatsoever growes upon it Nor can he that sells a Mill turn away the Stream that drives it. No Cove nant^ but of Pos sible and pay such Vow. and Forgivenesse.) and is therefore and alwayes understood to be something to come which is judged Possible for him that Covenanteth. : . or subject of a Covenant. but the Law that .) yet to the value or. No Cove is impossible nant with because not understanding our speech. or not. OF MAN. He that transferreth any Right. (though not to the thing therefore. the naturall end of obligation . to . God speaketh by : to. which is know n to be no Covenant. And it is if it as being a thing unjust to be a thing commanded by the not the Vow. transferreth the Means End. And therefore they that Vow any thing contrary to any law or his Lieutenants that of Nature. or by being Forgiven. But if that prove impos Impossible. of deliberation . is impossible.io6 Right the to Part i. . Covenant. there Nor God with with no Covenant. is alwayes (For to something that falleth under deliberation that is to say an act. And they that give to a man the Right of government in Soveraignty.

formance. I am bound to pay it. or so. Chap. 107 restitution of liberty as being a re-transferring of that Right. and Prison. in the condition of rpeer Covenants extorted by Nature. or the benefit of life and consequently. are obligatory. . where no other Law service for it (as in the condition. feare For whatsoever : I may lawfully do without Obliga tion. : makes voyd ^ater the is J alwayes voyd. Unlesse I do so. ^^ e re d . which is death in resisting certain and present death in not resisting. For a man that hath passed away his Right to one man to day. to an enemy ^ am bound by it. and therehath it not to passe to morrow to another fore the later promise passeth no Right. And if a weaker Prince. . makes voyd a later. OF MAN. me. A former Covenant. (the avoyding Covenant whereof is the onely End of laying down any Right. and just cause of feare. if I be forced to redeem my selfe from a Theefe by promising him mony. For example. For man by nature chooseth the lesser evill. the Covenant is valid. in no Covenant transferreth any right nor is obliging. And this is granted to be true by all men. . Unlesse I do so. 14. when you come to kill me. if I Covenajj : to pay a ransome. the same I may lawfully Covenant to do through and what I lawfully Covenant. . Covenants entred into by fear. . notwith.%* break. or so. and [70] not to therefore the promise of not resisting force. I cannot lawfully The former &quot. with armed men. which is danger of rather than the greater. A Covenant not to defend my selfe from force. till the Civill Law discharge : . For (as I have shewed before) no man can transferre. . And even in Common-wealths. or service for my life. For it is a Contract. by force. of meer Nature) forbiddeth the per . to renew the war. make a are obliged to pay it a stronger.Part i. if trusted with the payment of their Ransome. Therefore Prisoners of warre. I will not resist you. for feare he is with disadvantageous peace unlesse (as hath been sayd before) bound to keep it there ariseth some new. kill me he cannot Covenant thus. in that they lead Criminals to Execution. Wounds. or lay down his Right to save himselfe ^^ans from Death. and Imprisonment. but is null. in which the obligation consisted. For though a man may Covenant thus. wherein one receiveth the other is to receive mony.

or senwhich are the greatest part of Mankind. but two imaginable helps to strengthen it. No man obliged io accuse himself. and light. Of these two. yet the feare of the later is commonly the greater Feare. Wife. OF MAN. if it be not willingly given. is praesumed to be corrupted by Nature and therefore not to be received and where a mans Testimony is not to be credited. or false Accusation. 14. though the former be the greater Power. . the Accusation is followed with Punishment which being Force. his own Religion which hath place in the nature of man before Civill Society. And those are either a Feare of or a Glory. he is not bound to give it. Chap. where every man is Judge. or Benefactor. by whose Condemnation a man as of a Father. . b} which they are condemned. search of truth tendeth to the ease of him that is Tortured not to the and therefore ought not to informing of the Torturers have the credit of a sufficient Testimony for whether he deliver himselfe by true. are not to be reputed as Testimonies. is likewise invalide. . . A Covenant to accuse ones selfe. without assurance of For in the condition of paj Ion. The later hath not so at least not place enough. : . especially in the pursuers of Wealth. The Power of those men they shall Invisible therein Offend. . Also Accusations upon Torture. suall Pleasure The Passion to be reckoned upon. falls into misery For the Testimony of such an Accuser. This later is a Generosity too rarely found to be presumed on. there is no place for Accusation and in the Civill State.io8 Part i. : one. a man is not obliged not to resist. of Spirits the other. be two very generall Objects . and and what is in that case confessed. he does it by the Right of preserving his own life. being (as I have formerly noted) too weak to hold men to the performance of their Cove nants there are in mans nature. standing that such Criminals have consented to the Law. Nature. The Power : . . For Torture is to be used but as means of conjecture. in the further examination. : : . to keep men to their promises . The Feare of the former is in every man. The force of Words. Command. : : The End of an Oath. is Fear whereof there . The same is also true. of the Accusation of those. or the consequence of breaking their word Pride in appearing not to need to breake it.

: . / shall do thus. as men do in common discourse. but the feare of that Invisible Power. there is nothing can strengthen a Covenant of Peace agreed on. so help me God. or other strong desire. byofanOath. that unlesse he performe. that sweareth. is a Forme of Speech. Chap. is in and no Oath And that there is no Swearing by vain any thing which the Swearer thinks not God. 109 because in the condition of of meer Nature. is not Swearing. that the Oath addes nothing to the An Oath For a Covenant. : useth in his faith own Religion. Ambition. with the Rites and Ceremonies. if lawfull. any other Forme. is but prophaning of his name and Swearing by other things. 14. as I kill this Beast. signifieth. then his. as much as with it if unlawfull. OF MAN. thereby understood. the inequality Power is not discerned. they attributed to them Divine honour. or Rite. And that Swearing unnecessarily by God. might be the greater. that an Oath taken according to but byGod. is to put one another Which Swearing. and thus.Part i. For though men have sometimes used to swear by their Kings. that the feare of breaking No Oath. bindeth not at all though it be confirmed tion. So is our Forme. . which he that promiseth. It appears Obligation. binds in the addes n s ght of God. And this. vengeance on himselfe. for feare. or calleth to him for Such was the Heathen Forme. By this it appears. but by the event of Battell. added to a Promise-. gotten by too much vehemence : of talking. but an impious Custome. So that before the time of Civill Society. or flattery yet they would have it . which they every one and Feare as a Revenger of their Worship as God All therefore that can be done between two [71] perfidy. men not subject to Civill Power. or in the inter ruption thereof by Warre. he renounceth the mercy of his God. or The forme to swear by the God he feareth OATH. also. which every one . Lust. . with an Oath. : . Let Jupiter kill me else. without the Oath. against the temptations of Avarice.

aTe~iri&quot. which by nmfciall Contract men acquire. . CHAP. there and where there is no coerceive Power where there is no Common-wealth. . Lawes of Nature. But when a Covenant is made. But because Covenants of mutuall trust. that is. [72] Fountain For where no Covenant hath preceded. is Just.vaiiT. to compell men equally to the performance of their Covenants. cannot be done. no Propriety. there must be some coercive Power. there followeth a Third . .) are invalid though the Origin all of Justice be the making of Covenants yet Injustice actually there can be none. there is no Injustice . Therefore before the names of Just. (as hath been said in the former Chapter. that Justice is the constant Will Schooles of giving to every man his own. The third Law of Nature. consisteth the and Origin all of JUSTICE. where there is a feare of not performance on either part. without words wee are . That men performe Covenants made : men Empty still in the condition of Warre. by which we are obliged to transferre to another. 15. Justice and In justice what. every man has right to every thing no action can be Unjust. in recompence of the universall Right they and such power there is none before the abandon And this is also to be erection of a Common-wealth. their^ which. is no other than the not Performance of Covenant.no Part i. all men having Right to all things : is no Propriety Therefore where there . . and and consequently. Justice. Justice and Pro priety begin with the Consti tution of Common wealth. . that is. And therefore where there : is no Own. : gathered out of the ordinary definition of Justice in the For they say. as being retained. there hath no Right been transferred. XV. which is this. such Rights. And whatsoever is notTInjusl. Of other Chap. greater than the benefit and to they expect by the breach of their Covenant make good that Propriety. and Unjust can have place. till the cause of which while men are in the such feare be taken away naturall condition of Warre. and but and the Right of all to all things remaining. then to break it is Unjust : And the definition of INJUS TICE. . erected. hinder the peace of Mankind.n^vManTs&quot. OF MAN. by the terrour of some punishment. in this And law of Nature. FROM that law_qf Nature.

He does not therein deny. there is no such Justice not and sometimes also with his tongue Contrary thing as Justice Reason seriously alleaging. there could be no reason. Succesfull wickednesse hath obtained the name of Vertue and some that in all other things have disallowed the violation of Faith yet have allowed it. which dictateth to every man his own good and particularly thenj when it conduceth to such a benefit. sometimes kept such breach of them may be called Injustice. From such reasoning as this.hen : . . dome of God is gotten by violence but what if it could be gotten by unjust violence ? were it against Reason so to get it.) may not sometimes stand with that Reason. that Saturn was deposed by his sor Jupiter. . when it conduced to ones benefit. . - : . as shall put a ma^ in a condition. why every man might not do what and therefore also to he thought conduced thereunto make. there nothing is Unjust. : . when it is for the getting of a Kingdome. 15. sufficient to compell men to And then it is also that Propriety begins. &amp. or not keep Covenants. but also the power of other men. consisteth in keeping of valid Covenants but the Validity of Covenants begins not but with the Constitution of a Civill Power.lt. . that every mans conservation. (for the same Foole hath said in his heart there is no God. to neglect not onely the dispraise. : : : . Chap.Part is i. in no Common -wealth. or not make keep. it is not against Justice or else Justice is not to be approved for good. and the observance of them Justice but he questioneth. that there be Covenants and that and that they are sometimes broken. believed neverthelesse the same Somewhat like Jupiter to be the avenger of Injustice to a piece of Law in Cokes Commentaries on Litleton where he sayes. whether Injustice. was not against Reason. keep them The Foole hath sayd in his heart. OF MAN. taking away the feare of God. when it is impossible to receive hurt by it ? and if it be not against Reason. ana The Kingrevilings. And the Her that believed. If the right Heire of the Crown be attainted of Treason yet the Crown shall descend to From him. and contentment. and eo instante the Atteynder be voyd which instances a man will be very prone to inferre : : . : . So that the nature of Justice. . being committed to his own care.

is an Enemy. he and if he live in Society. OF MAN. 15. to defend himselfe from destruction. &amp. For the question is not of promises mutuall. that r a condition of Warre. but by the errour of them that receive him Ana .gt. This specious reasoning is neverthelesse false. or cast out of Society. where there is no security of performance on either side as when there is no Civill Power erected over the parties for such promises are no Covenants But promising either where one of the parties has performed already or where there is a Power to make him performe there is the question whether it be against reason. : . tendeth to his own destruc tion. Mng .gt. be retayned in it. [73] can never be against Reason. canned be received into any Society. or not. For the manifestatic whereof. for want of a common Power to keep them all in }.H2 Parti. wherein every man to every a. : . it . . Secondly. that unite themselves foi Peace and Defence. which notwithstanding any thing can be foreseen. that when the Heire apparent of a Kingdome. . can in reason expect no other means of safety. . He therefore that breaketh his Covenant. . . it is by the errours perisheth is .doth a thing. or wit. there is no man can hope by his own st ength. than what can be had from his own single Power. T say it is not against reason. without seeing which errours a man cannot the danger of their errour reasonably reckon upon as the means of his security and therefore if he be left. and consequently declareth that he thinks he may with reason do so. and reckoned on. that and therefore he which declares he any one else does thinks it reason to deceive those that help him. or by what other name you will yet . we are to consider First. may turne it to his benefit yet such events do k^r make it reasonably or wisely done. seeing all the voluntary actions of men tend to the benefit of themselves and those actions are most Reasonable. nor when he received. that conduce most to their ends. Chap. howsoever some accident which he could not expect. though his father you may call it Injustice. shall kill him that is in possession. &amp. that when a mai. : . that is. where every one without the help of Confederates expects the same defence by the Confederation. . against the benefit of the other to performe.

the same ought in reason to have been they aYe sufficient to have hindred the making of it. OF MAN. breaking. the Soveraigne Power constituted over them by their own consent. is a Rule of Reason. but rather the contrary and because by gaining it so. and such as use not to performe ^f j/^. as all men that contribute not to his servation destruction. yet because it . .Part i. There be some that proceed further and will not have the Law of Nature. to be those Rules which con duce to the preservation of mans life on earth but to the attaining of an eternall felicity after death to which and they think the breach of Covenant may conduce (such are they consequently be just and reasonable . or rebell [74] against. forbear him onely out of ignorance of what is good for themselves. nor reckon and consequently against the reason of his pre and so. . . 113 men. but onely a beliefe grounded upon other mens saying. by any way there being but one way imaginable and that is not of other upon . which he could not foresee. but keeping of Covenant. Others. by which we are forbidden to do any thing destructive to our life and consequently a Law of Nature. follow. / their Covenant to others And this also is against reason. that is to say. . that think it a work of merit to kill. the Person For if any fault of a man. : HOBBES I . that knew them. 15. And for the other Instance of attaining Soveraignty it is manifest. the Justice therefore. that knew others. Keeping of Covenant. As for the Instance of gaining the secure and per it is frivolous petual felicity of Heaven. others are taught to gain the same in like manner. that they know it supernaturally. cannot reasonably be expected. do neverthelesse make exception of certain perc a f db sons as Heretiques. or that they know those. . or depose. attempt thereof is against reason.) But because there is no naturall much lesse of knowledge of mans estate after death the reward that is then to be given to breach of Faith . that knew it Breach of Faith cannot be called a Pre superuaturally cept of Reason. . f . be sufficient to discharge our to whom Covenant made . that allow for a Law of Nature. that though the event by Rebellion . : . . . Chap. the keeping of Covenants n ls ~ Faith. . or Nature.

OF MAN.) by which a man scorns to be beholding for the contentment of his life. or Inconformity of Manners.) supposeth an individuall person Injured namely him. does not lose that Title. though the meaning be the same. . another.ii4 Justice of Part i. When they are attriDute d to Men. is he that neglecteth it. say Injury. or breach of promise. where Justice is called a Vertue Injustice a Vice. 15. and Unjust . &amp. : . or Persons nor does an Unrighteous man. for such Actions. . signifie Chap. whom he had before Covenanted to but the dammage redoundeth to the stranger. . The names and Injust. Just man therefore. not of Manners. or Justice of and is Injustice before it proManners. to fraud. is a certain Noblenesse or Gallantnesse of : courage. aptitude to do Injurie andjust. that his Actions may be all Just and an Unjust man.) gives them but the name of Guilty^ Again. for feare because his Will is not framed by the Justice. is the disposition. : . they signifie the Conformity or Inconformity to Reason. That which gives to humane Actions the relish of Justice. IS one thing when they are attriand when they are Justice l( what. that proceed from sudden Passion. As when the Master commandeth his servant to give mony to a stranger if it be not done. but of parti cular Actions. or manner of life. : lose his character. ^Actions But the Injustice of an Action. This Justice of the Manners. (that injured. obey P erson is to . But the Justice of Actions denominates men. is he that taketh all the care he can. (rarely found. or mistake of Things. or forbeares to do.S- buted to Men. is that and which is meant. but by the apparent benefit of what he is to do. . (which is also called Injury. the Injustice of Manners. Guiltlesse and the Injustice of the same. attributed to Actions. of Just. and Unrighteous then Just.lt. as he does. the Injury is done to the Master. Therefore a Righteous man. Men. to whom the Covenant was made And therefore many times the injury is received by one man. or a few unjust Actions. And such men are more often in our Language stiled by the names A : of Righteous. to Reason. when the dammage redoundeth to another. But when they are attributed to Actions.cee(j to Act and without supposing any individuall . not Just. by one. . they signifie Conformity.

in Buying. .) is not due by Justice . . . is measured by the Appetite of the Contractors and therefore the just value. are Injuries to the Person of the Common-wealth. : . in the sense wherein it useth to be expounded.) if he performe his Trust. is no Injury to him. and Letting to Hire Lending. . Chap. To speak properly.Part to I. conformable to his own Nothing Will signified to the doer. hath not passed away his originall right f an by his own y * i to do what he please. and Distributive : and the former they say consisteth in proportion Arithmeticall the later in proportion Geometricall. Commutative Justice. . Justice of Actions. OF MAN. and falls under Justice Commutative.gt. and Selling Hiring. For if done to a he that doeth it. .Justice Commutatative. is an Injury to themselves . but Robbery and Violence. consen t there is no breach of Covenant and therefore no Injury can be done him. : Distributive. . is by Writers divided into Commu. And Merit (besides that which is by Covenant.wealths. is a release of that Covenant so again there is no Injury done him. . not . . Commutative therefore. And therefore this distinction. to men of equall merit. is not right. As if it were Injustice to sell or to give more to a man than he dearer than we buy merits The value of all things contracted for. and done being signified. that is to say. and . 15. a Performance of Covenant. Wherein. but is rewarded of Grace onely. 115 whom he had no Obligation and therefore could not Injure him. and Borrowing Exchanging. &amp. private [75] but not men may remit to one another their debts robberies or other violences. And if he have then his Will to have it Injury. is the Justice of a Contractor that is. Whatsoever is done to a man. Bartering. in the distribution of equall benefit. . And Distributive Justice. (being trusted by them that make him Arbitrator. And so also in Common. by some Antecedent Covenant. is that which they be contented to give. they place in the equality of value of the things contracted for And Distributive. he is said to distribute to every man I 2 . meriteth the performance of the other part. whereby they are endammaged because the detaining of Debt. the Justice of an Arbitrator . . where the performance on one part. other acts of Contract. the act of defining what is Just.

not onely by Right. or cast out of Society. [76] and of all Voluntary Acts. own and this is indeed Just Distribution. the stubbornness of his Passions. is called Ingratitude and hath the same relation to Grace. from others. dation. with intention of Good to himselfe because Gift is . unlike to that we see in stones brought together for building of an ^Edifice. . is COMPLEASANCE that is to The fifth. the Object is to Voluntary every man his own Good of which if men see they shall be frustrated. we may r& ^ J consider.n6 Part his i. and thereby hindereth the building. but also by necessity of Nature. that Injustice hath to Obligation by Covenant. : Chap. . The breach of this Law. . . . have no reasonable cause For no man giveth. : . which commandeth men to Seek Peace. For as that stone which by the asperity. a diversity of Nature. OF MAN. That r may !i ^IJ a man which receiveth Benefit from another of meer Grace. nor consequently of mutuall help or trust nor of reconciliation of one man to another and therefore they are to remain still in the condition of War which is contrary to the first and Fundamental! Law of Nature. not ance. and to others necessary . cannot be corrected. takes more room and for the hardnesse. . . For seeing every man. That every man strive to accommodate himselfe to the accommop or tne understanding whereof. . .. a man that by asperity of and troublesome Nature. A fifth Law of Nature. as combersome thereunto. . is to be left. as shall be shewn in due place.tnat there is in mens aptnesse to Society. than it selfe fills cannot be easily made plain. The As Justice dependeth on Antecedent Covenant so fourthLaw does GRATITUDE depend on Antecedent Grace that is to sa ^ Antecedent Free-gift and is the fourth Law of Gratitude a which be conceived in this Forme. and irregularity of Figure. : . . . is supposed to endeavour . Endeavour that he which giveth it. . rising from their diversity of Affections . . there will be no beginning of benevolence. . ~ . . 15. will strive to retain those things which to him and for selfe are superfluous. is by the builders cast away as unprofitable. Mutuall say. or T Com pleas. but to repent him of his good will. so also. and may be called (though improperly) Distributive Justice but more properly Equity which also is a Law of Nature. .

) and glorying to no end. but Feare yet not granted to them that give caution of the Future and therefore time. . provoke The to fight insomuch as most men choose rather to hazard et ghth. be not Peace. For is ^Ldon The contrary. is vain-glory. declare or Contempt of another. but the greatnesse of the good to follow. is guilty of the warre that there upon is to follow to . tending to no end (for the End is alwayes somewhat to Come . and contrary to reason and to hurt with out reason. Insociable.) all men are equall. . to obtain that which is necessary for his conservation He that shall oppose himselfe against it. all signes of hatred. That in Revenges. for things superfluous. word. Intractable.) Men look not at the greatnesse of the evill seventh. or glorying in the hurt of another. m e ^j^ s pect onely the future . a man ought to pardon the offences past of Facility to them that desire it. The question who is the better man. and profit to come. (as has been shewn The inequallity that now is. sixth Law of Nature. (that is. . upon security of it. . The breach of which Law of Nature. than not to be revenged we may in the eighth a nsi . A seventh is. which though granted to them that persevere in their hostility. . which comobservers of this Law. A repenting. Future time. (the Latines them Commodi. is signe of an aversion to Peace contrary to the Law of Nature. Revenge without respect to the Example. is this. 117 all he can. countenance. their life. than for correction of the offender. past. a where. Future time. this Precept. Chap. and therefore doth contrary to the fundament all Law mandeth seek Peace. has no . &quot. is a triumph. the condition of meer Nature before. or direction of others. set down ^^ Law. may call be called SOCIABLE. by the name of Cruelty. PARDON. OF MAN. . 15. but granting of Peace . Froward. Besides. place in The ninth.Part i. For this Law is consequent to the next before that commandeth Pardon. tendeth to the introduction of Warre which is against the Law of Nature and is commonly stiled . or gesture. nothing . or contempt. And because place. which is of Nature. retribution of The Evil for Evil. for a no man Hatred. That tumely by deed. are forbidden to inflict punishment with any other ^ at Whereby we e v in S) designe. is commonly called Contumely. The that. That upon caution of the The sixth.) Stubborn.

or almost at any time. yC has bin introduced by the Lawes civill. If in this case. : If Nature therefore have Victory. I put this. but upon Equall termes. The observers of this law. no man require to reserve to himselfe any Right. and therefore also against the law of Nature. some more worthy to Command. with them who distrust their owne wisdome. and the breakers Arrogant men. On this law. I know that Aristotle in the first booke of his Politiques. at the making of Peace. (meaning those that had strong bodies. motion. maketh men by Nature. a desire of more than their this law 7rAeoi/eia . against selves equall. . yet because men that think them The tenth.n8 Parti.) as if Master and Servant were not introduced by consent of men.) others to Serve. that equalitie is to be acknowledged made men : equall. The breach of this Precept is Pride. not to have libertie to do all they list so is it as right to necessarie for mans life. but were not Philosophers as he . . or not live well. dependeth another. will not enter into conditions of Peace. contend by force. but by difference of Wit which is not only against reason but also against experience. to lay down certaine Rights of Nature is to say. share. which he is not content should be reserved to every one of the rest. As it is necessary for all men that that seek peace. that commandeth the acknowledgment of naturall equalitie. to retaine some enjoy aire. or if Nature have made men unequall . That at the entrance into conditions of Peace. do they alwaies. . for a founda tion of his doctrine. than be governed by others Nor when the wise in their own conceit. . that had not rather governe themselves. that which they would not have to be granted to others. are those we call Modest. OF MAN. And therefore for the ninth law of Nature. they do contrary to the precedent law. 15. meaning the wiser sort (such as he thought himself e to be for his Philosophy . That every man acknowledge other for his Equall by Nature. governe their owne bodies and all things else waies to go from place to place without which a man cannot live. : . men require for them selves. get the : . The Greeks call the violation of that is. For there are very few so foolish. Chap. or often. water. such equalitie must be admitted.

(against the fundamental! Lawe of Nature) is the cause of Warre. be determined by Lot. to deterre men from the use of Judges. of . and contrary to Equitie. as the End. [78] The thirThe Law of nor in common. mandeth Peace. is that which is agreed on by the Competitors tenth. be enjoyed in Common. The eleventh it is a precept of the Law of Nature. that he deale Equally For without that.} the First Possession.Part i. which signifies. . Then. Given by Lot . Arbitrary. and (as I have sayd before) distributive Justice the violation. men cannot be determined but by Warre.) or First an d First . For equall distribution. Of Lots there be two sorts. of Peace. Me ^atots. requireth. (which the Greek calls ^*?~ KA^povo/Aio. as the Means and to Intercession the Means is safe . For otherwise the distribution is Unequall. without Stint . otherwise Proportionably to the number of them that have Common. though men these Lawes. Chap.*? between them. is called EQUITY. : Seisure. there be never so willing to The six- may neverthelesse arise tenth. Conduct. And It is also a Law of Nature. But some things there be. ought to be adjudged to the First Possessor and in some cases to the First-Borne. is of the Law of Nature and other means of equall distribution cannot be imagined. from the equall distribution to each man. nor divided. Acceptionof persons. That the Entire*&quot. (making the use alternate. That all men that mediate The fif~ For the Law that com. enjoyed which prescribeth Equity. and if the quantity of the thing permit. Trpoo-wTroArji/aa. seising. He therefore that is partiall in judgment. as acquired by Lot. and Arbitrators . if it can be . and Naturall. Right. of Naturall. the Controversies of ?*&quot. of that which in reason belongeth to him. and consequently. is either Primogeniture. And observe because. doth what in him lies. 15. therefore those things which cannot be enjoyed in common. 119 Nature. The observance of this law. or else. The fourArbitrary. be allowed safe Conduct. : Also if a man be trusted to judge between man and man.tenth.* Right . That such things The as cannot be divided. And from this followeth another law. commandeth Intercession. that can neither be divided. OF MAN.

so the to be Judge. and left to force.120 Submissionto Part I. man in any Cause ought to no be received for Arbitrator. This other. is And therefore it is of the Law called an of Nature. . to whom greater profit. That they that the judgement of . . against . No order to his own benefit. nor . : . menf First. than to the other. .gt. . is called a question Of Fact the later a question Of Right. . or * be h nour or pleasure apparently ariseth out of the victory *Tud for hee hath taken f one that has P ar ty. the cause of War. yet) a bribe and no man natural can be obliged to trust him. : . no man is a fit Arbitrator in his man ts his QWn cause an(j jf j^ were never so fit yet Equity to each party equall benefit. and all other parts of particular men which may therefore also be reckoned Intemperance amongst those things which the Law of Nature hath forbidden but are not necessary to be mentioned. . the Judge being to give 1 ^ no more cre dit to one. [79] For else the question is a third and fourth or more undecided. dictating Peace.St or to other Arguments) must give credit to a third For the same reason no &amp. than of the other in him a (though an unavoydable bribe. remains. contrary to the Law of Nature. These are the Lawes of Nature. contrary to the Law of Nature. the other is to be admitted also controversie. they are as farre from Peace as ever. are pertinent enough to this place. Covenant mutually to stand to the sentence of another. if one be admitted allowing Judge. The sevenAnd seeing every man is presumed to do all things in teenth. OF MAN. I whose Sentence they submit. therefore unlesse the parties to the question. Law of Nature. And thus also the controC U p rtialit y vers ^ e an(^ the condition of War remaineth. for and a means of the conservation of men in multitudes which onely concern the doctrine of Civill Society. or not done Secondly (if done) whether ag ams t the Law. &quot.f** . (if there be no *w . whether it questions concerning a mans action done. are at controversie. ARBITRATOR. 15. Chap. . & the The eighteenth. There be other things tending to the destruction of as Drunkenness. submit their Right to an Arbitrator. . The nineAnd in a controversie of Fact. or not against the Law the former whereof. to Were . that is.

I mean an unfeigned and constant ing to the . Lawes towards him. they seem too heavy. to be taken notice of by all men which the whereof the most part are too busie in getting food. And again. modest. that his own passions. in such time. and Peace destroy it. and place. because they oblige onely to a desire. but in Effect then Law yet his Purpose was against the Law which where the Obligation is in foro interno. Ingratitude. The [same] Lawes. OF MAN. when weighing the actions of other men with his own. and the. The Lawes of Nature are Immutable and Eternall The Laws For Injustice. . 121 And though this may seem too subtile a deduction of A Rule. but War & consequently the destruction of his Nature by Violence. life. but also by a fact according to it. contrary to the ground of all Lawes of Nature. be accord . and procure his own certain ruine. of Nature can never be made a f Acception-r-of persons. intelligible. that others shall observe the same Security. seeketh not Peace. . alwayes. And yet and endeavour. Chap. they bind to a desire they should take place e in foro externo that is. Iniquity. may adde nothing to the weight and then there is none of these Lawes of Nature that will not appear unto him very reasonable. . that he has no more to do in learning the Lawes of Nature. . but. and selfe-love. and that is. . l c ience . which thou wouldest not have done to thy selfe which sheweth him.TT7 Eternal. even to the meanest capacity examined. may be broken. in case a man think it contrary. to put them into the other part of the ballance. i . they have been contracted into one easily be easie sum. should do so. should but make himselfe a prey to others. Pride. to the putting them in act. by the Lawes of Nature. . and jj^mf the rest too negligent to understand yet to leave all may men unexcusable. The Lawes of Nature oblige in foro interno that is TheLawes but of Nature to say. Arrogance. 15. not _ on ~ be and For he that should tractable. .1rest. is a breach. observes them not himselfe. which w jien tend to Natures preservation. n For it can never be that Warre shall preserve lawfull. alwayes.Part i. not onely by a fact contrary to the Law. and performe where no man all els he promises. : l . For though his Action in this case. i . And whatsoever Lawes bind in foro interno. and his own into their place. he that having there is sufficient Security. Do not that to another. .

and sight . or Theoremes concerning what conduceth to the conserva: . Controversies. this. Good. and Evill. is the true Morall Philosophic. 15. Equity. & the rest of the Laws of Nature. Now the science of Vertue and Vice. and comfortable living as if not place them in a mediocrity of passions the Cause. the same man. are easie to be observed. For Morall Philosophy is nothing else but *ke Science of what is Good.122 Part i. or not the Cause. : . is Just. and Evill : on that Peace is . so long a man is in the condition of meer Nature. The Science Lowes the true is Morall Philo- sophy.) as private Appetite is the measure . Evill. : Liberality. And consequently all men agree Good. in the actions of common life. made Fortitude . calleth Good. and Aversions which i n different tempers. or disagreeable to Reason. and he that fulfilleth the Law. Gratitude. : Vertues and their contrarie Vices. which (as I have shewed before) are Justice. on the senses of what is pleasant. men use to call by the name of Lawes but improperly for they are but Conclusions. . These dictates of Reason. differ not onely in their Judgement. and at last War. what another time he From whence arise Dis dispraiseth. are different And divers men. . Morall of Good. hearing. and doctrines of men. touch. OF MAN. And the Science of them. are good that is to say. Modesty. and Evill. that is. and therefore also the way. (which is a condition of War. but also of what is conformable. and calleth Evil And therefore putes. made meanes . though they acknowledge the same Vertues and Vices Yet not seeing wherein consisted their Goodnesse nor that they come to be praised. Chap. For in that they he that endeavoureth require nothing but endeavour their performance. and Society of man-kind. But the Writers of Morall Philosophic. differs from himselfe and one time praiseth. [8 ] endeavour. in the conversation. or means of Peace. but the Quantity of a gift. is the true and onely Moral Philosophy. smell. Nay. but the Degree of daring. . are names that signifie our Appetites. in divers times. of peaceable. . Mercy. sociable. and unpleasant to the tast. as the . fulfilleth them . is Morall Philosophic and therfore the true Doctrine of the Lawes of Nature. . customes.

an Actor. When they are considered as his owne. For that which in speaking of . So that a Person. . is himselfe. Chap. . or act in his name (in which sence Cicero useth it where he saies. a Vicar. as well in Tribunalls. Of Persons Artificiall. CHAP. that by right commandeth all things . Adversarii. But yet if we consider the same Theoremes. XVI. hath been translated to any Representer of speech and action. properly the word of him. is the same that an Actor is.ajrian. or as representing the words or actions an man. 123 and defence of themselves wheras Law. other either as his is he. an Attorney. Mei. or outward appearance of : : attributed. and the like. The word Person is latine insteed whereof the Greeks have TrpoVtoTTov. counterfeited on the Stage : . and the Judges . OF MAN.) and is called in diverse occasions. diversly as a Repre. 16. or Represent and he that acteth another. . and somtimes more particularly that part of it. AUTHORS. both on the Stage and in common Conversation and to Personate. some have their words and actions Owned by those the Person is the Actor they represent. Unus sustineo ires Personas . Judicis. a Deputy. I beare three Persons my own. as a Mask or Visard And from the Stage. . and things Personated. that by right hath command over others. whose words or actions are considered. then are they properly called Lawes. or Representative. : whom . Of PERSONS. And then and he that owneth his words Actor. is the AUTHOR In which case the Actor Author. as delivered in the word of God. a Lieutenant. acteth by Authority.Part tion is i. or an other said to beare his Person. then is he a Feigned or Artificiall person. a Procurator. then is he called a Naturall Person And when they are considered as representing the words and actions of an other. A of PERSON. and actions. my Adversaries. A person own. whether Person Naturall S^J/ The word . & . as Theaters. which signifies the Face. is to Act.[81] senter. or of any other thing to whom they are Truly or by Fiction. as Persona in lajtine signifies the disguise. . which disguiseth the face.

no i esse than if he had made it himselfe and no lesse . quently by a Covenant made against. From hence it followeth. (Chap. 14. if he be obliged by former Covenant to obey him. but onely takes his word ne be not made manifest unto him upon demand.assurance. to refuse to do it. knew before hand he was to expect then is the no other assurance. And therefore he that maketh a Covenant with the Actor. not knowing what Authority he is to be in case such Authority hath. is And as the Right of possession. : it is. And he that maketh a Covenant with the Author. that when the Actor maketh Covenant by Authority. that forbiddeth breach of Covenant. so far-forth as sion. : . by The Authority mediation of the Actor. . So that by Authority. or beside the Authority he gave. is in their Commis but no farther. or Procurators. 16. . not he. doth it at his own perill. is called A uthority. is called an Owner. is no For the Covenant made with the Author. but the Author for though the Action be breaketh the Law of Nature but conyet it is not his against the Law of Nature trarily. in Greeke Kvpios speaking of Actions. is called called Author. Covenants a by Authority. is true also when they are made by their Actors.124 Part I- OF MAN. . that so Covenanteth. Butnotthe When the Actor doth any thing against the Law of Nature by command of the Author. as when the himselfe the Author. For no man is obliged by a Covenant. AUTHORITY. or Representer. without his Counter. he bindeth thereby the Author. : . or Licence from him whose right . that have authority from them. longer obliged But if he is not valid. not knowing the Authority he hath. than the Actors word Covenant valid because the Actor in this case maketh And therefore. whereof he is not Author nor conse . Representers. is alwayes under and done by Authority. : . stood a Right of doing any act done by Commission. goods and possessions. Dominion so the Right of doing any Action. And therfore all that hath been said formerly. is against the Law of Nature. Author subjecteth him to all the consequences of the same. Chap. and in latine Dominus.) of the nature of Covenants between man and man in their naturall capacity.

- . And thirdly. may be Per. 16. by the Son of man. cannot be Authors. . so when the Authority is feigned. or meer Figment of the brain. and other Goods. Animate. but as sent from his Father. longer then (when they shall recover the use of Reason) they shall judge the same reasonable. and Rights. his own Son. which men from time to time dedicated. . (that were not his. There are few things. But things Inanimate. or but can be no Authors (during that time) of Curators any action done by them. And therefore. The true God by Moses who governed the Israelites. or Overseer. that are uncapable of being Things P er * 0ft~ represented by Fiction. OF MAN. and working . . speaking.False which by Gods as were the Gods of the Heathen sonated such Officers as the State appointed. . Yet during the Folly. our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ. may be personated by a Rector. As he was first.Part i. or [82] Governours of those things. with Hoc dicit Dominus.) not in his own name. such things cannot be Personated. Master. as a Church. the Gods of the Heathen could not be Personated. that came to reduce the Jewes. . . the Covenant obligeth the Author. use of Reason. But Idols cannot be Authors from the State and The nothing. An Idol. but Gods people. because before such estate. a Bridge. Chap. given them by those that are Owners. he that hath right of governing them. an Hospital. by the Holy Ghost. nor therefore give Authority to their Actors Yet the Actors may have Authority to procure their maintenance. and Mad-men that have no/ national. Fooles. and induce all Nations into the Kingdome of his Father not as of himselfe. 125 Authority is evident. himselfe. before there be some state of : Civill Government. But this again has no place but in a State Civill. with Hoc dicit Moses but in Gods Name. Inanimate things. Authority proceeded therefore before introduction of Civill Government. The true God may be Personated. and consecrated unto for an Idol is them. were Personated. may be Personated by Guardians. may give Authority to the Guardian. there is no Dominion of Persons. it not the Actor there being no Author but obligeth the Actor onely . or Comforter. Secondly. : : . Likewise Children. and held Possessions.

OF MAN. . even in that they condemne not. : . when the VO Ces are oftentimes y equall. equall may determine a profitable. &quot. and how farre he shall represent them.one : . : is condemning.- as in condemning. 16. doth . cannot other Person. Authority from himselfe in particular owning all the actions the Representer doth. . And if the Representative consist of many men. o f Negatives. especially when Representhe number is not great. And it is the Representer that beareth the And Unity. tradictory voyces none . . . in case they Otherwise. . is therefore oftentimes J number is j i_i r A -\r L Yet in some cases conmut e. in that they absolve not. that maketh the Person One. . equality of but votes. was a Comforter that came not of himselfe but was sent. The or like it is in a delibera till tion of executing deferring another .126 Part i. are the onely voyce the Representative hath. presently. or Multitude of A A are by one man. must be considered as the Many voyce of them all. in the Apostles which Holy Ghost. when they or one Person. the An Actor may be voyce of the greater number. Represented so that ^ be done with the consent f ever Y one of that Multip tude in particular. in number. in their name Every man giving their common and Representer. son% not the Unity of the Represented. is to ab For when a Cause is heard solve but on the contrary. standing uncontradicted. and proceeded from them both. and uncapable of Action. Many they cannot be understood for one but many Authors. and the greater in the ( O Ty Plur. do absolve not on the contrary condemne. : of them owneth more. And a Representative of even number. and but one Person wise be understood in Multitude. For it is the Unity of the Representer. And because the Multitude naturally is not One. when they give him Authority without stint limit him in what. of every thing their Representative saith. For if the lesser number pronounce for exam P le ) in the Affirmative. Multitude of men. are made One Person. question . not to condemne. there will be Negatives more than enough to destroy the Affirmatives and thereby the excesse ality of Voyces. is not true. to say that not absolving. or absolving. but Every one is Author. than they gave him com mission to Act. whereby the contradictory tatives. uneven. .[83] Negative. Chap.

And these Authors conditionall. Of Authors there be two sorts. titude. Voice. Pr cedes and for Appearance before a Judge. (men. authority to take away the effect of all the Affir mative Voices of the rest. or before a certain time. This number is no Represen tative because by the diversity of Opinions. and Sponsores and particularly for Debt. that owneth the Action of another simply. that owneth an Action. . and : . OF MAN. time of Warre. Chap.) whereof every one has by a Negative voyce. and unapt. . as three. or more. as for many things else. are generally called SURETYES. so for the government of a Mul Interests of men. The second is he. at. is a decree of Dilation. or Magistrate. and in cases of the greatest consequence. . 16. Vades. . in Latine Fidejussores. it becomes oftentimes. Or if the number be odde. he undertaketh to do it. or Covenant of another condi that is to say. Negative or assemblies . The first simply so called which I have before defined to be him. especially in . if the tionally other doth it not.Part i. the not decreeing Execution. a mute Person. 127 time For when the voyces are equall.

And Covenants.128 Part 2. 13. . and so farre from being reputed against the Law of Nature. that carry us to Partiality. 17.) is the Security* foresight of their own preservation. (which every one hath then kept. done without the terrour of some \heLaw to cause them to be observed. Therefore notwithstanding the Lawes of Nature. and Definition of a COMMON-WEALTH. and of a more con tented life thereby. (who TheEndof Common. necessarily consequent (as hath been shewn) to the naturall Passions of men. that is to say. and the like. Equity. Mercy. End. has been a Trade. or not great enough for our security every man will. and of no strength to secure a man at all. For the Lawes of Nature (as Justice.) in wealth {j^ introduction of that restraint upon themselves.. which is Chap. [851 OF COMMON-WEALTH. or Designe of men. and observa tion of those Lawes of Nature set down in the fourteenth and fifteenth Chapters. Of the Causes. and (in summe) doing to others. Pride. when there is no visible Power to keep them in awe.wealths. and tye them by feare of punish ment to the performance of their Covenants. : Nature of -~p naturall Passions. are contrary to our Power. without the Sword. Revenge. and Dominion over others. CHAP. the greater was their Which is not to be ^ . Chap.) if there be no Power erected. when he can do it safely. And in all places. for caution against all other men. that the greater spoyles they gained. and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art.naturally love Liberty. to robbe and spoyle one another. XVII. as wee would be ^ themselves. Modesty. THE finall Cause. Generation. when he has the will to keep them. where men have lived by small Families. are but Words. of getting themselves out from that miserable condition of Warre. (in i cn wn wee see them live in Common.

as to move him to attempt. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and instruments of hus honour the Lawes of bandry. for want of other Caution.Part 2. . and particular appetites. thereby no defence.of a few to carry the Victory ment to an Invasion. but Honour that is. 17. The Multitude sufficient to confide menor ami yes in for our Security. keep them all in awe we might as well suppose all Man-kind to do the same and then there neither would be. they can expect u ^ie l^. by comparison Enemy and is then sufficient. of men to consent in the observation of Justice. . leaving to men their li^pr. . to determine . nor need to be any Civill Government. Nor is it the joyning together of a small number of Nor because in small the co men. or . and other Lawes of Nature. and secret arts. : ^/ . but hinder one another and reduce their strength by mutuall opposition to nothing whereby they are easily. and are remembred for it in after ages with justly tance that . neither against & directed by Common enemy. endeavour as as they can. HOBBES K . to subdue. . . together they make warre upon each other. And be there never so great a Multitude yet if Nor from r eat their actions be directed according to their particular . nor protection. is not determined by any certain with but the we feare number. 129 and men observed no other Lawes therein. when the odds of the Enemy is not of so visible and conspicuous moment. by open force. Chap. nor against the injuries of one another. Cities And as small Familyes did then . without a common Power to . not onely subdued by a very few that agree but also when there is no common enemy. to abstain from cruelty. and fear of Invasion. judgements. for their particular For if we could suppose a great Multitude interests. upon all pretences of danger. small additions on the one side or the other. de . or assis much may be given to Invaders. [86] make the advantage of strength so great. that gives them this security numbers. so now do and Kingdomes which are but greater Families (for their own security) enlarge their Dominions. as is sufficient junction and therefore gives encourage. the event of warre. one judgeFor being distracted in opinions concerning the best use ment : and application of their strength. or weaken their neighbours. honour. they do not help.

: why Man-kind and therefore some man may cannot do the anv cive coer- Power. nor think they see any fault. and abler to govern the Publique. one this way. at all . having not (as man) the use of reason. can relish nothing but what is eminent. that amongst these creatures. continu- for the _ ~curity. when either they have no common enemy. is by another part held for a friend. and these strive to reforme and better than the rest and thereby innovate. . that these creatures. Thirdly. To which I that men ground. and Ants. are continually in competition for Honour and Dignity. last The End wealth as in one Bat tell. which men desire the time of their life. for a limited Nor is it enough all should . . but Envy and Hatred. OF COMMON -WEALTH. that certain living creatures. another that way bring it into Distraction and Civill warre. they must needs by the difference of their interests dissolve. 17. First.I3o Part 2. Secondly. in the administration of their common businesse whereas amongst men. and directed by one judgement. that they be governed. : . there are very many. benefit desire to know. But man. the Common and being by good differeth not from the Private . and finally Warre amongst these not so.gt. parti Secuin It is true.) wifhout ^ Y et nave no other direction. [87] nature enclined to their private. than their particular Reason or nor speech. Chap. as Bees. lesse live y&amp. that thinke themselves wiser. . whose Joy consisteth in comparing himselfe with other men. Common-wealth And ally that because there would be Peace without subjection.lt. or one Warre. or he that by one part is held for an enemy. f or ^e common Without P erna P s same. For though they obtain a Victory by their unanimous endeavour against a forraign enemy yet afterwards. live sociably one with another. whereby one speech do judgements and appetites nevertheof them can signifie to another. and fall again into a Warre amongst them- time . (which are there3 ^ore y Aristotle numbred amongst Politicall creatures . answer. what he thinks expedient an&amp. do not see. . . which these creatures are not and consequently amongst men there ariseth on that . they procure thereby the common benefit.

they are not offended with their fellowes whereas Man is then most troublesome. and Evill. Consent. to conferre all their power and strength upon one Man. that which is Good. shall Act. though they have some use of voice. and controule the Actions of them that governe the : Common-wealth. as if every Common The only way The General n fa j. : . 17. : and therefore as long as they Injury. every one to his Will. that these creatures. Lastly. by which some men can represent to others. 131 Fourthly. or diminish the in the likenesse of Good . This is more than it is a real! Unitie of them all. in such manner. as may be able to defend them from the invasion of Forraigners. and the injuries of one another. . i -i (Commonwea iih m . and other affections yet they want that art of words. to constant and lasting keep them in awe. and troubling discontenting apparent greatnesse of Good and Evill their Peace at their pleasure. and acknowledge himselfe to be (Author of whatsoever he that so beareth their Person. when he is most at ease for then it is that he loves to shew his Wisdome. as that by their owne Industrie. unto one Will which is as much as to say. that may reduce all their Wills. to beare their Person and every one to owne. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and thereby to secure ji t ii_ i_ AI i them in such sort. the agreement of these creatures is Naturall that of men. made by Covenant of |in every man with every man. they may nourish themselves and live contentedly is. . . Benefit. . to erect such a Common Power. Fiftly. by plurality of voices. or upon one Assembly of men. . K 2 . Chap. or Assembly of men. in making knowne to one another their desires. is by Covenant only. and by the fruites of the Earth. . in the likenesse of Evill and augment. and Dammage be at ease.Part 2. or cause to be Acted. to his Judgment. and their Judgements. in those things which concerne the Common Peace and Safetie and therein to submit their Wills. which is Artificiall and therefore it is no wonder if there be somwhat else required (besides Covenant) to make their Agreement which is a Common Power. to appoint one Man. and to direct their actions to the . . men. irrational! creatures cannot distinguish betweene . or Concord one and the same Person. : .

to submit themselves. i 7 . man For by this Authoritie. or Common-wealth by Institution . first.) is One Person. This is the Generation of that great LEVIATHAN. and mutuall ayd against their enemies abroad. that thou give up thy Right to him. is called SOVEand every RAIGNE.wealth which (to define it.wealth. as he shall think expedient. may be called a Political! Common. given in the . and Authorise all his Actions in like manner. maketh his children. is called a COMMON-WEALTH. that by terror thereof. / Authorise and give up my Right of Governing my selfe. And speak of a Common-wealth by Institution. a Common-wealth by Acquisition. is by two as when a man One. or Assembly of men. for their Peace and Of Soveraigne this Person. This done. to which wee owe under the Immorlall God. Chap. a wealth. or rather (to speake more reverently) of that Mortall God. is when men agree amongst themselves. or to this of men. to Peace at home. to submit to some Man. on this condition. and said to have Soveraigne Power one besides his SUBJECT. whose Acts a great Multitude.132 : Part 2. The other. our peace and defence. I shall . on confidence to be protected by him against all others. by Naturall force wayes. he hath the use of so much Power and Strength conferred on him. he is inabled to forme the wills of them all. This later. and the former. man should say to every man. And in him consisteth the Essence of the Common. the Multitude so united in one Person. or by Warre subdueth his enemies to his will. Assembly [88] The Definition f him by every particular Common-Wealth. to the end he may use the strength and means of them all. . as being able to destroy them if they refuse . to this Man. by mutuall Covenants one with another. and their . voluntarily. Common Defence. And he that carryeth children to his government. OF COMMON-WEALTH. in latine CIVITAS. The attaining to this Soveraigne Power. giving them their lives on that condition. have made themselves every one the Author.

and return to the . cannot without his leave cast off Monarchy. when a Multitude of men do Agree. and so that any one man dissenting. or Assembly of Men. and be protected against other men. and Judge- r^mon ^ wealth what. or other Assembly of men for they are bound. XVIII. t are i. And Consequently they that have already Instituted a Common-wealth. of that Man. that to whatsoever Man. is A Common-wealth said to be Instituted.* e t ^ e forme of govern ments of one. because First. shall Authorise all the Actions and Judgements. it is to be understood. to live peaceably amongst themselves. given the Soveraignty to him that beareth their Person and therefore if they depose him. without his permission. they take from him that which is his own. to the end. and Covenant. to be their Representative . The ot Subjects c c %&quot. on whom the Soveraigne Power is conferred by the consent of the _. Besides. OF COMMON-WEALTH. they Covenant. amongst themselves. which is injustice : and they have also every man . to own the Actions. every one. . if he that attempteth to depose his Soveraign. From this Institution of a Common-wealth are derived all the Rights. or Assembly of men. as he that Voted against it. to Own. m ^f- nor transferre their confusion of a disunited Multitude Person from him that beareth it. shall do. and so again it is injustice. and Facultyes of him. The Cowsequences s uc n~ . shall be given by the major part. in the same manner. Chap. stwution . j that he that already is their Soveraigne. 133 Of the RIGHTS of Soveraignes by Institution. . vi j People assembled. The act of Institutl with every one. judge fit to be done all the rest should break their Covenant made to that j man. they are not obliged by former Covenant to any thing repugnant hereunto. (that is to say. to be obedient to any other. as if they were his own. . cannot lawfully make a new Covenant. in any thing whatsoever.. being thereby bound by Covenant. And therefore.) every one.Part 2. 18. CHAP. to another Man. every man [89] : to every man. the Right to Present the Person of them all. or them. as well he that Voted for it. they that are subjects to a Monarch. and be reputed Author : of all.

. . that it is not onely an act of an unjust. But this pretence of Covenant with God. a new this Covenant. by Covenant onely of one to another. disposition. or more of them. of his Subjects. iS. who hath the Soveraignty under God. because what act soever can be pretended by any one of them for breach thereof. Because the Right of bearing the Person them all. if any one. he is author of his own punishment. is manifest because either he must make it with the whole multitude. or punished by him for such attempt. as one party. even in the pretenders own consciences. can be freed from his Subjection. or one other of his Subjects. as one party to the Covenant or he must make a severall Covenant with every man. pretend there was no such breach. there is in this case. and by the Right of every one of them in particular.134 Part 2. : * the rest. be killed. Chap. is given to him they make Soveraigne. because done in the Person. . or himselfe alone. . by any pretence of forfeiture. That he which is made Soveraigne maketh no Covenant with his Subjects before-hand. Sove- raigne Power cannot be forfeited. not with men. I . but by mediation of some body that representeth Gods Person which none doth but Gods Lieutenant. Besides. as being by the Institu And because tion. for which he may be punished by his own authority. but with God also is unjust for there is no Covenant with God. . And whereas some men have pre tended for their disobedience to their Soveraign. and unmanly : . Author of all his Soveraign shall do it is injustice for a man to do any thing. is the act both of himselfe. but also of a vile. made. those Covenants after he hath the Soveraignty are voyd. Secondly. it is impossible because and if he make so many as yet they are not one Person severall Covenants as there be men. unjust. : . 2. is so evident a lye. no Judge it returns therefore to the to decide the controversie Sword again and every man recovereth the right of . and of all . : . With the whole. pretend a breach of the Covenant made by the Soveraigne at his Institution and others. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and not of him to any J ~ r r ^ them there can happen no breach of Covenant on the part of the Soveraigne and consequently none of . he is also upon that title.

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap.

18.

*35

Protecting himselfe by his own strength, contrary to the designe they had in the Institution. It is therefore in vain to grant Soveraignty by way of precedent Covenant. The opinion that any Monarch receiveth his Power by Covenant, that is to say on Condition, pro-

ceedeth from want of understanding this easie truth,
that Covenants being but words, and breath, have no force to oblige, contain, constrain, or protect any man, that is, but what it has from the publique Sword from the untyed hands of that Man, or Assembly of men that hath the Soveraignty, and whose actions are avouched by them all, and performed by the strength [90] But when an Assembly of of them all, in him united.
;

men is made Soveraigne then no man imagineth any such Covenant to have past in the Institution for no man is so dull as to say, for example, the People of Rome, made a Covenant with the Romans, to hold the which not Soveraignty on such or such conditions
;

;

;

performed,

the

Roman
alike in

People.

Romans might lawfully depose the That men see not the reason to be

a Monarchy, and in a Popular Government, proceedeth from the ambition of some, that are kinder to the goverment of an Assembly, whereof they may hope to participate, than of Monarchy, which they
despair to enjoy. Thirdly, because the major part hath by consenting 3. No voices declared a Soveraigne he that dissented must ma can now consent with the rest that is, be contented to us ce avow all the actions he shall do, or else justly be destroyed protest by the rest. For if he voluntarily entered into the Con- againstthe Institution gregation of them that were assembled, he sufficiently declared thereby his will (and therefore tacitely coven^wT-" anted) to stand to what the major part should ordayne dared by and therefore if he refuse to stand thereto, or make the mj.or Protestation against any of their Decrees, he does P art contrary to his Covenant, and therfore unjustly. And whether he be of the Congregation, or not and whether his consent be asked, or not, he must either submit to their decrees, or be left in the condition of warre he was in before wherein he might without injustice be
;
;

^

^

:

-

;

;

destroyed by any

man

whatsoever.

Part
4.
*

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 18.

Fourthly, because every Subject is by this Institution of all the Actions, and Judgments of the Sovera-ig ne Instituted it followes, that whatsoever he doth, Actions it can be no injury to any of his Subjects nor ought cannot he to be by any of them accused of Injustice. For he justly accused that doth any thing by authority from another, doth therein no injury to him by whose authority he acteth Subject But by this Institution of a Common-wealth, every particular man is Author of all the Soveraigne doth and consequently he that complaineth of injury from his Soveraigne, complaineth of that whereof he himself e is Author and therefore ought not to accuse any man but himself e no nor himself e of injury because to do It is true that they injury to ones selfe, is impossible. but that have Soveraigne power, may commit Iniquity not Injustice, or Injury in the proper signification. Fiftly, and consequently to that which was sayd last, 5. What soever the /no man that hath Soveraigne power can iustly be put Soveraign^Q death, or otherwise in any manner by his Subjects P un i sne cl- For seeing every Subject is Author of the

The

Author

;

l>e

;

:

;

;

;

;

;

un-bunishable by the

he punisheth another, for actions of his Soveraigne the actions committed by himself e. And because the End of this Institution, is the Peace 6. The and whosoever has right to Soveraigne and Defence of them all ^ judge of the End) has rign t to t he Means it belongeth of Right, to whatsoever Man, or Assembly that hath the Sovenecessary raignty, to be Judge both of the meanes of Peace and for the Peace and Defence and also of the hindrances, and disturbances D e fenc e of o f the same and to do whatsoever he shall think necessary to be done, both before hand, for the preserv jects ing of Peace and Security, by prevention of Discord at
;

Subject,

;

;

;

;

[91]

home, and Hostility from abroad; and, when Peace and Security are lost, for the recovery of the same.

And
And Judge
of

therefore,

it is annexed to the Soveraignty, to be Judge Opinions and Doctrines are averse, and what conducm g to Peace and consequently, on what occa^r/fittobe sions, how farre, and what, men are to be trusted wit hall, taught and who shall in speaking to Multitudes of people them. /examine the Doctrines of all bookes before they be published. For the Actions of men proceed from their

what

Sixtly,

Of

w hat

;

;

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap.

18.

137

Opinions ; and in the wel governing of Opinions, consisteth the well governing of mens Actions, in order to And though in matter of their Peace, and Concord. Doctrine, nothing ought to be regarded but the Truth ;
yet this is not repugnant to regulating of the same by Peace. For Doctrine repugnant to Peace, can no more be True, than Peace and Concord can be against the Law It is true, that in a Common-wealth, where of Nature. by the negligence, or unskilfullnesse of Governours, and Teachers, false Doctrines are by time generally received Yet the contrary Truths may be generally offensive the most sudden, and rough busling in of a new Truth, that can be, does never breake the Peace, but only somtimes awake the Warre. For those men that are so remissely governed, that they dare take up Armes, to and defend, or introduce an Opinion, are still in Warre their condition not Peace, but only a Cessation of Armes for feare of one another and they live as it were, in the procincts of battaile continually. It belongeth therefore to him that hath the Soveraign Power, to be Judge, or constitute all Judges of Opinions and Doctrines, as a thing necessary to Peace therby to prevent Discord
;
: ;

;

;

and

Civill

Warre.

Seventhly, is annexed to the Soveraigntie, the whole 7. The power of prescribing the Rules, whereby every man may Right of know, what Goods he may enjoy, and what Actions he *fe* g may doe, without being molested by any of his fellow e y And this is it men call Propriety. For before the SubSubjects constitution of Soveraign Power (as hath already been jects may e ev ^ m an y shewn) all men had right to all things which necessarily know what 117 j XT?Xi_ causeth Warre therefore this Propnetie, being js so ^s and to on and O Peace, Soveraign Power, wne, as necessary depending is the Act of that Power, in order to the publique peace, no other These Rules of Propriety (or Meum and Tuum) and of Subject ~ C Good, Evill, Lawfull, and Unlawfull in the actions of Subt_ that is to say, the Lawes of ice take it jects, are the Civill Lawes each Commonwealth in particular though the name of from him. Civill Law be now restrained to the antient Civill Lawes of the City of Rome which being the head of a great part of the World, her Lawes at that time were in these parts the Civill Law.

^^

:

.

;

j.i

T>

:

;

;

;

138
8.

Part

2.

OF COMMON -WEALTH.
is
;

Chap.

18.

annexed to the Soveraigntie, the Right of that is to say, of hearing and deciding all longeththe which Controversies, may J arise concerning: Law, either ,, Rightofall ~. M1 x, T-r* -it/ or Naturall, or concerning ract. Jbor without the Civill, Judicatureand decision of Controversies, there is no protection of one decision the Lawes Subject, against the injuries of another concernm g Meum and Tuum are in vaine and to every versies* man remaineth, from the naturall and necessary appetite of his own conservation, the right of protecting himself e [92] by his private strength, which is the condition of Warre and contrary to the end for which every Common-wealth
To him
Eightly,
also be-

Judicature

;

;

;

is
9.

instituted.

is annexed to the Soveraignty, the Right of Warre, and Peace with other Nations, and making al Common -wealths that is to say, of Judging when it is as f r tne he shall publique good, and how great forces are to be and to levy think best: assembled, armed, and payd for that end mony upon the Subjects, to defray the expences thereof. For the Power by which the people are to be defended, consisteth in their Armies and the strength of an Army,

And

of

Ninthly,

making
>eace

;

;

;

the Union of their strength under one Command; which Command the Soveraign Instituted, therefore hath because the command of the Militia,, without other Institution, maketh him that hath it Soveraign. And therefore whosoever is made Generall of an Army, he that hath the Soveraign Power is alwayes Generalin
;

lissimo.
10.

rTtv-CjA

s

And of
1

choosing
sellours

and Ministers,

both

of Peace,

d

Warre:
11.

And
and

of Reward-

ing,

in^^and
lhat (where

no former

Law

hath

Tenthly, is annexed to the Soveraignty, the choosing o f aii Counsellours, Ministers, Magistrates, and Officers, k tn i n Peace, and War. For seeing the Soveraign is charged with the End, which is the common Peace and Defence he is understood to have Power to use such Means, as he shall think most fit for his discharge. to the Soveraign is committed the Power Eleventhly, ,. J f -^ -,1-1 f Rewarding with riches, or honour; and of Pumshwith ing corporall, or pecuniary punishment, or with ignominy every Subject according to the Law he hath f rmer or if there be no Law made, according ty ma de as ^ e sn u dge most to Conduce to the encouraging of J men to serve the Common-wealth, or deterring of them from doing dis-service to the same.
;

i

jr-r-i_

^

;

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
;

Chap.

18.

139

Lastly, considering what values men are naturally apt determined what respect they look for the measto set upon themselves from others and how little they value other men from
;
;

whence continually

arise

amongst them, Emulation,

^^/^
i

.

2 .Andof

Quarrells, Factions, and at last Warre, to the destroying Honour of one another, and diminution of their strength against and Order. a Common Enemy It is necessary that there be Lawes of
;

Honour, and a publique rate of the worth of such men as have deserved, or are able to deserve well of the Common-wealth and that there be force in the hands of some or other, to put those Lawes in execution. But it hath already been shewn, that not onely the whole but also the Militia, or forces of the Common-wealth Judicature of all Controversies, is annexed to the
;
;

the Soveraign therefore it belongeth of Honour and to appoint what and Order of place, and dignity, each man shall hold what signes of respect, in publique or private meetings, they shall give to one another. These are the Rights, which make the Essence of These and which are the markes, whereby a man Ri8 hts Soveraignty may discern in what Man, or Assembly of men, the Soveraign Power is placed, and resideth. For these are

Soveraignty. also to give

To

titles

;

;

;

.

The Power to coyn to dispose of the estate and persons of Infant heires to have praeemption in Markets and all other Statute Praerogatives, may be transferred by the Sove and yet the Power to protect his Subjects be raign But if he transferre the Militia., he retains retained. the Judicature in vain, for want of execution of the [93] Lawes Or if he grant away the Power of raising Mony the Militia is in vain or if he give away the govern ment of Doctrines, men will be frighted into rebellion with the feare of Spirits. And so if we consider any one of the said Rights, we shall presently see, that the hold ing of all the rest, will produce no effect, in the conserva tion of Peace and Justice, the end for which all Common wealths are Instituted. And this division is it, whereof it is said, a Kingdome divided in it selfe cannot stand For unlesse this division precede, division into opposite Armies can never happen. If there had not first been an
incommunicable, and inseparable.

Mony

;

;

;

;

:

;

:

:

140

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap.

18.

opinion received of the greatest part of England, that

k these Powers were divided between the King, and the Lords, and the House of Commons, the people had never been divided, and fallen into this Civill Warre first between those that disagreed in Politiques and after between the Dissenters about the liberty of Religion which have so instructed men in this point of Soveraign Right, that there be few now (in England,) that do not see, that these Rights are inseparable, and will be so generally acknowledged, at the next return of Peace and so continue, till their miseries are forgotten and no longer, except the vulgar be better taught than they have hetherto been. And can And because they are essentiall and inseparable Rights, by no ft follows necessarily, that in whatsoever words any of them seem to be granted away, yet if the Soveraign basse away with- Power it self e be not in direct termes renounced, and the out direct name of Soveraign no more given by the Grantees to venounc- him that Grants for when he them, the Grant is voyd ^ as g rant ed all he can, if we grant back the Soveraignty, oveiaign b all is restored, as Power. inseparably annexed thereunto. This great Authority being Indivisible, and inseparably The Power and Hon- annexed to the Soveraignty, there is little ground for the our of opinion of them, that say of Soveraign Kings, though ^ nev be singulis majores, of greater Power than every vanllheth one f their Subjects, yet they be Universis minores, of in the lesse power than them all together. For if by all together, presence of the they mean not the collective body as one person, then Power all together, and every one, signifie the same and Soveraign. speech is absurd. But if by all together, they understand them as one Person (which person the Soveraign bears,) then the power of all together, is the same with the and so again the speech is absurd Soveraigns power which absurdity they see well enough, when the Sove raignty is in an Assembly of the people but in a Monarch it not and yet the power of Soveraignty is they
; ;
;

;

;

:

;

"the

;

:

;

<;ee

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the same in whomsoever it be placed. And as the Power, so also the Honour of the Soveraign, ought to be greater, than that of any, or all the Subjects. For in the Soveraignty is the fountain of Honour. The dignities of Lord, Earle, Duke, and Prince are his Crea-

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
;

Chap.

18.

141

tures.

Subjects, in the presence of the Soveraign. And though they shine some more, some lesse, when they are out of his sight yet in his presence, they shine no more than the Starres in presence of the Sun. But a man may here object, that the Condition of [94] as being obnoxious to iheSoveraigne Subjects is very miserable lusts, and other irregular passions of him, or them that s^urtfull have so unlimited a Power in their hands. And com- a s the want monly they that live under a Monarch, think it the of it, and the hur * fault Monarchy and they that live under the governe s ment of Democracy, or other Soveraign Assembly, t^ e to that forme of Commonattribute all the inconvenience greatest whereas the Power in all formes, if they be part from wealth ~ not con- not sub perfect enough to protect them, is the same sidering that the estate of Man can never be without to some incommodity or other and that the greatest, that a iesse j in any forme of Government can possibly happen to the people in generall, is scarce sensible, in respect of the miseries, and horrible calamities, that accompany a Civill Warre or that dissolute condition of masterlesse men, without subjection to Lawes, and a coercive Power to nor consider tye their hands from rapine, and revenge ing that the greatest pressure of Soveraign Governours, proceedeth not from any delight, or profit they can expect in the dammage, or weakening of their Subjects, in whose vigor, consisteth their own strength and glory but in the restiveness of themselves, that unwillingly contributing to their own defence, make it necessary for their Governours to draw from them what they can in time of Peace, that they may have means on any emer gent occasion, or sudden need, to resist, or take advantage on their Enemies. For all men are by nature provided of notable multiplying glasses, (that is their Passions
;
;
"of

equall,

As in the presence of the Master, the Servants are So are the and without any honour at all

;

^

;

;

^^y

;

;

:

;

and

Selfe-love,) through which, every little payment but are destitute of those appeareth a great grievance prospective glasses, (namely Morall and Civill Science,) to see a farre off the miseries that hang over them, and cannot without such payments be avoyded.
;

142

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
CHAP. XIX.

Chap. 19

Of
The

the severall

Kinds

of

Common-wealth by

Institution,

and
diffevent

of Succession to the Soveraigne

Power.

THE difference of Common- wealths, consisteth in the difference of the Soveraign, or the Person representative Formes of of all and ey J one of the Multitude. And because the .., -..LsOjnmonwealths ooveraignty is either in one Man, or in an Assembly of but- three, more than one ; and into that Assembly either Every man hath right to enter, or not every one, but Certain
.

.

.

,.

it is manifest, there distinguished from the rest can be but Three kinds of Common-wealth. For the and Representative must needs be One man, or More if more, then it is the Assembly of All, or but of a Part. When the Representative is One man, then is the Common- wealth a MONARCHY when an Assembly of All that will come together, then it is a DEMOCRACY, or when an Assembly of a Part Popular Common-wealth onely, then it is called an ARISTOCRACY. Other kind of I Common-wealth there can be none for either One, or More, or All, must have the Soveraign Power (which I have shewn to be indivisible) entire. There be other names of Government, in the Histories, [95] as Tyranny, and Oligarchy Tyranny and books of Policy But and Olithey are not the names of other Formes of Government, e same Formes misliked. For they that are kut ^ ^difteven and names of discontented under Monarchy, call it Tyranny Monarchy, they that are displeased with Aristocracy, called it and AnsSo also, they which find themselves grieved Oligarchy oy under a Democracy, call it Anarchy, (which signifies want I think no man believes, that of Government ;) and yet want of Government, is any new kind of Government nor by the same reason ought they to believe, that the Government is of one kind, when they like it, and
;
: :
:

men

:

,

;

:

^

;

:

:

another,
Subordinate Re-

when they

mislike

it,

or are oppressed

by

the

Governours.
It is manifest,

that

men who
i

are in absolute liberty,

they please, give Authority to One man, to reprepresenta- sent them as well as give such Authority to every one fives danA r i and consequently anv Assembly of men whatsoever serous.

may,

if

;

i

i

j_i

;

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
if

Chap. 19.

may subject themselves, they think good, to a Monarch, as absolutely, as to any other Representative. Therefore, where there is already erected a Soveraign Power, there can be no other Representative of the same people, but onely to certain particular ends, by the Soveraign limited. For that were to erect two Soveraigns ; and every man to have his person represented by two Actors, that by opposing one another, must needs divide that Power, and which (if men will live in Peace) is indivisible thereby reduce the Multitude into the condition of Warre, contrary to the end for which all Soveraignty is And therefore as it is absurd, to think that instituted. a Soveraign Assembly, inviting the People of their Dominion, to send up their Deputies, with power to make known their Advise, or Desires, should therefore
;

hold such Deputies, rather than themselves, for the so it is absurd absolute Representative of the people And I know also, to think the same in a Monarchy. not how this so manifest a truth, should of late be so that in a Monarchy, he that had the little observed Soveraignty from a descent of 600 years, was alone called Soveraign, had the title of Majesty from every one of
:

;

his Subjects, and was unquestionably taken by them for their King, was notwithstanding never considered as

their Representative ; that passing for the title of those

name without
men, which at

contradiction
his

command

were sent up by the people to carry their Petitions, and give him (if he permitted it) their advise. Which may serve as an admonition, for those that are the true, and absolute Representative of a People, to instruct men in the nature of that Office, and to take heed how they admit of any other gencrall Representation upon any occasion whatsoever, if they mean to discharge the trust committed to them. The difference between these three kindes of Common- Compa but son f wealth, consisteth not in the difference of Power a in the difference of Convenience, or Aptitude to produce ? ? the Peace, and Security of the people for which end ain ^ they were instituted. And to compare Monarchy with semblyt the other two, we may observe First, that whosoever beareth the Person of the people, or is one of that
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1

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144

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 19.

[96]

Assembly that bears it, beareth also his own naturall Person. And though he be carefull in his politique Person to procure the common interest yet he is more, or no lesse carefull to procure the private good of himselfe, his and for the most part, if family, kindred and friends
; ;

the publique interest chance to crosse the private, he for the Passions of men, are com preferrs the private than their Reason. From whence it more potent monly follows, that where the publique and private interest are most closely united, there is the publique most advanced. Now in Monarchy, the private interest is the same with the publique. The riches, power, and honour of a Mon arch arise onely from tlie riches, strength and reputation of his Subjects. For no King can be rich, nor glorious, nor secure whose Subjects are either poore, or con temptible, or too weak through want, or dissention, to maintain a war against their enemies Whereas in a Democracy, or Aristocracy, the publique prosperity conferres not so much to the private fortune of one that is corrupt, or ambitious, as doth many times a perfidious advice, a treacherous action, or a Civill warre. Secondly, that a Monarch receiveth counsell of whom,
:

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:

and consequently may when, and where he pleaseth heare the opinion of men versed in the matter about which he deliberates, of what rank or quality soever, and as long before the time of action, and with as much But when a Soveraigne Assembly secrecy, as he will. has need of Counsell, none are admitted but such as have a Right thereto from the beginning which for the most part are of those who have beene versed more in and are the acquisition of Wealth than of Knowledge to give their advice in long discourses, which may, and do commonly excite men to action, but not governe them in it. For the Understanding is by the flame of the Nor is there any Passions, never enlightned, but dazled place, or time, wherein an Assemblie can receive Counsell with secrecie, because of their owne Multitude. Thirdly, that the Resolutions of a Monarch, are subject to no other Inconstancy, than that of Humane Nature but in Assemblies, besides that of Nature, there ariseth an Inconstancy from the Number. For the absence of
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Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 19.

a few, that would have the Resolution once taken, con tinue firme, (which may happen by security, negligence, or private impediments,) or the diligent appearance of a few of the contrary opinion, undoes to day, all that

was concluded yesterday.
selfe,

Fourthly, that a Monarch cannot disagree with himbut an Assembly may out of envy, or interest and that to such a height, as may produce a Civill Warre. Fifthly, that in Monarchy there is this inconvenience that any Subject, by the power of one man, for the enriching of a favourite or flatterer, may be deprived of which I confesse is a great and inevit all he possesseth able inconvenience. But the same may as well happen, For where the Soveraigne Power is in an Assembly and they are as subject to evill their power is the same Counsell, and to be seduced by Orators, as a Monarch by and becoming one an others Flatterers, Flatterers serve one anothers Covetousnesse and Ambition by And whereas the Favorites of Monarchs, are turnes. few, and they have none els to advance but their owne the Favorites of an Assembly, are many Kindred and the Kindred much more numerous, than of any Monarch. Besides, there is no Favourite of a Monarch, which cannot as well succour his friends, as hurt his enemies But Orators, that is to say, Favourites of
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[97]

:

Soveraigne Assemblies, though they have great power
to hurt, have little to save. For to accuse, requires lesse and Eloquence (such is rnans Nature) than to excuse condemnation, than absolution more resembles Justice.
;

Sixtly, that it is an inconvenience in Monarchic, that the Soveraigntie may descend upon an Infant, or one and conthat cannot discerne between Good and Evill sisteth in this, that the use of his Power, must be in the hand of another Man, or of some Assembly of men,
:

as which are to governe by his right, and in his name Curators, and Protectors of his Person, and Authority. But to say there is inconvenience, in putting the use of the Sovei aign Power, into the hand of a Man, or an Assembly is to say that all Government is more Incon of men venient, than Confusion, and Civill Warre. And there fore all the danger that can be pretended, must arise
; ;

that hath by Nature most interest in the preservation of the Authority of the Infant. that the precedent Monarch. where Subjects the people are not well instructed in their Duty. has need of a Tutor. and Warre. is the same. is not : . by not controlling the Custome in that case received And then such in convenience (if it happen) is to be attributed. from the Contention of those. be it good. either expressely by Testament. to dissent from the coun And as a Child sell of the major part. Tuition. or diminution. as if the Government were in a Child. as to consultations of Peace. that can promote themselves by his destruction. And then the Law of Nature hath provided this sufficient rule. not to the Monarchy. have need of Custodes libertatis that is of Dictators. to whom he is committed Assembly wanteth the liberty. we are to consider. and to whom least benefit can accrue by his death. and promotion an Infant into the power of those. as a Child wants the judgement to dissent from counsell given him. or of them.) the Soveraign Assembly. and is thereby necessitated to take the advise [98] So an or him. it is not to be attributed to the forme of Monarchy. to preserve his Person. that this inconvenience. For seeing every man by to put nature seeketh his own benefit. and Authority So also (in great Common-wealths. So that sufficient provision being taken. : : . may become Competitors. in all great dangers and troubles. but Trechery. or Protector. proceedeth not from that forme of Government we call Monarchy. On the other side. 19. about the Government under a Child. or tacitly. . against all just quarrell. and profit. and making of Lawes. Chap. Or else the precedent Monarch. that for an office of so great honour. or bad. which is not. in the same For condition. OF COMMON -WEALTH. That the Tuition shall be in him. the Soveraignty whereof is in a great Assembly. there is no great Common-wealth. hath appointed who shall have the Tuition of his Infant Successor. and Injustice of the which in all kinds of Government. . but to the ambition of Subjects.46 Part 2. but to the Ambition. and ignorance of their Duty. hath not at all taken order for such Tuition . if any contention arise to the disturbance of the publique Peace. or dammage. To make it appear. and the Rights of Soveraignty.

by their Protectors. : called Monarchic. Though shewn. and are in the world. as I have now that is to say. then there is some other Man. and . But if he have no Power to elect his Successor. Procurator. Tutors. by a President. but three One Man has it it the Kinds of Soveraigntie be. Arid first. Chap. Likewise if a Popular. or Aristo- craticall Common-wealth. as the Dictators power amongst the Romans If he have Right to appoint his Successor. and may thereby be inclined to think there be other Formes. concerning an Elective King. or any other . or otherwise distinguished from the rest Yet he that shall consider the particular Common. whose power is limited to his life. they may Temporary Monarchs commit the entire exercise of their Power and have (at the end of that time) been oftner deprived thereof. are never theles by most Writers : . Democratically. But it is not so. . and dissolveth with him. . 19. than Infant Kings. Monarchic. As for example. Elective Kingdomes where Kings have the Soveraigne Power put into their hands for a time or Kingdomes. L 2 . but Monarchically. subdue an Enemies Countrie. but Ministers of the Soveraigne nor limited Kings Soveraignes. . where Assembly of Subjects hath it is in an Assembly of certain persons nominated. which after his decease may elect a new. . For Elective Kings.Part 2. or Aristocratically governed. where or Democracie. or Aristocracie. to be a Democraticall. as it is in many places of Christen- dome at this day or to certaine Yeares or Moneths. where the general! . arising from these mingled together. or Aristocraticall Government. . he is no more Elective but Hereditary. but Ministers of them that have the Sove Nor are those Provinces which are in raigne Power subjection to a Democracie. OF COMMON-WEALTH. are not Soveraignes. 147 which are as much as Protectors of their Authorise to whom for a time. Regents. or Assembly known.wealthes that have been. and govern the same. wherein the King hath a power limited which Governments. : Common-wealth. or else the Common-wealth dieth. or Aristocracie of another . will not perhaps easily reduce them to three. . or other Magistrate this may seeme perhaps at first sight. .

. from relapsing into the miserable condition of Civill warre. or Aristocracy yet when they are governed by an Assembly.148 Part 2. If it be known who have the power to give the Soveraigntie after his death. and keep to themselves. not of their own choosing. the government is called a Democracy. . into the which. Ephori. OF COMMON-WEALTH. or Democracy yet as to people of Judea. their Election which though as to the people of Rome was an Assembly of the people. as of old time in Sparta where the Kings had a priviledge to but the Soveraignty was in the lead their Armies . : . governed the land of Judea (for example) by a Presi dent yet was not Judea therefore a Democracy because they were not governed by any Assembly. nay he is obliged by the Law of Nature. not of One man. chosen by themselves out of their own number. over another man . 19. : . . Chap. or Aristocracy . but either Democracy. is not superiour to him. any of them. returneth to the condition of Warre. I . to provide. whereas heretofore the Roman People. after the decease of him that was first elected then has he power. . is not supreme that The Soveraignty therefore was is to say not Soveraign. [99lalwaies in that Assembly which had the Right to Limit him and by consequence the government not Mon . But if there be none that can give the Soveraigntie. And consequently he was. to keep those that had trusted him with the Government. For though where the people are governed by an Assembly. or them that have the power to limit it and he that is not superiour. had right to enter nor by an Aristocracy because they were not governed by any Assembly. archy. . Secondly. over another people. into which. a Soveraign absolute. . by establishing his Successor. tis a Monarchy but of one people. when elected. Thirdly. if they think good. that King whose power is limited. . which had no right at all of participating in the govern ment. it is known also that the Soveraigntie was in them before For none have right to give that which they have not right to possesse. any man could enter by but they were governed by one Person. was a Monarch. . .

for an Artificiall Eternity of life without which. For that which the Representative doth. for their perpetuall. Soveraign Assembly. as Actor. when any of the Assembly dyeth. In a Democracy. as the Soveraign. that the Election is made and by the same it may (when the publique shall require it) be . and not temporary security. . This Artificiall Eternity. The Ple : that at first sight. to whom belongeth the choosing of all Counsellours. the election of another into his room belongeth to the Assembly. In an Aristocracy. so there be order also taken. as Author. have in that forme of Government no place at all. Chap. so that not onely Monarchs. new men. is that which men call the . . who . OF COMMON-WEALTH. should return into the condition of Warre in every age and they that are governed by One man. 19. the matter being Of mortall. [100] in Monarchy And the difficulty ariseth from this. who it is is whom to appoint ^hhat to he hath Right . the whole Assembly cannot faile. the 149 f Of all these Formes of Government. And though the . and may be \ ( assumed by the Soveraign at his pleasure and conse quently the Right is in himself e. it is not manifest the Successor nor many times. There is no perfect forme of Government. it is in a person subject. assoon as their Governour dyeth. is The greatest difficultie about the right of Succession. it is necessary for the conservation of the peace of men. private Assembly. but also whole Assemblies dy. but left to a new choyce Common-wealth dissolved and the Right is in him that can get it contrary to the intention of them that did Institute the Common-wealth.Part 2. to elect for supply of their court yet it is still by their Authority. that as there was order taken for an Artificial! Man. where the isposing of the Succession is not in the present SoveFor if it be in any other particular Man. : Right of Succession. may give Power to others. and Officers. And if it be in no then is the particular man. . men that are governed by an Assembly. recalled. or jign. And therefore questions of the right of Succession. . every one of the Subjects doth. unlesse the Multitude that are to be governed faile.

. right to dispose of the Succession. end for which Monarchy had it is its first Institu- manifest. or Testament. viva voce. that such a man shall be his Heire. For the word Heire does not of it selfe imply but whom the Children. is alwaies left to the Judgment and Will of the present Possessor. OF COMMON-WEALTH. As to the question. . when it is declared passeth by by him i n his life time. . or else that right is again in the dissolved Multitude. of a Monarch that hath the Soveraign Authority that is to say. leaves the Multitude without any Soveraign at all that is. he would have to If therefore a Monarch succeed him in his Estate. 19. contrary to the tion.150 dispose of theSucces- Part 2. has . and Testament by other tacite signes sufficient. that by the Institution / of Monarchy. and to the condition of a War of every man against every man. j I I j of being Monarch. Invested in the right . both these cases. Therfore . For the death of him that hath the Soveraign power in propriety. without any Representative in whom they should be united. . hath designed to the succession and inheritance of his power it is or determined by his expresse Words. who shall determine of the right of In heritance. who shall appoint the Suc cessor. either by Word or Writing. : . every man having equall right to submit himselfe to or if such as he thinks best able to protect him . For in Chap. declare expresly. more exact ratiocination. or by Writing as the first Emperours of Rome declared who should be their Heires. than every man is accustomed to use. Succession By expresse Words. then is that man immediatly after the decease of his Predecessor. that either he that is in possession. the disposing of the Successor. (for Elective Kings and Princes have not the Soveraign Power in propriety. which is a returne to Confusion. he can. but in use only. protect himselfe by his owne sword. or nearest Kindred of a man soever a man shall any way declare. arid be capable of doing any one action at all And therefore they are incapable of Election of any new Monarch . And for the question (which may arise sometimes) who it is that the Monarch in possession. there is required a appointed.) we are to consider.

nor speaking the same language) Nation. To dispose o/ the SueS5 Jf *j? . there also the right of Succession is in the next of the Kindred Male. be Secondly. rather a Brother than a stranger and so still the neerer in because it is bloud. by pre- sumption of naturall affection. men not used to live under another the same government.Part 2. than the children of other men because men. to advance their own and of their children. it is a naturall signe he would have that Cus tome stand. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. are own. the most honour from the great nesse of his neerest kindred. that a Monarchs will is. Male. and expresse Words ing. and does not. by reflexion. nor Testament hath pre ceded. that the government remain Monarchicall because he hath approved that government in himself e. for the same reason. which is indeed a great in oppression of his Subjects but it proceedeth not necessarily from the convenience . if the will of him that was had been otherwise. Thirdly. or Testament. And likewise where the Custome is. 151 Or. there it is to be understood. . [101] Or. And so it is For what if the Custome were to advance the Female. rather a Male than a Female naturally fitter than women. But if it be lawfull for a Monarch to dispose of the Succession by words of Contract. where his own Issue faileth. soever Custome a man may by a word controule. a Kmg of because strangers (that is. First. u i . other naturall signes of the Will are to whereof the one Custome. may sell. . But where neither Custome. there also the next of Kindred hath right to is . or Female. rather than the more remote alwayes presumed that the neerer of kin. that the next of Kindred absolutely sueceedeth. that a Child of his own. : . men . by not controll- But where Testament. . 19. And Custome is. for he may perhaps object a great inconvenience or give his Right of governing to a stranger which. f i -L j because men are presumed preferred before any other to be more enclined by nature. is the neerer in affection and tis evident that a man receives alwayes. Chap. that the next of the Male Kindred suc- the Succession in posession ceedeth. he might easily have declared the same in his life time. do commonly undervalue one another. are wantbe followed therefore where the : in s a Cus for that. may turn to the : . . for actions of labour and danger.

which make both those King domes. where the Common. onely in this. but from the unskilfulnesse of the Governours. OF COMMON-WEALTH. this also is an argument. And this kind of Dominion. which is to afraid of. not onely the Privileges. do authorise all lion** that Man. when men singly.Soveraign Power is acquired by Force And it is acquired wealth by k v force. XX. And this was it our most wise King. as much as they thought necessary. or bonds. And therefore the Romans when they had subdued many Nations. . it hath been some miserable. ignorant of the true rules of Politiques. by giving sometimes to whole Nations. That different from a men w fr o choose their Soveraign. CHAP. is that. subjection to a strangers government. Chap. 19. to make their Government diges tible. they subject themselves. Monarch to dispose of the Succession by Will though by the fault of many Princes. that whatsoever inconvenience can arrive by giving a Kingdome to a stranger. ? : : . and Offices of charge. Which if he could have ob tained. King James. as the Right of Suc cession may descend upon them yet this by all men is : accounted lawfull. for a . A Common-wealth by Acquisition.152 Part 2. at this present. may arrive also by so marrying with strangers. but also the Name of Romans and took many of them into the Senate. to him they are Institution. differeth Wherein from Soveraignty by Institution. in this case. In both cases they do it for fear A . do it for fear of one and not of him whom they Institute But weUhby Bother. It is not therefore any injury to the people. even in the Roman City. and sometimes to Principall men of every Nation they conquered. times found inconvenient. had in all likelihood prevented the Civill warres. and DESPOTICALL. or Assembly. Of the lawfulnesse of it. in endeavouring the Union of his two Realms of England and Scotland. Of Dominion PATERNALL. were wont to take away that grievance. aymed at. or Soveraignty. or many together by plurality f v y ces f r f ear f death. that hath their [102] the actions of lives and liberty in his Power.

it is not the Invalidity of the Covenant. and Peace to him it belongeth to choose Magistrates.gt. in any kind of Common-wealth. Dominion Paternall how at ~ tamed - . . and Ministers and to determine of Rewards. His Power cannot. then he is acquitted by him that extorted the promise. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. are the same which are alledged in the precedent Chapter. God hath ordained to man a helper and there be alwayes two that are equally Parents the Dominion therefore over the Child. that in a Common wealth once Instituted. of Injury He -cannot be Punished by . and Occasions of Warre. . But the Rights. he unlawfully breaketh But when the Soveraign. . or acquired. could be obliged to Obedience. acquitteth him. and Punishments. and doth not. Otherwise.Part 2. for the same Rights. without his consent. or violence. who is the Actor. voyd were true. : . but because he that promiseth. : : : : : .them He is Judge of what is necessary for Peace and Judge of Doctrines He is Sole Legislator and Supreme Judge of Controversies and of the Times. The right of Dominion by Generation. or violence. either expresse. It is true. : . and Order. tor as to the Generation. 153 be noted by them. as by the Author of such absolution. are no Covenants. Commanders. as if therefore the Parent had Dominion over his Child because he begat him bat from the Childs Consent. Promises proceed ing from fear of death. of SoveHe cannot Forfeit it He be Transferred to another cannot be Accused by any of his Subjects. Dominion is acquired two wayes By Generation. whensoever a man lawfully pro miseth. that absolveth him. and all other Officers. and by Conquest. when he may lawfully performe. Counsellours. no man. The reasons whereof. or by other sufficient arguments declared. 20. and Consequences of Soveraignty. hath no right in the thing promised. and Consequences of Soveraignty by Institution. Contract - : . And is not so derived from the Generation. Also. nor obliging. : Chap. but the Sentence of the Soveraign. that hold all such Covenants. are TheRights the same in both. Honour. should . which the Parent hath over his Children and is called PATERNALL. Not by Genera t1on &amp. when the thing promised is contrary to the Lawes But the reason is not. because it was made upon fear. as pro which if it ceed from fear of death. is that.

OF COMMON-WEALTH. : . so as she may either if she nourish it. or expose it to . Chap.154 Part 2. And whereas some have attributed the Dominion to the Man onely. the We find in right passeth according to the Contract. one to another. In this condition of meer Nature. it cannot be known who is the Father. . For there is not alwayes that difference of strength. History that the Amazons Contracted with the Men of the neighbouring Countries. and the naturall inclination of the Sexes. . and he be equally subject belong equally to both for no man can obey both. seeing the Infant is first in the power of the Mother. and is consequently hers. But if she expose it. . and nourish it. (but not alwayes) the sentence is in favour of the Father because for the most part Common -wealths have been erected by the Fathers. But the question lyeth now in the state of meer Nature no where there are supposed no lawes of Matrimony lawes for the Education of Children but the Law of Nature. Or Education . this controversie is decided by the Civill Law and for the most part. the Dominion is in the Mother. : : . where there are no Matrimoniall lawes. Again. . the Dominion is in him that nourisheth it. rather than any other and by consequence the Dominion over it is hers. In Common-wealths. as that the right can be determined without War. If they dispose thereof. which is impossible two Masters. as being of the more excel lent Sex they misreckon in it. . for which one man becomes subject to another. and to their children. either the Parents between themselves dis or pose of the dominion over the Child by Contract do not dispose thereof at all. it oweth its life nourish. If there be no Contract. but the Female remain with themselves so that the dominion of the Females was in the Mother. every man is supposed . . not by the Mothers of families. . 20. For it ought to obey him by whom it is preserved because preservation of life being the end. and another find. . that the issue Male should be sent back. . or prudence between the man and the woman. to whom they had recourse for issue. to the Mother and is therefore obliged to obey her. unlesse it be declared by the Mother and therefore the right of Dominion over the Child dependeth on her will. For in the condition of meer Nature.

as doth the Right of t Succes Succession to Monarchy of which I have already f^eththe Rules of sufficiently spoken in the precedent chapter. and not before Servant (whether it be derived from Setvire. till the owner of him that took him. (as when a Soveraign Queen marrieth one of her JJJ^? & because paents to subjects. which I leave to Grammarians to dispute) is not meant a Captive. or bought him of one that did. hath Dominion also over the Children of the Child and over For he that hath Dominion their Childrens Children. attained&quot. to Serve. from Aeo-Trr-n/s / p ossesSl which signifieth a Lord.) the Child is subject to the Mother the Father also is her subject. or bonds. : : (for such men. He that hath the Dominion over the Child. the Van for by the word quished is a SERVANT. on that so long as his life. and the liberty of his body is k allowed him. . covenanteth either in Despoticatt expresse words. to Save. the Right of the Do minion passeth by the Contract. (commonly called Slaves. and contract concerning who shall have the Dominion of him. is 155 is in Or Precethe Fathers power and if the Father be the Mothers dent subsubject. the Victor shall have the use thereof. hath Dominion over all that : to promise obedience. or destroy him. If they contract not.) have no obliga- . If a man and a woman. have a Child. the Dominion followeth the Dominion of the place of his For the Soveraign of each Country hath residence.Part 2. is the Right that which some Writers call DESPOTICALL. or Victory in war. without which. Chap. with out the The Right of Succession to Paternall Dominion. . or Master and is the Dominion of the Master over his Servant. in whose power it save.The Right ceedeth in the same manner. pro. over the person of a man. If the Mother be the Fathers subject. the Child. to [104] avoyd the present stroke of death. to him. the other. Title. is his . Dominion were but a effect. Dominion over all that reside therein. which is kept in prison. 20. OF COMMON-WEALTH. And after such Covenant made. or by other sufficient signes of the Will. Dominion acquired by Conquest. Monarches of two sever all Kingdomes. or from Servare. shall consider what to do with him . when the Vanquished. to j . his pleasure. And this Dominion is then acquired to the Victor.

as often as he shall think fit. . if he refuse. . o f Dominion over the Vanquished. (without promise of life. but deferred till farther delibera tion For it is not an yeelding on condition of life.gt. . his corporall liberty. And then onely is his life in security. is trusted by him. hath corporall liberty allowed him and upon promise not to run away. . but his own Covenant. by the covenant of obedience . when they demand (as it is now called) Quarter. Victor obliged by an enemies rendring himselfe. kill him.) to spare him for this his yeelding to dis cretion which obliges not the Victor longer. but may break their bonds. and his service due. that being taken. So that for a man that is Monarch of divers . : . taking alive. and kill. do it not of duty. that giveth the right Victory. one. : . with Ransome. . For he holdeth that his life of his Master. Chap. but to discretion. In summe. . nor to do violence to his Master. of his servants. or Fetters. of his goods. . but to avoyd the cruelty of their task-masters. and of his children. Not by the It is not therefore the Victory. by Submission. when the Victor hath trusted him with For Slaves that work in Prisons. than in his own discretion hee shall think fit. or Service and therefore he that hath Quarter hath not his life given. The Master of the Servant. or put to flight the Vancommeth in. tion at . or otherwise punish him for his and disobedience. or * s ^ e b n ged because he is Conquered that is to Consent of sa but because he beaten. ^ . he is himselfe the author of the same is. or the prison or carry away captive their Master. 20.156 Part 2. and Submitteth to the Victor Nor is the quished. of his labour. And in case the Master. of owning. the Rights and Consequences of bothPaiernall and Despoticall Dominion. . all OF COMMON-WEALTH. justly:) but. (which the Greeks called Zwy/am.} is to evade the present fury of the Victor. And that which men do. and taken. and to compound for their life. cannot accuse him of injury. is Master also of all he hath and may exact the use thereof that is to say. and authorising whatsoever the Master shall do. Y&amp. are the very same with and for the same those of a Soveraign by Institution reasons which reasons are set down in the precedent chapter. or cast him into bonds.

whereof he hath. entrusted with power enough for their protection. * This shall J9be the Right of the King you will have to reigne over you. away. is of it self. in one the Soveraignty by Institution of the people assembled. saith. the children of Israel say **fi r thus. . which is the condition it appears. or Assemblies. He shall take your sons. as not to be subdued without the hazard of war. OF COMMON-WEALTH. 20. Concerning the Right of Kings. Lawfully protect himselfe. . 157 Nations. Rights of Soveraignty. if he can. of Soveraign Rights. and in another by Conquest. or run shall suffice And thus much concerning what I find by speculation. rather than be put to the sword. need. their armes. For where a number of men are manifestly too weak to defend themselves united. surprised by an army. or by other opportunities. . * Speak thou to us. To Moses. . But yet a Family is not properly a Common wealth unlesse it be of that power by its own number. and designes of men. lest we dye.Part 2. is an act of ignorance of the Rights of Soveraignty. and putting themselves under Monarchs. . as hee shall think best a very small company of souldiers. Let us now consider what the Scripture teacheth in The hts of the same point. from the title of Conquest. and set them to drive his Chariots. and servants together wherein the Father or Master is the Soveraign. and so every man may of war.2o. This is absolute Scripture. that is by the submission of each particular. either by flight. in erecting of Common-wealths. as to the between a whether that. Family if it be not Difference part of some Common-wealth. may cast down . : . . that a great. God himself by the mouth of Samuel. as being a Conquered Nation. Chap. or by submission to the in the same manner as enemy. to demand of one Nation to avoyd death or bonds more than of the other. from the nature. and deduction. every one may use his own reason in time of danger. but let v not God speak to us. For the Soveraign is absolute [105] or else there is no Soveraignty at all over both alike . *Exod. a little Monarchy or of a man Family consist of a man and his children and his servants or of a man. and we will heare thee . By this . f obedience to Moses. with his own sword. and demand quarter. and his children. to save his own life.

Paul saith. horsemen. &c. and employ them in his businesse. chariots . was this. and give it to the men of his cham He shall take your man ber. . and. the anoynted of God. both to the Militia. and . to judge thy people. that men ought to pay such taxes as are by Kings imposed. OF COMMON -WEALTH. and your maid-servants. saying. 20. yet they consented * Verse. and do. And . Chap. nations. an our Xing shall judge our causes. This obedience is also simple. and his engines of War. and the choice of your He shall take youth. 3. *Math. and summed up in the last words. to conduct our wars. your vine-yards. and goe before us. the * Give lo * i Kings prayer of King Salomon to God. Again. St. and therefore All that they 2. David forbad * God * i Sam. js simple obedience in those that are subject to Paternall * The Scribes and Again. Againe. and to discerne It belongeth therefore to the between Good and Evill. * Children obey your Parents in All things. and to his other servants. and say thus. forbid I should do such an act against For obedience of servants 24. when the people heard what power their King was to have. and to all Judica in which is conteined as absolute power. them. *Coll.23. Pharisees sit in Moses chayre. 19. and to prescribe the Rules of which Rules are Lawes and discerning Good and Evill therefore in nim is the Legislative Power. servants. * Servants obey your masters in All things . 20. your fields. my Lord. and shall take your to run to make make perfumes. as one ture man can possibly transferre to another.obey them. where shall bid you observe. the tyth of your flocks . and to be his gather in his harvest and and Instruments daughters lo of his before his chariots . [106] Soveraigne to bee Judge. and to those that are in Authority.$. *T it. and your oliveyards. to be his Cookes. This is absolute power.33.2. and Bakers. * Warn them that they subject themselves to Princes. 6. and^give them to his servants. and his Servants would have done it. and you shall be his servants. that observe simple obedience.158 Part 2. servant understanding. There again is St Paul. Here is confirmed the Right that Soveraigns have. our Saviour himselfe acknowledges. * We will be as all other thereto. thy shall take He ^ .9: . There * Verse 22. you ^hall_behis servants. or Despoticall Dominion. He shall take the tyth of your corne and wine. Saul sought the life of David yet when it was in his power to slay Saul. Lastly. 9.

2 with 3and her a Asse Colt and you shall find shee her. To these places may be added also that of Genesis. take upon thee to judge of my Commandements ? Whereby it is cleerly. : that was then they first judged their nakednesse (wherein it was Gods will to create them) to be uncomely and by being ashamed. nor as if disputed. being forbidden by the name of the fruit of the tree of Knowledge. and Asses Colt to carry him into * Go into the * Village over against you. They will not ask whether his nor whether he be judge necessity be a sufficient title of that necessity but acquiesce in the will of the Lord. And if any man ask you. shall be as Gods. Give to Casar that which is Cczsars such taxes himselfe. they saw they were naked interpreted that place. are not by their Subjects to be censured. Chap. that the Commands of them that have the right to command. doest thou that owest me obedi ence. Jerusalem. when there is For need and that the King is Judge of that need he himselfe.Part 2. and saw not their own skins Evill. And whereas it is sayd. and bring them to me. And thereupon God saith. did tacitely censure God him it . commanded his Dis : . 20. what you mean by it. as King of the Jewes. of which I commanded thee thou shouldest not eat ? For the Cognisance or Judicature of Good and Evill. Hast thou eaten.$. which is Judicature of Good and Evill but acquired no new ability to distinguish between them aright. as if they had been formerly the meaning is plain. that hav no man hath so ing eaten. OF COMMON-WEALTH. is suffi cient to take any thing from any Subject. as a triall of Adams obedience The Divel to enflame the Ambition of the woman. . 21.) signified. tyed. . told her that by tasting it. . they should be as Gods. selfe. to whom that fruit already seemed beautifull. (though Allegorically. *Gen. * You verse ii.$. knowing Good and . he should say. blind. Mat. ciples to take the Asse. take upon . . saying. . unty them. . knowing Good and Evill. &c. And Who told thee that thou wast naked? hast thou eaten of the tree. Say the Lord hath need of them : And they will let them go. Whereupon having both eaten. And that the Kings word. they did indeed them Gods office. 159 and payed he sayes.

i n one Assembly of men. yet Common wealths to ^ ne consequences of the want of it. to my understanding. that so it ought to be. that proceed from the ignorance thereof. as doth Arithmetique and Geometry which Rules. a P wer men ma y f anc Y many evill consequences. to the Power. but what proceeds from the Subjects disobedience. both from Reason. . that have not sifted to the bottom. men should lay the foundation of their houses on the sand. In those Nations. that can limit it that is to say. it could ask. the Subjects never did dispute of the Soveraign Power. or the to find out. or [107] Power. where. and suffer daily those miseries. been acknowledged. nor men that have . or where has there been a Kingdome long free from Sedition and Civill Warre. as possibly men can be And though of so unlimited ought imagined to make it. which is perpetuall warre of every man against his neighbour. So that it appeareth plainly. are much be absolute. worse. that of the Practise when great. But howsoever. The condition of man in this life shall never be but there happeneth in no without Inconveniences Common-wealth any great Inconvenience. is invalid. and breach of those Covenants. not thence be inferred. For though in all places of the world. is as great. and nature of Common-wealths. and maintaining Common-wealths. whose Common-wealths have been long-lived.160 Part 2. and Aristocratic all Soveraign Power Common-wealths. as in Monarchy. 20. and with exact reason weighed the causes. . Chap. . an argument from the Practise of men. but by forraign warre. : had the method leisure. consisteth in certain Rules. as in Popular. OF COMMON-WEALTH. such Power has by Subjects But one may ask them again. have hitherto had the curiosity. And whosoever thinking Soveraign Power too . The skill of making. will seek to . and Scripture. to a greater. make it lesse must subject himself e. men and when. and not been destroyed. that the Soveraign whether placed in One Man. not (as Tennis-play) on Practise onely neither poor men have the leisure. The greatest objection is. from which the Common-wealth hath its being. when.

is not subject to Impediment And therefore. no Liberty can be inferred of the will. which space is deter mined by the opposition of some externall body. than to Rationall. that was not law. it according to this proper. it wants the Liberty but the Power to move as when a stone lyeth still. or a man is creatures. and Liberty. they are abused for that which is not subject to Motion. or environed. they are not at Liberty. are applyed to any thing but Bodies. or Covenant to give it. I mean externall Impediments of motion . or inclination. that he finds no stop. but of the Giver. desire. : And is said (for example) The way is Free. HOBBES M bound by any . no Liberty of the way is signified. and generally received [ J o8] meaning of the word. And when we say a Guift is Free. that in those What to things. or restrained. or vessels. it is not the Liberty of voice.) and may be applyed no lesse to Irrationall. . we say And so of all living it hath not Liberty to go further. or inclination to doe. we use to say. is not kindred to doe what he has a will to. from the use of the word Free-will. but of the man. or FREEDOME. Lastly. . XXI. and Inanimate creatures. whom no law hath obliged to speak otherwise then he did. to move in such manner. A FREE-MAN. that otherwise would spread it selfe into a larger space. there is not meant any Liberty of the Guift. which by his strength and wit he is able to do. signifieth (properly) the Liberty what - (by Opposition. or chayns and of the water whilest it is kept in by banks. but of those that walk in it without stop. in doing what he has the will. Of the Chap. absence of Opposition whilest they are imprisoned. CHAP. as without those externall impediments they would. is in the constitution of the thing it selfe. So when we speak Freely. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. 161 LIBERTY of Subjects. But when the impediment of motion. but the Liberty of the man which consisteth in this. . or pronuncia tion. desire. we use not to say. But when the words Free. fastned to his bed by sicknesse. For whatsoever is so tyed. LIBERTY.Part 2. 21. with walls. . but within a certain space. when tis . is he. as it cannot move.

the liberty of men would be a contradiction. : . because every : . nor is therefore Author of them yet they can have no passion. OF COMMON-WEALTH. which : : Liberty and NeConsistent the doers had liberty to omit. And therefore God. Artificiall Bonds. nor lesse. Liberty. because they proceed from voluntarily doe their will. that seeth. As in the water. Part 2.) they proceed from necessity. as when a man Feare. So that to him that could see the connexion of those causes. and Liberty are consistent throweth his goods into the Sea for feare the ship should s j n ^ j^ d o h ft neverthelesse very willingly. the necessity of all mens voluntary actions. proceed from liberty and yet. or Assembly. which we call a Common -wealth so also have they made Artificiall Chains. for the atteyning of peace. which because no body hindred him from detaining. and may refuse to doe it if he will It is therefore the action. For though men may do many things. 21. . & no more. would appeare manifest. have made an . seeth also that the liberty of man in doing what he will. in a continuall chaine. Artificiall . and inclination proceedeth from some cause. and act of will. by mutuall covenants. to whom they But as men. (whose first link is in the hand of God the first of all causes. and impediment to the omni . Common-wealths. was the action of a man at And generally all actions which men doe in liberty. but a necessity of descending ^Y ^^ e Channel so likewise in the Actions which men which. of one that was free so a man sometimes pays his debt. which only is properly called liberty. potence and liberty of God. for feare of the law. And this shall suffice. to the lips of that Man. are actions. nani[109] and conservaMan. and that from another cause. only for feare of Imprisonment. mans disposeth all things. And did not his will assure the necessity of mans will.162 Feare and Liberty consistent. have fastned at one end. Chap. and every desire. which they themselves. and Necessity are consistent that hath not only liberty. and consequently of all that on mans will dependeth. called Civill Lawes. (as to the matter in hand) of that naturall liberty. or tion of themselves thereby. nor appetite to any thing. which God does not command. of which appetite Gods will is not the cause. is accompanied with the necessity of doing that which God will.

(as being a thing impossible :) covenants. to cause those laws to be put in execution. than as he himself is the Subject of God. lyeth there fore only in those things. to their In relation to these Bonds only it speak now. ^ M 2 . it is no lesse absurd. for the regulating of all the rom actions. Againe. and death. And therefore it may. . proper sense. that a Subject . and bound thereby to ol serve the laws of Nature. a Subject. so that he r never wanteth Right to any thing. this is it they demand not knowing that the Lawes are of no power to protect them. for the most profitable to themselves. to exemption from Lawes. or limited. of the Liberty of Subjects. consistent abolished. : . men have the Liberty. for the Liberty they so manifestly enjoy.wealths. on what pretence soever. by the laws praetermitted. it followeth necessarily. the Soveraign Power of life. that nothing the Soveraign Representative can doe to w the . and prison. is either of Sub i ect For it has been already shewn. that I am to Liberty of For seeing there no Common-wealth in the world. and otherwise contract with one another . by the danger. otherwise.. the Soveraign hath praetermitted such as is the Liberty to buy. and words of men. without a Sword in the hands of a man.. and sell. by which all other men may be masters of their lives. though not by the difficulty of breaking them. And yet as absurd as it is. 163 and at the other end have given the Soveraigne Power own Ears. of doing what their own reasons shall suggest. which in regulating their actions. for an . that by such Liberty the Liberty. and institute their children as they them selves think fit & the like. to choose their own aboad. Neverthelesse we are not to understand.Part 2. if we take Liberty. . for men demand as they doe. or Injury because every Subject is power of Author of every act the Soveraign doth. wherein there ^Liberty Rules enough set down. The Liberty of a Subject. can properly be unlimited called Injustice.. These Bonds in their own nature but weak. For if wee take Liberty in the f ^ Subjects that is to say. may neverthelesse be made to hold. is is. . that Liberty. 21. for corporall Liberty freedome from chains. or men. it were very absurd for men to clamor as they doe. . that in all kinds of actions. Chap. . . their own diet. their own trade of life. and th often happen in Common. OF COMMON-WEALTH.

164 Part 2. that putteth to death an Innocent Subject. thought they committed no Injustice and yet they never questioned what crime he had done but what hurt he would doe Nay they commanded the banishment of they knew not David . which every man then snou ld have. : Chap. and Philosophy o.) yet it was Not to Uriah.cjto of every man against his neighbour . sometimes banished an Aristides. the Liberty Antient Greeks. because the right to doe what he pleased. in the Histories. Which distinction. . And sometimes a scurrilous Jester. as being may Power : contrary to Equitie. is not the Libertie of Parlearning theLiberty but the Libertie of the Common. Jeptha and the like cases. for which he is neverthelesse. by the command of the Soveraign and yet neither doe the other wrong As when caused his daughter to be sacrificed In which. or banish them to be Just. the Soveraign People of Athens wanted right to or an Athenian the Libertie to Jest. whereof there is so frequent. there is perpetuall w^r. OF COMMON-WEALTH. no inherit an ce. by not an Injurie to Uriah but to God. : whom and every Citizen bringing his Oystershell into the market place. And the same holdeth also in a Soveraign Prince. when they banished the most potent of their Common. (as was the killing of Uriah. The Libertie. evidently confirmed. And yet a man cannot say. if there were no Civil Laws. In the same manner. For though the action be against the law of Nature. arid discourse of those that from them have received all their praise is in the Politiques. to make a Jest of it. . written with the name of him he desired should be banished. David himself. nor Common^Private wealth at all. of Justice . and in the writings. c . when he repented the fact. saying. . which is the same with that. he that so dieth. : . was given him by Uriah himself and prohibited all because David was Gods Subject Iniquitie by the law of Nature. and Romans. men. without actuall accusing him. be put to death. without Injury put to death. 21. : | i . And yet to God. [no] the people of Athens.wealth ticular men of Soveraigns. To thee only have I sinned. as Hyperbolus. for his reputation . and honourThe able mention.wealth for ten years. | . . had Liberty to doe the action. And the effects of it also be the same. For as amongst masterlesse men.

with their frontiers armed. but transcribed them into their books. and Rights of Common-wealths. we are made to receive our opinions concerning the Institu tion. not from the Principles of Nature. [m] . out of the Practise of the time or the Rules of Poetry. : . and Birth right. free The Athenians. . from Aristotle. . mistake that for their Private Inheritance. shall judge) most conducing to their benefit. and change of Government. derived those Rights. out of the Poems of Homer and And because the Athenians were taught. But withall. and canons planted against their neighbours round about. that is.Part 2. or Assemblie that representeth it. There is written on the Turrets of the city of Luca in great characters at this day. what that Man. In these westerne parts of the world.) is . of it men in reputation for their writings in this subject. And when the same errour is confirmed by the authority . than in Constanti Whether a Common-wealth be Monarchicall. for men to be deceived. (to Virgil. that a particular man has more Libertie. to doe what it shall judge (that is to say. Popular. But it is an easy thing. or Lands So in and absolute Libertie in every Particular man States. nor to expect from the Father . and upon the confines of battel. no wonder if it produce sedition.wealths not dependent on one : another. keep them from desire of changing their Government. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. and Common. Cicero. Chap. Greeks and Romanes. or Immunitie from the service of the Commonwealth there. (not every man) has an absolute Libertie. which were Popular as the Grammarians describe the Rules of Language. 165 transmit to the Son. or invade other people. the word LIBERTAS yet no man can thence inferre. out of the Practise of their own Common-wealths. that living under Popular States. and other men. they live in the condition of a perpetuall war. by the and for want of Judgement specious name of Libertie to distinguish. . but that their Representative had the Libertie to resist. which is the right of the Publique only. or nople. no no security but a full propriety of Goods. 21. the Freedome is still the same. every Common-wealth. and Romanes were free Common-wealths not that any particular men had the Libertie to resist their own Representative .

(which Intention is to be understood by the End for which he so submitteth .) The Obligation. and of licentious controlling the actions of their Soveraigns and again of controlling those controllers. . lesse. as these Western parts have bought the learning of the Greek and . are by Nature Free. 2.166 Part 2. cap. which ariseth not from some Act of his own And because for all men equally.) what Liberty we deny our selves. And as Aristotle so Cicero. and all that lived under Mon therefore Aristotle puts it down in archy were slaves his Politiques. men from their childhood have gotten a habit (under : . Latine tongues. that no man is Free in any other Government. / Authorise all his Actions. and their Defence against a common Enemy. . . when we make a Common wealth or (which is all one. on the opinions of the Romans. must either be drawn from the expresse words. the Peace of the Subjects within themselves. . such arguments. that they were Freemen. and our Liberty which must therefore be inferred by arguments taken from thence there being no Obligation on any man. a false shew of Liberty. without Injustice. by owning all the Actions (without exception) of the Man. OF COMMON-WEALTH. Liberty of Subjects To come now to the particulars of the true Liberty of a Subject that is to say. Liberty is to be supposed for tis commonly held. . 21. and other Writers have grounded their Civill doctrine. . and Liberty of the Subject. For in the act of our Submission. refuse to do what Rights we passe away. (or . 6. and Latine Authors. by them that having deposed their Soveraign. which tnou n commanded g by the Soveraign. .) In democracy. .) or else from the End of the Institution namely. Chap. at first.) of favouring tumults. or from the Intention of him that submitteth himselfe to his Power. he may neverthemeasured we are to consider. . consisteth both our Obligation. there was never any thing so deerly bought. shared amongst them the and afterwards by their Succes Soveraignty of Rome sors. And by reading of these Greek. is to be derived. either from those Words. who were taught to hate Monarchy. or Assembly we make our Soveraign. what are the things. with the effusion of so much blood as I think I may truly say. . others equivalent of Soveraignty . (lib.

concerning a crime done by himself e. cannot by Covenant be transferred. dependeth not on the Words of our Submission but on the Intention which is to be understood by the End thereof. . I have shewn before even in the 14. are voyd. ayre. have his refusall with u lesse to J . Kill me. / will kill my fellow. that selfe. : Soveraign Right enough punish death. or dishonourable Office. that the Obligation a man may sometimes have. or my fellow. AYR ot If a man be interrogated by the Soveraign. Chapter. or my another thing to say. either to kill himselfe. without tavilvunas when he substituteth a sufficient Souldier dertake it.Part 2.) to man (though mayme himself e a . . he is se ives : not bound (without assurance of Pardon) to confesse it condemned. / Authorise. or any other thing. of his naturall Liberty For by allowing him to kill me. No man is bound by the words themselves. Upon this ground. that Covenants. 21. own former . is contained in these words. though his warfare. lawfully justly invade or not them. If the Soveraign command kill.. . I am not bound to kill my selfe when he commands me. It is manifest. frustrates the End for which the then there is no Liberty to Soveraignty was ordained refuse otherwise there is. wound. medicine. if you please It followeth therefore. Chap. 167 First therefore. upon the Command of the Soveraign to execute any danger ous. the right whereof bodies. seeing Soveraignty by Institution. the Consent of a Subject to Soveraign Power. or Child to the Parent . in which there is no : restriction at all. When therefore our refusall to obey. ^^ ^ . by Covenants of the Vanquished to the j^^d l Victor. is Subjects by Covenant of every one to every one and Soveraignty have by Acquisition. . or any other man And consequently. because no man (as I have shewn in the same Chapter) can be obliged by Covenant to accuse himselfe. Tis one thing to say. all his actions . Again. or to abstain from the use of food. or to resist those that assault him . not to defend a mans ?j am ?! them that f j T^V own body. a man that is commanded as Nor to a Souldier to fight against the enemy. OF COMMON-WEALTH. without which [112] he cannot live yet hath that man the Liberty to disobey. or take upon me. Therefore. or his t m. may neverthelesse in many cases refuse. ^ . . Injustice . that every their own Subject has Liberty in all those things. Authority.

and maketh their perseverance in assisting. to whom it is offered. For the same reason. or courage to preserve. because otherwise the Institution every one is obliged of the Common-wealth. And if it be onely to defend their persons. To resist the Sword of the Common -wealth. it is not unjust at all. or committed some Capitall crime. expected. There was indeed injustice Their bearing of Arms in the first breach of their duty subsequent to it. And therefore e&amp. or taketh imprest mony. for . When Armies . there side. . on one do . they depend on the Silence of the Law. no man hath Liberty because such Liberty. without his Captaines leave. But in case a great many men together.168 Part 2. And when the Defence of the Common-wealth. taketh away the excuse of a timorous nature and is obliged. But the offer of pardon taketh from them. unlawfull. (of whom no such dangerous duty is to is men it of feminine courage. takes away from the Soveraign. was in vain. in defence of another man. or f orDearej acc ording to his own discretion. they are not esteemed to do it unjustly. OF COMMON-WEALTH. : Chap. a running away yet when they not out of trechery. or both. though it be to maintain what they have done. but fear. requireth at once the help of all that are able to bear Arms. the means of Protecting us and is therefore destructive of the very essence of Government. whether have they not the Liberty then to joyn together. which the Guilty man may as well do.gt. is no new unjust act. In cases where the Soveraign has prescribed no ru i there the Subject hath the Liberty to do. 21. But he that inrowleth himselfe a Souldier. the : . guilty. as the Innocent. not onely to go to the battell. And there is allowance to be made for naturall timorousnesse.) but also fight. not onely to women. As for other Lyberties. : [113] which every one of them expecteth death. or defending the rest. is not Injustice. which they have not the purpose. for in this case he deserteth not the service in his place of the Common-wealth. or innocent. . For and defend one another ? Certainly they have they but defend their lives. but Cowardise. and assist. The Greatest Liberty of plea of self-defence. but dishonourably. to avoyd battell. have already resisted the Soveraign Power unjustly. but also not to run from it.

or transferre the Sove raignty to another. when in England a man might enter in to his own Land. (if it had been his will. But if he demand. he that brings an action against the Soveraign. or take any thing by pretence of his Power there lyeth.Part 2. and in some lesse some times more. there was a time. men have the such Liberty and in on tjie in other places. unlesse he directly renounce. or any of his Subjects. of debt. as if it were against a Subject and before such Judges. or of right of possession of lands or goods. that Liberty of Forcible Entry. . and consequently.) by force. But in after-times. that he requireth no more. the Grant is voyd . or concerning any penalty. and did not it is to be understood it was not his will but that the Grant proceeded from ignor ance of the repugnancy between such a Liberty and the and therefore the Soveraignty is still Soveraign Power . have renounced. such Liberty Liberty of many wives is not allowed. corporall. no action of Law for all that is done by him in Vertue of his Power. in that case. and not by vertue of his Power thereby. For seeing the Soveraign demandeth by force of a former he declareth Law. . was taken away by a Statute made (by the King) in Parlia ment. or Soveraign Assembly. or transferred it. . 169 dependeth is in some places more. in other times lesse. And in some places of the world. : . (and dispossesse such as wrongfully possessed it. brings it against himself e.) and in plain termes. grant a Liberty to all. . Chap. If a Monarch. For in that he might openly. . The sute therefore is not con and consequently the trary to the will of the Soveraign Subject hath the Liberty to demand the hearing of his Cause and sentence. than shall appear to be due by that Law. grounded on a precedent Law he hath the same Liberty to sue for his right. which Grant standing. : . or pecuniary. is done by the Authority of every Subject. 21. or con : cerning any service required at his hands. according to that Law. If a Subject have a controversie with his Soveraigne. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. as are appointed by the Soveraign. he is disabled to provide for their safety. according as they that have the Soveraignty shall think most convenient. As for Example. .

both for Soveraign himself. . of appointing Officers. on condition to be Subject to the Victor. if he be deteined on the same termes. when areabnone else can protect them. S r ^^lt men nave by Nature to protect themselves. from the very institution. Nature endeavour to maintaine in the intention of is it either in his own. and consequently all those Powers. But if a man -be held in prison. Captivity. may. by forreign war but also through the ignorance. can by no Covenant be solved of their The Soveraignty is the Soule of the relinquished. OF COMMON -WEALTH. . of levying Mony. own . . and his heires His Subjects returne to the absolute Libertie of Nature because. be immortall yet . and Councellours. not only subject to violent death. is the because he had no other subject of him that took him way to preserve himself.170 Part 2. . and who are the nerest of his Kin yet it dependeth on his own will. it hath in it. and hath his life and corporall Libertie given him. . which are retayned such as are the necessary to the exercising thereof Power of Warre. if he can. (as hath himself and his been said in the precedent chapter. The case is the same. The end ever a of Obedience seeth it. rs Heyr. and the rest named in the i8th Chapter. which. Incase the If a Monarch shall relinquish the Soveraignty. than the power Cases I For the lasteth. obedience Common-wealth which once departed from the Body. And though it. . is Protection. whereso man swo d. t ^ie memDers doe no more receive their motion from it. there is no . or in anothers applyeth his obedience to it. and passions of men. 21. and his it.) who shall be his . . them that make Soveraignty. or is not trusted he cannot be understood with the libertie of his bodie and therefore to be bound by Covenant to subjection in its . and no longer. and Peace. In case of If a Subject be taken prisoner in war or his person. by which he is able to protect them. . by Intestine Discord. is under[114] In what I stood to last as long. many seeds of a naturall mortality. in a forreign country. or bonds. make his escape by any means whatsoever. or hjg means of life be within the Guards of the enemy. . nature. he hath Libertie to accept the condition and having accepted it. Chap. of Judicatuie. If therefore he will have no Heyre. though Nature government from may declare who are his Sons. The Obligation of Subjects to the Soveraign.

of the Magistrates and Officers [115] which. . some are Regular. By understand any numbers of men joyned in one Interest. 22. Of Regular. or Muscles of a Forme. . which resemble in order to Body naturall. HAVING spoken of a of the Generation. 171 Soveraignty. OF COMMON-WEALTH. XXII. . . and without declaration For then there can no Heire be known. If the Soveraign Banish his Subject during the In case of BamshBanishment. And first the similar parts. and Independent. Chap. The case is the same. is Subject to all the Laws thereof unlesse he have a privilege by the amity of the Soveraigns. such subject to none but their own Representative are only Common-wealths Of which I have spoken SYSTEMES . arid Private. But he that is sent on m but a message. nor Subjection. and some Irregular. or have not the liberty of his subject to own Body he is not understood to have given away another. and consequently no Subjection be due. But if he be held prisoner. not by vertue For whosoever entreth of the covenant of Subjection. . if he dye without known Kindred. . I Common-wealth. and Power The divers s Yt * speak next of of Systemes. or one Businesse. I : . Regular are those. render himself Subject In case the to the Victor his Subjects are delivered from their Soveraign r former obligation. or hath leave to travell. a Monarch subdued by war. or by If speciall licence. by Contract between Soveraigns. some are Absolute. . For. his Right remaining. he is supposed to approve those. or Assembly of men. if he have not means to name. but in his. am the parts thereof. ^^ . Of which. he is not Subject. of his Heyre. the Right of Soveraigntie and therefore his Subjects are obliged to yield obedience to the Magistrates formerly placed. it is. into anothers dominion. . and become obliged to the Victor. the question is only of the Adminis tration that is to say. governing not in their own name. Of SYSTEMES Subject.Part 2. where one Man. is constituted Repre sentative of the whole number. which he himself had formerly appointed. CHAP. Politicall. is still Subject. All other are Irregular.

: . of the Represen. Politicall (otherwise Called Bodies Poli tique. For consequences of words. which are made by authority from the Soveraign Power of the Common wealth. Of Systemes subordinate. nor made on evill designe. And the Soveraign. they are Unlawfull. as also their Repre sentative is Subject. already in the 5. For Power the power Unlimited. are signes of the contrary and misreckonning to which all mankind is too prone. were to abandon the govern ment of so much of the Commonwealth. some are Lawfull some Unlawfull Lawfull. . But when the Intention is evill. R : . some are Politically and some Private. . which are constituted by Subjects amongst themselves. is absolute Soveraignty. as he shall give leave And to give leave to a Body Politique of Subjects. or (if the number be con siderable) unknown. is the absolute Representative tative is o f all the subjects and therefore no other. but so far forth.in every Commonwealth. e p resen t ative of any part of them. or any other harmelesse end. 22. are those which are allowed by the Common-wealth all other are Unlawfull. Others are that is to say. is the Power Soveraign. is Publique there. . are not the signes of his will. or by authoritie from a For no authority derived from forraign stranger. by any Grant. within the Dominion of another. are those which having no Representative. to have an absolute Representative to all intents and purposes. that does not plainly. And of Private Systemes. and directly discharge them of their subjection. are those. : : consist only in concourse of People which if not forbidden by the Common-wealth. .) are Lawfull. to which every one. Private. Subordinate to some SoveDependent raign Power.) are those. the power of the Representative Bodies js And that which prescribeth the alwaies Limited Limits thereof. can be Limited. power. and to divide the Dominion. when other consequences but rather signes of errour. which the Soveraign cannot be understood to doe.172 Part 2. and Persons in Law. or shews. . In all In Bodies Politique. Chap. OF COMMON -WEALTH. Irregular Systemes. contrary to their Peace and Defence. but Private. last precedent chapters. (such as are conflux of People to markets.

is the act of the Soveraign. and withall sealed. con cerning their businesses. any man absent. OF COMMON-WEALTH. 173 The bounds of that Power. but his own. But ^ . whatsoever he does in the Person of the Body. unlesse he Voted it by procuration. For though in the Institution or Acquisition of a Common-wealth. .Part 2. And the Lawes. but such as are set out by the unwritten Law of Nature yet in subordinate bodies. the other is the Law of Letters from the Soveraign the Common -wealth. . because the Power of the Representative has there no other bounds. is his own act. But what he does according to these. unlesse such Letters be Patent. which is not warranted in his Letters. and therefore every member of . And therefore In a Body Politique. that they may be read to them. must determine. common to all Subjects. there are such diversities of Limitation necessary. what the Representative may lawfully do. Lawes. or testified. the Body if is Author of it. or perhaps possible to be described in writing the ordinary : By Letters : Patents . but not the act of any thatassenman that being present Voted to the contrary nor of ted onely. nor taken notice of. there needs no Writing. ^s un _ : warranted Acts are wn : Soveraign every one is Author. 22. and not the act oi the Body. . he representeth no mans person. nor ol any other Member thereof besides himselfe Because further than his Letters. or other permanent signes of the Authority Soveraign. which is independent. When the Representatwe is one man. and places. in all Cases. or the Lawes. or the Lawes limit.When it is ever that Assembly shall Decree. nor bv the Lawes. the Representative be an Assembly whatso. with the Scales. because he is their and the act of him that Representative unlimited recedes not from the Letters of the Soveraign. if the Representative be one man. not warranted by their an As1 ? Letters. or JJ Body Politique. Chap. or notice of. as can neither be remembred without Letters. is the act of the Assembly. from two things. is the act of every one For of the Act of the i ./ them Vote the Decree was made. And because such Limitation is not alwaies easie. are to be taken One is their Writt. which is given to the Representative of a Bodie Politique. times. where the Letters themselves are silent. and the act of every one by whose J.

one man if Innocent Members have propriety. wherein none of the Represent any man in things unwarranted by their Letters. and an unsufncient signe of or if it be avowed by him. But they that gave not their Vote. For from corporall penalties Nature hath exempted all Bodies Politique. or to the Contract that made it due. or (if there be none) out of his own estate.borrow mony of a stranger. as proceeding from Errour. Authority from his Letters. If he come into debt by Contract.174 Part 2. which is onely of Bodies subordinate. But when the Representative is an Assembly. and to the qualification of the Body. (which is to such artificial!. and the all they. being a stranger to the Letters. 22. understandeth those onely and seeing the Repre for his debtors. out of the for Debtor common stock (if there be any). . and consequently are not involved in their Votes. then the will of t j ie Qranter is the Representer Soveraign. as farre-forth as it is capable. It is the act of the major part tion. but the Representative himself e that lendeth it. and falleth not under the present question. of one that is not * t ^ie same Body. gave their votes to the borrowing they onely are liable of it. are therefore Innocent. and if it Assembly.) by pecuniary Mulct. Chap. the members make the members pay wnat h e borroweth. to b Con he tract is ly dble onely. as by dissolu or forfeiture of their Letters. because the Assembly cannot [117] seeing it is left to mens own inclinations to limit lending) For if he should have he bor. . the Assembly may be punished. and onely they are responto a stranger ^bt llmbly that for the sible debt. ty row mony. (for no Letters need limit borrowing.the debt is the Representatives. he should have by consequence the and therefore the grant were Soveraignty of them either voyd. . that is. OF COMMON-WEALTH. commonly incident to humane Nature. or to the fact that have f or which the Mulct was imposed because every one of . and fictitious Bodies. . : because he rowed. because Voted by the be a crime. . . has him onely who must therefore pay him. assented. and none else. Represen. the case is the same. capitall. When the If the person of the Body Politique being in one man. No member therefore is obliged to pay the debt so bor .) or (if the Assembly have a Common stock. or Mulct. that are engaged senter can ingage himselfe.

the Government of a Province may be committed to an JP^JWC*. but expedient.never. he voteth the borrowing. . is as to the Subject (though not so alwayes in the sight of God) justified by the Command for of such command every Subject is the Author. nor complaint. It is manifest by this. shall be borrowed. . or be onely is be payd 7 . wherein there is an un. if the ^ S s he Vote the Mony. . is obliged to the payment. though when payd by any one. it is some.Part 2.p ro testadinate and subject to a Soveraign Power. st But in * a8a responsible for crimes committed by other men a Soveraign Assembly. places. some are ordained for Government ^J^ ^&quot. Chap. the Assembly // the debt of onely is obliged to the payment. 175 those in voting did engage himselfe for the payment : For he that is author of the borrowing. and be lawful. but against him selfe. absent. did neverthelesse through his own folly lend his mony. OF COMMON-WEALTH. or to take witnesse of it because otherwise sometimes they may be obliged to pay debts contracted. he be discharged. and con . subject to many limitations. But if the debt be to one of the Assembly. : . or on the Votes of the major part and then this Assembly Town.[118] but also by the times. and to their means to pay. . And as to their Politique As first. ^/ . out of their common be to one ~ stock (if they have any :) For having liberty of Vote. and not being enforced. that liberty is taken away. wherein all resolutions shall depend Colony. that in Bodies Politique subor. and cause their dissent to p iuique be Registred. 22. : . affaires. he contradicteth his former Vote. sequently cannot demand payment from any particular man. for which they are constituted. The variety of Bodies Politique. yet because in lending. but from the common Treasure onely which fayling he hath no remedy. both powe% because he that protesteth there. Assembly of men. and also because whatsoever is commanded by raignty the Soveraign Power. for a particular against ec e man to make open protestation against the decrees of O ies f the Representative Assembly. even of the whole debt. is almost infinite for they are not onely distinguished by the severall affaires.tion the times not onely lawfull. and becomes both borrower and lender. denies their Sove. and is obliged by the later. and Bodies speakable diversitie numbers. obliged. that being privy to the acts of the Assembly. he Votes it shall ^dy If he Vote it shall not be borrowed.

. or were absent. committeth to another man. and not of any that dissented. then an Assembly either of their friends or servants. In like manner. OF COMMON -WEALTH. or of . yet we may sup pose the Government of a Province. in the Province . they are by Nature also enclined. the Administration of the Government being committed to divers persons. . are called Provinces. to be administred for. but governs by Commission. choose rather to trust one Servant. 22. is the Act onely of those that assented. . and therefore when in one Common-wealth there be divers Countries. and under him . Chap. : . is this or whatsoever unlawfull Act is Assembly contracted decreed. This word Province signifies a charge. desires to participate government yet where they cannot be present. and Sommer-Ilands though the government of them here. : . were committed to Assemblies in London. Also that an Assembly residing out of the bounds of that Colony whereof they have the govern ment. The Romans who had the Soveraignty of many Provinces yet governed them alwaies by Presidents. . yet did those Assemblies never commit the Government but did to each under them to any Assembly there Plantation send one Governour For though every man. or care of businesse. and Territories adjacent. and Praetors and not by Assemblies. by an Assembly residing it selfe. or are farre distant in place. that which in this place that whatsoever debt is by that I have to say. . .176 Part is 2. or Colony committed to an Assembly and when it is. and their power limited by Com mission. when there were Colonies sent from England. a Body Politique. cannot execute any power over the persons. then a Popular form of Government which is also evident in who when those men that have great private estates they are unwilling to take the paines of administring the businesse that belongs to them. to Plant Vir ginia. for the reasons before alledged. which he whose businesse it is. where he can be present by Nature. that have their Lawes distinct one from another. But of the government of a Province. But howsoever it be in fact. those Countries where the Soveraign is not resident. there be few examples. as they governed the City of Rome. to commit the Government of their common Interest rather to a Monarchicall.

to seize on them for debt. or a Colony. export. or imports. or for any other Government over the persons of men. And though the Assembly have right. In a Bodie Politique. For proof whereof. And that which is said here. And generally. if any parti. that with the Merchandise they buy at or with that home. as having no Jurisdiction. is appliable also to an Assembly for the Government of a Town. there be few Merchants.Part 2. we are to con sider the end. but are left to the remedie. at such prices as he thinks fit. Chap. if the Soveraign be not Judge. and import their Merchandise according to their own discretions. can fraight a Ship. and sell proportion of his adventure what he transports. may be present at all the Deliberations. to bring it home need to joyn together in one Society where every man may either participate of the gaine. or shall ordaine for that particular cause and not to the Body it self. or a Church. For the whole Body is in this case his fellow subject. according to the or take his own. It is true. there can be no Judge cular . though in his own cause. there being HOBBES N . 22. . or a College. doe neverthelesse bind themselves up in one Corporation. for the govern ment of a Province. which in a Soveraign Assembly. which the Law of the place alloweth of them. . 177 any of the Colonie. of the Rights of an Assembly. in all Bodies Politique. nor Authoritie elsewhere. But this is no Body Politique. is otherwise for there. in any place without the Colony it selfe. . to impose a Mulct upon any of their members. [119] conceive himself In juried by the Body it self. for which men that are Merchants. . an University. and Resolutions of the Body. and may buy and sell. and those the Soveraign hath ordained for Judges in such causes. or goods other duty. : member at all. that shall break the Lawes they make yet out of the Colonie it selfe. the Cognisance of his cause belongeth to the Soveraign. they have no right to execute the same. OF COMMON-WEALTH. to export it and have therefore they buy abroad. if they will themselves. the most commodious Representative is an Politique Assembly of all the members that is to say. . for the well ordering of forraigne Bodies Traffique. such a one. as every one that adventureth his mony.

The End of their Incorporating. or Body Politique. is to make . they raise the price of those. being not a Common benefit to the whole Body. it is reason that every one be acquainted . to For where but one [120] the disadvantage of the forraigner and where but selleth. their gaine which is done two wayes by sole buying. : . Chap. On the contrary. whereof one is to be sole buyers another to be sole For when there is a Company incorporate for sellers. . So that to grant to a Company of Merchants to be a Corporation. if being bound up into one body in forraigne Markets they were at liberty at home. For at home by their sole exportation they set what price they please on the husbandry. any particular forraign Country. the Merchandise is the dearer Such Corporations therefore one buyeth the cheaper are no other then Monopolies though they would be very profitable for a Common-wealth. but what is deducted out of the the greater . . no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law. both at home. by the sole selling of the native commodities abroad. particular adventures. . the other to forraigners. (which have in this case no common stock.178 Part 2. and sole selling abroad. : : . and handy-works of the people and by the sole importation. every man to buy.) but the particular gaine of every adventurer. buying. and but one that sels them at home both which againe are gainfull to the adventurers. : . 22. and sell at what price he could. than that which is common to all other subjects. and sole buying the forraign commodities upon the place. what price they please on all forraign commodities the people have need of both which are ill for the people. For at home there is but one buyer. and sell abroad at higher rates And abroad there is but one buyer of forraign Merchandise. The end then of these Bodies of Merchants. . victualling and manning of Ships. OF COMMON-WEALTH. because thereby they buy at home at lower. Of this double Monopoly one part is disadvantageous to the people at home. is to grant them a double Monopoly. and sole selling. and abroad. for building. they only export the Commodities vendible in that Country which is sole buying at home. and abate the price of these. and abroad but one that selleth both which is gainfull to the Merchant.

where every member of Body must be the Body may be present at the consultations. obliged every one to the whole payment. and be acquainted with their accounts. OF COMMON-WEALTH. if a Soveraign Monarch. for if . that shall have the power to order the same . . If the Common-wealth impose a Tax upon the Body. every Member is lyable by himself for the whole. And therefore the Representative of such a an Assembly. contract a debt to a stranger by the act of their Representative Assembly. they only are lyable by whose votes the act was assistance it was executed for in there any other crime but being of the Body which if a crime. but considereth them as so many particular men. or a Soveraign the SaveAssembly. that every one be of the Assembly. For a stranger can take no notice of their private Lawes. But there be Bodies also whose times are f 5 limited. shall think fit to give command to the towns. If a Body Politique of Merchants. that is. (because the Body was ordeyned by the authority of the Common -wealth. 179 with the employment of his own . none of the rest . 22. : they can doe it by their own Authority. ^J^ ^ For example. or . and cannot therefore demand his debt. and that only by the nature of their businesse. if there be any. If a Mulct be layd upon the Body for some unlawfull act. Chap. but what is made of their particular adventures. For there is in this case no other common stock. or of A Bodie Tramque. If one of the Members be indebted to the Body. but only from the common stock. nor his person imprisoned by the authority of the Body but only by Authority of the Common-wealth decreed.) is not his.Part 2. by whose is . if he will. N 2 . : it is understood to be layd upon every Member proportionably to his particular adventure in the Company. he may be sued by the Body but his goods cannot be taken. These Bodies made for the government of Men. or for a time prescribed Politique r c un ~ by writing. be either perpetuall. till payment made by But if the debt be to one one dischargeth all the rest of the Company. they can by their own Authority give judgement that the debt is due which is as much as to be Judge in their own Cause. the creditor is debter for the whole to himself. raign.

which the Law hath forbidden to be done. For the People cannot choose their Deputies to other intent. over the same which cannot consist with their Peace. that by the Soveraign and when it shall be declared Authority sent for them that nothing more shall be propounded. . And Family. or other written Authority. they are subject to their Fathers. [12 1] and other severall parts of their territory. they are set forth in the Writing by which they were sent for. . government. or for any other cause. . as with one Person representing the whole Country. OF COMMON-WEALTH. And people therefore where there is once a Soveraignty. as farre as the Law permitteth. because none of them are bound to obedience in those actions. they are held for Regular in which the Father. they lose afterward no more of their Authority. but it is representing every Subject of that Dominion onely for such matters as shall be propounded unto . and Lawfull. to send to him their Deputies. and Mas For the Father. Lawfull as a savm t*16 Lawes common to all other Subjects. are those that are constituted without Letters. and necessities of the Subjects. or Assembly. or Master ordereth the whole Family. a Body Politique. as to their immediate Soveraigns. and Master being before the Institution of Common wealth. For he obligeth his Children. having a place and time of meeting assigned them. such Deputies. but by it. 22. Private Bodies Regular. or two Soveraigns. are there. such as are all Families. A Regular Private Writing directed to them from their Soveraign expressed. In all other actions. than is in the . then were it the and so there would be two Sove Soveraign Assembly raign Assemblies. nor debated by them. or to advise with him for the making of good Lawes. them by that Man. and at that time. absolute Soveraigns in their own Families. Chap. though not further.i8o Part 2. And for the limits of how farre such a Body shall repre sent the whole People. For if they were the abso lute Representative of the people. ters. there can be no absolute Representation of the people. and Servants. during the time they are under domestique . to enforme him of the condition. because they be united in one Person Representative. the Body is dissolved. than the Law of the Common-wealth taketh from them.

where every one may obtain his right by means of the Soveraign Power. against the Power of the Common wealth. the better to order their trade of begging.Part 2. and for making a party. or Con . and unjustly . but Leagues. (because Leagues are com monly made for mutuall defence. Chap. Theeves and Gipsies. are unnecessary to the maintaining of Peace and Justice. over whom there is no humane Power established. that by Authority from any forraign Person. For a League being a connexion of men by if there be no power given to any one Man. dangerous to the Publique. to keep them all in awe. The Leagues of Subjects. 181 Private Private Bodies Regular. if for evill intent. for the easier propagation of Doctrines. is so long onely valid. become Lawfull. unlawfull. S an p^v ^te Leagues. are those that unite themselves into one person Representative. Irregular Systemes. unjust if for intent unknown. But Leagues of the Subjects of one and the same Common. of unlawfull designe and go commonly by the name of Factions. but Unlawful!. accord ing to the lawfulnesse. are not onely lawfull. 22.wealth. and savour and are for that cause Unlawfull. or Unlawfull. without union to anv particular designe. and stealing and the Corporations of men. and (in case the designe of them be evill. unite themselves in anothers Dominion. is. as there ariseth no just cause of distrust and therefore Leagues between Common-wealths. not by obligation of one to another. compell them to performance. or unlawfulnesse of every par ticular mans designe therein And his designe is to be understood by the occasion. OF COMMON-WEALTH. or Unknown to the : Common -wealth) concealed. C I22 1 spiracies. . by private men. or Assembly (as in the condition of meer Nature) to Covenants. but also profitable for the time they last. For all uniting of strength . : Bodies ^/^ i a wfulL Systemes Irregular. . withsuch as are the out any publique Authority at all Corporations of Beggars. but proceeding onely from a similitude of wills and inclinations.) are in a Common wealth (which is no more than a League of all the Sub jects together) for the most part unnecessary. in their nature. or sometimes meer concourse of people.

it be heard. Families. as of Papists. or of State Patricians. so also Factions for of Religion. or Conspiracy unlawfull. and i aw f u rj employment he has for them requires. and Plebeians of old time in Rome. a number . Cabals. than the government of his estate. If the occasion be lawfull. as and safety of the people. . . civilized. Protestants. consult a part. is to be judged . it is For having the protection of Faction. Chap. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and unlawfull. are unjust. and invaded one another with sever all force . and judged. that they they had no Common men as Factions for Kindred. as being a fraudulent seducing of the Assembly for their parti cular interest. (as till mony Feuds private of mens manners are. the Concourse is lawfull as the usuall meeting of men at Church.) yet it is not Injustice. And whereas in Nations not throughly numerous Families have lived in continuall hostility. fulnesse. or else that enough. part of the Assembly. (unlesse there be an expresse Law against it. And though he hire such friends with mony. . the Common-wealth. private wealth. and manifest. and judged in the Assembly. and consequently he that cannot render a particular and good account of his being amongst them. : . For sometimes. Factions f r yet it is evident have done unjustly. if a private man entertain more servants. and of Aristocraticalls and Democraticalls of old And Government ^ time in Greece. &c. But if he. and on the number of them that are assembled. make as many in him it is no Injustice friends as he can because in this case he is no part of the Assembly. the Soveraign Power be in a great Assembly. In all Common-wealths. without autho rity. whereof dependeth on the occasion. he needeth not the defence of pri vate force.182 Secret Part If 2. whose private interest is to be debated. and a taking of the hand of the Soveraign. 22. to contrive the guidance of the rest This is a Faction. in usuall numbers for if the num bers be extraordinarily great. the Jawor unlawfulnesse. Concourse of people. or at a publique Shew. the occasion is not evident . and of men.) Justice cannot be had without and every man may think his own cause just. being contrary to the peace of the Sword out is an Irregular Systeme.

and a great number of other men. And this is all I shall say concern ing Systemes. people such doctrine. . in these words. brought two of Pauls com panions before the Magistrate. assemble against a man whom they accuse the Assembly is an Unlawfull tumult because they may deliver their accusation to the Magistrate by a few. as was against their Religion. OF COMMON-WEALTH. be lawfull for a thousand men. 22. let them accuse one another. and the Magistrate reprehended them for it. because. . . or Magistrate yet if a thousand men come to present it. It 183 conscious of an unlawful!. there is no cause by which any man can render any reason of this Concourse . . But in such cases as these. or by one man. such as be Lawfull. 19. and Trade. a Sedition. When an unusuall number of men. and 40. Great is Diana of the Ephesians which was their way of demanding Justice against them for teaching the . there be Pleas. and tumultuous designe. your case may be judged in an Assembly Lawfully called. to Wens. whereof men can give no just account. considering the Lawes of that People. engendred by the unnaturall conflux of evill humours.) to the Similar parts of . which may be of People. and Assemblyes of People. Deputies. mans Body . and may . And if you have any other thing to demand. The occasion here. Paul at Ephesus where Demetrius. saying with one Voyce. and such as they could not answer for. bring to Justice.. Biles. For we are in danger to be accused for this dayes sedition. to the Muscles such as are Unlawfull. as the present Officers are not able to suppresse. it is a tumultuous Assembly because there needs but one or two for that purpose. it is not a set number that makes the Assembly Unlawfull. was just yet was their Assembly Judged Unlawfull. .Part 2. to joyn in a Peti-[i23] tion to be delivered to a Judge. and Apostemes. Where he calleth an Assembly. of any thing. Such was the case of St. Chap. compared (as I said. * // Demetrius and the other work-men *Acts can accuse any man. but such a number.

which are Publique Ministers. and another Politique. . Praefect or Vice. or assembly that hath Soveraignty. Of Publique Ministers. the Person of the Common-wealth. may bee committed by the Predecessor trationl* of an Infant King. one Naturall. the whole Administration of his Kingdome. some have charge committed Ministers for the to them of a generall Administration. in an Aristocracy. every Subject is so far obliged to obedience. Chap. that by the Soveraign. but also of a man hath the Person not onely of the Common -wealth. as to a ProAdminis. but for the commodity of the men assembled. w ith Authority to represent in that employ ment. or a Soveraign Assembly. In which case. are Publique Ministers in a Monarchy. or tector. Lieutenant. or any other Officers of the houshold of a Monarch. or Province [124] . Cofferers. OF COMMON-WEALTH. as the Ordinances he shall make. nor other Officers that waite on the Assembly. is he. is obliged to all he shall doe in the name of : . .Dominion.Roy And in this case also. are not Publique Ministers . Of a part. but also of the Assembly) they that be servants to them in their naturall Capacity. CHAP. Of the whole. and not inconsistent with his Soveraigne as when either a Mon Power. or an Assembly. during his minority. XXIII. arch. Regent. Of of a the PUBLIQUE MINISTERS Chapter : of Soveraign Power. shall give the generall charge thereof to a Governour. Organicall. the Publique businesse. for no other purpose.184 Part 2. and the commands he shall give be in the Kings name. representeth two Persons. or (as the more common phrase is) has two Capacities.) is employed in an y affaires. And therefore neither Ushers. IN the last I have spoken In this Common-wealth I shall of the Similar parts speak of the parts Publique Minister Who. nor Sergeants. every one of that Province. 23. or Democracy nor Stewards. either of the whole g or of a part thereof. but those onely that serve them in the Administration of . And whereas every man. hath the person not onely of the Common and a Soveraign Assembly wealth. (whether a Monarch. (as a Monarch. Chamberlains. A PUBLIQUE MINISTER.

a sf r . Oeconomy. represents it to them only whom he commandeth. for the Oeconomy of *?** a Common-wealth. thereby to render them more apt to Authority : . And this kind of Publique Ministers resembleth the Nerves. and resist the publique enemy. Impositions. issue. Ports or to provide for any Levy. or Conduct Souldiers necessary thing for the use of war. does not therefore represent the Person of it because there is none to represent it to. hath immediate Authority from God. Rents. For every one that hath com mand. but by anothers and Publique. Fines. Secondly. . because they doe it (or should doe it) by no Authority. . are publique Ministers. can be interpreted for a Declaration of the will to transferre the Soveraignty. or to enable For to others to teach the people their duty to the Soveraign Auction Power. they that have Authority concerning the Militia to to have the custody of Armes. . that is to say. and Governors. and Tendons that move the severall limbs of a body naturall. or whatsoever publique revenue. They also that have authority to teach. and that not incompatible with the Soveraigns Right. to collect. and in peace amongst themselves. nor without Publique. but that of the SoveThe Monarch. as Tributes. receive. or take the Accounts thereof. in that they doe it not by their own Authority. because they serve the Person Representative. Forts. either by Land or But a Souldier without Sea. because they serve him in his Politicall Capacity. have no other right. are Publique Ministers : Ministers. . Pay. [125] . and unjust. ing the Treasure. They that have Authority concern. Command.Part 2. Chap. to teach and instruct the people and no man but the Soveraign. For such Protectors. . or the Soveraign Assembly only raign. either at home. without expresse and perspicuous words to that purpose. Vice-Roys. or speciall abroad: As at home. live in godlinesse. and instruct them in the knowledge of what is p^p^ just. OF COMMON-WEALTH. 23. are Publique Ministers Ministers. 185 the Soveraign. First. though he fight for the Common-wealth. . : and can doe nothing against his his Command. but what depends on and no Commission that can be the Soveraigns Will given them. For Others have speciall Administration charges of some speciall businesse.

But the Soveraign is already agreed on for Judge Sentence . or . Ministers. . For (as . or by Delegates that which the parties shall agree on. he can appeale no further Thirdly. or them that have the Soveraign Power. that is to say.186 Part 2. For JudiThey also to whom Jurisdiction is given. OF COMMON-WEALTH. if he appeale to for his any other Judge. And as Contro versies are of two sorts. Secondly. one of Fact. Soveraign himself. ought in Equity to be Judged by men agreed on by consent of both for no man can be Judge in his own cause. whose interest maketh him suspect them.) those which he excepteth not against. give Sentence for the Defendant is Judged by his Sentence is finall . by them both. : own Judges. hath been before declared) all Judica ture is essentially annexed to the Soveraignty and therefore all other Judges are but Ministers of him. I cannot forbeare to observe the excellent con stitution of the Courts of Justice. (for as to the Complaynant he hath already chosen his own Judge. : . there may be two Judges. established both for Common. is his &amp.lt. another of Law. there may arise a con troversie between the party Judged. if the Defendant be allowed to except against such of his Judges. that is to say. namely of Fact and of Law so are Judgements. and the Judge which because they be both Subjects to the Soveraign. receive theirs from the favour and providence of God. if he appeale to the appeale is his choice. are Judges he himself agrees on. some of Fact. and their as in a Monarchy Dei gratia Soveraigns Regis . by himself. By . These properties of just and rationall Judicature con sidered. 23 receiveth his power Dei gratia simply . and also for Publique Pleas in England. . some of Law And consequently in the same controversie. For in their Seats of Justice they represent the person of the Soveraign and their Sentence. from the favour of none but God All other. are Publique cature. and he by himself. Dei providentid . And in both these controversies. and is therefore either to heare the Cause. and determine it himself. & voluntate Regis. And this agreement is then as understood to be made between them divers wayes first. or appoint for Judge such as they shall both agree on. . . : Chap.

by publique Authoritie. Agents. where the Complaynant is the Soveraign.Part 2. . till at last twelve men without exception being agreed on. Common Common wealth for Author. the The Lords had this Priviledge. why the sentence should not be finall. men of the Country where the matter in controversie lay against which he might make his exceptions. Publique Ministers abroad. and Subjects playnant (which are also called Pleas of the Crown) those. are neither Publique. in a Bodie . . whereof one was Lords. are those that represent the Person of their own Soveraign. none but Lords and of them. to other Commons have for Judges in all Capitall crimes. where both the Comare Defendant and by Publique. are such members of the Common wealth. Messengers. to forraign States. sent Such are Ambassadors. to procure the Execution of Judgements given to publish the Soveraigns Com to suppresse Tumults mands to apprehend. is the act of the Common-wealth and their service. naturall. OF COMMON-WEALTH. 23. as may fitly be compared to the organs of Voice in a Body naturall. [126] nothing alledged by the party. as many as would be present which being ever acknowledged as a Priviledge of favour. there could be meane : . and on publique Businesse. and Heralds. For every act they doe by such Authority. those. Likewise. But such as are sent by Authoritie only of some private partie of a troubled State. their Judges were none but such as they had themselves desired. or Judge the people. answerable to that of the Hands. These publique persons. or to assist at a solemnity. condole. . though the Authority be Publique yet . they were Judged by those twelve. And in all controversies. an Ambassador sent from a Prince. So that having his own Judges. and and other acts tending to the imprison Malefactors conservation of the Peace. either to Instruct. . with Authority from the Soveraign Power. . For whereas there were two orders of men. . nor Private Ministers of the wealth because none of their actions have the . Publique Ministers are also all those. that have For ExAuthority from the Soveraign. though they be received. . I Chap. to congratulate. every Subject (as also in civill con troversies the Lords) had for Judges. 187 Common Pleas. .

: : . Common-wealth naturall. in In delivering his Commands to the Publique Ministers a Democracy. and represent their Soveraign in that office. . . cocted) in the Conveyance of it. but his own . XXIV. . / . . 23. wealth consisteth to the Publique use. or heare Causes. he the is but a Private Minister .^ represented to him. are Publique Ministers. are never without some other Authority. But a Body of Ministers. Counsellors. and belonging to him in his naturall capacity is a Private person.. Chap. is to Advise a Publique Person. Of the NUTRITION. and PROCREATION a Common-wealth. or give Audience to Ambassadors. as a Councell but when they appoint Judges. and are as it were the publique Eare. or Senate propounds the Result of their deliberations to the people. The Nourish. CounselNeither a Counsellor (nor a Councell of State. and strength though both the Authority. either of Judicature. if we lers withconsider it with no Authority of Judicature or Command. and Distribution of Materials conducing to ment of a jjf e and (when conj n Concoction. Also if a man be sent into another Country. For the Advice is addressed to the and may but yet a Minister of the be compared to an Eye in Body vm Soveraign only.i88 Part 2. or Preparation ~ Common\ . OF COMMON-WEALTH. or of offering it when it is not required. of THE NUTRITION of a Common-wealth consisteth. they represent the Monarch. : we not . because the businesse is Private. by convenient conduits. in the Plenty. . . secretly to explore their counsels. or of immediate Administration As in a Monarchy. whose person cannot in his own presence. it is in the quality of a Minister of the People And in an Aristocracy the Councell of State is the Soveraign Assembly it self and gives counsell to none but themselves. -. O ^ut on ty ^ S^ S Advice to the Soveraign when it is em-blovment then required. the Councell. by another. and the Businesse be Publique yet because there is none to take notice of any Person in him. . And those that are appointed to receive the Petitions or other informations of the People. ^. [127] CHAP.

usually either freely giveth. 24.) that produceth all things needfull for the maintenance. consisting in Animals. is partly Native. have neverthelesse. . because there is no Territory under the Dominion of one Common. and motion of the whole Body and few that produce not the superfluous com something more than necessary modities to be had within. than hath served them for habitation. 189 As for the Plenty of Matter. but also encreased their Power. either by Exchange. become no more superfluous. . God hath freely layd them before us. is the constitution of Mine. or by Labour a commodity exchangeable for benefit. or for labour selleth to ^ . man-kind. in one word Propriety and belongeth in all kinds tribution of Common-wealth to the Soveraign Power. in or neer to the face of the Earth so as there needeth no more but the labour. partly by the labour of trading from one place to another. and partly by selling the Manifactures. Chap. Vegetals. it is a thing limited by in the CommodiNature. and partly Forraign Native. . his neighbour it. For where f them there is no Common-wealth. For the Matter of this Nutriment. that which is to be had within the Territory of the Common-wealth For : : And that which is imported from without. is just Warre. to those commodities. and Minerals. by importation of that raign. or by for a mans Labour also. The Distribution of the Materials of this Nourishment. which may be had abroad.wealth. OF COMMON-WEALTH. there is (as hath been already shewn) a perpetuall warre of every man against : : . but supply these wants at home. Insomuch as Plenty dependeth (next to Gods favour) meerly on the labour and industry of men. and industry of receiving them. not onely maintained. commonly called Commodities. And getteth and keepeth therefore every thing is his that it by force which is neither . and His that is right Disto say. . . and Sea. This Matter. whereof the Materials were brought in from other places. and Thine. (except it be of very vast extent. which from (the two breasts of our common Mother) Land. as well as any other thing And there have been Common-wealths that having no more Territory.Part 2.

Let the Civill Law. : the .} which we call Law and defined Justice. And is Take away the Civill Law. were a Common-wealth in the Wildernesse but wanted the commodities of the Earth. it is the act onely of the Soveraign consisteth in the Lawes.} and there is nothing. according as he. The from Children of Israel. And this they well knew of old. who called that No yuos. the First Law. of^land as any Subject. to every All private man his own.IQO Part 2. . and the In this Distribution. OF COMMON-WEALTH. 24. . be once abandoned. which none can make that have not the Soveraign Power. what is his . Chap. . nor Community so evident. till Disiribuwhich after tion of the they were masters of the Land of Promise not ward was their own dis divided Soveraign.) in a publique pleading. and who when there were twelve Joshua their Generall Tribes. that even Cicero. or most. (not to say [128] oppressed. . as of the Victors distribution England held all theirs of William the Conquerour. by distributing again .Inhabitants. . attributeth all Propriety to the Law Civil. . (that is to say. . that the propriety which a subject hath in his lands. . and what another mans. Propriety of a Sub- From whence we may collect. or any number proceed originally agreeable to Equity. cretion. Seeing therefore the Introduction of Propriety is an effect of Common wealth which can do nothing but by the Person that and Represents it. Which Propriety. shall judge Good. do not alwaies exterminate the antient .) but leave to many. consisteth in a right to . that any man can be sure to receive from his Ancestor. is for Division of the Land it selfe wherein the Soveraign assigneth to ever Y man a portion. Distribution. (as did the Jewes. by amongst them. saith he. and no man knows own. and not according : Common of them. And though a People comming into possession of a Land by warre. which division was therefore Arbitrary. but by the discretion of Eleazar the Priest. making them thirteen by subdivision of the Tribe of Joseph made neverthelesse but twelve portions of the Land and ordained for the Tribe of Levi no land but assigned them the tenth part of the whole fruits . but Uncertainty. (a passionate defender of Liberty. . or but negligently guarded. or leave to his Children. or all of them their estates yet it is manifest they hold them after as the people of wards.

But in what cases the Commands of Soveraigns are contrary to Equity. and defence Which if were there necessarily required very true. could be any Representative conceived free from humane passions. and in bestowing the Soveraign Power. but Peace and Security. may ordain the doing of many things in pursuit of their Passions. OF COMMON-WEALTH. or too hazardous in engaging the publique stock. be it an Assembly.) is t ^ e soveunderstood to do nothing but in order to the common raign. It is true. Common. that are either too negligent of mony. and and therefore by the will of every one of them. But the nature of men being as it is. is to be reputed voyd. is in vaine and tendeth to the dissolution of Government. or of an Assembly. or so much as to accuse of Injustice. is to be considered hereafter in another place. and infirmities. and safety to his discretion. the setting forth of Publique Land. is contrary to the will of every subject. that is to say. In the Distribution of land. 24. and . : . or the greater part of a Soveraign Assembly. that : a ^^ t committed conscience . [129] and that The Pubimprove the same by their Representative such portion may be made sufficient. and to the condition of meere Nature. into a long. Chap. and the Law of Nature. which is but this a breach of trust. or costly war. : .wealths can endure no Diet For seeing their expence is not limited by their . and possesse. contrary to their own consciences. and of the Law of Nature is not enough to authorise any subject. the jjjn fr O f Common-wealth (whose Person he representeth. 191 and feet exexclude all other subjects from the use of them not to exclude their Soveraign. may be conceived to have a portion.Part 2. to susteine the li(l ue is e n whole expence to the common Peace. whatsoever Distribution he shall make in preju dice thereof. in order to the same quently. made them their own. or any way to speak evill of their Soveraign because they have authorised all his actions. or eludes not a Monarch. For seeing the Soveraign. the Common-wealth it selfe. is to be onely t And conseunderstod as done. . . assoon as ever the Soveraign Power f alleth into the hands of a Monarch. and War. this Distribution of lands. either to make warre upon. or of any certaine Revenue for the Common-wealth. that a Soveraign Monarch. his Peace.

it was contrary to the scope of the Institution being (as it appeared by those ensuing Taxes) insufficient. and : his Successors did for all that. or in some few commodities. (that is. 24. and transferre their propriety therein.art in the world. tis done by their Representative. Chap. Or if those publique Lands. and (as it appeares by the late small Revenue of the Crown) Subject to Alienation.192 Part 2. both to furnish the enemy with means to hurt - own s n &quot. there were by the Conquerour. were ordained as a sufficient maintenance of the Common -wealth. and the appe tites of their neighbours. divers Lands reserved to his own own use. and give it away sell. some of them would bee drawn for gaine. but is necessary either for the being. that men distribute that which they can spare. seeing it is not enough to the Sustentation of a Common-wealth. the Publique Riches cannot be limited by other limits. and there is no also belong totheSove. than those which the emergent occasions shall require. either for his recreation. or give it away. And whereas in England. as pleasing mens appetites. to assign a portion to the Common-wealth which may and does sell. or at least unprofitable to them. belongeth to the Sove- when The . or disapprove both of the places. m it is we rj being almost of every particular man necessary. the For if it did belong to private persons to use their discretion therein. by import ing such things. It is therefore in vaine. As the Distribution of Lands at home so also to Places and assigne in what places. or for preservation of Woods. mutually or . The Laws Further. but in his Naturall capacity For he. and hurt it themselves. appetite. . and Services. yet it seems they were not reserved for his Maintenance&quot. or ^rapnet a naturall property in some usefull art. but by externall Accidents. be neverthelesse noxious. (besides Forrests. . and for what commodities. . and Chases. to the Soveraign only. and Diminution. the Common-wealth.) to approve. the Sub J ect sha11 traffique abroad.) and divers services reserved on the Land he gave his Subjects . lay Arbitrary Taxes on all Subjects Land. Traffiue ra ig n dependfas their Dis- tribution. when they judged it necessary. in his Publique. and matter of forraign Traffique. OF COMMON-WEALTH. that every man have a propriety a P ort i n f Land. And - therefore it belongeth to the Common -wealth.

Chap.Mony Bloud modities. And for the Matter. (that is to -say. I understand the reducing of all com. is a commodious measure of the value of all things and Mony (of what matter soever else between Nations coyned by the Soveraign of a Common.) is a suffi cient measure of the value of all things else. happens) almost in all Countries of the world highly valued. Man. to the Soveraign. In so Nourishing (as it passeth) every part thereof much as. i| of the Common-wealth For naturall Bloud is in like manner made of the fruits of the Earth and circulating. as not to hinder the to the end a man motion of men from place to place . But base . which are not presently consumed. OF COMMON-WEALTH. 24.Part 2. j I . is as it were the Sanguification may have in what place soever. between the Subjects of that Common. (as buying. all kinds of exchanging. And this is . by exchange. . And therefore it belongeth to the Common -wealth. the of a I I Nourishment as the nothing else but Gold.) to appoint in what manner. to the severall Members of the Common-wealth. being (as it Silver. all commodities. have their value from the matter it self they have first this priviledge. letting. within and without the place of his ordinary residence and the same passeth from Man to Man. thus selling. to all places of his resort. HOBBES . and Immoveable. and mutuall contract. nor of a few Common-wealths as being a common measure of the commodities of all places. And because Silver and Gold.wealth. nourisheth by the way. By Concoction. but reserved in time to to some of for Nourishment come. . that the value of them cannot be altered by the power of one. and For Gold and Silver. to hire.wealth. is sufficient. 193 one to another. such place affordeth. and and by what words. are made to accompany a man. contract between Subjects. and Mony. Moveable. thing equall value. lending. borrowing. . By the means of which measures. and withall so portable. and Distribution of the Nourishment.) are to bee made taking and signes they shall be understood for valid. within the Common-wealth and goes round about. . every Member of the Body of : . [T 3o] much (considering the modell of the whole worke) . this Concoction.

Chap. The Chil The Procreation. Receivers. and enable for motion all the Members of the same. they have the priviledge to make Common-wealths move. which is not considerable for the Matter. or Governour. that Conveyeth Publique use. Secondly. are Collectors. . . or abased. hath its effect at home only where also it is subject to the change of Laws. the Artificiall Man maintains his resemblance with the Naturall whose Veins receiv ing the Bloud from the severall Parts of the Body. a Conductor. And when a Colony is setled. are of two sorts Way of it to the The other. Children. either formerly voyd of Inhabitants. . whom they emancipate. but also whole Armies with Provision. . when need is. and thereby to have the value diminished. which is Honour.194 Part 2. into and supply. OF COMMON-WEALTH.) in which case the Common-wealth from which they went. . then they are no Common-wealths themselves. then Fathers require of the . or Colonies Common bers of men sent out from the Common -wealth. But that Coyne. was called their Metropolis. The Con The Conduits. and stretch out their armes. and Treasurers second are the Treasurers againe. they are either a Common-wealth of themselves. sort. not only private Sub forraign Countries jects that travell. and make free from their domestique government. (as hath been done by many Common -wealths of antient time. and requires no more of them. by warre. carry it to the Heart where being made Vitall. and or else they remain united to their Metro Friendship and of Rome polis. as were the Colonies of the people . And in this also. but Pro- | . that Issueth the Publique Coffers mony to same out againe for publique payments. those that have it. . Of the first the Pub of the lique use. or Mother. to enliven. being unable to endure change of ayr. and the Officers appointed for payment of severall publique or private Ministers. the Heart by the Arteries sends it out again. to inhabit a Forraign Coun try. or made voyd then. Mony. may easily be enhansed. but for the Stamp of the place. or Children of a Common-wealth. under wealth Colonies. are dren of a those we call which are num Plantations. . 24. to the prejudice many times of . discharged of their subjection to their Soveraign that sent them. and Wayes by which it is conveyed to duits and the One.

and arising from the Imperative manner of speaking in them both. and Exhorting.) dependeth wholly on their Licence. and being not able. thus. I define them Speech . But find is directed. their proper and distinct significations.Part 2. by which their Soveraign authorised vinces. are the words not onely but also of him that giveth of him. is where a man saith. is some [132! Good to himselfe. OF COMMON-WEALTH. Chap. of words. . ing those phrases in mens writings. Commands. 195 and parts of the Common-wealth that sent them. Counselling. . is where a man saith. and League with their Metropolis. and render to those termes of Commanding. or Doe not this. and the proper object of every mans Will.. pretendeth thereby his own Benefit : | tweencom* For the reason of his Command is his own Will onely. and in many other occasions besides. or not willing to enter into a consideration of the circum stances. COUNSELL. or the actions they approve. Doe. CHAP. and to whom the . . them to Plant. that he that Commandeth. that see not. From this it followeth manifestly. appeareth than in the confusion of Counsels. Doe this. For the words Doe this. that Commandeth and yet there and of him that Exhorteth Counsell are but few. Of COUNSELL. and deduceth his reasons from the benefit that arriveth by it to him to whom he saith it. or Doe not without expecting other reason than the Will of Differ- ences be- him that sayes it. . XXV. And from this it is o 2 . Counsell by the ordinary and inconstant use in nothing more. To avoyd which mistakes. when things they perceive who it is that speaketh. and upon what occasion. they mistake sometimes the Precepts of Counand sellours. 25. for the Precepts of them that Command sometimes the contrary according as it best agreeth with the conclusions they would inferre. How fallacious it is to judge of the nature of things. So that the Right of Colonies (saving Honour. COMMAND this. or Letters. that these are very different or that cannot distinguish between them.

they should neither ask. But if one Subject giveth Counsell to another. that a man may be obliged to do what he is Commanded as when he hath covenanted to obey But he cannot be obliged to do as he is Counselled. : . to do any thing contrary to the Lawes. it is because ignorance punishable by the Common-wealth of the Law. . . or punish it to permit him to give such Counsell as he shall think best And consequently. : . he that asketh it. evident. . any further Counsell is the Resolution of the Debate. because the hurt of not follow or if he should covenant to follow it. no man else can. or an Assembly) when he asketh it. 25. whether that Counsell proceed from evill intention. (whether a Monarch. . nor take For the Sense of the Assembly. Chap. pretendeth onely (whatsoever he intendeth) the good of him. OF COMMON-WEALTH. so it be to the Proposition in debate. A third difference between them is. is accuse. ing it. And from this ariseth another difference. and and therefore cannot punish it Author of it what the Soveraign cannot. proper object. is no good excuse. whether the same be conformable to the opinion of the most. and End of all Delibera And generally he that demandeth Counsell. to whom he giveth it. For if or not. or to gain some other Good to him which (as I said before) is of every mans will the selfe . that Command is directed to a mans own benefit and Counsell to the benefit of another man. is tion. he that giveth counsell to his Soveraign. Therefore between Counsell and Command.196 Part 2. that he that giveth Counsell. This also is incident to the nature of Counsell that whatsoever it be.will to know his designes. the sense of the Assembly can be taken notice of. : . is his own then is the Counsell turned into the nature of a Com mand. cannot in equity be punished for it. where every man is bound to take notice of the Lawes to which he is subject. . . that no man can pretend a right to be of another mans Counsell because he is not to pretend benefit by it to himselfe but to demand right to Counsell another. one great difference is. . argues a . before the Debate be ended. or from ignorance onely. cannot in equity For to ask Counsell of another. .

deterreth him from it. lim. in deducing and make use of Similitudes.han can be done in a Multitude which are too many to enter into Dispute. which is who (by the contrary to the duty of a Counsellour . of Counsell) his but ought to regard.ion lyeth onely. From whence may be inferred. and tye himselfe therein to the rigour of but encourages him he Counselleth. a regard to the common Passions. is directed to the Good of him that giveth the Counsell. that Exhortation and Dehortation. and as it were bribed by their own interest. speaketh indifferently to them all at once. or not at all. and but accidentarily to the good of him that is Counselled. to true reasoning Action As he that Dehorteth. is no more a good Counsellour. Honour. not his own whom he adviseth. following their advise. doth not deduce the consequences of what he adviseth to be done. that the use of Exhortation and Dehorta. is Counsell. to perswade their Hearers of the Utility. . accom. or by the artificiall giving thereof which being not required of . that they that Exhort and Dehort. and DEHORTATION. not of him that asketh it. and opinions of men. Chap. by the long and vehement urging. And that he directeth his Counsell to his own benefit. . 25. And therefore they have in their speeches. Counsell vehemently pressed. and consequently proceeding from his own occa- ions. is directed principally to his own benefit. where they are required to give Counsell. or Justice of .Part 2. of vehement or to say it more briefly.Exhortation and panied with signes in him that giveth it. is manifest enough. their reasons Examples. For though the Counsell they give be never so good yet he that gives it. and examine his reasons more rigorously. and other tooles of Oratory. First. where a man is to speak to a Multitude Because when the Speech is addressed to one. [133] definition benefit. 197 EXHORTATION. : . he may nterrupt him. and Dialogue with him that . han he that giveth a Just Sentence for a reward. . Metaphors. OF COMMON-WEALTH. is a Just Judge. desire to have it followed ffo For he that Exhorteth. . But where a man may lawfully Com. are corrupt Counsellours. Secondly. Thirdly.

is drawn from our own benefit which is this. and laudable which they are no more Counsells. Steale not. but of our for our sins. Examples Counsell. OF COMMON -WEALTH. Repent. &c. and. Go into the Village give . are Counsell because the reason why we should so do. his Exhortations and Dehortations. Chap. Kill not . obliged to obey. now deduced from . as a Father in his Family. are not onely But then lawfull. Take not Gods name in vain . it to the poore . and inept counsel* Counsellours be derived from the same. . ence. For Experi lours. by encouragement. hath the nature of Counsell. by the necessary Differences of fit or probable consequences of the action he propoundeth so ma y a ^ so t ^ie differences between apt. but also necessary. and alwayes humanity requireth to be sweetned in the delivery. or hurt that may arise to him that is to be Counselled. 25. Honour thy Parents . whom we are . and you shall find an Asse tyed.igS Part 2. or a Leader in an Army. we of rebell means who have no other avoyding the punishment hanging over us . that we shall have Treasure in heaven. God Almighty. language of Command. and in the tune and phrase of Counsell. con[i34]sisting in a deducing of the benefit. and be Baptized in the Name of Jesus. . but Commands when they are for Execution of soure labour some times necessity. is drawn from the will of God our King. tendeth not to any benefit of : : . As the been difference of Counsell from Command. are a Command for the reason of their fact is drawn from the will of their Master but these words. These words. mand. Have no other Gods but me . Make to thy selfe no graven Image . loose her. But these words. Sanctifie the Sabbath . rather then in harsher : . and her Colt . who soever shall still be King in what manner selves. follow me. are Counsell because the reason for which we are to do so. and Counsell but the Speech . Sell all thou hast . and bring her to me. being but Memory of the consequences ol like actions formerly observed. are Commands because the reason for which we are to obey them. over against you. of the difference between Command and we may take from the formes of Speech that expresse them in Holy Scripture.

and many times unfaithfull. or evill. or to lead him we Counsell towards other ends than his own) are repugnant to the Office of a Counsellour. Chap. and long study and no man is pre to have experience in all those things that to the . that render their Counsells alwayes suspected. are the same And to with the Vertues. . but witnesses of fact. as the evidence will . and unevident Inferences permit. of great importance man receiveth his experience. Because the office of a Counsellour. and Interest. \\ And therefore rash. Administration of a great Common-wealth are necessary known. in such forme of speech. are usefull onely to deceive. and ambiguous Expressions. and have often their particular ends. and such expressions. OF COMMON-WEALTH. to a naturall man. confused. Secondly. (because such reasoning. and as briefly. 199 whereby that experience is made known to another the Vertues. and passions. . in such manner. No man is presumed to be a good Counsellour. wealth. And therefore we may set down for the first condition of a good Counsellour. as significant and proper language. \\ ought to propound his advise. may have. or authority of Books. . or whereas they that give Counsell interest of their own to the Representative person of a Common-wealth. also all meta.) obscure. and are not arguments of what is good. tending to the stirring up of Passion. is to make manifest the consequences of it. that a naturall joyned. when an action comes into deliberation. and Defects Intellectuall the Person of a Common-wealth. which work upon him without passion.Part 2. his Counsellours serve him in the place of Memory. that as may make the truth most evidently appear is to say. . with as firme ratiocination. and Defects of Counsell. That his Ends. Because the Ability of Counselling proceedeth sumed to be from Experience. from the naturall objects of sense. I phoricall Speeches. there is one dissimilitude which is. Thirdly. be not inconsistent with the Ends and Interest of him he Counselleth. (such as are fetched onely from Examples. or of opinion. as he that is he Counselled may be truly and evidently informed : . and Mental] Dis But with this resemblance of the Common course. 25.

and their Neighbours as also the inclinations. and considered. . but such State between them as the Representative shall think fit. and is the best Counsellour. but in such Businesse. Fourthly. Places. and and other transactions of which none can doe. that has learnt. and defend them against forraign Invasion. as he hath not onely been much versed in. without much experience. By which we . that they who are not called to Counsell. or found out the Rule.) is Judgement. you have the advice of every man but in an Assembly many of them deliver their advise is man in an Assembly . can have no good Counsell in such cases to obtrude. 25. may a better Counselled by hearing them apart. both study . any thing. When for the Common -wealth. Commodities. and Edifices. in hearing them apart. it requires great knowledge of the disposition of Man-kind. Fifthly. doing of different education. then and that for many causes. And the differences of men in that point come from of their of . own Country. Supposing the number of Counsellors equall. but every one of the particulars requires the age. (as in Engines. OF COMMON -WEALTH. and Honour. to preserve the people in Peace at home. 8. in a businesse that hath reference to another businesse. not to. to be able to give Counsell to a Common wealth. and observation of a man in years. and of the nature of Equity. And this is not attained Of which things. of the Rights of Government. Intelligences. he that hath most experience in that particular kind of businesse. Justice. not to be attained without And of the Strength. And when there is no such Rule. and Letters that with all the records of Treaties. come from see. Law. but hath also much meditated on. First. the rules of Geometry. .200 Part 2. or and of others to another.) all the experience of the world cannot equal his Counsell. For seeing the businesse of a Common-wealth is this. has therein the best Judge ment. we shall find. and of more than ordinary study. of some to one kind of study. It is necessary to be acquainted with the thence. [135] onely the whole summe. The wit required for Counsel. Chap. there be Infallible rules. and designes of all Nations that may any way annoy them. as I have said before (Chap.

and also learned in the Politiques. by contradiction . OF COMMON-WEALTH. . but by the eloquence of another. Chap. Besides. or the whole Assembly. and in whose fidelity they have most confidence. in hearing every man apart. as the heat of one brand like many brands. than informed of the course he ought to take. 201 /. or probability of his reasons. (whereof there be many occasions in Publique Businesse. Secondly. and dazled with the variety of discourse upon it. and Eloquence drawes others into the same For the Passions of men.) the Counsells of many. there cannot choose but be some whose interests are contrary to that of the Publique and these their Interests make passionate. who is there that so far approves the taking of Counsell from a great Assembly of Counsellours. Thirdly. and give not their advice with care of the businesse propounded. or with their hands. not moved their own sense. or which is an Impertinence at least. than those that have with by applauded the contrary opinion. but of the applause of their motly orations. under pretence of Counselling it. one may examine (when there is need) the truth. where (in every difficult question) a man is rather astonied. or No. which asunder are advice. and of such persons as are most versed. in Assembly are moderate. . shreds of Authors that takes away the time of serious Consultation.Part 2. 25. . is easily avoided. made of the divers colored threds. there cannot be an Assembly of many. or for feare of displeasing some that have spoken. that enflame one another. and of the grounds of the advise he gives. and objec tions which cannot be done in an Assembly. or for feare of appearing duller in apprehension. To conclude. in the secret way of Counselling apart. and especially in Assemblies. and Passion eloquent. and . . in an Assembly of many. wherein there be not some. that have the ambi tion to be thought eloquent. (especially when they blow one another with Orations) to the setting of the Common-wealth on fire. . or feet. called together for advice. [136] Fourthly. are dangerous And therefore great Assemblies are necessitated to commit such affaires to lesser numbers. by frequent interruptions. in Deliberations that ought to be kept secret.

as he that best. or other frame. many eyes see the same thing towards in divers lines. when there is a question of marrying his Children. and retarded also by the inconcurrent judgements. . Chap. and like one that is carried to the ball. when the finall Resolution is sellours . Otherwise. that wisheth for. yet in a Wheele-barrough.202 Part 2. or interest) retarded by the part dissenting. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. But he that is carried up and down to his businesse in a framed Counsell. and are apt to look asquint their private benefit they that desire not to misse their marke. when there is one. . 25. does it worst of all. and endeavours of them that and so much the more. disposing of his Lands. though they look about with two Arid therefore eyes. heavy of it self. as they be more that drive it set their hands to it and most of all. with every one consulting apart in his proper element. though by good Players. And as for very httle Common-wealths. longer then the Jealousy lasteth of their potent Neighbours. or would accept of their pains. governing his Household. yet they never ayme but with one no great Popular Common-wealth was ever kept up but either by a forraign Enemy that united them or by the reputation of some one eminent Man amongst them or by the secret Counsell of a few or by the and not by the open mutuall feare of equall factions Consultations of the Assembly. be they Popular. . the execution whereof is commonly (out of envy. or Monarchicall. . . that many eys see more then one yet it is not to be understood of many Coun but then only. especially if there be amongst them such as wish not his prosperity ? A man that doth his businesse by the help of many and prudent Counsellours. . And though it be true. . as he that useth able Seconds at Tennis He does next play. placed in their proper stations. . or managing his private Estate. or more amongst them. because . that useth his own Judgement only has no Second at all. does it best. . . which cannot move but by the plurality of consenting opinions. that desire to have him lose. there is no humane wisdome can uphold them. in one man.

. any man the Common-wealth. to distinguish it from the rest of their own Civill Lawes. or other sufficient Sign of the Will. but Command . Which considered. call that part the Civill Law. that professe the but the study of the Lawes of their severall Countries knowledge of Civill Law in generall. But that is not it I intend to speak of here my designe being not to shew what is Law but what is Law as Plato. to but only of him. that is to say. In which definition. For the knowledge of particular Lawes belongeth to them. Aristotle. And as for Civill Law. and there Cicero. is not nor a Command of any man Counsell. 7s to every Subject. that Law in generall. Writing. and divers others have done. . retaine such part thereof as they think fit. Lawes are addressed to all the Subjects in generall some to particular some to particular Provinces Vocations and some to particular Men and are therefore Lawes. : Roman still Empire. because they are Members. not of this. for the Distinction of Right. to make use of. which having been under the BY CIVILL LAWES. and what is not contrary to the Rule. of what is contrary. . 26. from the word Civitas. what. CIVILL LAW. I define Civill Law in this manner. Chap. here. . . which is Persona Civitatis. OF COMMON-WEALTH. XXVI. and governed by that Law. there is nothing that is not at For every man seeth. the Person of . to any man. . The antient Law of Rome was called their Civil Law. And first it is manifest. it addeth only the name of the person Commanding. by Word. CHAP.Part 2. . or that Common -wealth in par ticular. and Wrong . that men are therefore bound to observe. 203 Of CIVILL LAWES. those Rules. which the Common-wealth hath Commanded him. but of a Common-wealth. that some first sight evident. whose Command is addressed to one formerly obliged to obey him. without taking upon them the profession of the study of the Law. to every of those to whom the Com. [137] . which signifies a Common-wealth And those Countries. I understand the Lawes.

but the Wil1 of the Soveraign signified by his silence. or one Soveraign. : because a man knows not otherwise how to obey them. directed and to none else. is only the raignis be he one Man. or Assembly of men. For the same reason. (that is. Now I deduce from it this that followeth. j t j s not the Length of Time that maketh the Authority.wealth because our Subjection is to the Common -wealth only and that Commands.wealth only. or Aristocracy. that is not contrary to some Law. Subject Assembly. he may when he pleaseth. then the Soveraign shall b3 . that none can make Lawes but the Common. can release he that is bound to himselfe onely. And therefore if the Soveraign shall his present haye a q uest i on o f Right grounded.) and therefore the Soveraign is the sole Legislator. none can abrogate a Law made. As also. be it an 2. is . 3. 26. that are the Rules of Just. When long Use obtaineth the authority of a Law. free himselfe from that subjection. For the Legislator. a not Time. and Unjust nothing being reputed Unjust. ought to be acknowledged for truth. are to be mand Lawes . which we call Law Therefore the Common-wealth is the Legislator.) and it is no longer Law. is he that maketh the Law. : . prescribes. Chap. The Soveraign of a Common -wealth. and repeale Lawes. raigns consent. by repealing those Lawes that trouble him. [138] And not Subject to Civill Law of Use. And the Common. that can be free when he will before. but the Soveraign because a Law is not abrogated. silent therein. and consequently he was free an(j making of new For he is free. The Savei. the to Civill or is not one Man. and commandeth the observation of those rules. The Legislator in all Common-wealths. . whatso ever can from this definition by necessary consequence be deduced. is not bound. but by the Representative. that forbiddeth it to be put in execution. the Soveraign . Likewise.204 Part 2. but of the Sove- Lawes. But the Common-wealth is no Person. : . . signified by sufficient Signs . And therefore. but by another Law. OF COMMON-WEALTH. For having power to make. not upon . as in a Monarchy. as in a Democracy. (for Silence is sometimes an argument of Consent . nor has capacity to doe any thing. Nor is it possible for any person to be bound to himselfe and therefore because he that can bind.

and need of the Ordinances of Soveraign Power. and the Civill Law. but such as are reasonable. 26. is a Dictate of the Law of Nature. Nature. 4. but qualities that dispose men to peace. For in the differences of private men. go uncontrolled a longer time. which consist in Equity. and to obedience. . but upon the of Time shal bring : I5th Chapter. belongeth to him that maketh the Law. which is the Soveraign Assembly. and giving to every man his own. there . For the Lawes of f Nature.) And therefore Obedience to the Civill Law . that they may receive life . and what is is morall Vertue. or Monarch. what to is Justice. and Punishments to be ordained for such as shall break them which Ordinances are there fore part of the Civill Law. Will. then are they actually Lawes. The Law of Nature there fore is a part of the Civill Law in all Common -wealths binding. For many unjust Actions.) are not properly Lawes. And our Lawyers account no Customes Law. in the condition contain of meer Nature (as I have said before in the end of the each other. than any man can remember. : Equity. hath covenanted to obey the Civill Law. when subdued by the Sword they promise obedience. that is to say. as when they assemble to make a common Representative. as being then the commands of the and not before Common-wealth and therefore also Civill Lawes For it is the Soveraign Power that obliges men to obey them. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and unjust Sentences. Performance of Covenant. Reciprocally also. Justice. But the and that evill Customes are to be abolished Judgement of what is reasonable. to declare. and of what is to be abolished. is called Civill. Gratitude. The Law of Nature. what is . Civill. and 2^7/Lo/ other morall Vertues on these depending. is also of the Law part of Nature. make them of the world. and are of equall extent. or with the Representative it selfe one by one. When a Com mon-wealth is once settled.wealth. (either one with another. of the Dictates of Nature. but different parts of Law whereof one part being written. the Civill Law is a part For Justice. the other un- . and Naturall Law are not different kinds. . Chap. .Part 2. 205 Lawes formerly made the Length but the no prejudice to his Right question shal be judged by Equity. But every subject in a Common. contain The Law each other.

And therefore where there be divers Provinces. as are and is mon-wealth . That the Common Law.206 Part 2. If the Soveraign of one Common -wealth. directly. and in those Provinces diversity of Lawes. arid madby afterwards govern them by the same Lawes. but assist one another. . subdue 5. the naturall Liberty of man. we are not to understand that Provinci. not by vertue of the Prescription of time. or subor dinate Judges. written. . as they might not hurt. without the which there : [139] into cannot possibly be any Peace. and not of the Vanquished Soveraign Common. Some foolish such Customes have their force. and Statutes of their Soveraigns and are now Lawes. the end of making Lawes. within the Dominion of a Common -wealth. their Authority. but to limit the naturall liberty of particular men. in all the Provinces of a Dominion. for the Constitutions. that is. Law. that . and restrained nay. shall be generally that observed. . But the Right of Nature. Chap. or otherwise made known. written. in such manner. but by whose authority they now continue to be Lawes. and unwritten. which commonly are called the Customes of each severall Province. and no iniquity appear in the use thereof Law can be no other but a Law of Nature. is no other. And Law was brought the world for nothing else. all Lawes a People that have lived under other written Lawes. Naturall. Seeing then all Lawes. 26. may by the Civill Law be abridged. from the Will of the Rcprewhich in a Monarchy is the Monarch. from the Will of the Comto say. and joyn together against a common Enemy. but by the Constitu But if an unwritten tions of their present Soveraigns. they were governed before but by the Civill Lawes of the Victor. equally oblig ing all man-kind. As for example. and in sentative a man other Common-wealths the Soveraign Assembly may wonder from whence proceed such opinions. have Time . by which yet those Lawes are the Custome. . 6. but such Restraint .wealth. or by consequence making the Legislative Power depend on private men. onely from Length of but that they were antiently Lawes written. found in the Books of Lawyers of eminence in severall Common-wealths. of force. not by whose ler authority the Lawes were first made. OF COMMON-WEALTH. For the Legislator is he. ing the making Lawes.

Coke Sir Edw. . but by their own discretion. our Lawyers are agreed and that not the Letter. For if there be a right in any else to dissolve them. there is a right also to controule them. study may encrease. (that is. . : : : . is the Law. the reasons and resolutions are. long study. As if a Common-wealth could consist. and observe with equall time.) For ?^tS t it is possible long 2 Ch. the same Reason is able. makes it. then the Controuler of Lawes is not Parlamentum. or alteration. . and cannot be assembled. OF COMMON-WEALTH. every con struction of it. by inter In all Courts pretation. where the Force were in any hand. but Rex in Parlamento. to take it away. 97. and consequently to controule their controulings. . or so wise men. the greater is the ruine and of those that study.) an Artificiall -perfection of Reason. from the Countries subject to them. there cannot easily arise any contradiction in the Lawes and when there doth. that maketh Law And the Common wealth being in their Representative but one Person. Reason of this our Artificiall Man the Common-wealth. (as Sr. observation. : . which Justice had not the Authority to command and govern. Item. : . that such an Assembly hath thereby acquired to themselves a Legis lative Power. the more they build. and experience. And it is true but the doubt is. 26. nor dissolved. and must remain discordant and therefore it is not that Juris but the prudentia. [140] as there is in the Schooles nor yet. And if there be no such right. It is not meant of any private Reason for then there would be as much contradiction in the Lawes. and Justice King the other deposited in the hands of the Parlament. the first whereof is in the wealth. Chap. fol. are Force. That Law can never be against Reason. or wisedome of subordinate Judges / /^ . for whatsoever cause yet there is no man will believe. that shall be received for Law. 207 which is true onely hath no Controuler but the Parlament where a Parlament has the Soveraign Power. of whose Reason it is. 6. gotten by Coke.) but that which is according to the Inten tion of the Legislator. b. if it should assemble never so many. 7. and his Command.Part 2. And where a Parlament is Sove raign. (as his was. . . Ed. that the two arms of a Common . and diligence. and confirm erroneous Sentences and where men build on false grounds.

And . or re j *lt_ some other sufficient argument of the same. Nature. is the Person of the he that Judgeth The subordinate have regard to the reason. what arguments. nor Proclamation as being con tained in this one Sentence. knowledge of for Law. children. understand. as in other formes of any particular Law. or mad-men there nor are they is no Law. if it be a Law that obliges all the Subjects without exception. bv vovce. but every one from his own reason. or to understand and consequently never took the consequences thereof upon them to authorise the actions of any Soveraign. . if not also made known. as well in Monarchies. that Law is no Law to him. if he observe it not . It is therefore necessary. is Law onely to those. this. from own of accident. that have means to take notice of it. writing. no more than over brute beasts because they had capable of the title of just. Over naturall fooles. or Accident hath taken away the notice of all Lawes in generall so also every 8. must be such as is agree which no Law can be. and an Soveraigns Sentence of Justice. is no Law. government. . . or unjust never power to make any covenant.) Judge. hath taken away the means to take notice is whom any to speak properly. approved by all the world. and signes be sufficient for the knowledge of what is the Law that is to say. Unwritten are . that his Sen tence may be according thereunto which then is his otherwise it is his own. but able to the reason of all men the Law of Nature. nor otherwise pubit LawesoT ! ished in such places as they may take notice thereof. and is not written. . is : Chap. or manifestation of ^ ne w jrj o f him that commandeth. man. and a consisteth in declaration.208 Part 2. which moved his Soveraign to make such Law. not upon other mens words. what is the will of the Soveraign. Lawes And first. excused. ought to . For whatsoever men are to take is a Law of Nature. From Command . the Soveraign (which Common-wealth. And as those from whom Nature. that the Law is a Command. The Lawes of Nature therefore need not any publishing. i . to consider in this place. Law made. 26. unjust one. we may that the of Command the Common-wealth. not proceeding from his default. as they must do that make to themselves a Common-wealth. OF COMMON-WEALTH. .

which thou thinkest unreasonable done by another to thy selfe. that his Sentence . or by con which in the jecture taken from his scope and purpose person of the Common-wealth. or some other act. or act. he is bound Or if an Ambassador. if it be a Law that obliges only some con. . For Example. might the more : . And for the Law which Moses gave to the people of Israel at the renewing of the HOBBES p . And in antient time. without he is obliged to take written Instructions what to doe As if he make for Instructions the Dictates of Reason a Judge. All which Instructions of natural! Reason may be comprehended under one name of Fidelity which is a branch of naturall Justice. which being alwaies understood to be Equity. either by word. For the will of another. before letters were in common use. cannot be understood. known to proceed from the Soveraign Authority. OF COMMON-WEALTH. can be known no way. or one particular man. Chap. . he is to it by the Law of Nature (in all things not conteined in his written Instructions) to take for Instruction that which Reason dictates to be most conducing to his Soveraigns interest and so of all other Ministers of the Soveraignty.Part 2. then also it is a Law of Nature to be .[141] dition of men. Do and known by the same arguments. 26. or reciting them. . if the Soveraign employ a Publique Minister. to every man that shall be obliged to obey them. 209 not that to another. Secondly. but Naturall. Solomon adviseth a man. And for the same reason *Prov. .7.$. or some way pub lished by him that makes it Law. easily reteine them in memory. it belongeth to the essence of all other Lawes. publique and private. that dis tinguish those in such a condition. but by his own word. and is there but by the reason of him that is to obey it fore also a Law not only Civill. the Lawes were many times put into verse that the rude people taking pleasure in singing. nor published by word. or writing. from other Subjects. For whatsoever Law is not written. The Judge is to take notice. . and be not written. . and signs. to be made known. to bind the ten Commandements * upon his ten fingers. is to be supposed alwaies consonant to Equity and Reason. ought to be according to the reason of his Soveraign. The Law of Nature excepted.

woman. 3 1 . Therefore of who is Soveraign. And it is a Dictate of Naturall Reason. may publish for Lawes what they please. . [142] the most part. There is therefore requisite. . not Authorised not the Authority of but the Testimon y and Record of. by discoursing of it both at home. but by his own fault. ^ ne Law . to heare it read. the posts.) can make any doubt. because he is the Soveraign. and Authority. 12. ambitious ends. they doe not consider. * he biddeth Covenant. Difference between emdAu^ 8 dependeth on the knowledge of the publique Registers. : . 191 1 . The difficulty consisteth in the evidence The removing where of the Authority derived from him . Chap. 26. is supposed by every one to be sufficiently known. and at rising from bed and to write it upon . because no man that considers. and publique Scales by which all Lawes are sufficiently verified for the Verification. who having been Constituted by the consent of every one. without. or wittingly received against others. that it proceedeth where the f rO the will of the Soveraign. when nave or think they have force enough to secure cannot be their unjust designes. Nor is it enough the Law be written. . and consequently an evident Law of Nature. or against the Legislative Authority. and upon the way at going to bed. and published Nothing is Law but also that there be manifest signs. man. OF COMMON-WEALTH. *Deut. and convoy them safely to their known. the protection whereof he hath himself demanded. publique Ministers.210 *Deut. can make question of it. .consisteth in the Command of the j Soveraign only. and dores of their houses and * to assemble the people.gt. and child. (whatsoever evill men suggest. which. or Legislator is supposed in every Common wealth to be evident. them to teach it their Children. as that when the memory of the first Con stitution of their Common-wealth is worn out. For private men. no excuse can be derived from the ignorance of where the Soveraignty is placed. for The Author. And though the ignorance. and security of men be such. . and to have their industry pro tected. that no man ought to weaken that power. . . no man. j thorising. I say. publique Counsels. not only a Declaration of the Law. is Verifyed. m ^7 &amp. but also sufficient signes of the Author. and to be righted when injury is done them yet . by whose power they use to be defended against their enemies. Part 2.

or crime. The Inter- Potation ^p^^ on the Soveraign Power. to informe himself of all written Lawes. or Meaning that is to say. Publique 5 others. whither it be an injury. But when the question a written is of injury. -. or man by recourse to the Registers. than to demand his : . For every man is obliged to doe his best endeavour. l p&amp. Law . be just. self. . if a man would. every : upon By the enformed. Authority. .) in which the nature of the Law consisteth And therefore the Interpretation of all Lawes and the Inter dependeth on the Authority Soveraign of his . or not Nay he ought For when a man doubts whether the act he to doe so and may informe him goeth about. be usef ull for the avoydtis the Judge yet it is but advice ing of contention must tell men what is Law. in a case determined by the written Law. is a sufficient Verification seale. which he may by himself. [143] . OF COMMON-WEALTH. For it is not the Letter. or commit the crime. which the Soveraign. . To have seen the question be of Obedience to a publique Officer By Letters his Commission. 211 If therefore a man have a question of Injury.The Law that is to say. or by the light of Nature. preters can be none but those. . on common Verifyed ing on the Law of Nature Equity the Sentence of the Judge.gt. with the Publique Scale. he does unjustly. by himself. that may concerne his own future actions. sufficiently published there wanteth yet another very materiall circumstance to make them obligatory. The Legislator known and the Lawes. p 2 (to . either by writing. is a sufficient Verification of the Law of Nature in that For though the advice of one that individuall case. Pat? n u or to have had the means to be and heard it read informed of it. that by Commission hath Authority to take cognisance of such causes. : Controversy. 26. the authentiqiie Interpretation of the Law (which is the sense of the Legislator. and bewrayeth a dis position rather to vex other men. Chap. depend.Part 2. may (if he will) be sufficiently^^&quot. or others if he complaine before he consults see and consider with the Law. but the Intendment. professeth the study of the Law. if he will he that supposeth himself injured. upon the hearing of the . . . In like manner. own If right. . or injust the doing is unlawfull. before he doe such injury. . .

and passion. . and maintain ing peace. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and in them so many. for the procuring. or some other passion. and of their necessity.212 Part 2. that in some cases are not blinded by self love. to undoe it by he will. Chap. All Lawes All Laws. are easily mis-interpreted. as without partiality. dependeth not on the books of Morall The Authority of writers. and unwritten. though it be pretation. in a Com mon-wealth. without the written in this Treatise. it were a great errour. can be well understood. is not therefore but because in all Common-wealths in presently Law For though it be the world. contrary to that of the Soveraign by which means the Interpreter becomes the Legislator. have need of Inter need Inter pretation. only the Subject oweth obedience) shall appoint. : in few. The written Laws. to whereof wee call the Lawes of Nature unwritten Law see so many volumes published. be they never so true. . or two if long they be more obscure by the diverse significations of whom For else. . : j . Philosophy. and of themselves. 26. or many words in so much as no written Law. it is now become of all Laws the most obscure and has con sequently the greatest need of able Interpreters. perhaps none. . easy to such. if they be short. The unwritten Law of Nature. : i . the Law may be made to beare a sense. maketh not their that of opinions Law. make use of their naturall reason. . and therefore leaves the violaters thereof without excuse yet considering there be very few. The Authenticall preter can doe. by the craft of an Interpreter. insoluble either by finding out or else by making what ends the ends. concerning the Morall Vertues. any knot in the Law. . it is part of the Civill Law yet it is by the Soveraigne Power naturally reasonable that it is Law Otherwise. though it bee evident Truth. contradictions of one another. from the divers significations of a word. Interpre tation of Law is not Authority of the Common -wealth. without : a perfect understanding of the fin all causes. . for which the Law was made the knowledge of which finall causes To him therefore there can not be is in the Legislator. The Interpretation of the Lawes of Nature.) by the Legislative power . . (as Alexander did with his sword in the Gordian which no other Inter knot. . written. delivered many words. That which I have writers.

26. be consonant to naturall reason. which Interpretation is case. Law for that time. nay. Heaven but not one title of the Law of and Earth shall passe for it is the Eternall Law of God. to heare and determine such controversies. [ Z is no Judge Subordinate. cannot all together make a Law contrary to naturall Equity Nor any Examples of former Judges. in the Princes succeed one another like cases for ever after. if he know and allow it. particular of Nature . another commeth. Nature shall passe Therefore all the Sentences of precedent Judges that have ever been. they are no Lawes to the same. For example sake. . whither the demand of the party. and seeing the . as depend thereon and consisteth in the application of the Law to the present case. is the Sentence of the Judge constituted by the Soveraign Authority. .8** Sentence in like Cases ever a f ter - . be a constitution of a new Law. in cases. Neither (for the same reason) becomes it a Law to other Judges. though sworn to follow it. Chap. OF COMMON-WEALTH. can warrant an unreasonable Sentence. that a man is accused of a capitall cri ne. .Part 2. and Equity and the Sentence he giveth. which is whereby it becomes the Soveraigns Sentence . For though a wrong Sentence given by authority of the Soveraign. in such Lawes as are mutable. Vis against the Law is of Nature. . to the parties pleading. : present Judge of the trouble of studying what is Equity (in the case he is to Judge. and is acknow ledged for Innocent by the Judge. is therefore the Interpreta. but may erre in a Judgement of Equity ward in another like case he find it more consonant to Equity to give a contrary Sentence. he is obliged to doe it. . P*?* JJ%/ judge givinq sentence v J^ ce j^ tion of the Law . or another J. bind him. and one Judge passeth. in which every little circumstance is the same yet in Lawes immutable. The 213 Intert tt The Interpretation of the Law of Nature. JJJ2L does not .) from the principles of his own naturall reason. not because it is his private Sentence Authentique but because he giveth it by Authority of the Soveraign. Put the case now. For in the act of Judicature. To punish the Innocent and Innocent he that acquitteth himself e Judicially. such as are the Lawes of Nature. or discharge the But because there 44l The Sena . No mans error becomes his own Law nor obliges him to persist in it. nor Soveif afterraign. or other Judges. the Judge doth no more but consider. .

grounded see. OF COMMON-WEALTH.) the Sentence ought if the Presumption were not of to have been Capitall the Fact. and maketh it sufficiently appear. condemned to lose all the goods he hath. that had done the same.. where this can be an interpretation of a Law of Nature. For he that judged it first. For all Judges. he shall notwithstanding England. that there is no place in the world. (which was Capitall. If the Law ground upon his flight a Presump[145] tion of the fact. . upon the Presumption of the Judges. the Law will duties. be accused albeit he for feare ftyeth for the same yet if it be judicially acquitteth himselfe of the Felony found that he fled for the Felony. It is also against Law. to say that no Proof e shall be admitted against a Presumption of Law. chattells. (when no written Law forbad him to fly) after his acquitall. of Felony. Soveraign and subordinate. man Judgement given. : which hath no place is after set down by a If a great (saith he) that is Innocent. and For as to the Forfeiture of them. and afterwards is taken. or be made a Law by the Sentences of precedent Judges. and they may be punished for flying ing for feare of injury. he was not guilty of the crime. and being thereof acquitted. and . : . power and malice of some enemy. should be taken for presumption of guilt. but the admit no proof e against his flight. is neverthelesse condemned to lose his goods this is a manifest condemnation of the Innocent. yet the Judges Justice : . and the frequent cor ruption and partiality of Judges. judged unjustly and no Injustice can be a pattern of Judgement to succeed ing Judges. Judi upon cially acquitted. Forfeit all his goods. Chap. runneth away for feare of the event. Yet this Lawyer for the common Law of . for what then ought he to lose his goods ? nor is the con This therefore is no Law of England demnation grounded upon a Presumption of Law. his Innocency. 26. An Innocent man. debts. Presumption in Law. Here you . refuse to do for though the Sentence be Just. is contrary to the nature of a Presumption.2i 4 Part 2. . upon a Presumption in Law. I say therefore. A written Law may forbid innocent men to But that fly fly. after a man is already absolved of the crime Judicially. if they refuse to heare Proofe. and brought to a legall triall. notwithstanding his Innocency.

to make many senses but there is onely one sense of the Law. that shall . and their Presumption is but Prejudice which no man ought to bring with him to the Seat of Justice. 11 T Irom the bare words. in the same manner. is meant whatsoever can be gathered b f Letter f the . in like cases to give like judgements. In written Lawes. i -i &quot. and the Sentence of the Law And difference tw e * when by the Letter. be a Law to the party pleading. : . or in the metaphoricall use of them. For Commentaries are commonly more subject to cavill. than the Text and therefore need. is all one. Now the Intention of the Legislator is alwayes supposed to be For it were a great contumely for a Judge to Equity . are Unjust Judges. . OF COMMON-WEALTH.fence of the selves. tis well distinguished. whatsoever precedent judgements. In like manner. men use to make a difference The between the Letter. when question is of the Meaning of written Lawes. the Interpreter can be no other than the ordinary Judges. For a Judge may erre in the Interpretation even of written Lawes but no errour of a subordinate Judge. ambiguous Law and may be drawn in argument. can change the Law. 215 condemn without hearing the Proof es offered. then the Letter. But if by the Letter.. that though the Sentence of the Judge.Part that 2. 26. . ror the an d $e nsignifications of almost all words. be meant the literall sense.. which is the generall Sen tence of the Soveraigne./ . or examples he shall pretend to follow. are either in them. : succeed him in that Office. yet it is no Law to any Judge. other Commentaries and so there will be no end of such Interpretation.T- - . which the Legislator intended. : . as they are in cases of the unwritten Law and their Sentences are to be taken by them that plead. . . by trusting to Precedents but this is enough to shew. he is not the Interpreter of them. . . For the literall sense is that. should by the letter of the Law be signified. that writeth a Commentary upon them. Chap. And therefore unlesse there be an Interpreter authorised by the Soveraign. for Lawes in that particular case but not to bind other Judges. wherein mens Judgements have been perverted. and the Sentence or intention of the Law. from which the subordinate Judges are not to recede. There be other things of this nature.

from nothing but the Statutes.wealth. . ties rethat is to say. bare words of a written Law. think otherwise of the Soveraigne. OF COMMON-WEALTH. shall be restored by force by negligence leaves his house empty. in which case there is no speciall Law It is evident. commandeth A man is accused to Judge according to the Evidence falsly of a fact. Again. may lead him to the Inten tion of the Law.216 Part 2. For every Judge of Right. as he ought to take notice of the Fact. He ought therefore. 26. For a Judge. from none but the Witnesses so also he ought to take notice of the Law. nor shall the Judge give Sentence against the evidence of the Witnesses because the Letter of the Law is to the contrary but procure of the Soveraign that another be made Judge. which the Judge saw himself done by another and not by him that is accused. : . the word of the Law. that this case is contained in [146] ordained. is not Judge of what is Commodious. and returning is kept out by force. Chap. from those that shall in their pleadings shew it. for else there is no remedy for him at the same Law all which is to be supposed against the Intention of the Legislator. . and by authority if . the Word of the Law doe not fully authorise a reason able Sentence. . by Witnesses and what hee shall say in point of Law. : . In this case neither shall the Letter of the Law be followed to the condemnation of the Innocent. whereby to interpret the same the better though no Incommodity can warrant a Sentence against the Law. a written Law ordaineth. and himseJf So that the incommodity that follows the Witness^. and Wrong. what hee shall Judge for it shall bee given him what hee shall say concerning the Fact. to respit Judgement till he have received more ample authority. or Incommodious to the Common. are not the same with n T7ud l those of an Advocate namely the study of the Lawes. alledged in the pleading. that he which is thrust out of his house by It happens that a man force. . . and Constitu tions of the Soveraign. : : . For Example. to supply it with the Law of Nature or if the case be difficult. The abiliThe abilities required in a good Interpreter of the Law. . in a good Judge. or declared to him by some that have authority from the Soveraign Power to declare them and need not take care before-hand. .

and fewer had made profession of them and though they consulted with Lawyers. The things that make a good Judge. according to the different f Law methods. Homicide. The Lords of Parlament in England were Judges. . there is one that hath Authority to enforme them of it. - . anger.Part 2. Secondly. or for the Defendant that is to say. are the Judges. but of the Right and pronounce simply for the Complaynant. that have had most leisure. but on the and is subservient to every mans scope of the Writer interpret . diligent attention in hearing . are Judges not and in a ques onely of the Fact. are. For it is a thing that dependeth not on Nature. 217 it upon the place. in the ordinary trialls giving Sentence. Assault. love. or good Inter preter of the Lawes. Chap. or had been corrupted by reward. : . in the particular case they are to Judge of. . hatred. Patience to heare . OF COMMON-WEALTH. A right understanding of that principall Law of Nature called Equity which depending not on the reading of other mens Writings. digest and apply what he hath heard. and the like. 26. To be able in judge ment to devest himselfe of all feare. has been Divisions made in divers manners. : . and lastly. and memory to retain. Contempt of unnecessary Riches. of those men that have written of them. . Thirdly. that were appointed to be present there for that purpose yet they alone had the authority of In like manner. : . and give Sentence. unlesse it they are not subject thereby to any penalty be made appear. they did it against their consciences. But yet if they judge not according to that he tells them. Felony. [147] and Meditation. Fourthly. not onely of the Fact. . not onely determine whether done. and had the most inclination to meditate thereon. and Preferments. first. which are determinations of Law but because they are not supposed to know the Law of themselves. Twelve men of the common People. but also of the Right tion of crime. is presumed to be in those most. and compassion. and most difficult causes have been heard and determined by them yet few of them were much versed in the study of the Lawes. or not done but also whether it be Murder. The difference and division of the Lawes. but on the goodnesse of a mans own naturall Reason. of Right.

are the Acts of Parliament in England. but Juris Consulti obliged : And . that men should Consult the Senate. and to give answer to such as in matter of Law demanded their advice which Answers. For all Lawes that bind. that Edicts. . or Twelve Country. at first. The Edicts : of Prcetors. The is. Like these. Responsa Prudentum of those Lawyers. to whom the Emperour gave Authority to interpret the Law. in stead of the people And these have some resemblance with the Acts of Counsell. Like to these. are the Proclamations of the Kings of England. because the whole power of the people was in him. so numerous. because it when the people Rome grew . we find Lawes. are understood to be Lawes by his authority that has power to repeale them. The Decrees of the Common Senate. : 5. These were Lawes. the Judges in giving Judgement were and Opinions . and Epistles of the Prince. Constitu of the Emperour . For such of them as were not abrogated by the Emperours. The Decrees of the whole people of Rome (compre hending the Senate. For the Judges of the Common Law of England. Civill Chap. men of the . as was inconvenient to assemble them it was thought fit by the Emperour. who are either the Lords. in the Courts of England. the vertue of the Soveraign Power residing in the people and such of them as by the Emperours were not abrogated. and (in some Cases) of the jEdiles 6. are in point of Law to ask advice. remained Lawes by the Authority Imperiall.) when they were put 4. of whom the are not properly Judges. In the Institutions of Justinian.218 Part 2. people (excluding the to the question by the Tribune of the people. remained Lawes by the Authority Imperiall. were the Orders of the House of Commons in England. Somewhat like to these Lawes. such as are the Chiefe Justices . I. 3. seven sorts of tions. if other Judges be by the Law of England bound to observe them. by. OF COMMON -WEALTH. 2. Senatus consulta.) when they were put to the Question by the Senate. by the Constitutions of the Emperour to observe should be like the Reports of Cases Judged. the Orders of of the Senate . which were the Sentences. proper method. Judges. 20.

ments. C^ 8 ! to Peace. or and these speak goods. ^ to a certain people. . is into Naturall and Positive. . are very Lawes. . by some other argument . some are Distributive. Distributive are those that determine the Rights of the Subjects.) are declared fo Law.of Positive Lawes. Also. or Sentences of the Legislator as also every particular Judgement. by which he acquireth and holdeth a propriety in lands. which declare.) are those. Naturall are those which have been Lawes from all and are called not onely Naturall. Positive which being the Commandements of God. Chap. as Justice. 26. Penal are those. (who cannot be supposed will faith fully punish himself e. And these Penal Lawes are for the most part written together with the Lawes Distributive and are sometimes called Judge : Division .) by the tacite consent of the Emperour. but onely known to Eternall. some Divine: A nother And of Humane positive lawes. but also Eternity Morall Lawes consisting in the Morall Vertues. are all Divine. in case they be not contrary to the Law of Nature. whose case is Judged. nature are an imitation of Law. or to certain persons.Part 2. declaring to every man what it is. (not from all de Eternity. are those which have not been from Eternity but have been made Lawes by the Will of those that have had the Soveraign Power over others and are either written. and Universall. is a Law to him. and a right or liberty of action to all the Subjects. nor universally addressed to all men. or made known to men. some Penal. Another division of Lawes. and all habits of the mind that conduce . what Penalty shall be inflicted on those that violate the Law and speak to the Ministers and Officers ordained for execution. OF COMMON-WEALTH. of the Will of their Legislator. For all Lawes are generall Judgements. in the fourteenth and Charity of which I have already spoken and fifteenth Chapters. Equity. some are Humane.) but to publique Ministers ap pointed to see the Penalty executed. . Divine Positive Lawes (for Naturall Lawes being Divine . Again. . (which in their own 7. For though every one ought to be informed of the Punishments ordained beforehand for their trans neverthelesse the Command is not addressed gression to the Delinquent. Positive. . 219 Unwritten Customes.

to deliver Lawes to other men. from the Miracles they see him : doe. . that another has had a supernaturall revelation of Gods will but only a belief e every one (as the signs thereof shall appear greater. . : . but only an assenting to the same . it is evidently For though a man may be induced to impossible believe such Revelation. how a man can be assured of the Revelation of another. . them. how he can be bound to obey them For if the Law declared. or from seeing the Extraordinary sanctity of his or life. And therefore no man can infallibly know by naturall reason. How can a man without supernaturall Revelation be assured of the Revelation received by the declarer ? and how can he be bound to obey them ? For the first question. all which are marks of God[s] extraordinary favour yet they are not assured evidences of speciall Revelation. except the Laws Naturall. Sanctity may be feigned and the visible felicities of this world. Miracles are Marvellous workes but that which is marvellous to one. and not a duty that we exhibite to God. But because it is of the essence of Law. the Law of Nature (which is undoubtedly Gods Law) and he undertake to obey it. But this that I say. is not a fulfilling. be not against it is not so hard. he is bound by his own act bound I say to obey it. or lesser) a firmer. are not subject to the commands. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. but a gift which God freely giveth to whom he pleaseth as also Unbelief but a rejection of is not a breach of any of his Lawes them all. Extraordinary felicity of his Actions. or a weaker belief. that he who is to be obliged.220 Part 2. how can it be known ? God may command a man by a supernaturall way. cannot naturally take notice to be from God. be assured of the Authority of him that declareth it. Chap. . by those whom God hath authorised to declare But this Authority of man to declare what be these Positive Lawes of God. or from seeing the Extraordinary wisedome. and ordinary causes. but not bound to believe it for mens belief e. but only to the operation of God. are most often the work [149] of God by Naturall. and interiour cogitations. or extraordinary. Faith of Supernaturall Law. . : . But for the second. may riot be so to another. ordinary. which we for such. . without a Revelation particularly to himselfe. 26.

who had no Revelation.ij. that in a Common-wealth. them . Chap. Moses only went up to God the people were forbidden to approach on paine of death yet were they bound . where God saith to Abraham. Againe. Abrahams Seed had not this revelation. The Covenant God made with Abraham (in a Supernaturall manner) was thus. by the Examples. I conclude therefore. . a subject that has no certain and assured Revelation particularly to himself concerning the Will of God. reason may be made Law in the name of them that have the [150] . as here in the case of Abraham) have Soveraign power over their children. to take for Gods Commandements. which is declared to be so. wealth.) all Subjects are bound to obey that for divine Law. the obedience of his Family. it is manifest. . . that in all things not contrary to the Moral! Law. Which also is evident to any mans for whatsoever is not against the Law of Nature. In thee shall all Nations of the earth be blessed : For I know thou wilt command thy children. and servants.Part will 2. and fancies. for Gods Law. lest we dye ? By which two places it sufficiently appeareth. depended on their former At Mount Sinai obligation to obey their Soveraign. and thy house after thee to keep the way of the Lord. but in vertue of the who (if they be obedience they owed to their Parents Subject to no other earthly power. is to obey for such. (that is to say. OF COMMON-WEALTH. . to the Law of Nature. and bound to obey what Abraham should declare to them for Gods Law which they could not be. by the Lawes of the Common-wealth. but on Speak thou submission of their own. 221 be made yet cleerer. to obey all that Moses declared to this to us. let Upon what ground. 26. the Command of the Common-wealth for if men were at liberty. . their own dreams. every man would despise the Commandements of the Common . and to observe Righteousnesse and Judgement. and Testi monies concerning this point in holy Scripture. nor were yet in being yet they are a party to the Covenant. This is the Covenant which thou shall Gen. or the dreams and fancies of private : men scarce two men would agree upon what is Gods Commandement and yet in respect of them. but and we will heare thee not God speak to us.io. observe between Me and Thee and thy Seed after thee. .

I find the words Lex Civilis. by which Subjects are bound to uphold whatsoever power is given to the Soveraign. whether a Monarch. For Right is Liberty. than are declared for such by the Common-wealth. which being taken away. Another There is also another distinction of Laws. there is no place in the world where men are permitted to pretend other Commandements of God. Neverthelesse one may very reasonably distinguish Laws in that manner. . : . namely that Liberty which the Civil Law leaves us But and takes from us the Liberty Civill Law is an Obligation which the Law of Nature gave us. when tis propounded in the name of God. or a Soveraign Assembly. those that set up any Religion by them forbidden. by way of prevention but the Civill Law takes away that Liberty. without which the Common-wealth cannot stand such as is the power of . tis Equity (which is the Law of Nature. : War and . the abro gating whereof. and to invade a suspected neighbour. of Election of Officers. and is utterly dissolved Foundation is destroyed. For in whatsoever is not regulated by the Common-wealth. and all other States. A FundaFor a Fundamentall Law in every Common-wealth is mentall that. and of doing whatsoever he shall think necessary for the Publique good. the Common-wealth as a building whose faileth. into Fundadivision but I could never see mentally and not Fundamentall in any Author. Not Fundamentall is that. Thus much of the Division of Lawes. 26. and there is no reason men should be Soveraign power the lesse obliged by it. Law and Right Civil. Nature gave a Right to every man to secure himselfe by his own strength. promiscuously used for the Law and same which thing. and therefore an eternall Law of God) that every man equally enjoy his liberty. of Judicature. Christian States punish those that revolt from Christian Religion. that is Difference between to say. and Jus Civile. Besides. draweth not with it the dissolution of the Common-Wealth such as are the Lawes concerning Controversies between subject and subject.222 Part 2. Chap. And therefore a Fundamentall : . Law is that. what a Fundamentall Law signifieth. in all cases . . Peace. even in the most learned Authors neverthelesse ought not to be so. OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Enjoyn I have Given. To be Sinne. For the purpose to breake the Law. there hath been no Law made or else having been made. Likewise Lawes and Charters are taken promiscuously And beYet Charters are Donations of the tween a for the same thing. Of CRIMES. servants. and every other . or in the Speaking of Words by the Lawes forbidden. is a breach of all his Lawes at once. . or purpose to transgresse. or wife. is now abrogated. tempt. have Liberty in any case whatso ever is to say. OF COMMON-WEALTH. from whose life he expecteth : but nothing but dammage. is no breach of the Law. to whom it belongeth to see it executed. Law and a Soveraign The phrase of a Law is Jubeo. but sinne of the Legislator. that in such case. For such Con. but also in the Intention. Injungo. . or dream ing of the death of him.what. or in the Omission of what the Law commandeth. CHAP. I have Granted but what is given or granted. Insomuch as Lex and Jus. a Sinne the resolving to put some Act in execution. . that tendeth thereto. Concessi. For to say all the people of a Common -wealth. 223 where the protection of the Law may be safely stayd for. or some One part of the people. : : : . but exemptions from Law. is some degree of Contempt of him. or Charter is only to One man. 27.Part 2. by a Law. Chap. EXCUSES. For to be pleased in the fiction of that. not onely in the Commission of a Fact. without any intention to take them from him by force. Thou shaft not covet nor is the pleasure a man may have in imagining. to a man. And there fore may consist. or fraud. and EXTENUATIONS. is A also any Contempt delighted in the Imagination onely. are as different as Obligation and Liberty. of being possessed of another mans goods. I command. is not forced upon him. and the phrase of a Charter is Dedi. that sayth. XXVII. and displeasure. is a Passion so adhaerent to the Nature both of man. A Law may be made to bind All the Subjects of a Com mon-wealth a Liberty. which would please a man if it were reall. and not Lawes. [151] not onely a Transgression of a Law.

that maintain. living creature. and ey/cA^a. A CRIME. swarving from the Law whatsoever (which are translated Crime. and others. as may be made appear before a Judge and therfore are not meer Intentions. Chap. Violation of Covenants. that the First motions of the mind. : : appear by some thing done.) signifie that sinne onely. which never appear by any outward act. his Intention is Right. A Crime what. but that of Nature. both to themselves. though it never for God that seeth the appeare in Word. and all Facts contrary to any Morall vertue. it hath not the name in the of Crime : word a/xa/Dr^/xa. whereof one man may accuse another. Latines by Peccatum. (though checked with the fear of God) be Shines. But of Inten tions.. To Crime is a sinne intend to steale. is a sinne. has made of being a man. or said. signifie all manner but by Crimen. . by which the inten tion may be argued by a humane Judge. the former. J . and of Crime to the Civill Law. or the Omission of what it hath commanded. But I confesse it is safer to erre on that hand. which distinction the Greeks observed. When therefore his if otherwise. there is no place for Accusation every man being his own Judge. me think them too severe. may be inferred. his fact is no Sinne : . or Word) of that which the Law forbiddeth. 27. Uprightnesse of his own Intention. Sinne ceaseth. : . So that every but not every sinne a Crime. as to make it a Sinne. or ama whereof . \ T for there being no other Law ceasing. which is Sinne. . and accused onely by his own Conscience. and cleared by the . ArroCivill Law gance. Crimes cease remaining.224 Part 2. were to make Sinne The consideration of this. OF COMMON-WEALTH. can lay it to his charge . than on the other. Ingratitude. (which of deviation from the Law word they derive from Cerno. (which is translated Sinne. is a sinne.) signifieth any but the two later. From this relation of Sinne to the Law. consisting in the Committing (by Deed. . Where no is eternall. . that where Law But because the Law of Nature [152] ceaseth. or kill. Secondly.) they mean onely such sinnes. no L. . there is that the Civill Law never cease to be Sinne. there In like manner the is no place for humane accusation. .vime. can *5. which signifies to perceive. or Fact but till it thoughts of man. First.

Part fact 2. is . but also because he does that which he would not approve in another. : . HOBBES Q . is Ignorance of the Law. till then no Civill ing. what he would not have done to himselfe. and of Again. OF COMMON-WEALTH. The source of every Crime. though he be never so well perswaded of the truth of what he teacheth. 225 but not Crime. . . Therefore into what place soever a man shall come. Excuseth not. . and perswade men here to receive a new Religion. : Chap. or teach them any thing that tendeth to disobedience of the Lawes of this Country. there is and therefore from the Law . shall Excuse a man in a strange Country. he should endeavour to alter the Religion there. if he do any thing contrary If a man come from the to that Law. Ignorance of the Law of Nature Excuseth no man because every man that hath attained to the use of Reason. In the like manner. be understood onely of those. and may be justly punished for the same. Indies hither. till it be declared to him because. . is supposed to know. . Erroneous Opinion. that comming from hence. tie commits a Crime. in Reasoning. namely. if the Civill Law of a mans own ignorance Country. not onely because his doctrine is false. That when the also ceaseth for where no protection to be had himself of every one may protect no man in the Institution Soveraign Power can be supposed to give away the by his own power : for for the safety Right of preserving his own body But this is to whereof all Soveraignty was ordained. Ignorance is of three sorts the Soveraign. Defect in the Understand. is Sinne Soveraign Power ceaseth. . : beginning. 27. But ignorance of the Civill Law. be not so sufficiently declared. Law binding. as he may know of the it if he will nor the Action against the Law of Nature Civill Law the Ignorance is a good Excuse In other cases Ignorance excuse th of th! Civill Law. it is a Crime. . is some defect of the Ignorance or some errour in Reasoning or some f the Law Understanding sudden force of the Passions. Crime there is no such Power. Thirdly. that have not them selves contributed to the taking away of the Power for that was a Crime from the that protected them . and of the Penalty. he ought not to do to another.

biddeth a Fact. themselves and therefore when they are punished more than the Law had formerly determined. . does Injury. . Ignomnce : t . and deceiveth them. can make it a Crime the Fact be against the Law of Nature. that he which Arbitrary punishment. .226 Part 2. f the Excuseth no man For in breaking the Law. he undergoeth the penalty. the ^ aw was Before the Fact and a Positive Law cannot crimebya and therefore Law made be taken notice of. if not. Punishments . should suffer punishment without other limitation. whosoever voluntarily doth any action. though he know no t not what it is because. Ignorance Ignorance of the Soveraign Power. then is he subject to he is subject to that For it is reason. But when a penalty. is an invitement greater { o ft because when men compare the benefit of their with the harm of their punishment. is either annexed to the Crime in the Law it selfe. is made before the Fact be done yet he that doth the Fact. or more than it is the Law others were punished for the same Crime that tempted. Nothing can be after a Fact done. violated. than that of his Will whose Law is thereby not. cuse from enough to deterre men from the action. nor by Example. ex. in every Common-wealth. after the Fact. - 1 : . . No Law. Excuseth him not because V H he ou S ht to take notice of the Power. but excuseth vain words. Ignorance of the Penalty. which w^hout a fear of penalty to follow. by necessity ^justice. fnents of Nature they choose that which appeareth best for after it. without other limitation than that of his own Will. OF COMMON -WEALTH. if it be determined already by the Law. neither by Writing. for the reason immediatly before alledged. accepteth all the known consequences of it but Punishment is a known consequence of the violaT [ 53]tion of the Lawes. . made if : because . in case no lesser Penalty were made known before. which punishment. before it be made But when the Law that forcannot be Obligatory. in the place of oj the a mans ordinary residence. or hath been usually inflicted in the like cases there the Delinquent is Excused from a greater before the For the punishment foreknown. if not great Fact. . were not a Law.penalty. where the Law is declared. by which he hath ex cusTth been protected there. Chap. 27. is lyable to the Penalty ordained after.

. in any man. breaking through the Cob-web Lawes of their Country. and those that have failed in their Enterprises. to the perpetuall disturbance of the Peace of the Common-wealth. Thirdly. by Erroneous Inferences from True Principles. by false Teachers. . and believe that things of this In /erences nature require not time and study. as Fortune pleaseth so that what Marius makes a Crime. there is none that Excuse (though some of them may Extenuate) |:an Crime. and itnjust : . making it thereby repugnant to the Teachers Law Civill or by teaching for Lawes. Secondly. without great and long study. that either mis -interpret False the Law of Nature. no Act in it selfe can be kind a Crime. and victories causes who have committed them and that potent Crime men. Nature. is his own : That the Practice of all Nations cannot be of those . and grounds nals of their Reasoning. there is lio man will pretend to. which is no lesse difficult. which happens commonly to men that are hasty. Sylla shall make meri torious. 227 Actions have been authorised. OF COMMON -WEALTH. Principles ht as when men from by Presumption of false Principles j% an( * n 1-11 in all how and in all observed places. 27. that pretendeth to the administraQ 2 of |i . From defect in Reasoning. .) False men are prone to violate the Lawes.j^ aw O f sistent with the duty of a Subject. un]ust ages. having wrong : i i_ i of : That Examples of former times are good Argu ments of doing the like again and many more of that Which being granted. such Doctrines JJ?/^^ of their own. from Errour.Part 2. [154] p^ . and hazard. . but onely common c whereof no man pies by xperience. Teachers. have been esteemed the onely Crimi have thereupon taken for Principles. . the weaker sort. : Right and Wrong. Chap. \nd of those defects in Reasoning. as are incon. such as are they. prsecipitate in concluding. three wayes. and Ccesar (the same Lawes standing) turn again into a Crime. (that is to say. and resolving what to do . j?&quot. by the force. but must be made so (not by the Law. or vicious. that have both a great opinion of their And false own understanding. That Justice is but a vain word : That whatsoever a man can get by his own Industry. but) by the successe of them that commit it and the same Fact be vertuous. or Traditions of former times. and a good naturall wit thinks himself e unprovided whereas the knowledge. First.

redotmdeth to Posterity. or bloud. to whom it belongeth . their Excuse. (which can never happen without a Civill Warre. or obtaining Pardon by Mony. . to see their new Designes estab lished so that the benefit of their Crimes. And that such as have a great. or a foolish over-rating of their own worth as if difference of worth. but what actions. to be prone to all such Crimes. as that nothing shall be a Crime. These I say are effects of a false presumption For of them that are the first of their own Wisdome. Passions Of the Passions that most frequently are the causes of Crime. and such as would least have wished it:i left alive : . and in deceiving of their Neighbours because they think their designes are too subtile to be perceived. take upon them to reprehend the and call in question the Authority of them that and so to unsettle the Lawes with their publique govern. that such as value Presumption of themselves by the greatnesse of their wealth. own private businesse much lesse in them that undertake a publique charge because they pretend to the Reason. is Vain-glory. By their . also to the same men. long enough. or other rewards. and false opinion of their own Wisedome. ought not to be inflicted on them. not depending on the Will of those that have the Soveraign Authority. that have gained reputation amongst the Multitude. And And that such as have multitude of Potent Kindred Fnends. adventure of escaping punishment. U pon hope to put Wisedome. It happeneth their own designes require should be so. obscure. Therefore it happeneth commonly. and simple men. movers in the disturbance of Common-wealth. upon the want whereof they would ground tion of his . an(j popular men. them in execution. take courage to violate the Lawes.) very few are . or riches. compre hended under the name of the Vulgar. were an effect of their wit. From whence proceedeth a Presumption that the punishments ordained by the . by cor rupting publique Justice. OF COMMON -WEALTH. iches. discourse. Qn Q-i m es. with the same rigour they are inflicted on poore.228 Part 2. or some other naturall quality. as consist in Craft. 27. Lawes. Chap. and extended generally to all Subjects. one. from a hope of oppressing the Power.

which sufficeth to weigh down the apprehension of all easie. A m~ Covetousnesse. . as Crime. and Hatred. : The former and is difficult . and pressing is not perpetually present. and unavoydable molestation whereby either a mans patience must be everlasting. : punishments. (unlesse they be as being more [155] withall timorous. of Hate. or uncertain . : ?*&amp.) it is the onely thing.) and are no wiser than Children. Ambition. that Fear sometimes c * u se . ^^ . or he must be eased by removing the power of that which molesteth . And those that deceive upon hope of not being observed. the ordinary And there are few Crimes that liberty of conversation may not be produced by Anger. and all other living creatures. OF COMMON-WEALTH.Part 2. a continuall. what Crimes they are apt to produce. by hiding their own eyes. the later is impossible. the Lawes. but by extra ordinary use of Reason.) are subject to Anger prone than others to interpret for contempt. is %?%*&amp. As for the Passions. Nay. they find ing them. Lust. or a constant severity in punish For in those things men hate. (when there is apparence of profit. do commonly deceive themselves. Chap. For not every Fear justifies the Action it produceth. that their effects cannot be hindred. to resist them and there fore whensoever the hope of impunity appears. but the fear onely of corporeall hurt.gt.gt. their effects proceed. that think all hid. And yet in many cases a Crime may be committed through Feare.) that makes men keep them. b is so obvious to every mans experience and undert ous u standing. (the darknesse in which they believe they lye hidden. nesset saving that they are infirmities. And generally all vain-glorious men. And for Lust. is f when the* danger neither *&quot. Of break which enclineth men least to Fear. 27. Ambi Covetousnesse are Passions also that are many times some whereas Reason perpetually incumbent. what it wants in the lasting. so annexed to the causes of nature. both of man. or pleasure by breaking the Lawes. as there needeth nothing to be said of them. as they thought they were. him tion. being nothing else but their own blindnesse . (excepting some generous natures. without violation of the Law. it hath in the vehemence. which we call all Passions. 229 which argues they were not so wise.

or some little injuries (for which they that made the Lawes. I may argue he will kill me when he .) so light. or pretended . and (though in this corner of the world. or upon other Fancy of the power of Invisible . For (as I have shewn before in the second Chapter) Dreams be naturally but the fancies . Also a man may stand in fear of Spirits. but by wounding him that assaulteth him he wound him to death. But to kill a man.230 Part z. [156] by the terrour of his private This is a Crime For the hurt is not Corporeall. fears present death. cannot take notice of. Bodily Fear. after the impressions our Senses had and when men are by any formerly received waking accident unassured they have slept. A man is assaulted. breaks the Law. that tell him of strange Dreams and Visions and thereby be made believe they will hurt him. or through too much credit given to other men. where the Law cannot arrive time enough to his assist ance. or omitting divers things. to have abandoned the defence of his life. either through his own super stition. (seeing I . have time. or his threatnings. .) is a Crime. a man receives words of disgrace. OF COMMON-WEALTH. he shall fall into contempt. and pro can. nor thought it worthy of a man that hath the use of Reason. and one that is assured of his own courage. : tects himselfe for the future. seem to be reall Visions and therefore he that presumes to break the Law upon his own. is not to be Excused by this fear but is a Crime. and consequently be obnoxious to the like injuries from others and to avoyd this. to do or omit. is contrary to the Lawes And that which is so done. and from which a man cannot see how to be delivered. to take notice of. because from his actions. but by the action. Again. which neverthelesse. unlesse he revenge it. amongst young and vain men. or anothers Dream. but Phantasticall. revenge. or omitted. or limbes. made sensible by a custome not many years since begun. . for doing.) and is afraid. had assigned no punishment. . from the Soveraign Power. . as a gallant man. this is no Crime because no man is supposed at the making of a Common-wealth. Vision. from which he sees not how to If escape. remaining in sleep. and means to demand protection.

Spirits. or in the power of the enemy. Where a man is captive. is not obligatory. when his . or lye should have leave to do. There is place. that seemed great. against the Law. time maintained) of the same allay. . be supposed to want means to know the Lawes of Nature because they are known by the reason he pretends to only is . OF COMMON-WEALTH. shall not be considered as a want of means Nor shall any man. and takes away Totall from it the nature of a Crime. : . The want of means to know the Law. or another private mans brain. That which totally Excuseth a Fact.Part 2. 231 which if every private man his Dream. and so all Common-wealth would be dissolved. can be none but that. are equally crooked held it as great a Crime. which he can never know whether it signifieth any thing. as to kill ones Father. which at the same time. no more than that all crooked lines which the Stoicks not observing. : Children. From made lesse. For though all Crimes doe equally deserve the name of Injustice. taketh away the obligation of the Law. by which the Crime. and followeth the imagery of his own. . which is a certain offence. as all deviation from a strait line is equally crookednesse. but also for EXTENUATION. nor whether he that tells these different sources of Crimes. if any one have it) there could no Law be made to hold. if he that committed it be obliged to the Law. For the fact committed once against the Law. . enquire. that pretendeth to reason enough for the Government of his own affairs. to kill a Hen. is proved to be none at all . not only for EXCUSE. (and he is then in the power of the enemy. 27. it appeares Crimes not e 1 ualL all Crimes are not (as the Stoicks of old that already. and Madmen are Excused from offences against the Law Natural!. totally Excuseth For the Law whereof a man has no means to enforme But the want of diligence to himself. Excuses. Chap. which the Stoicks yet it does not follow that all Crimes rightly observed are equally unjust. by which that which seemed a Crime. (as they must by the Law of Nature. say true. than is permitted by leaveth the Law of Nature. can be no other than a Crime. the Common-wealth. or nothing.

OF COMMON-WEALTH. means the fault. for the reason next before .) not to protect himself. . disclaime any Right essentiall to the Soveraignty. Again. : because no Law can oblige a man to abandon And supposing such a Law were preservation. any . I die presently if I doe it. cannot justly be punished by any other.) if it be without Obligation of the Law ceaseth because he must obey the enemy. when the Soveraign commandeth any thing to be done against his own former Law. as to that particular fact. or Assembly. nor charity or in snatch away another mans Sword. From hence it followeth that when that Man. . . When a man is destitute of food. there is time of life gained therefore compells him to the fact. If that Man. and what cannot justly be condemned by the Soveraign. of living. Chap. or stealth. Besides. . but by some fact against the Law as if in a great famine he take the food by force. that hath the Soveraign Power. whereby there accrueth to the Subject. commandeth a man to do that which is contrary to For a former Law. both the Author. . that is but his instrument but it is not Excused against a third person thereby injured because in the violation of the Law. againstthe o f another.232 Part -2. and Actor are Criminalls. and cannot preserve himselfe any other way. // / doe it there not. for mony. he Excuses or is totally alledged. I die afterwards Nature fore by doing it. or his his own . obligatory yet a man would reason thus. which he cannot obtaine defence of his life. Excused . he is totally person. or Assembly. Excused. be com [157] pelled to doe a fact against the Law. If a man by the terrour of present death. by the best means he can. the Command. is an abrogation of the Law. his own . z/. or dye and conse for no man is quently such obedience is no Crime obliged (when the protection of the Law faileth. the doing of it is totally Excused he ought not to condemn it himselfe. : Author . Facts done against the Law. that hath the Soveraign Power. are . because he is the : . by the authority by that authority Excused against the Author because no man ought to accuse his own fact in another. or other thing necessary for his life. is so.

escape by flight impunity by force. and upon all temptations. is a greater Power a s~ b Crime. if it proceed Presumpfrom Presumption of strength. consequence thereof. was granted through ignorance : . 27. if the Subject shall refuse to obey the Command in any thing. is conformable to the Law. is not so faulty. presumeth on his force. The Degrees of Crime are taken on divers Scales.gt. with the very being of a Common-wealth. as he whose errour p ro . and Persons. contrary to the liberty granted. a contempt of all Lawes whereas in the later case. and contrary to the duty of the Subject for he ought to take notice of what is inconsistent with the Soveraignty. .Part 2. or Cause Secondly. (without any breach of the Peace. that makes a man fly. the apprehension of danger. that is to say. this is neverthelesse a Sinne. upon complaint. renders him more obedient for the future.) of the evill disobey. because it was erected by his own consent. Thirdly. or friends to tio n of resist those that are to execute the Law. A Crime which we know to be so. and reasoning For what is taught by one that teacheth : : a . [158] at all times. then it is a Crime because he might have been righted. Chap. which encourages him to commit the same again: but he that doth it by errour. Extenuate. riches. from whence springeth. or an Interpreter of the Law publiquely Teachers. is a Root. or other power. whose errour proceeds from the authority of Evill a Teacher. and measured. authorised. Places. than if it proceed from hope of not being disor of For Presumption of covered. First. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and for his own defence and that such liberty as is inconsistent with it. by the contagion of the Example and Fourthly. 233 liberty inconsistent with the Soveraign Power. is greater than the same Crime proceeding from : : . after the errour shewn him. false perswasion that it is lawfull For he that committeth it against his own conscience. &amp. by the mischiefe of the Effect by the concurrence of Times. But if he not onely but also resist a publique Minister in the execution of it. ceedeth from a peremptory pursute of his own principles. : . Hee. The same Fact done against the Law. by the malignity of the Source.

a fact done the people read. there is apparent negligence. Passions. and hath a resemblance of Law. and interpreted against it. and the Commission of the Fact. and be for in this case. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. shall be because he ought by taken for a time of deliberation meditation of the Law. is in other men. till the same Authority controuleth it and in all Crimes that contain not in them a deny all of the Soveraign Power.234 Part 2. is publiquely. and on the consequence thereof to humane all which in committing the Crime. and presumption of mercy. has used circum spection. and with assiduity. is not so n reat as wnen tne same ariseth from long meditation & *r** / For in the former case there is a place for Extenuation. to stand. hee hath society Examples f The same Im ~ t Fact. the Common-wealth teacheth. given atf And because he which by the Soveraign himselfe furnishes a man with such a hope. are so many hopes of Impunity. nor are against . by publique Authority. or fall. For Exteml those Examples. or errour thereof. as encourageth him to offend. is a greater Crime. : . in the common infirmity of humane nature but he that doth it with praemeditation. to rectifie the irregularity of his : . than where men are left without such instruction. hath his part in the offence he cannot reasonably charge the offender with the whole. an evident Law. which is not without some contempt of the Soveraign Power. part of the informed by private men but in the fault is discharged upon common infirmity former. ought : according to the rectitude. 27. than if there have k een many precedent Examples of impunity. : . on his private Judgement. to enquire of it with difficulty. PycBmediCrime arising from a sudden Passion. Where the Law all before . A g : f&quot. and postposed to his own appetite. Chap. contemned. uncertainty. and interruption of their Callings. : . But there is no suddennesse of Passion sufficient for a totall For all the time between the first knowing Excuse of the Law. if it have been constantly punished a greater Crime. on the Law. and cast his eye. Excuseth totally whereas he that groundeth his actions. . on the punish ment.

than if it hurt onely in the for the former. than when it redounds ^0^their ordinary. is greater. punishments consequent. Law-maker by other manifest which would case two contradictory Lawes if men were bound to take notice of the Excuse. And though it be our duty to do. (by example) in the future. capitall Duell. in this . which directly they forbid. 235 Those the which the Law expresly condemneth. and ever have been. totally Soveraigns approbation. [159] For example. tacitly approveth. till it please God to give men an extra : . by other arguments. or If thereupon he accept Duell. but Tacite ap- signes of his will probation are lesse than the same facts. than the Lawes them selves. or any other kind of disobedience in Governours. and multipresent the later is barren. he ought not in reason to be rigorously punished seeing part of the fault may be discharged on the which I say. it is a greater Crime. the punish he that scorne. not onely to the transgression of his Law. not what they do. OF COMMON-WEALTH. is a fertile Crime. is subject to contempt and . are. more potent to govern their actions. not as wishing liberty of private punisher but a care revenges. and Law-maker. but what they say yet will that duty never be performed. . For Extentseeing the will of the Law-maker is a Law. the Law condemneth : Duells . Again. . than are But because there are expressed by his command. soveraien condemned both by the Law. when a fact hurteth. The examples of Princes. . without remedy and sometimes by the Soveraign himselfe thought unworthy to have any charge.Part 2. and supernaturall grace to follow that Precept. preferment in Warre considering all men lawfully endeavour to obtain the good opinion of them that have the Soveraign Power. First. facts Chap. there appear ates. when it redounds to son f the dammage of many. the same fact. and therefore cannot reasonably impute the whole Crime to the Delinquent. not onely in the present. to those that see them. if we compare Crimes by the mischiefe of Comparitheir Effects. : . not to countenance any thing obliquely. ment is made refuseth On the contrary part. but also. to the hurt of few. 27. he is in part a cause of the transgression. but also to the observing of it. To plyes to the hurt of many : Effects. Crimes. And therefore.

than the same fact in another For such men not onely commit Crime. treasure. that falls by such but all Judgements are rendered uselesse. or revealing of the secrets of the Common-wealth to an Enemy also all attempts upon the Representative of the Common-wealth. OF COMMON -WEALTH. or deed to diminish the Authority of the same. than in a private person prophanely. his fact against the Law. than the because to robbing. in an authorised So also is it. to maintain any point. and consist in designe. is a greater Crime. : . . contrary to a Fundamentall Law. : . than the same acts For the dammage extends it done to private men selfe to all Such are the betraying of the strengths. . followed. and private revenges. than Injuries done to one. or an Assembly [160] and all endeavours by word. or in succession which Crimes the Latines understand by Crimina Icescz Majestatis. which render Judgements of Bribery and False no effect. or do any irreligious act whatsoever. and Depeculation of the PubHque DepecnlaHon. to live Preacher. because not onely he has wrong. are greater Crimes. or testimony. or Revenues. is a greater Crime. are greater Crimes. 27. judgements and occasion ministred to force. or act. is a greater Crime. that look not so much upon the way they go in. . that tendeth to the weakning of the Soveraign Power. either in the present time. ny or a few as to receive mony to give False persons judgement. is a greater fault. is to robbe many at once. Likewise those Crimes. Common-wealth. by the scandall they give that is to say. And generally all Crimes are the greater. Likewise in a Professor of the Law. than other wise to deceive a man of the like. or a greater sum me. or do any act. Chap. but teach it for Law to all other men.236 Part 2. or defrauding of a Private man robbe the publique. is a greater Crime. : : . than in another man Also in a man that hath such reputation for wisedome. Also Robbery. be it a Monarch. incontinently. as that his counsells are in the : : or his actions imitated by many. Also Facts of hostility against the present state of the Lasa Majesias. maintain doctrines contrary to the Religion established Common-wealth. as upon the light that other men carry before them. by becomming stumbling-blocks to the weak. .

For all these things are commonly so valued though some men are more. but the generall inclination of mankind. life preserved. and other both antient. And the violation of chastity by Force. Chap. is a greater Crime. greater. where the dammage in the against common opinion of men. by Terrour of death. or his seale . And by clandestine Surreption. not in the contumely. from contumely. than to kill another Parent ought to have the honour of a Soveraign. is a greater Crime. the spoyling a man of his goods. than of a woman . (though he have surrendred his Power to the Civill Law. OF COMMON-WEALTH. is most sensible. than any other injury. than the spoyling a of his goods. hath been neglected in the Lawes of the Greeks. (which takes no hold upon men conscious of their own vertue. kill pared. than by clandestine surreption. And of a woman Married. But the Law regardeth not the particular. For to kill ones for the Parent. is much aggra vated by the person. time. than simply to kill. Romans. And to Robbe a poore . than by consent fraudulently obtained. Also a Crime against a private man. : . and place. not married. or wounds. Counterthe Counterfeiting of publique Scales. and moderne Common -wealths sup posing the true cause of such griefe to consist. And ^Tcow- therefore To against the Law. facts against the Law. 237 Also the Counterfeit usurpation of publique Ministery.) because he had it originally by Nature. or gesture. in words. extendeth to the of dammage Of many. than counterfeiting of a private mans person. greater. greater. by flattery. when they produce no other harme. and some lesse sensible of the same offence. Mutilation of a limbe. because the fraud thereof. than And And man And to kill with Torment.Part 2. or publique fating Coine.) but in the Pusillanimity of him that is offended by it. done to private men. the Crimes greater Crime. is that. 27. than the present griefe of him that is reproached. And therefore the offence men take.

or Place appointed for Devotion. Common-wealth the same Crime. PUNISHMENT. a Private man. because tis to the poore a more sensible dammage. . Of PUNISHMENTS. there is a question to be answered. is called Publique Crime and when in the name of a Private man. every man giveth away the right of defending another is. to assist him that hath the Soveraignty. before. is greater. no man is supposed bound by Covenant. of much importance which . CHAP. Law . The defi nition of Punish ment. what. than if committed at another for it proceeds from a greater contempt time or place of the Law. because in almost all Crimes there is an Injury Crimes not onely to some Private men. when the accusation is in the name of the Common-wealth. . than to robbe a rich man. OF COMMON-WEALTH. Many other cases of Aggravation.Part 2.gt. Publique Lastly. is an Evill inflicted by publique Au thority on him that hath done. Chap. is a greater Crime. but also to the done. In the making of a Common. . or omitted that which is Judged by the same Authority to be a Transgression of the A &amp. [i6i]man. Judicia Publica. As in an Accusation of Murder. XXVIII. . Before I inferre any thing from this definition. Right to Punish whence derived. in the Punishing . to take the altitude of any other Crime proposed. Pleas of the Crown Pleas. by what door the Right. And a Crime committed in the Time. the plea a Private plea if the accuser is a Publique plea. Also he obligeth himselfe. and REWARDS. the plea is be the Soveraign. a Private Crime And the Pleas according thereunto called Pub : : . if the accuser be . it is might be added obvious to every man. and Extenuation but by these I have set down. came in. to the end that the will of men may thereby the better be disposed to obedience. . 27.wealth. or Private lique. resist violence that he gave any right to another to lay violent hands upon his person. but not of defending himselfe. not to and consequently it cannot be intended. or Authority of Punishing For by that which has been said in any case.

But to covenant to assist the Soveraign. First. that to be neglected. and to do whatsoever he thought necessary to his own preservation . of another Right which the Common-wealth (that is. 28.Part 2. It is manifest there is not to give him a Right to Punish. hurting. every man had a right to every thing. that the evill inflicted by publique Authority. as he should think fit. Chap. unlesse he that so covenanteth have a right to doe it himselfe. for the preservation of them all so that it was not given. and to him onely and (excepting the limits set him by naturall Law) as entire. the person condemned and therefore are not acts of publique . is not grounded on any concession. 239 but of himselfe not. I inferre. or killing any man in order thereunto. . as in the con dition of meer Nature. Thirdly. . But I have also shewed formerly. t&quot. that the evill inflicted by usurped power. that before the Insti tution of Common-wealth. but left to him. is not a Punishment because no Nor denynew evill is thereby on any man Inflicted he is onely r ^JJ left in the estate he was in before. to be a transgres sion of the Law. is not to be inflicted 1 stiled by the name of Punishment but of an hostile act Sjjjj because the fact for which a man is Punished. Soveraign that right strengthned him to use his own. in doing hurt to another. From the definition of Punishment. Fourthly. And this is the foundation of that right of Punishing. and of warre of every one against fore that the he. or gift of the Subjects. . . For the Subjects did not give the but onely in laying down theirs. . . Authority. Private that neither private revenges. can properly be stiled Punishment because they proceed not from publique Authority. which is exercised in every [162] Common -wealth. have not for Author. ^ . his neighbour. : . subduing. . Nor pain and Judges without Authority from the Soveraign. nor injuries of private men. PunishSecondly. ought first hearing: to be Judged by publique Authority. . . Nor pain without precedent publique condemnation. or they that represent it) hath to Punish. is inflicted not Punishment but an act of hostility because the acts of power usurped. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and unpreferred by ments : the publique favour.

or Redemption. expecteth an indeterminate. Sixthly. and therefore a Punishment divine yet it is not con- by Nature. the disposing of men to obey the Law. there whatsoever is inflicted. Hurt inflicted.[163] by the Law. because it is not inflicted by the Authority of man. who is the author of Nature. is taken away by the declaration of a lesse. Fifthly. than the Punish ment of a Crime Because it is of the nature of Punish ment. that all evill which is inflicted without inten tion. hath the nature of Punishment. For he that goes about the violation of a Law. : effect. . there be annexed divers hurtfull consequences as when a man in assaulting another. that is to say. is himselfe slain. to obey the Lawes. is not Punishment . . If a Punishment be determined and pre Punish scribed in the Law it selfe. a seeing the aym of Punishment is not a revenge. and the terrour of a great Punishment un Punish known. wherein no penalty is determined. but an act of hostility is out such an end. but addition is no part of the Punishment. or (by his example) other men. because with contained under . is not Punishment. Chap. is not Punish ment. no hurt done that name. 28.240 Nor pain inflicted Part 2. . that harm is not within the definition and is rather the Price. but an act of Hostility For before the Law. if lesse than the benefit of trans gressing. but greater hurt is not terrour . though in respect of God. no Punish ments. whereas to certain actions. Where the Eighthly. it may be said to be inflicted. or wounded or when he falleth into sicknesse by the doing of some unlawfull act such hurt. the annexed to excesse is not Punishment. which end (if it be lesse than the benefit of the transgression) it attaineth not. but worketh a contrary . or contentment that naturally followeth the crime committed. OF COMMON-WEALTH. Naturall ev ill conse quences. If the harm inflicted be lesse than the benefit. For the Law. the ment. . an arbitrary | Punishment. but an act of hostility. and after the crime com ment is mitted. taned in the name of Punishment in respect of men. Seventhly. Hurt in flicted for was a a fact done before the inflicted for a Fact done before there that forbad it. there be a greater Punishment inflicted. without respect to the future good. there is no trans- Ninthly. or possibility of disposing the Delinquent. Harme : Law . unexpected where there is no Punishment at all determined But . to have for end. Hostility.

. Corporall Punishment body directly. Z5 ^ a& ^Lastly. of the The ReHurt inflicted on the . OF COMMON-WEALTH. Humane. must be taken as acts of Hostility. not to Enemies such as are they. : Chap. or Exile. 28. no gression of the Law There. or Imprisonment. or wounds. Harme inflicted upon one that is a declared W enemy. which is the wealth UnpunAuthority only of the Representative it self.Part 2. or : . wittingly. or Pecuniary. 241 But Punishment supposeth a fact Law. From men t. that if a subject shall by fact. to speak. in a more convenient place : . that having been by their own act Subjects. by consequence fight of not deny they can transgresse it. and deliberatly deny the authority of the Representative of the Common-wealth. f als not under the name of Punishment Because ? *V to the were either never Law. commonHostility to be inflicted by publique Authority. For the Punishments set down in the Law. ^&& Subjects is subject seeing they or having been subject done by therefore cannot transgresse it to it. ^ word. or mixt of these. Of the former I shall have occasion. or R : - . that inflicteth HOBBES is that. is not Punishment. (whatsoever penalty hath been formerly ordained for Treason. he denyes such Punishment as by the Law hath been ordained and therefore suffers as an enemy of the Common-wealth that is. whence it followeth.) he may lawfully be made to suffer whatsoever the Repre sentative will For in denying subjection. : Representative Common-wealth. is not Punishment. are those Punishments that be inflicted by of Man and are either Corporall. deny the Soveraign Power. done them. or Ignominy. but an act of f^/^^e Because it is of the nature of Punishment. hereafter. to have been a transgression of the Law ment fore Harme inflicted before the Law made. is into Divine. and professing to be no longer so. The first. according to the will of the Representative. Tenthly. all the Harmes that can be War. and most generall distribution of Punish ments. But in p u h _ declared Hostility. . and Humane. all infliction of evill is lawfull. .Punishjudged. are to Subjects. deliberately revolting. but an act of Hostility. the Commandement . which is inflicted on the Punishand according to the intention of him ents Cor P ral1 it such as are stripes.

some Lesse than Capi Capital! tall. . : . but [164] be foreseen hastened. . be made with design to gather mony. but only to those that are not able to pay the mony except where the Law is Naturall. Offices. Pecuniary Punishment. some be Capitall. Chains. . abilities of body and mind . but the Price of priviledge. are Stripes. and other . . For there as the effects of be some things Honorable by Nature Courage. Ignominy. . the payment of the mulct.wealth. or any the Common-wealth The other singular marke of the Soveraigns favour. and any other corporall Paine. : Others made Honorable by as Badges. or with torment. and exemption from the Law. Lesse than Capitall. is not the price of a dispensation to sweare. to him that has been Injured a satisfaction for the hurt done him and extinguished the accusation of the party injured. Wounds. as were before lawfully enjoyed. though the harme prove mortall by an accident not to in which case death is not inflicted. OF COMMON-WEALTH. as is Dishonorable made Honourable by the Common. of them that take the name. which doth not absolutely forbid the fact. Wisdome. . it is not properly a Punishment. as is made or the deprivation of such Good. deprivation of such pleasures of the body. or any other goods which are usually bought and sold for mony. is the Infliction of Death simply. is the infliction of such Evill. but a transgression of it. not in its own nature mortall. Magna[ni]mity.242 Part 2. that ordaineth such a punishment. Chap. but the Punishment of the transgression of a Law undispensable. Strength. And of these. the Punishment is not to bee esteemed Capitall. of God in vaine. As where a Law exact eth a Pecuniary mulct. 28. not the crime of the offender. or part of Religion for in that case it is not an exemption from the Law. . and that either Capitall. Ignominy. is that which consisteth not only in the deprivation of a Summe of Mony. In like manner if the Law impose a Summe of Mony to be this is but payd. from such as shall transgresse the same. Titles. For if upon the Infliction of a Punishment death follow not in the intention of the Inflicter. but also of Lands. And in case the Law.

. For if a man banished. not to return into it and seemeth not in its own nature. Titles. Exile. be neverthese permitted to enjoy his Goods. of the . . But the later. and or declaring them uncapable of the like in time Offices to come. and are properly Punishments degrading men condemned. to be a Punishment a publique commandement to avoid Punishment by flight. or out of a certaine part thereof a prefixed time. OF COMMON -WEALTH. - . . and in these times to Gallies or be it a Chaine.Part 2. (though they may faile by nature. Exile. Under this word Impriso[n]ment. . of their Badges. or for ever. Imprisonment. all . 28. before his cause be heard. . R2 .) and therefore the cannot be taken away by a Law losse of them is not Punishment. or restraint. be it a House. . And Cicero sayes. or stances. or accident. (Banishment) is when a man condemned to depart out of the dominion is for a crime. and declared guilty. as in old time men have been condemned to Quarries. which is called by the general name of a Prison or an Hand. But the later is Punishment. And therefore whatsoever hurt a man is made to suffer by bonds. for somewhat that has by the same Authority been Judged a Transgression of the : . before he be Judicially heard. Chap. I comprehend restraint of motion. . Common: [165] and during wealth. as when men are said to be confined to it or a place where men are set to worke. and inflicted by publique Authority. . may be taken away by the publique authority that made them Such are Honorable. caused by an externall obstacle. there was never any such Punishment ordained in the City of Rome but cals it a refuge of men in danger. over and above that which is necessary to assure his custody. and the Revenue of his Lands. The former is not Punishment because no man is supposed to be Punisht. other such impediment. is when a man is by publique Authority Imprisonand may happen from two divers ment deprived of liberty ends whereof one is the safe custody of a man accused the other is the inflicting of paine on a man condemned. or any Law. is against the Law of Nature. without other circum but rather an escape. the meer change of ayr is no Punishment . because Evill. 243 former.

All Punishments of Innocent subjects. or Goods. tnc that also in Subjects. (that to the forming of mens the Common-wealth that banished him as being no more a Member of the same. are either Enemies. 28. to look at any thing but some For there can arrive no good to the Com future good mon-wealth. . observed. is originally given by the consent of every one of the Subjects. and therefore there -^y Subjects is can be no Punishment of the Innocent. it Chap. Punishments Pecuniary. wils to the observation of the Law. But against Enemies. than as it conduceth to . is a lawfull enemy of wealth. who deliberatly deny the Authority gd . which all Punishments are ordained. not so : men that are not Subjects. First.wealth. And upon this ground it is. which forbiddeth of Nature. by some precedent covenants. which forbiddeth Ingratitude Soveraign Power. be they great ishment of or For Punishment little. then the Punishment lyeth not in the Exile. and without violation of any former Innocents Covenant. ^\\ men? m their Revenges. But if he be withall deprived of his Lands. Secondly. is to say.244 Part 2. to the end they should as long as they are obedient. an equall distribution which in Punishing the Innocent is not of Justice The Pun: : : . is no breach of the Law of Nature. It is therefore contrary to the Law a violation. of the Law that comEvill for Good. that is not a Subject. it is lawfull by wherein the originall Right of Nature to make warre the Sword Judgeth not. nor doth the Victor make distinction of Nocent. if it be for the benefit of the Common. is a rendring of And thirdly. For all in War. of For seeing all that. and Innocent. . as to the time past nor ^ as ot ^ er res P ect f niercy. whom the Common But the Nor that S rf**c*to wealth judgeth capable to do them hurt. mandeth Equity that is to say. nor does for tend to that benefit of the Common-wealth.) but many times to the dammage of the Common For a Banished man. of his own People. by Punishing the Innocent. on an Innocent Harme man. are against the Law of Nature * s on ^ or Transgression of the Law. OF COMMON-WEALTH. be protected thereby the Punishment of the Innocent. but is to be reckoned amongst . declared Rebels. But the Infliction of what evill soever. of that Law of Nature. . or else they have ceased from being so.

for fear of some power. he is bound onely in honour. it is called Salary. Benefits bestowed are not . without Reward. 245 the Common-wealth established. are not properly Rewards. every man being obliged already not to do the Common-wealth disservice nor are they Graces because they be extorted by fear. R ewa rds. which the Soveraign (considered in his naturall person. or by Contract. to encourage. renewed. which ought not to be incident to the Soveraign Power but are rather Sacrifices. acknowledgement. not onely to the Fathers. When of Gift. and an endeavour of requitall. commanded . nor by the Insti tution of the Common-wealth. 28.Part of 2. and not in the person of the Common wealth) makes. When by Reward ether which is benefit Contract. it is benefit proceeding from the grace of them that bestow it. they are afflicted which is consisteth in the renouncing of subjection a relapse into the condition of warre. ^OT because there is in this case no they are not Salaryes contract supposed. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. Chap. or promised. and ability he hath to do hurt to the Common-wealth. the vengeance is lawfully extended. or enable men to do them service. jects. for which because the nature of this offence. by the Law of Nature. for the appeasing the discontent of him he thinks more potent than himselfe and encourage . insomuch as the most common Souldier. to . is either of Gift. may demand the wages of his warre fare. when they be to quit their private businesse. : . The benefits which a Soveraign bestoweth on a Subject. suffer not as Sub : . is but warre [166] is REWARD. and consequently innocent of the fact. And therefore when the Soveraign of a Common wealth appointeth a Salary to any publique Office. and Wages due for service performed. . to serve the publique. . or Salary yet they are not bound thereto. : . is bound in Justice to performe his office otherwise. For Rebellion. but as Enemies. as a debt. but also to the third and fourth generation not yet in being. commonly called Rebellion and they that so offend. For though men have no lawfull remedy. he that receiveth it. unlesse the service cannot otherwise be done because it is supposed the Soveraign may make use of all their means.

on earth. there must needs follow two Inconveniences One. as many Causes as it can. which is each Court drawing to contention about Jurisdiction it But in offices of selfe. that move the limbes and joynts of a Common. ariseth for the multitude of Causes that are brought to their cognisance. to be compared with him. 1 not to obedience.wealth. as it were. and from the publique Treasure casua ^ proceeding from the execution of the Office for which the Salary is ordained the later is in some cases . OF COMMON-WEALTH. calleth him King of the Proud. Ministers of a Court of Justice.lt. taking that comparison out of the two last verses of the one and fortieth of Job where God having set forth the great power of Leviathan. And whereas some Salaries are certain. and Judicature.246 \\irl2. . and is King of all the children of hurtfull to the Common-wealth . because Execution there are not those Inconveniences their employment cannot be encreased by any endeavour of their own. but on the contrary. i . to the continuance . [167] There is nothing. And thus much shall suffice for the nature which are. But because he is mortall. and increasing Salaries Certain of further extortion. and Reward Nerves and Tendons. s of and the causes of his Mortality Nature he is bound to obey. the greater nourishing of sutes benefit and another that depends on that. and of what Law&amp. . and whose Lawes he ought to obey I shall in the next following Chapters speak of his Diseases. : . . pride. . and subject to decay. (whose Pride and other Passions have compelled him to submit himself e to Government .) together with the great power of his Governour. . as in the case of For where the benefit of the Judges. : . the of Punishment. and because there is as all other Earthly creatures are that in heaven. is the for the more sutes. (though not on earth) that he should stand in fear of. . Hitherto I have set forth the nature of Man. . saith he. Hee seeth every high thing below him . and proceed and others uncertain. He is made so as not to be afraid. whom I compared to Leviathan.

P ower - commeth to passe. or as Justice it Imperfect selfe. gotten by diseased parents. i nothing can be immortall. Therefore when they come . it hath the resemblance of an unjust act which disposeth great numbers of men (when occasion is presented) to rebell In the same manner as the bodies of children. . XXIX. into any other than a crasie building. are subject either to untimely death. and hewing one another. at least. but intestine disorder. or tend to the DISSOLUTION a Common-wealth. or as the Lawes of Nature. that when the exercise of the Power layd by. as they become at last weary of irregular justling. both of the art of making fit Lawes. those that arise from an Imperfect Institution. 247 Of those things that of Weaken. I will reckon in the first place. 2^. to conforme themselves into one firme and lasting so for want. than to the Peace. to suffer the rude and combersome points of their present greatnesse to be taken off. t to be dissolved. OF COMMON-WEALTH. which gives them life. Amongst the Infirmities therefore of a Common wealth. or to purge the ill . Absolute the it and defence of From whence Common-wealth is necessarily required. Of which. make yet. Want of sometimes content with lesse Power. THOUGH . their Institution. and orderers of them. which mortals Dissohihon if men had the use of reason they pretend to. the fault is not in men. as long as from their Man-kind. and desire with all their hearts. That a man to obtain a Kingdome. and resemble the diseases of a naturall body. they are designed to live. they cannot without the help of a very able Architect. and patience. from wealths* For by the nature of proceedetk perishing by internall diseases.Part2. is this is one. CHAP. . not by externall violence. Chap. such as hardly lasting out their own time. edifice . to square their actions by. which proceed from a Defectuous Procreation. For men. and also of humility. be compiled. must assuredly fall upon the heads of their posterity. their Common-wealths might be secured. is for the publique safety to be resumed. as they are the Matter ^ tu but as they are the Makers.

that no man on pain of death onely Action should propound the renewing of the warre for the And yet thereby. by the Pope to the Common-wealth. that have their Power never so little limited. having been dispensed with by William the Conquerour at his reception. So was Thomas Becket Arch bishop of Canterbury. quality. and People of Rome which first caused the pretended to the whole Power seditions. . to himself e. it is not alwayes (though sometimes) out of ignorance of what is necessary to the office they undertake but many times out of a hope to recover the same again at their pleasure Wherein they reason not well because such as will hold them to their promises. nor People Senate. under Marius and Sylla and again under Pompey and Ctesar. they had had an enemy perpetually in readinesse. And so were the Barons. derived from their vicious conception.) encreased to a degree. . . The neither Senate. . And when Kings deny [168] themselves some such necessary Power. not to infringe the liberty of the Church. shall be maintained against them by forraign Common-wealths who in order to the good of their own Subjects let slip few occasions to weaken the . . The people of Athens bound themselves but from one which was. and the setting up of Monarchy. by break ing out into biles and scabbs. to the Extinction of their Democraty. For whereas the stile of the antient Roman Common-wealth. . . when he took an Oath. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. supported against Henry the the subjection of Ecclesiastiques Second. Caius Gracchus. inconsistent with the Soveraign Power. are all gates of their Citie Common-wealths forced to. maintained in their Rebellion against King John. estate of their Neighbours. . and others tween the Senate and the People. Chap. by the French. or shifts. 29. such dammage. Lucius and afterwards the warres be Saturninus. of Tiberius Gracchus. pro pounded it to the People that flocked about him. Nor does this happen in Monarchy onely. if Solon had not Island of Salamis caused to be given out he was mad. whose power was by William Rufus (to have their help in transferring the Succession from his Elder brother.248 Part 2. was. and in verse. and afterwards in gesture and habit of a mad-man. even at the . : .

are not to be attained by Study and Reason. For a mans Conscience. That Faith and Pretence In ~ Sanctity. condition of meer Nature. such private men as pretend to be super. and his Judgement is the same thing and as the Judgement. farther than it shall seem good in his own eyes. Chap. that proceed from the poyson of seditious J ud doctrines whereof one is. is. I see not why any man should render a reason of his Faith or why every Christian should not be also a Prophet or why any man should take the Law of his Country. so also the Conscience may be erroneous.Private e~ mon-wealth. that Erroneous whatsoever a man does against his Conscience. - . or Infusion. is the Civill Law . and dispute the commands of the Common wealth and afterwards to obey. but f 5 of private Consciences. That every private man is **^ J nd This is true in the Evill. men are disposed to debate with themselves. ** f . is Sinne co and it dependeth on the presumption of making himself sclence judge of Good and Evill. where there are no Civill Lawes and also under Civill Government. or to make Judges of it. Therefore. . which granted. Another doctrine repugnant to Civill Society. I observe the Diseases of a Com. or disobey them. And thus wee fall again into the fault of taking upon us to Judge of Good and Evill. It hath been also commonly taught. undertaken to be guided. and no man dare to obey the Soveraign Power. But otherwise. as in their private judgements they shall think fit. 249 In the second place. that the measure of Good and Evill actions. the Common-wealth must needs be distracted.Part 2. though he that is subject to no Civill Law. who is From false doctrine. because he has no other rule to follow but his own reason yet it is not so with him that lives in a Common-wealth because the Law is the publique Conscience. sinneth in all [169] he does against his Conscience. OF COMMON-WEALTH. . by which he hath already . which are but private opinions. . it is manifest. alwayes Representative of the this Common -wealth. Judge of Good and Evill actions. . rather than his own Inspiration. . as there is Otherwise in such diversity. Whereby the Common-wealth is distracted and Weakened. in such cases as are not determined by the Law. . for the rule of his action. 39. by supernaturall Inspiration. . and the Judge the Legislator.

and hearing by those accidents. by which God worketh . . . which the Common-wealth maketh. repugnant to the nature of a Com mon-wealth. correc tion. o. That he that hath the Soveraign Power. . . Attribut tion of the Common-wealth. is. for the great number of them that concurre to every effect. lawes be Divine. is to be subject to the Common-wealth. . pernicious to Peace and Govern ment. . because it setteth the Lawes above the Soveraign. A fourth opinion. that Sanctity and Naturall Reason. and other naturall wayes. but onely. such. that is. cannot stand together. at such time as he thinketh fit. have in this part of the world. and Dissolu Subject ing the . Faith comes by hearing. and a Power to punish him and again for the which is to make a new Soveraign and so same reason a third. to the Confusion. . That every private man has an absolute Propriety in his Goods . For to be subject to Lawes. are indeed not very frequent but yet they are not Miracles. but brought to passe by education.250 Part 2. proceeded chiefly from the tongues. Soveraign is It is true. Faith. but jection. and pens of unlearned Divines who joyning the words of Holy Scripture together. as excludeth the Propriety to Sub Right of the Soveraign. . Chap. and Sanctity. and cannot by any man. them in his elect. which guide us into the presence of them that speak to us which accidents are all contrived by God Almighty and yet are not supernaturall. do what they can. But to those Lawes which the Soveraign himselfe. unobservable. OF COMMON-WEALTH. naturally Inspired. to make men think. Every man has indeed a Propriety And he that excludes the Right of every other Subject jects. that is to the Soveraign which is not sub Representative. to the Dissolution of all Civill Govern ment. that Soveraigns subject to the Civill Lawes. to punish the second continually without end. ( . Fifth doctrine.. And these three opinions. without the has it onely from the Soveraign Power ing of absolute : . setteth also a Judge above him. that is to himselfe from the Lawes. Power to are all subject to the Lawes of Nature because such Civill Lawes. or Common wealth be abrogated. [ . discipline. that tendeth to the Dissolution of A a Common-wealth. other wise than is agreeable to reason. he is not subject. freedome Which err our. is this.

. to defend them both from forraign enemies. the Athenians. and to call upon the Prophet Samuel.\\irtz. or Execution. but to Dissolve it Powers divided mutually destroy each other. it is almost impossible for them. were continually disturbed. exclude not the Right much of the Soveraign Representative to their Goods lesse to their offices of Judicature.f Neighposeth men to alteration of the forme already setled. is of it selfe subject to desire novelty When therefore they are provoked to the same. . men are chiefly beholding to some of those. than to change. . and not False Doctrine. to make them depend upon upon the Legislative Power. desiring to imitate the Lacedaemonians the other. tear themof different : And as .wealth. he cannot performe the office they have put him into which is. And for these doctrines. So the people of the Jewes were stirred up to reject God. And if the Propriety of Subjects. in which they Represent the Soveraign himself e. . There is a Sixth doctrine. every other man should have equall [170] Right to the same. . and from the injuries of one another and consequently there is no longer a Common. plainly. for a King after the manner of the Nations So also the lesser Cities of Greece. the forme of their Government. endeavour . that having gotten the itch. and directly against Dividing and tis this. 29. out of an imitation of the Low Countries supposing there needed no more to grow rich. so also often-times the Example Imitation Government in a neighbouring Nation. not to be content with those that solicite them to change and love the first beginnings. as they had done. and Democraticall factions almost every Common-wealth. For the constitution of mans nature. dis. have been contented to see the late troubles in England. OF COMMON -WEALTH. 25 protection whereof. And I doubt not. that making profession of the Lawes. That the f the the essence of a Common-wealth Soveraign Power may be divided. . Chap. . : . For what is it to divide for the Power of a Common-wealth. their own learning. but many men. by the neighbourhood also of those that have been enriched by it. . But if the Right of the Soveraign also be excluded. though they be grieved with the continuance of disorder like hot blonds. with seditions of the one part of Aristocraticall.

have done besides not to have proceeded from the aemulation of particular men. than the allowing of such books to be publikely read. I say. is the Reading of the books of Policy. [171] Not considering the frequent Seditions. from which. receive withall a pleasing Idea. own nayles. that continually snarle at that estate it wanteth nothing more than a strong Monarch. receiving a strong. as if the abhorreth water So poyson endeavoured to convert him into a Dogge when a Monarchy is once bitten to the quick. I say. and laudable. and discourses of Policy. they that live under a Monarch conceive an : . how any thing can be more prejudicial! to a Monarchy. and delightfull impression. not they that live under a Popular they find no such matter. OF COMMON-WEALTH. because the Greek and Latine writers. or fear of Water. -q. that is. of the great exploits of warre. but Tyranni From the cide. Government : for : . men have undertaken to kill their Kings. I cannot imagine. For as he that is so bitten. . For they say not Regicide. From the reading. such an opinion .252 Part 2. opinion. killing of a Tyrant is lawfull. a Romans. Imitation of the s And as to Rebellion in particular against Monarchy . and all others and Romans that are unprovided of the Antidote of solid Reason.wealth but that in a Monarchy they are all enjoy Liberty Slaves. till Chap. same books. make it lawfull. In sunime. government and Civill warres. that is. without present applying such cor rectives of discreet Masters. one o f the most frequent causes of it. produced by the imperfection of their Policy. . : . by those Democraticall writers. has a continuall torment of thirst. that the Subjects in a Popular Common. and yet and is in such an estate. killing of a King. he call him Tyrant. but from the vertue of their popular forme of . of such books. and Histories of the antient Greeks. which is a disease the Phy sicians call Hydrophobia. atchieved by the Conductors of their Armies. in their books. they that live under a Monarchy conceive . young men. selves with their they can endure the smart no longer. as are fit to take away their Venime Which Venime I will not doubt to compare to the biting of a mad Dogge. for any man so to do provided before he do it. of all they and imagine their great prosperity.

As there have been Doctors. . and another make Canons there must needs be two Common-wealths. Chap. For seeing the Ghostly Power challengeth the Right to declare what is Sinne it challengeth by consequence to declare what is Law. 253 which neverthelesse out of a certain Tyrannophobia. io weth.) and again. For notwithstanding the insignificant . and Ghostly. if it be but one Kingdome. another Supreme where one can make Lawes. that hold there be three so there be also that think there may Soules in a man be more Soules. . Authority against the Civill with words and distinctions. and a Ghostly Canons against Lawes Soveraignty working on mens minds. [172] . in the dark. the that the Civill and it is Power. more Soveraigns. every Subject must obey two Masters. . For the Civill Authority being more visible. when they have him. and the Power of making Canons. . that of themselves signifie nothing. and .) than one. but bewray (by their obscurity) that there walketh (as some think invisibly) another Kingdome. (that is. and standing in the cleerer light of naturall reason. in and set up a Supremacy against the a Common-wealth . which is the Power of the Common-wealth. and cannot stand. Now as it were a Kingdome of Fayries. and every Subject is subject to two Masters. seeing Power of the Common-wealth is the same thing and that Supremacy. can not choose but draw to it in all times a very considerable distinction of Temporally . and then there is no Soveraignty but the Ghostly or the Ghostly must be subordinate to the Temporall. I . . implyeth a Common-wealth where one is Soveraign. 29. the Common wealth cannot but be in great danger of Civill warre. of one & the same Subjects which is a Kingdome divided in it selfe. Or. and then there is no Supremacy but the Temporall. either the Civill. and Dissolution. the Civill Power chal lenging to declare what is Law. (Sinne being nothing but the trans gression of the Law . that . they are still two Kingdomes.Part 2.. manifest. must be subordinate to the Ghostly. or feare of being strongly governed. . it fol granting Faculties. they abhorre. When there fore these two Powers oppose one another. who both will have their Commands be observed as Law which is impossible. OF COMMON-WEALTH.

. or wind in the head that obstructeth the roots of the Nerves.) has depended on a generall Assembly the Power of conduct and com and mand. insomuch as he that is seized therewith. or Falling-si cknesse (which the Jewes took to be one kind of possession by Spirits) in the Body Naturall. and irregular motions (which men call Convulsions) in the parts. not onely of those . OF COMMON-WEALTH. : Chap. is not government. by the terrour of punish ments. This endangereth the Common two. is greater than other fears. and Ghosts. (which is the Motive faculty. and sometimes to Destroy a Common.) otherwise than by the Civill Power (which is the Soule of the Common-wealth) they ought to be moved and . there is an unnaturall spirit. but also of a third wealth. and Motion. (which is the Nutritive faculty. . there be more than one Soule As when the Power of levying : mony. And this is a Disease which not unfitly may be compared to the Epilepsie. and moving them violently.254 part 2. moveth the Members of a Common-wealth. it must needs thereby Distract the people. falleth down sometimes into the water. . and either Overwhelm the Common. but three independent . that such government.) on the accidentall consent. Sometimes also in the meerly Civill government.wealth. And the Spiritually though it stand part of the people in the darknesse of Schoole distinctions. as is necessary to Life. taketh away the motion which naturally they should have from the power of the Soule in the Brain. and sometimes into the fire. when the spirituall power. and hope of rewards (which are the Nerves of it. that it is not one independent Common-wealth. and hard words suffocates Mixt Govcm- their understand ing. . and hard words . cannot want a party sufficient to Trouble. yet because the fear of Darknesse.) on one man the Power of making Lawes. by strange. 29. or cast it into the Fire of a Civill warre. and call it mixt Monarchy yet the truth is. as a man deprived of his senses so also in the Body Politique. and thereby causeth violent. For as in this Disease. (which is the Rationall faculty.wealth with Oppression. somtimes for want of consent to good Lawes but most often for want of such Nourishment. but division of the Common-wealth into three Factions. . For although few per ceive.

which not sufficing. and most present danger. struggles with the people by stratagems of Law. wealth. OF COMMON-WEALTH. at last reduceth the people to their due temper or else the Common-wealth must .th to passe. to obtain little summes. of his own growing out of his other side. breast. : have been exact. the difficulty of raising Mony. armes. .) whereas it ought to extend it selfe. and when it cannot longer. it cannot be so. not so great which never thelesse are not unfit to be observed. the comparison might then . contracteth it selfe as long as it can. Mony. and three Soveraigns. . exclusive of the Soveraigns Right to the use of the same. and the generall Assembly bear also the person of the People. Insomuch as we may compare this Distemper wherein. ariseth from the opinion. for the necessary uses of the Common -wealth This difficulty especially in the approach of warre. by the tenacity of the people. they are not one Person. with an head. that every Subject hath of a Propriety in his lands and goods. or by venomous matter obstructed . there may be three Persons independent. To what Disease in the Naturall Body of man I may exactly compare this irregularity of a Common-wealth. (finding the passage of mony to the publique Treasure obstructed. If he had had another man [173] and stomach. but three Persons. to encounter. the fleshy parts being very aptly to an Ague the Veins congealed. Hitherto I have named such Diseases of a Common. But I have seen a man. At first. that be subject to Reigneth diversity of opinions. as are of the greatest. From whence it comme. . but three. .Want of wealth. he is fain at last violently to open the way for present s apply. nor one Soveraign. without breach of unity in God that but where men Reigne. or Perish and being put often to these extremities. and another Assembly bear the person of a Part of the people.Part 2. And therefore if the King bear the person of the People. . perish. that the Soveraign Power. 29. I know not. There be other. Chap. and prevent such dangers in their beginnings. 255 Factions nor one Representative Person. In the Kingdome of God. which foreseeth the necessities and dangers of the Common . that had another man growing out of his side.

as . and painfull stitches. By was. is the imgreatnesse ofaTown. . ~.256 Part 2.) by the flattery. the number. when ease. made believe. (unlesse the Commonwealth have very good caution of his fidelity. made himselfe Master. when it is able to furnish multitude . or a few private men. Popular Also. to force a pas and before it can do that. or by Farmes in the same manner as the of the Publique Revenues Blood in a Pleurisie. OF COMMON-WEALTH. Army it may easily be it [174] this means . there is sometimes in a Common-wealth. which resembleth the Pleurisie e Treasure of the Common-wealth. . they are the People. Chap. is gathered together in too much abundance in one. and dissipateth the venome into sweat or (if Nature be too weak) . a Dislies and and that is. and strong endeavour of the Heart. and expence ot a great of CorAs also the great number of Corporations which porations. . the Patient dyeth.) is a dangerous Disease because the people (which should receive their motion from the Authority of the Soveraign. having won to himself e the affections of his Army. whereby there succeedeth at first a cold con and afterwards traction. and multitude.. till (if Nature be strong enough) it break at last the contumacy of the parts obstructed. moc} era te greatnesse of a Town. of Senate and People.. is plain Rebellion Excessive resembled to the effects of Witchcraft. by Monopolies. have no knowledge. ou t * ts own Circuit. . flowing out of its Publicans due course. accompanied with a Fever. breedeth there an Inflammation. and by the reputation of an ambitious man. that Julius Ccesar. the Popularity of a potent Subject. . are not (as they ought to be) supplyed from the Arteries. MonopoAgain. to follow a man. and may be and ambitious men. And this is commonly of more danger in a Popular Government. are drawn away from their obedience to the Lawes. than in a Monarchy because an Army is of so great force. contenteth sage for the Bloud it selfe with the small refreshments of such things as coole for a time. who was set up by the People against the Senate. and designes they ^ . 29. which by their naturall course empty themselves into the Heart. of whose vertues. and trembling of the limbes a hot. Another infirmity of a Common-wealth. getting into the Membrane of the breast. . both And this proceeding of popular.. ] : : . .

. is the publique Motion to the Common-wealth which expiring. which Physicians call Ascarides. giving Life and . the insatiable appetite. of enlarging Dominion Wounds thereby many times received from the enemy And the Wens. which are many times a burthen. the Members are governed by it no more.) the . . to re-enter. . than kept . by pretenders to Political! Pru. the Right of the same perisheth because the Assembly it selfe is extinct and utterly consequently. may seek it any where and when he hath it. For though the Right of a Soveraign Monarch cannot be extinguished by the act of another yet the Obligation of the members may. are &quot. .n so as (the forces of the field no longer) there is no farther protection of Subjects in their loyalty then is the Common-wealth DISSOLVED. . For he that wants protection. 257 in the bowels in the entrayles of a naturall man. and Consumption of Riot . For the Soveraign. HOBBES .disputing dence which though bred for the most part in the Lees s^feraign of the people yet animated by False Doctrines. Lastly. and Vain Expence. or with the incurable Bulimia. 29. We may further adde. to like the little the molestation of the Common-wealth .power. . and with lesse danger lost.gt.) to protect his Protection as long as he is able. perpetually medling with the Fundamentall Lawes. like . Dissolut&amp. is obliged (without fraudulent pretence of having submitted himselfe out of feare. As also the Lethargy of Ease. there is no possibility for the Soveraignty shall suggest unto him. and every man at liberty to protect himselfe by such courses as his own discretion enemies get a Victory Common-wealth keeping the f . the Liberty of Disputing Liberty of against absolute Power. than the Carcasse of a man. Soule. by his departed (though Immortall) Soule.Part 2. are as it many lesser Common-wealths wormes of a greater. To which may be added. Wormes. of ununited conquests. were Chap. But when the Power of an Assembly is once suppressed. OF COMMON-WEALTH. when in a finall warre (forraign. or intestine.

258

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
CHAP. XXX.
Of
the

Chap.

30.

[175]

OFFICE

of the

Soveraign

Representative.

The Procuration
of the

People.

THE OFFICE of the Soveraign, (be it a Monarch, or an Assembly,) consisteth in the end, for which he was trusted e Soveraign Power, namely the procuration of Me safety of the people to which he is obliged by the Law of Nature, and to render an account thereof to God, the Author of that Law, and to none but him. Bui by Safety here, is not meant a bare Preservation, but also all other Contentments of life, which every man by lawfull Industry, without danger, or hurt to the Common

^^

;

wealth, shall acquire to himself e.

By

And this is intended should be done, not by care to Individualls, further than their protection applyed & Lawes. f rom i n ur i e when but by a s, j they shall complain generall Providence, contained in publique Instruction, both of Doctrine, and Example and in the making, and executing of good Lawes, to which individuall persons
In^ruction
;
;

Against thedut a Soveraign
to

yl

relinquish

any Es11

R?ht
of^Soveraignty :

Rights of Soveraignty be taken Chapter) 1 away, the Common-wealth is thereby dissolved, and every man returneth into the condition, and calamity o f a warre with every other man, (which is the greatest it is t he O ffice of the evi11 that can ha PP en in this life and conseSoveraign, to maintain those Rights entire
before in the (specified * ~ .,
v

may apply their own cases. And because, if the essentiall

eighteenth ... . ,.

,

1

.

,

,

;

quently against his duty,

First, to transferre to another,

For he that deserteth and he deserteth the Means, that being the Soveraign, acknowledgeth himselfe subject to the Civill Lawes and renounceth the Power of Supreme Judicature or of making Warre, or Peace by or of Judging of the Necessities of his own Authority the Common-wealth or of levying Mony, and Souldiers, when, and as much as in his own conscience he shall or of making Officers, and Ministers judge necessary or of appointing Teachers, both of Warre, and Peace and examining what Doctrines are conformable, or conor to lay from himself e any of them. the Means, deserteth the Ends
; ;

;

;

;

;

;

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 30.

259

trary to the Defence, Peace, and Good of the people. Secondly, it is against his Duty, to let the people be ignorant, or mis-informed of the grounds, and reasons because thereby men are of those his essentiall Rights easie to be seduced, and drawn to resist him, when the Common-wealth shall require their use and exercise. And the grounds of these Rights, have the rather need because they cannot to be diligently, and truly taught be maintained by any Civill Law, or terrour of legall punishment. For a Civill Law, that shall forbid Rebellion (and such is all resistance to the essentiall Rights of Soveraignty,) is not (as a Civill Law) any obligation, but by vertue onely of the Law of Nature, that forbiddeth w hich naturall obligation if men the violation of Faith know not, they cannot know the Right of any Law the Soveraign maketh. And for the Punishment, they take which when they think it but for an act of Hostility
; ; r
;

Oy not
see the eo

to

^

^

*

?,%unds h
f them.

[176]

;

they have strength enough, they will endeavour by acts of Hostility, to avoyd. As I have heard some say, that Justice is but a word, without substance and that whatsoever a man can by
;

Objection
f those
t

force, or art, acquire to himselfe, (not onely in the condition of warre, but also in a Common-wealth,) is his So there own, which I have already shewed to be false be also that maintain, that there are no grounds, nor Principles of Reason, to sustain those essentiall Rights, which make Soveraignty absolute. For if there were, they would have been found out in some place, or other
:

^ ^
re

f

s

e
_

no

pn w
-

ciples of

Reason

j^/|^_
Yaignty.~

;

see, there has not hitherto been any Common wealth, where those Rights have been acknowledged, or challenged. Wherein they argue as ill, as if the Savage people of America, should deny there were any grounds, or Principles of Reason, so to build a house, as to last as long as the materials, because they never yet saw any so well built. Time, and Industry, produce every day new knowledge. And as the art of well building, is derived from Principles of Reason, observed by indus trious men, that had long studied the nature of materials, and the divers effects of figure, and proportion, long after mankind began (though poorly) to build So, long Itime after men have begun to constitute Common-

whereas we

:

s 2

260

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 30.

wealths, imperfect, and apt to relapse into disorder, there may, Principles of Reason be found out, by indus trious meditation, to make their constitution (excepting by externall violence) everlasting. And such are those which I have in this discourse set forth Which whether they come not into the sight of those that have Power to make use of them, or be neglected by them, or not,
:

concerneth

my particular interest,
;

at this day,

very

little.

But supposing that these of mine are not such Prin yet I am sure they are Principles ciples of Reason
from Authority
of Scripture
;

as I shall

make

it

appear,
of

when

come to speak of the Kingdome (administred by Moses,) over the Jewes, his people by Covenant.
I

shall

God,

peculiar

J3ut they say again, that though the Principles be Common people are not of capacity enough to be made to understand them ! should be glad, that the lu^oUhe 6 Rich? an d Potent Subjects of a Kingdome, or those that vulgar. are accounted the most Learned, were no lesse incapable than they. But ajl men know, that the obstructions to this kind of doctrine, proceed not so much from the difficulty of the matter, as from the interest of them that are to learn. Potent men, digest hardly any tiling that setteth up a Power to bridle their affections and Learned men, any thing that discovereth their errours, and thereby lesseneth their Authority whereas the Common-peoples minds, unlesse they be tainted with dependance on the Potent, or scribbled over with the opinions of their Doctors, are like clean paper, fit to receive whatsoever by Publique Authority shall be imprinted in them. Shall whole Nations be brought to [177] acquiesce in the great Mysteries of Christian Religion, and millions of men be made which are above Reason
Objection
the

from

right, yet

-

;

:

;

that the same Body may be in innumerable places, at one and the same time, which is against Rea and shall not men be able, by their teaching, and son preaching, protected by the Law, to make that received, which is so consonant to Reason, that any unprejudicated man, needs no more to learn it, than to hear it ? J con clude therefore, that in the instruction of the people in the Essentiall Rights (which are the Natural! and
believe,
;

Part

2.

OF COMMON -WEALTH.
of Sovereignty, there
is

Chap. 30.

261

Fundamentall Lawes)

no

diffi

culty, (whilest a Soveraign has his Power entire,) but what proceeds from his own fault, or the fault of those he trusteth in the administration of the Common-wealth
;

whom

and consequently, it is his Duty, to cause them so to be and not onely his Duty, but his Benefit also, instructed and Security, against the danger that may arrive to him self e in his naturall Person, from Rebellion.
;

And (to descend to particulars) the People are to be Subjects taught, First, that they ought not to be in love with any are to be not forme of Government they see in their neighbour Nations, tau more than with their own, nor (whatsoever present proschange of perity they behold in Nations that are otherwise governed Governthan they,) to desire change. For the prosperity oiment: a People ruled by an Aristocraticall, or Democraticall
gM>

commeth not from Aristocracy, nor from Democracy, but from the Obedience, and Concord of the nor do the people flourish in a Monarchy, Subjects because one man has the right to rule them, but because they obey him. Take away in any kind of State, the Obedience, (and consequently the Concord of the People,) and they shall not onely not flourish, but in short time be dissolved. And they that go about by disobedience, to doe no more than reforme the Common-wealth, shall find they do thereby destroy it like the foolish daughters of Peleus (in the fable ;) which desiring to renew the youth of their decrepit Father, did by the Counsell of Medea, cut him in pieces, and boyle him, together with strange herbs, but made not of him a new man. This desire of change, is like the breach of the first of Gods Commandements For there God sayes, Non habebis Deos alienos Thou shalt not have the Gods of other Nations and in another place concerning Kings, that they are
assembly,
:

;

:

;

;

Gods.

Secondly, they are to be taught, that they ought not to be led with admiration of the vertue of any of their fellow Subjects, how high soever he stand, nor how con,v , nor spicuously soever he shine in the Common- wealth
.

Nor
adhere

Against the Savera ig n ) to

;

any Assembly, (except the Soveraign Assembly,) so as Popular to deferre to them any obedience, or honour, appropriate men,
of

to the Soveraign onely,

whom

(in their

particular stations)

262

Part

2.

OF COMMON -WEALTH.
;

Chap. 30.

they represent nor to receive any influence from them, but such as is conveighed by them from the Soveraign Authority. For that Soveraign, cannot be imatgined to love his People as he ought, that is not Jealous of them, but suffers them by the flattery of Popular men, to be seduced from their loyalty, as they have often been, not onely secretly, but openly, so as to proclaime Marriage with them in facie Ecclesice by Preachers and by pub:

[i;8]lishing the

same in the open be compared to the violation Commandements.

streets
of the

:

which

may

fitly

second of the ten

Thirdly, in consequence to this, they ought to be informed, how great a fault it is, to speak evill of the Ver Soveraign Representative, (whether One man, or an *ai n Assembly of men ;) or to argue and dispute his Power, power: or any way to use his Name irreverently, whereby he may be brought into Contempt with his People, and their Obedience (in which the safety of the Common-wealth Which doctrine the third Comconsisteth) slackened. mandement by resemblance pointeth to. And to Fourthly, seeing people cannot be taught this, nor have dayes w hen tis taught, remember it, nor after one generation P ast so much as know in whom the Soveraign Power is to leant their placed, without setting a part from their ordinary labour, some certain times, in which they may attend those that Duly : are appointed to instruct them It is necessary that some such times be determined, wherein they may assemble together, and (after prayers and praises given to God, the Soveraign of Soveraigns) hear those their Duties told them, and the Positive Lawes, such as generally concern them all, read and expounded, and be put in mind of the Authority that maketh them Lawes. To this end had the Jewes every seventh day, a Sabbath, in which the Law was read and expounded and in the solemnity whereof they were put in mind, that their King was God that having created the world in six dayt S, he and by their resting on it from rested the seventh day their labour, that that God was their King, which redeemed them from their servile, and painfull labour in Egypt, and gave them a time, after they had rejoyced in God, to take joy also in themselves, by lawfull recreation,

Nor

to

Dispute

,

;

;

;

;

j

i

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
first

Chap. 30.

263

So that the
all,

Table of the
the

in setting

down

Comman dements, is spent summe of Gods absolute Power
;

not onely as God, but as King by pact, (in peculiar) of and may therefore give light, to those that the Jewes have Soveraign Power conferred on them by the consent of men, to see what doctrine they Ought to teach their
;

Subjects.

And because the first instruction of Children, depen- And to it is necessary that Honour deth on the care of their Parents they should be obedient to them, whilest they are under their tuition and not onely so, but that also afterwards
;

;

they acknowledge the benefit of their education, by externall signes of honour. To which end they are to be taught, that originally the Father of every man was also his Soveraign Lord, with power over
(as gratitude requireth,)

him of life and death and that the Fathers of families, when by instituting a Common-wealth, they resigned that absolute Power, yet it was never intended, they should lose the honour due unto them for their education. For to relinquish such right, was not necessary to the nor would there be any Institution of Soveraign Power reason, why any man should desire to have children, or take the care to nourish, and instruct them, if they were
; ;

afterwards to have no other benefit from them, than from other men. And this accordeth with the fifth Comniandement. Again, every Soveraign Ought to cause Justice to be [179] taught, which (consisting in taking from no man what is And to his,) is as much as to say, to cause men to be taught not
to deprive their Neighbours,

by

violence, or fraud, o

any thing which by the Soveraign Authority is theirs. Of things held in propriety, those that are dearest to a man are his own life, & limbs and in the next degree (in most men,) those that concern conjugall affection and after them riches and means of living. Therefore the People are to be taught, to abstain from violence to one anothers person, by private revenges from viola tion of conjugall honour and from forcible rapine, and fraudulent surreption of one anothers goods. For which purpose also it is necessary they be shewed the evill con sequences of false Judgement, by corruption either of
;

;

;

;

264

Part

2.

OF COMMON -WEALTH.

Chap. 30.

And
from

to

do

all this

sincerely
the heart.

Judges or Witnesses, whereby the distinction of pro is taken away, and Justice becomes of no effect all which things are intimated in the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth Commandements. Lastly, they are to be taught, that not onely the unjust facts, but the designes and intentions to do them, (though which consisteth in by accident hindred,) are Injustice
priety
:

;

The use
of

Uni

the pravity of the will, as well as in the irregularity of the act. And this is the intention of the tenth Commandement, and the summe of the second Table which is reduced all to this one Commandement of mutuall Charity, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy selfe : as t he summe of the first Table is reduced to the love of God whom they had then newly received as their King.. As for the Means, and Conduits, by which the people
; ;

versities.

may receive this Instruction, wee are to search, by what: means so many Opinions, contrary to the peace of Man kind, upon weak and false Principles, have neverthelesse
been so deeply rooted in them. I mean those, which I have in the precedent Chapter specified as That men shall Judge of what is lawfull and unlawfull, not by the Law it selfe, but by their own Consciences that is to
: ;

That Subjects private Judgements sinne in obeying the Commands of the Common-wealth, unlesse they themselves have first judged them to be lawfull That their Propriety in their riches is such, as to exclude the Dominion, which the Common-wealth hath over the same That it is lawfull for Subjects to kill such, as they call Tyrants That the Soveraigri Power may be divided, and the like which come to be instilled into the People by this means. They whom necessity, or covetousnesse keepeth attent on their trades, and they, on the other side, whom super and labour fluity, or sloth carrieth after their sensuall pleasures, (which two sorts of men take up the greatest part of Man-kind,) being diverted from the deep meditation, which the learning of truth, not onely in the matter of Naturall Justice, but also of all other Sciences necessarily requireth, receive the Notions of their duty, chiefly from Divines in the Pulpit, and partly from such of their Neighbours, or familiar acquaintance, as having the
say,

by

their

own

:

:

:

:

;

;

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 30.

265

Faculty of discoursing readily, and plausibly, seem wiser in cases of Law, and Conscience, than themselves. And the Divines, and such others as make shew of Learning, derive their knowledge from the Uni-

and better learned

[180]

and from the Schooles of Law, or from the Books, which by men eminent in those Schooles, and Universities have been published. It is therefore mani fest, that the Instruction of the people, dependeth wholly, on the right teaching of Youth in the Univer sities. But are not (may some man say) the Universities of England learned enough already to do that ? or is it you will undertake to teach the Universities ? Hard that questions. Yet to the first, I doubt not to answer till towards the later end of Henry the eighth, the Power of the Pope, was alwayes upheld against the Power of^ the Common-wealth, principally by the Universities and that the doctrines maintained by so many Preachers,against the Soveraign Power of the King, and by so many Lawyers, and others, that had their education v there, is a sufficient argument, that though the Univer
versities,
;

;

,

sities

false doctrines, yet they to plant the true. For in such a contra diction of Opinions, it is most certain, that they have

were not authors of those

knew not how

not been sufficiently instructed and tis no wonder, if they yet retain a relish of that subtile liquor, wherewith they were first seasoned, against the Civill Authority. But to the later question, it is not fit, nor needfull for me to say either I, or No for any man that sees what I am
;
:

doing,
or

The from him, them that have the Soveraign Power, that Justice be
;

easily perceive what I think. safety of the People, requireth further,

may

that is, equally administred to all degrees of People that as well the rich, and mighty, as poor and obscure so persons, may be righted of the injuries done them as the great, may have no greater hope of impunity, when they doe violence, dishonour, or any Injury to the meaner sort, than when one of these, does the like to one of them For in this consisteth Equity to which, as being a Precept of the Law of Nature, a Soveraign is as much subject, as any of the meanest of his People. All breaches of the Law, are offences against the Common;
:

;

266

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
:

Chap. 30

wealth

Persons.

may man

hut there be some, that are also against private Those that concern the Common-wealth onely, without breach of Equity be pardoned for every may pardon what is done against himselfe, accord
;

ing to his own discretion. But an offence against a private man, cannot in Equity be pardoned, without the consent of him that is injured or reasonable
;

satisfaction.

The Inequality of Subjects, proceedeth from the Acts of Soveraign Power and therefore has no more place in the presence of the Soveraign that is to say, in a Court
; ;

then the Inequality between Kings, and their Subjects, in the presence of the King of Kings. The honour of great Persons, is to be valued for their benefi cence, and the aydes they give to men of inferiour rank/ or not at all. And the violences, oppressions, and injuries they do, are not extenuated, but aggravated by the because they have least greatnesse of their persons need to commit them. The consequences of this par tiality towards the great, proceed in this manner.
of Justice,
;

Impunity maketh Insolence

;

Insolence Hatred

;

and

Hatred, an Endeavour to pull down all oppressing and contumelious greatnesse, though with the ruine of the
[181]

Equall Taxes.

.

appertaineth also the Equall imthe Equality whereof dependeth not on ^he Equality of riches, but on the Equality of the debt, that every man oweth to the Common-wealth for his defence. It is not enough, for a man to labour for but also to fight, (if need the maintenance of his life be,) for the securing of his labour. They must either do as the Jewes did after their return from captivity, in re-edifying the Temple, build with one hand, and hold or else they must hire others to the Sword in the other For the Impositions, that are layd on fight for them. the People by the Soveraign Power, are nothing else but the Wages, due to them that hold the publique Sword, to defend private men in the exercise of sever all Trades, and Callings. Seeing then the benefit that every one receiveth thereby, is the enjoyment of life, which is the debt which a poor equally dear to poor, and rich
position of Taxes
;
;

Common- wealth. To Equall Justice,

;

;

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.
;

Chap. 30.

267

man oweth them that defend his life, is the same which man oweth for the defence of his saving that the rich, who have the service of the poor, may be debtors not onely for their own persons, but for many more.
a rich

Which

considered, the Equality of Imposition, consisteth rather in the Equality of that which is consumed, than of the riches of the persons that consume the same. For what reason is there, that he which laboureth much, and sparing the fruits of his labour, consumeth little, should be more charged, then he that living idlely, getteth little, and spendeth all he gets seeing the one hath no more protection from the Common -wealth, then the other ? But when the Impositions, are layd upon those
;

things which
for

men consume,
:

every

man payeth

Equally

what he useth

Nor is the Common-wealth defrauded,
of private

by the luxurious waste

men.
;

accident unevitable, be- Pubiique come unable to maintain themselves by their labour Charity. they ought not to be left to the Charity of private but to be provided for, (as far-forth as the persons necessities of Nature require, by the Lawes of the Com
;

And whereas many men, by

mon-wealth. For as it is Uncharitablenesse in any man, to neglect the impotent so it is in the Soveraign of a Common-wealth, to expose them to the hazard of such
;

uncertain Charity.
for such as have strong bodies, the case is other- Prevenand to avoyd the t/ion f they are to be forced to work dlenesse excuse of not finding employment, there ought to be such as all manner of Arts as Lawes, may encourage Naviga tion, Agriculture, Fishing, and all manner of Manifacture that requires labour. The multitude of poor, and yet strong people still encreasing, they are to be transplanted into Countries not sufficiently inhabited where neverthelesse, they are not to exterminate those they find there but constrain them to inhabit closer together, and not range a great deal of ground, to snatch what but to court each little Plot with art and they find labour, to give them their sustenance in due season. And when all the world is overcharged with Inhabitants, then the last remedy of all is Warre which provideth for every man, by Victory, or Death.

But
:

wise

;

;

:

;

;

;

268

Part

2.

OF COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap.

30.

[182]

Good

what*

Such as are Neces-

one of the people and that which eve r y man will have no man can say is unjust. It is in the Lawes of a Common-wealth, as in the Lawes of Gaming whatso ever the Gamesters all agree on, is Injustice to none of them. A good Law is that, which is Need-full, for the Good of the People, and withall Perspicuous. For the use of Lawes, (which are but Rules Authorised) j 3 no t o bind the People from all Voluntary actions but to direct and keep them in such a motion, as not to hurt themselves by their own impetuous desires, rashas Hedges are set, not to stop nesse, or indiscretion Travellers, but to keep them in the way. And therefore a Law that is not Needfull, having not the true End of a Law, is not Good. A Law may be conceived to be Good, when it is for the benefit of the Soveraign though it be not Necessary for the People but it is not so. For the good of the Soveraign and People, cannot be separated. It is a weak Soveraign, that has weak Subjects and a weak People, whose Soveraign wanteth Power to rule them at his will. Unnecessary Lawes are not good Lawes but trapps for Mony which where the right
;

To the care of the Soveraign, belongeth the making of Good Lawes. But what is a good Law ? By a Good Law, I mean not a Just Law for no Law can be Unjust. The L aw j s ma d e by the Soveraign Power, and all that is done by such Power, is warranted, and owned by every
:

so,

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

of Soveraign

Power

and where
Such as
1

it is

acknowledged, are superfluous not acknowledged, unsufncient to defend
is
;

the People. The Perspicuity, consisteth not so much in the words of the Law it selfe, as in a Declaration of the Causes, and Motives, for which it was made. That is it, that shewes us the meaning of the Legislator and the mean ing of the Legislator known, the Law is more easily under stood by few, than many words. For all words, are sub and therefore multiplication of words ject to ambiguity in the body of the Law, is multiplication of ambiguity Besides it seems to imply, (by too much diligence,) that whosoever can evade the words, is without the compasse of the Law. And this is a cause of many unnecessary Processes. For when I consider how short were the
; ; :

. and discharge of choler but correction. And ^ents. OF COMMON-WEALTH. whose fault it was. seeing the end of punishing is not revenge. as when they are committed by Sonnes. not onely against the Actors.Part 2. . or from ignorance whether the Fact be a great Crime. make Representative. either of the offender. or of the severest Punishments are others by his example to be inflicted for those Crimes. and teachers in a Commotion not the poore seduced People. . and Pleaders of the Law and the later to evade their to circumscribe the later and that the Pleaders have got the circumscriptions Victory. . : . and Rewards. is required by the Law of Nature. . which unpunished. . and significant termes. . is to punish that ignorance. . they were no better . or Favorites of men in Authority Indignation carrieth men. be it one Man. . It belongeth also to the Office of the Soveraign. and the Monarchy it selfe dissolved. to make Punisha right application of Punishments. . as short. But Crimes of Infirmity such as are those which pro ceed from great provocation. 269 and how they grew by degrees of antient times me thinks I see a contention between the longer the former seeking Penners.wealth there is such place for it. as may be. and Authors of Injustice but against all Power that is likely to protect them as in the case. For Servants. 30. . without and Lenity when prejudice to the Common. of Tarquin when for the Insolent act of one of his Sonnes. . he was driven out of Rome. there is place many times for Lenity. . can profit the Common-wealth by their example. which may in great part be imputed to the Soveraign. instructed. or not. [183] seem Authorised. The Punishment of the Leaders. that are of most Danger to the Publique such as are those which proceed from malice to the Government established those that spring from contempt of Justice those that provoke Indigna tion in the Multitude and those. great need. when they are punished. or an Assembly. (such as is in all Common-wealths the Supreme Lawes still . proper.) tothe reason Perspicuous. Chap. It belongeth therefore to the Office of a Legis lator. . . To be severe to the People. but in as . why the Law was made and the Body of the Law it selfe. from great fear.

like that of lique. or Preferment. than after a longer time Mischiefe. To buy with Mony. both to serve the same as faithfully as they can. yet the danger growes still the It is greater. and the Publique ruine more assured. and not rather to oppose the beginnings of such men. and of Law for the present. corrupted from Considium. whose advice he is to take Counsellours For this in the Government of the Common-wealth. Part 2. and End and is then done. 30. therefore against the Duty of the Soveraign. . but for service nor does past . has nothing of the nature of Reward (which is ordained not for disservice. and Duty of the Soveraign. there : . Consilium. as there may arise from them benefit to the Common wealth wherein consisteth their Use. may be differred. is overcome with Reward. Chap. is of a large signification. to Reward those that aspire to greatnesse b} disturbing the Peace of their Country.270 Rewards. so well recompenced. as is possible. from a Popular ambitious Subject. : arise many more hope (by the Example) that do the same : of like Benefit and as all sorts of Manifacture. word Counsell. with a little danger.&quot. as others thereby may be encouraged. and to study the arts by which they may be enabled to do it better. And though sometimes a Civill warre. when they that have well served the Com mon-wealth. not onely to deliberate what is to be done hereafter. OF COMMON-WEALTH. to be quiet. but also to judge of Facts I take it here in the [184] past. . are with as little expence of the Common Treasure. and comprehendeth all Assem blies of men that sit together. . In like manner it belongeth to the Office. by such wayes as that. is to choose good I mean such. but of Fear it tend to the Benefit. and desist from making ill impressions in the mindes of the People. to apply his Rewards alwayes so. there grew up three. so also Malice encreaseth by being vendible. for every one that was vanquished. Another Businesse of the Soveraign. which having many heads. with greater. in Counsellours. when the stubbornnesse of one Popular man. to whom the Publique Safety is committed. For in like manner. but to the Dammage of the PubIt is a contention with Ambition. Hercules with the Monster Hydra.) nor a signe of Gratitude.

in matter of State. . and . is yet harder and they that know them. The most able Counsellours. 271 sense onely And in this sense. are. or irremediable grievances. are they that . and constant good effects of it. be observed by any one whom it concerns But to know. the Soveraign that is proper to Monarchy endeavoureth not to make choyce of those. (as there does in the study of Geometry. and . much conversing in it. but he that is first taught to understand them. 30. .) but onely to be lookers on which is not so. without such Priviledges. Good Counsell comes not by Lot. and most knowledge of those things that conduce to the Peace. between their Posterity. dischargeth not his Office as he ought to do. neither in a no choyce Democracy. or noble. Knowledge of any Art. Whereas in these parts of Europe. that in every kind are the most able. . The choyce of Counsellours therefore In which. nor Aristocracy . as might be marks of differ ence in time following.Part first 2. because the persons Counselling are members of the per son Counselled. . It is a hard matter to know who expecteth benefit from publique troubles but the signes that guide to a just suspicion. For to know. there is of Counsell. would not enter in to the Confederacy. For the Politiques is the harder study of the two. have least hope of benefit by giving evill Counsell. . OF COMMON-WEALTH. . and Defence of the Common-wealth. it hath been taken for a Right of certain persons. who has most knowledge of the Publique affaires. who knowes the Rules almost of any Art. . nor by Inheritance and therefore there is no more reason to expect good Advice from the rich. is the soothing of the people in their unreasonable. than in delineating the dimen sions of a fortresse unlesse we shall think there needs no method in the study of the Politiques. : Chap. But the best signes of may easily to know it. need them a great deale the lesse. by men whose estates are not sufficient to discharge their accustomed expences. to have place in the highest Councell of State by Inheritance it is derived from the Conquests of the antient Germans wherein many absolute Lords joyning together to conquer other Nations. is a great degree of the knowledge of the same Art because no man can be assured of the truth of anothers Rules.

And how able soever be the Counsellours in any affaire. to on the sudden and are lesse subject survey the consequences of action to be carried away to contradiction. He must therefore be Indus trious. that he may gain an opinion both of sufficiency. nor feared as he ought to be by his Army and consequently cannot performe that office with good successe. gerous thing to Soveraign Power especially when it is in the hands of an Assembly not popular. It belongeth therefore to the safety of the People.272 Part 2. For without those Essentiall Rights. A Commander of an Army in chiefe. is to be taken from the generall informations. when they the essentiall Rights taken notice of. Chap. than when they do it in an Assembly. The best Counsell. then for adhsereth naturally to their abilities. and of loving This is Popularity. But this love of Souldiers. in punishing (when need is) the Mutinous. (if cau tion be not given of the Commanders fidelity. Liberall and Fortunate. (as I have often before said. and complaints of the people of each Province. Souldiers both desire. and have at last no further honour. or other Passions arising from the difference . when they give every one his Advice.) is a dan . to be diligently therefore. OF COMMON-WEALTH. in those things that concern not other Nations. and benefit the Sub[185] jects may enjoy. to recommend them and protects the severity of the selves to his favour Generall. them as their Right. and ought demand nothing in derogation of of Soveraignty. . and breeds in the his Souldiers. Popular. . the Posterity of their Subjects which Priviledges being inconsistent with the Soveraign Power. and when they have prsemeditated. if he be not Comwanders. who are best acquainted with their own wants. shall not be beloved. through Envy. . than when they speak both because they have more time. they may seem to keep .) the Common-wealth cannot at all subsist. by Lawes that look onely inward. by way of Orations . of opinion. and courage. or negligent Souldiers. and the reasons of it apart. both that they be . Emulation. by the favour of but contending the Soveraign. the benefit of their Counsell is greater. 30. but onely the ease. they must needs by degrees let them go. Valiant. Affable. .

suppressed the Power of their lawfull Soveraign. but a disbanding of their Armies. And every Sove raign hath the same Right. but also his Cause. and . is the same thing. and what to avoyd in regard of one another. For the greatest and most active part of Mankind. that any particular man can have. as he that has it needs no more. as he is the Author of and in respect of the same God. OF COMMON-WEALTH. . [186] HOBBES T . . (such of them as oblige all Mankind. For Souldiers are never so generally unjust. . But when the Soveraign himselfe is Popular that is. to turn the hearts of his Subjects to him. to whom the Soveraign Commits his Armies. on the part of his enemies. his own Body. I need not say any because the Law of Nations. is so popular a quality.) in respect of God. And therefore those. that is. what they ought to do. to save the People from the shame of receiving them. to the Consciences of Soveraign Princes. as to side with their Cap tain though they love him. when they love not onely his Person. but in the Conscience onely but God raigneth whose Lawes. which are comprehended in that Law. have been alwayes put to the trouble of contriving their Titles. are Naturall as he is King of Kings. before they could settle themselves in his place.Part 2. in pro curing the safety of. but that they see him able absolutely to govern his own Family Nor. there is no danger at all from the Popularity of a Subject. and there being no Court of Naturall Soveraign Assemblies where not Man. Nature. are Lawes. for his own part. dictateth the same to Common-wealths. 273 faithfull Subjects. which is com monly called the Law of Nations. . reverenced and beloved of his People. . And the same Law. and thing in this place the Law of Nature. as King of Kings. and as King also of a peculiar People. . Justice. But of the Kingdome of God. I shall speak in the rest of this discourse. 30. that dictateth to men that have no Civil Government. To have a known Right to Soveraign Power. Concerning the Offices of one Soveraign to another. has never hetherto been well contented with : the present. against their Soveraign. Chap. who by violence have at any time good Conductors. in procuring the safety of his People.

There wants onely. by which men are guided to avoyd that condition. are the Lawes of Nature That a Common-wealth. either by too much civill obedience. And again. that neither are following Soveraigns. wherein their obedience is not repugnant to the Lawes of God. in all things. simple Obedience. let the Earth rejoyce. Who are Whether men will or not. PsaLg6. but kingdoms not their Yoke. and Bodies inanimate. Power of the KINGDOME OF GOD. though the earth be moved. to know what are those Lawes of God. For he onely is properly said to Raigne. But to call this Power of God. saith the Psalmist. . men may shake off their Ease. is but a word. without substance. when he is commanded any thing by the Civill Power. by the name of Kingdome. CHAP. is but a metaphoricall use of the word. and by promise of Rewards to those that obey it. I have sufficiently proved. a man knows not. is Anarchy. of The scope of the absolute Liberty.i God is King. extendeth it selfe not onely to Man. or in the Providence of God. XXXI. To avoyd both these Rocks. KINGDOMS OF GOD BY NATURE. it is necessary to know what are the Lawes Divine. God is King though the Nations be angry and he that sitteth on the Ckerubins. in that which I have already written. they must be subject alwayes subjects to the Divine Power. without Soveraign Power. By denying the Existence. and by threatning them with Punishment : .274 Part 2. for the entire knowledge of Civill duty. of Warre That the Praecepts. that governs his Sub jects. but also to Beasts. For without that. and cannot stand That : THAT : : Subjects owe to Soveraigns. Of the the condition of meer Nature. nor Subjects. by his Word. . and Plants. OF COMMON-WEALTH. or through feare of offending God. such as is theirs. that is to say. and the condition Chapters. offends the Divine Majesty. And seeing the knowledge of all Law. which of God. Chap. trans gresses the commandements of the Common-wealth. or not and so. whether it be contrary to the Law of God. dependeth on the knowledge of the Soveraign I shall say something in that which followeth. 31.

nor creatures Irrationall because they understand no Precepts as his Nor Atheists nor they that believe not that God has any care of the actions of mankind because they ac : . are not Bodies Inanimate. he governed them. ?rom hence there ariseth a triple Word of God. Rational. he procureth credit with the rest. for his. requires that such Words be mani. or fear of his threatnings. Dictates of Right Reason And Prophetique. and propounded Rewards. which he gave them by the mouths of his holy Prophets. wherein having chosen out one peculiar Nation (the Jewes) for his Subjects. From the difference between the other two kinds of A twofold Gods \Vord. and Prophetique : . wherein he governeth as many of an d p r c~ Mankind as acknowledge his Providence. Chap. and Prophetique. . which consisteth n Revelation. to which Corresponded Sensible. Naturall. Rationall. Prodnd. . and Prophetique : Naturall. nor have hope of his rewards. such as may take away the excuse of [gnorance which in the Lawes of men is but of one onely tion. because God speaketh not manner. or Inspiration. . Chapter. not onely by naturall Reason. and by the Voyce of some man. and clear Promulgation.Part 2. a two-fold Kingdome. there may be K attributed to God. To rule by Words. : . and that is. but by Positive Lawes. . by the naturall phetique. or Promulgation by phecy. Proclamation. a triple Hearing . As for Sense Supernaturall.A TkrceFor for else they are no Lawes festly made known to the nature of Lawes belongeth a sufficient. 31. 275 knowledge no Word that obey it not. OF COMMON-WEALTH. and Faith. and hath given [187] Praecepts. there have not been any Jniversall in that Lawes so given. Of the Naturall Kingdome of God I intend to speak in this . But God declareth his Lawes three wayes by the Dictates of Naturall Reason. to whom by the operation of Miracles. Subjects therefore in the Kingdome of God. and Punishments to Mankind. are to be understood as Enemies. They therefore that believe there is a God that governeth the world. are Gods Subjects all the rest. and none but them. Sense Supernatural!. :he voyce of man. Right Reason. and to divers men divers things. by Revela tion. but to particular persons. T 2 .

72. : : . This question. is not alwayes derived from mens Sinne. for the many Afflictions he suffered. the dominion of all men adhaereth naturally by their and consequently it is from that excellence of Power Power. Chap. but of Philosophers. . because by that word is understood Affliction for Sinne yet the Right of Afflicting. how the Irresistible Power. for I was grieved (it the Wicked. belongeth Naturally to God Almighty not as Creator. they had Right every one to reigne over all the rest. requires no more. concerning the Divine Providence. has been much disputed by the Antient. derived. how earnestly does he expostulate with God. when I saw the Ungodly in such Prosperity. . is to be he required but from his I have formerly shewn. . as of Gratitude for his benefits from his Omnipotence. 2. it concerned the safety of every one. 31. i. and them. and Good men suffer Adversity. but from Gods Power. whereby God reigneth over men. and the Right of afflicting men at his pleasure. . to rule and defend them whereas if there had been any man of Power Irresistible there had been no reason. How Good (saith David) is the God of Israel to those that are Upright in Heart . that the Kingdome over men. Sinne onely. and defended both himself e. and yet my feet were almost gone my tr codings had well-nigh slipt . not from his Creating them. and Gracious but as And though Punishment be due for Omnipotent. and is the same with this of ours. Sinne not the cause . Why Evill men often Prosper. not onely of the Vulgar. as it hath shaken the faith. by what Right God dispenseth the Prosperities and Adversities of this life and is of that difficulty. to set up men (with Soveraign Authority) by common consent. To shew how the Soveraign Right ariseth from Pact same Right may arise from Nature. and punisheth those that break his Lawes. To those therefore whose Power is irresistible. And Job. 3.276 The Right of Gods Part 2. ver. of the Saints. OF COMMON-WEALTH. why he should not by that Power have ruled. notwithstanding his if . as obedience. Seeing all men by Nature had Right to All things. [i 88] . Psal. and which is more. Sove ~ The Right of Nature. but to shew in what case it is never taken away. . according to his own discretion. But because this Right could not be obtained by force. laying by that Right.

That Death manifest in him. that cannot born Blind. It remaineth therefore that we consider. without other word of God. touching the Honour and Worship of the Divine Majesty. the Goodnesse. and the like. though he had not Sinned. Equity. our Divine Soveraign. God himselfe taketh up the matter. are called Worship . and opinion Honour of the Power. as is possible. and Actions of which is one part of that men. Conformable to this doctrine is the of Sinne. nor his fathers . as we are to consider next.Part 2. that God could not justly have Afflicted him. : . (by which is meant that if Adam had never sinned. . Having spoken of the Right of Gods Soveraignty. is decided by God himself e. and reproved the Erroneous doctrine of his friends. Where wast thou when I layd the Job 38. and the rest of the Morall Vertues.) it follows not thence. he had never dyed. Humility. is to think as Highly of his Power and ship what. not by arguments derived from Job s Sinne. 277 Righteousnesse ? This question in the case of Job. And of that opinion. of which I have spoken already in the 14. never suffered any separation of his soule from his body. externall signes appearing in the Words. but that the works of God might be made And though it be said. v 4foundations of the earth. such as this. concerning the man that was in these words. that is. 31. both approved Job s Innocence. Neither hath this man sinned. by their Naturall Reason onely. The first are the same Lawes of Nature. what Praecepts are dictated to men. OF COMMON-WEALTH. For whereas the friends Job drew their arguments from his Affliction to his and he defended himselfe by the conscience of his Innocence. Justice. and having justified the Affliction by arguments drawn from his Power. Honour consisteth in the inward thought. and 15. Mercy. and Goodnesse of another and therefore and Worto Honour God. Chap. Divine Lawes. as well as he afflicteth other living creatures. or the Honour naturally due to . - sentence of our Saviour. grounded onely on Nature what are the Divine Lawes. Chapters of this Treatise namely. . entred into the world by sinne. or Dictates of Naturall Reason which Lawes concern either the naturall Duties of one man to another. sinne. but his own Power.

and Blessing : : Worship Naturall when we thank him for his Bounty. (both in Attributes Actions. a winning of favour by good offices as by praises. . as amongst Attri and Actions. his Power. Compleasance. And this is properly Worship in which sense Publicola. that is. consisting in the opinion of Power and Goodnesse. From internall Honour. but answer our labour. but by . In the second sense. is called Culture and the education of Children a Culture of their mindes. not by Force. : and Arbi trary. Now those things whereof we make benefit. later Arbitrary Worship. OF COMMON-WEALTH. There be some signes of Honour. differently used. Prayer. . are either subject to us. Praise. arise three Passions Love. and Fear. : . and the like Actions. and constantly. it signifieth as much as Courting. according to their own Wills. and Obedience.278 Par I 2. . Chap. or Great By relate to : Power And . Thanks. Severall signes of Honour. which hath reference to Goodnesse and Hope. the subject of Magnifying. and Magnifying are signified both by Words. Magnifying. that labour which a man bestowes on any thing. in different times and The former is Naturall the places. folio weth the labour we bestow upon them. . and the profit they yeeld. . Just. for the Worship of God. . . and Actions: By Words. Liberall. and the effect thereof Felicity. Good. that . and Thanksgiving. where mens wills are to be wrought to our purpose.under stood for a Worshipper of the People and Cultus Dei. and Bless being Goodnesse Praise. Others are so by Institution. : [189] which the Latines understand by the word Cultus For Cultus signifieth properly. can onely be expressed by words. and by whatsoever is pleasing to them from whom we look for any benefit. being Power. is.) that be Naturally so and amongst butes. by acknowledging their Power. as a naturall effect or they are not subject to us. Prayers. and obey The opinion of the Happinesse of another. with a purpose to make benefit by it. when we say a man is Good. . 31. In the first sense the labour bestowed on the Earth. ing. or Custome of men and in some times in others Dishonourable and places are Honourable such as are the Gestures in Saluta in others Indifferent tion. . . three parts of externall worship The subject of Praise. .

: . . or gesture. For where a man seeth another worshipped. . is Power. . it is manifest. 31. seem ridiculous. and tending : But when to of is contumely Honour . That we may know what worship of God is taught us Attributes by the light of Nature. which is contrary to the nature of Liberty. is Free men it is not so. or in thankfulnesse for good already received from them. % pree who is Worshipped Free. spake un and denyed his Existence For by worthily of him and to say God. in respect of the whole but in respect of Particular Common-wealth. proceeds from our duty. and a Private Worship. that those Philosophers. . which he thinks not to have any Beeing. he supposeth him powerfull. is that which a Private person exhibiteth. But God has no Ends the worship we do him. : 279 And of Arbitrary Worship. t Divine Honour Where. either from the Lawes. when it is such as hee requireth. or from the Opinion of men . or actions by the beholders which we intend honour. The End of Worship amongst men.Part 2. not a signe to him that giveth it. and is the readier to obey him which makes his Power greater. OF COMMON-WEALTH. by those rules of Honour. Private. I will begin with his Attributes. as one Person. is understood the cause of the World : . to the spectator. who sayd the World. not the shipper thinks fit. . and is directed according to our capacity. Publique. Again. the Worship consists in the opinion of for if to them the words. when it is such as the Wor When it is Commanded. sometimes Voluntary Com d 1 Worship Commanded. or the Soule of the World was God. in hope of benefit. but the obedience is the Worship. is in secret Free but in the sight of the multitude. but to him to whom it is made that is. it is never without some Restraint. there bee two differences Worship ~ For sometimes it is a Commanded. The end of Worship. we ought to attribute to him Existence For no man can have the will to honour that. Publique. : : Free. Worship Publique an tc r f Py *~ . Private. . words. : to the more potent men. because no signes they are no Worship and no signes of Honour because a signe . Chap. for fear of dammage. First. Secondly. there is a Publique. that Reason dictateth to be done by the weak . is the Worship that a Common-wealth performeth.

acts of Sense attribute to him Sight. to attribute to him lesse than we can and Finite. is bounded. no God. is not Honour for all Figure is Finite Nor to say we conceive. . and Understanding .) is to deny there is a God. or have an Idea of him. by which he effecteth every Appetite Nor to ascribe to . is lesse than we can because to Finite. Mercy of Grief e or of any Passive faculty as Appetite. to say the World was not Created. (seeing . or Totality which are the Attributes onely of things Finite Nor to say he is in this. .280 Part the 2. or that Place for whatsoever is in Place. Likewise when we . that they who attributing (as they think) Ease to God. Thirdly. World God. which in us is nothing else. Hope. and Power to say he is Finite. Fifthly. it is easie to adde more. : : : : : . in our mind for whatsoever we conceive is Finite Nor to attribute to him Parts. and Finite Nor that he is Moved. and other as also Knowledge. 31. as that of Man. take from him the care of Man-kind take from him his Honour for it takes away mens love. it is not to be understood. is Power limited by somewhat else. And therefore when we ascribe to God a Will. . : one Infinite : him (unlesse Metaphorically. or Resteth for both these Attri butes ascribe to him Place Nor that there be more Gods than one because it for there cannot be more than implies them all Finite nall. raised by externall things that presse the organ icall . and fear of him which is the root of Honour. is not to Honour him For it is not a signe of the Will to Honour God. thing. : . and imagine. OF COMMON-WEALTH. but Eterthat which is Eternall has no cause. Therefore to attribute Figure to him. of it. but a tumult of the mind. : : : . for a Ratio nail but as the Power. : . : . : . in those things that signine Greatnesse. but the Effect) Passions that partake or of Want as Repentance. Anger. mean ing not the Passion. is to say there is no cause that is. Desire For Passion. . is Chap. Fourthly.

must either use such Negative Attributes. which differeth from Prayer Secondly. as future. and Oblations. . that is to say. and Thanks succeed the benefit of the one.) but how much wee admire him. it is a most Actions that are generall Precept of Reason. that they be signes of the nes f 18. as if he meant not to declare what is. : . Sacrifices. most Great. Incompre or Superlatives. or strength can protect a man against Gods vengeance on the .Part 2. and that is. being to acknowledge God. as Infinite. of our Fancy. 31. That the name of God is not to be used rashly. Prayers S For not the Carvers. Hee that will attribute to God. as Most High. Fourthly. . as well past. Just. Gifts for they (if they be of the best. as Good. . I AM Name of his Relation to us. : : . is a confession of his Power. 281 parts of mans body For there is no such thing in God and being things that depend on naturall causes. Author of all benefits. as in Vain And it is . Intention to Honour God such as are. : Chap. Not to swear by any but God. nothing but what is warranted by naturall Reason. (for that were to circumscribe him within the limits . were Honour. and of a Will to honour him as much as we can For there is but one Name to signifie our Con and but one ception of his Nature. and Lord. and that is God in which is contained Father. Creator in such sense. and hensible . the like and he or Indefinite. and Considerately of God Hence followeth. . is naturally a signe of Honour for it is a confession that God onely knoweth the heart and that no mans wit. but the People that thought to make them Gods Prayed to them. King. OF COMMON-WEALTH. : : . when they made Images. Holy.) are signes of Honour are Thanksgivings. Thanksgiving in Divine Worship. cannot [191] be attributed to him. and the other. it is a part of Rationall Worship. : . to speak for it argues a Fear of him. no otherwise. perjured. and to no purpose for that is as much. Concerning the actions of Divine Worship. . First. for . Fifthly. Fear. Thirdly. than that Prayers the end both precede. . and how which is a signe of ready we would be to obey him Humility. Eternall.

for Gods both of Voyce. . as proceeding from an intention to honour him. nor the nature of the smallest creature living. Sixthly. . and most significant of Honour. were full . and especially. and and are nothing else but inconsiderate. was reasonable. From the want of which consideration. and well composed light. is lost. and Thanks giving. but by naturall Reason that is. and with Musick.282 Part 2. there is no other way to know any thing. (that which in the sight of men honour is most acceptable) the procuring others to honour him. that Prayers. : . Reason directeth not onely to worship God but also. as they cannot teach us our own nature. And therefore. OF COMMON-WEALTH. Seventhly. And that dis For it puting of Gods nature is contrary to his Honour is supposed. but to the honour of our own wits. . of submission.wealth. to avoyd Warre. not sudden. nor but beautifull. Also that the Beasts they offered in sacrifice. they but dishonour him For in the Attributes which we give to God. and their actions in Worshipping. be made in Words and Phrases. As for example. in Publique. we are not to consider the signification of Philosophic all Truth but the signification of Pious Intention. and the Gifts they offered. to no purpose unlesse it be by way of Oath. in Prayers. : . And therefore the Heathens did absurdly. and by order of the Common. : and commemorative of benefits received. Offerings and Sacri it is a Dictate of naturall Reason. Chap. that in this naturall Kingdomeof God. from the Principles of naturall Science which are so farre from teaching us any thing of Gods nature. 31. that they be [192] every one in his kind the best. that tend not to his Honour. to make Judgements certain or between Common-wealths. when men out of the Principles of naturall Reason. nor Plebeian For else we do not God as much honour as we can. have proceeded the volumes of disputation about the nature of God. fices. : . was according to reason. and in in Secret For without that. to worship Images But their doing it in Verse. Thanksgiving. vain abuses of his Sacred Name. and learning . and Instruments. . to do him the greatest Honour we are able. dispute of the Attributes of God.

where there is no Law but Reason. and constitution of men. because a Common-wealth hath no Will. But whereas there be an infinite number of Actions. proceeding from the different Religions of Private men. that those Attributes which the Soveraign ordaineth. But because not all Actions are signes by Constitu. And therefore. Chap. modest.Part 2. which naturall Reason dictateth to private men. . Obedience to his Lawes (that is. it which ought also to exhibite to God but one Worship then it doth. by private men in their publique Worship. A II f Attributes de ~ civill. . nor makes no Lawes. . ought to be taken and used for such. . these later (which are those that men are ashamed to do in the sight of them they reverence) cannot be made by humane power a part of Divine nor the former (such as are decent. is the greatest of all contumelies. worship humble Behaviour) ever be separated from it. in the Worship of God. by different men. Publiquely. . where many sorts of Worship be allowed. all .Not tion but some are Naturally signes of Honour. 31. For as Obedience is more acceptable to God than Sacri fice so also to set light by his Commandements. when it commandeth it to be exhibited by Private men. is to be Uniforme actions that are done differently. others of Contumely. it cannot be said there is any Publique Worship. may be done . And this is Publique Worship For those the property whereof. And these are the Lawes of that Divine Worship. in this case to the Lawes of Nature. or them that have the Soveraigri Power it followeth. that men intend shall so be and whatsoever may be done by the wills of particular men. cannot be said to be a Publique Worship. and such of them as the Gestures. for signes of Honour. nor that the Com mon-wealth is of any Religion at all. by Lawes Civill.) is the greatest worship of all. OF COMMON-WEALTH. of an indifferent nature by the And . And because words (and consequently the Attributes of God) have their signification by agreement. Publique Worship f^^ s *f h orm #y. But seeing a Common-wealth is but one Person. those Attributes are to be held significative of Honour. : . 283 Lastly. but those that are made by the Will of him. will of the Common-wealth.

there are linked in such together both pleasing and unpleasing events manner. with Slaughter. derived from the Principles of Naturall Reason. OF COMMON-WEALTH. . with the Violence of Enemies Pride. . and part of Gods [193] Worship. Naturall Having thus briefly spoken of the Naturall Kingdome Punishof God. as no humane Providence. not arbitrary effects. as the Common-wealth of Plato For he also is of opinion that it is impossible for the disorders of State. with Rebellion and Rebellion. . Nature. . as uselesse. and not by Nature. is high enough. with Ruine Cowardise. And that which is said in the Scripture. Common-wealth shall ordain to be Publiquely and Universally in use. from the Practise of the greatest part of the world. Chap. And now. Chapter a short declaration of his Naturall Punishments. and his Naturall Lawes. There is no action of man in this life. as he that will do any thing for his pleasure. in them that have the Administration of the Soveraign Power. . hath place in the kingdome of God by Pact. . and Athens much depth of Morall Philosophy is required. . are the Naturall Punishments of those actions. I am at the point of believing this my labour. which are the beginning of more Harme than Good. with Oppres sion Negligent government of Princes. .284 Part 2. And in this Chayn. ever to be . is naturally punished with Diseases with Mischances Injustice. For seeing Punishments are consequent to the breach of Lawes Naturall Punish ments must be naturally consequent to the breach of the Lawes of Nature and therfore follow them as their naturall. I will adde onely to this ments. that is not the beginning of so long a chayn of Consequences. . . The Conelusion of and and concerning the Duty of Right of Soveraigns the Second subjects. . must engage himself e to suffer all the pains annexed to it and these pains. It is better to obey God than men. . to give a man a prospect to the end. perance. that Intem Rashnesse. that have received and how their Morall learning from Rome. are to be taken and used for such by the Sub jects. especially of these Western parts. 31. And hereby it comes to passe. and change of Governments by Civill Warre. . And thus farre concerning the Constitution. as signes of Honour. considering how different this Doctrine is.

may fall into the hands of a Soveraign. 31.) without the help of any interessed. into the Utility of . than by good Lawes to encourage men to the and that neither Plato. and their and that they need not.Part 2. who will consider it himself e. or envious Interpreter and by the exercise of entire Soveraignty. Chap. convert this Truth of Speculation. that one time or other. hath put into order. and I think clear. . I . is the onely Science necessary for Soveraigns. that the Science of Naturall Justice. and sufficiently or probably proved all the Theoremes of Morall doctrine. But when consider again. Philosopher hitherto. . nor any other study of them taken away. be charged principall Ministers with the Sciences Mathematicall. that men may learn thereby. (as by Plato they are. 285 till Soveraigns be Philosophers. . in protecting the Publique teaching of it. both how to govern. OF COMMON-WEALTH.) further. Practice. and how to obey I recover some hope. this writing of mine. (for it is short.

not naturall is Yet Reason to be re nounced. and Rights of a CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH. by Pro phets is the main I HAVE derived the Rights of Soveraigne Power. employed Religion. Neverthelesse. known to us by . [195] OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH. . OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. . . but . For they are the talents which he hath put into our hands to negotiate. 32. till the coming again of our blessed Saviour and therefore not to be folded up in the Napkin of an Implicite Faith. . but also the . or erroneous Ratiocination. Propheticall. not only the Natural! Word of God. we are not to renounce our Senses. CHAP. XXXII. when any thing therein written is too hard for our examination. But in that I am next to handle.286 Part 3. Therefore. principle of Chris Experience. and true For though there be many things in Gods Word above Reason that is to say. and nor (that which is the undoubted Word of Experience God) our naturall Reason. . Of The Word of God delivered the Principles of CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES. which cannot by naturall reason be either demonstrated. so. and the duty of Subjects hitherto. from the Principles of such as Experience has found true. . and from Definitions (of such words as are to all Politicall reasoning) universally agreed Essentiall tian Polion. Peace. the fault is either in our unskilfull Interpretation. which is the Nature tiques. or confuted but when it seemeth yet there is nothing contrary to it in the purchase of Justice. wee are bidden to captivate our and not to labour in siftunderstanding to the Words . whereof there dependeth much upon Supernaturall Revelations of the Will of God the ground of my Discourse must be. from the nature of Men. or Nature onely Consent (concerning the use of words) has made so that is to say.

For if a man pretend to me. How God speaketh to a man immediately. and Faith reposed in him that speaketh. is not to say God hath spoken to him imme diately. Reason. shall pretend the same. nor fall under any For it is with the mysteries rule of naturall science. though the mind be in capable of any Notion at all from the words spoken. effect. 32. and necessarily such. or of the Apostles. . lad formerly spoken by himself immediately. as (by commanded and when we . But if one that hath not such authority over me. there is nothing that exacteth either beleefe. when when we so speak. of such mys teries as are not comprehensible. is hard. For to say that God hath spoken to him in the Holy Scripture. to whom he hath so spoken but low the same should be understood by another. are for the most part cast up again without . . it must be either imme. For Sense.j^JJ* standing. me It is true. Under. ive accordingly which in sum. or of the Church. ore are not effects of our Will. of our Religion. Chap.How God or by mediation of another man. Reason. 287 ing out a Philosophicall truth by Logick. We then Captivate our Understanding and we forbear contradiction awfull Authority) we are . may be understood by :hose well enough. and consider suggest unto us and there. in such manner as he speaks . and Opinion are not in our power to standing. but by mediation of the Prophets. he may oblige to obedience. where obedience is due. as with wholsome pills for the sick. When God speaketh to man. as the things we see. or obedience. to men and I make doubt of it. to whom he speaketh diately . and imme . I cannot easily perceive what argument he can produce. But by the Captivity of our Understanding. f not impossible to know. have the vertue to cure but chewed. so. as not by act or word to declare I Beleeve him not but not to think any otherwise then my . but our Will of them. that if he be Soveraign. which swallowed whole. Memory. it. change but alwaies. to oblige me to beleeve diately. . to the What it is to ca ptiOpinion of any other man but of the Will to Obedience. is not [196] meant a Submission of the Intellectuall faculty. that God hath spoken to him supernaturally. my reason perswades me. is Trust.COMMON-WEALTH. hear.

by Dreams.288 Part 3. and (which By what marks Prophets &quot. To say he hath spoken to Dream. or some strong opinion of himself. is to say. to whom is neither of these is sufficient. and may proceed from former thoughts such dreams as that. or heard a Voice. only Micaiah was a true one. // a Prophet rise amongst . of Israel asked counsel. . as not having well observed his own slumbering. by which together. or not to obey his Word. and Inspira tion yet he obliges no man to beleeve he hath so done to him that pretends it who (being a man) may erre. that he hath dreamed for in such manner a between sleeping and waking man doth many times naturally take his dream for a. then can he. delivered by him. and foolish arrogance. Asunder (I say) his . If one Prophet deceive another. that perswaded him as from the mouth of God. favour of extraordinary Revelation. So that though God Almighty can speak to a man. of whom the K. that knows dreams are for the most part and naturall. is no more then to say he dreamed that God spake to him which is not of force to win beleef from any man. and false opinion of a mans own godlinesse. One is the doing of miracles the other is the not teaching any other Religion than that which is already established. that there be two marks. to eat and drink with him.known iKings22. was yet deceived by another old Prophet. for which hee can alledge no naturall and sufficient reason. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. The Prophet that was sent to prophecy against the Altar set up by Jeroboam. from selfe conceit. not asunder. him men. a true Prophet is to be known. To say he hath seen a Vision. is to say he finds an ardent desire to speak. by which he thinks he hath merited the to all other Christian in a . To say he speaks by supernaturall Inspiration. that sayes he is a Prophet ? Of 400 Prophets. or other vertue. by other way than that of Reason ? To which I answer out of the Holy Scripture. concerning the warre he made against Ramoth Gilead. How more) may lie. : . 32. though a true Prophet. Visions. what certainty is there of knowing the will of God. vision. [197] i Kings J 3- God hath never revealed Wil immediately (saving by the way of natural reason) know when he is to obey. and that by two miracles done in his presence appears to be a Prophet sent from God. . Voice.

that Christ was King so that all preaching against the power of the King received. is by St. . (that is to say. an Angell from heaven preach another Gospel to them. and Mat. if he say. or . &c. Secondly. Dreamer of dreams shall be put to death. in consequence to these words. after our Saviour Christ had made his Disciples acknowledge him for the Messiah. 5 * . But that Prophet and shall not hearken to him. that is to say. 24even to the seducing (if it were possible] of the very Elect. yet were great miracles.Part 3. to be observed First. though not so great as those of Moses. 24. For they had made God thenKing by pact at the foot of Mount Sinai who ruled them by Moses only for he only spake with God. who by his preaching had already received Jesus for the Christ. In which words two things are. HOBBES U for St. for King of the Jews.) he omitted not to advertise them of the danger of miracles. that false Prophets may have the power of miracles yet are wee not to take their doctrin . that God wil not have miracles alone serve for arguments. that himself. known. false Prophets. to but (as it is in the third approve the Prophets calling - shall pretend the doing Deut. . because he hath spoken to you to Revolt from the Lord your God. Paul accursed. For his speech is addressed to those. if Gal. There shall arise (saith he) false Christs.gt. verse) for an experiment of the constancy of our adherence to himself. and the miracle come to passe .gt. 13. Let hast thou^ thou not which us follow strange Gods. . Gods Word. Chap. 289 2 &amp.8. Paul says further to the Galatians. By which it appears. or a Dreamer of dreams. whom the nation of the Jews daily expected for their King. In like manner. COMMON-WEALTH. That Gospel was. or him that governeth by the Kings such miracle. is authority. let him be accursed. than he had preached. For these words.gt. he that doth not to be considered otherwise than as sent to make triall of their allegiance. and v of a miracle. 32. and from time to time declared Gods Commandements to the people. you. 3&amp. 1. are in this place equivalent to revolt from your King. yet if it tend to stir up revolt against the King. revolt from the Lord your God. but refused when he came. For the works of the Egyptian Sorcerers. that how great soever the miracle be. J &amp. and shall doe great wonders and miracles. for Gods anointed. .

. When the Prophet in the // thou say in thy heart.a Prophet without shewing any Miracle. him not. that s the word which the Lord hath not spoken. joined together. which since the time of our plies their Saviour. v. 18. that teacheth not false Doctrine. : But a man may here again When . farther than it is conformable ture sup. For if a man law. is an unsuffiDoctrine. that it will then the time of mans life come to passe one time or other in which case this and therefore the mark of a Prophet is unusefull miracles that oblige us to beleeve a Prophet. And which God hath established .gi ye ear to any Doctrine. longer or indefinitely. or supernaturall Inspiration. How shall is not that which shall have spoken of the Lord. 21. . how shal we know whether it will come to passe or not ? For he may f oretel it as a thing to arrive after a certain long time. we know that the Word (of the Prophet) the Lord hath spoken. may easily be deduced. So that it is manifest. Deut. and carefull ratiocina tion. should pretend to bee and Doc. immediate Revelation to be acknowledged neither of them being singly sufficient to oblige any other man to regard what he saith. that the teaching of the Religion which God hath established. the Prophet hath foretold a thing. by the want of all other Prophecy wise and learned interpretation. 22. as is evident by ^formable Miracles. and sufficiently recompense and from which. i e ft whereby to acknowledge the pretended Revelations. heart. . Miracles Seeing therefore Miracles now cease. that which shall not come to passe. nor obligation to or I ns pi ra-tions of any private man ceafe^and the Scrip. to the law. intheold cient argument of immediate Revelation. ought to be confirmed by an immediate.to the Holy Scriptures. all rules and precepts necessary to the knowledge of our duty both to God and man. without preaching that Doctrine so preaching the true without the doing of Miracles. ? . or a not long deferred event. and the shewing of a present Miracle. he is never the more to bee regarded for his pretence. without Enthusiasme. OF A CHRISTIAN as Chap. 32. that is to say. but the name Prophet has spoken fear it out of the pride of his own ask. And this Scripture is it. were the only marks whereby the Scripture would have a true Prophet. we have no sign ceasing. supply the place.290 The marks of a Part 3. [198] Miracles. out of which I am to take the .

cannot be known. but of when. Scope and Authority of the Bible. which men are to observe. Rules of Christian And because is all Rules of life. and in conscience bound Scripture For though it be not determined in Scripture. and Interpreters of the Books of Holy SCRIPTURE. Of the [199] Number. for the obtain ing of Peace and Justice. concerning the Rights of those that are the Supream Governors on earth. which are established for such by . Writers. . Seeing therefore I have already proved. of the Books. that God is the and therefore. . are Laws the question of what is the question of the Scripture. XXXIII. But the question is not of obedience to God. the Books life. . u 2 . when he Soveraign of all Soveraigns speaks to any Subject. to be Holy Scripture. Subjects towards their Soveraigns. Civill. to obey the authority of their severall Common-wealths that is to say. COMMON-WEALTH. Chap. that is to say. in every nation. are understood Of the which ought to be the Canon. but by that naturall reason. he ought to be obeyed. the Books of Holy SCRIPTURE. of Chris and of the duty of Christian tian Common -wealths And to that end. which guided them. I shall speak in the next Chapter. Scope. Antiquity. what Laws every Christian King shall constitute in his own Dominions yet it is determined what laws he shall not constitute. :hat Soveraigns in their own Dominions are the sole those Books only are Canonicall. by the Authority . I can acknowledge no other Books of the Old Testament. Law throughout all Christendome. . It is true. of BY those. Legislators Law. According to this obligation. and what God hath said which to Subjects that have no supernaturall revelation. Authority. 33. . 291 Principles of my Discourse. but those which have been com manded to be acknowledged for such. that is. CHAP. both Naturall. the Soveraign Authority.Part 3. of their lawfull Soveraigns. whatso ever any earthly Potentate command to the contrary.

Reason : for nor can be by any arguments Reason serves only to convince the truth (not of fact. without a Catalogue of them here and they are the same that are acknowledged by St. of the sufficiently Church of England. that admit any Books at all for Canonicall. is known. . 33. arid nine of other Holy writ. must be that which is held out unto us from the Bookes them selves And this light. who holdeth the rest. it is not argument enough that they were written by Moses. (though he had seen the first in Hebrew) and the third and fourth of Esdras. sent for by Ptolemy King of Egypt. because they are called no more than these titles. the first and the second of Maccabees. they are equally acknowledged for Canon by all Christian Churches. Jerome four of Hymnes and Morall Precepts. wherein they were written. out of the Hebrew into the Greek. As for the Books of the New Testament. which he calls of Hagiographa. but) of consequence. The light therefore that must guide us in this question. that wrote in the time of the Emperour Domitian. and But St. has not been made evident by any sufficient testimony of other History. the Wisdome of Solomon. Josephus a learned Jew. making the number agree with the Hebrew Alphabet. And first. eight of Prophets. and by all Sects of Christians. (which is the only proof of matter of fact) of naturall . reckons five Books of Moses. namely. to translate the Jewish [200] law. for the Pentateuch. thirteen of Prophets.292 Part 3. Jerome does the same. Their Who were the originall writers of the severall Books Antiquity. but the same that are received in the Church of England. who were 70. learned men of the Jews. Tobias. Jerome. The Septuagint. though it shew us not the writer of every book. What Books these are. Judith. o f Holy Scripture. Of the Canonicall. the five Books of Moses : : . Moses. for Apocrypha. though they reckon them in For Josephus numbers five Books of different manner. yet it is not unusefull to give us know ledge of the time. Ecclesiasticus. that writ the History of their own times (which how it agrees with the Prophets writ ings contained in the Bible wee shall see hereafter). St. reckoneth twenty two. have left us no other for holy Scripture in the Greek tongue. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap.

s therefore sufficiently evident. by Ruth. was written by some other man. ver. that those words were written after his interrement. but the The History of Livy. COMMON-WEALTH. And this did Moses himself write. : . not the whole Pentateuch. 33. but the rest not Let us therefore consider that which we find in the Book of Genesis. and at the brook of Arnon. the Writer citeth another more ancient Book. that it was But lot found to that day. Entituled. And Abraham passed through the land to the place of Sichem. to say Moses spake of his own sepulcher (though by Prophecy). who dyed before he came nto it. t may perhaps be alledged. denotes the Writer is denominated from the subject. For it were a strange interpretation. not of Moses. as often as the writer. The Pentaieuchnot concerning the sepulcher of Moses. by the For in titles of Judges. . wherein he was yet living. 14. those words were written. the Volume of the Law. Books. of day sepulcher It is therefore manifest. and deliver to the Priests and Elders of Israel. 293 The Book of Joshua. . History of Scanderbeg. The Book of the Varres of the Lord.Part 3. and in the form we have them yet he wrote all that which hee is there said to have written as :or example. and the Canaanite was which must needs bee the words of one hen in the land hat wrote when the Canaanite was not in the land and onsequently. 6. the Book of Ruth. and by the Kings. at the Red-sea. at their assembling in the feast . wherein were registred the Acts of It Hoses. are arguments suffi cient to provej that they were written by Joshua. But though Moses did not compile those Books entirely. Chap. though how long after it be not so manifest. Likewise Numbers 21. to be read every [201] seventh year to all Israel. that the last Chapter only. chap. which was also commanded :o be written on stones. as it seemeth. 12. in the following Chapters to the 27. ver. that the five Books of Moses were written after his time. and the fined. 6. unto the plain of Moreh. in their entry into the land of Canaan. day. that no man knoweth to this that to the wherein his is. which is con of Deuteronomie. and the Books of the Kings. the subject is marked. We read in the last Chapter of Deuteronomie. ver. : n . the Book of Judges.

26. & 30. 7. chap. He made it a Statute and an Ordinance to Israel 2 5am. T to King Josias. upon the saying of the Lord. the Capti. that he had rolled off from the people the Reproach of Egypt. Arguments of this kind there be many other as Josh. I Sam. 30. to this day. when David (displeased. They are there Josh. 15. I 5. of from the Priests and Levites and which Moses 26 commanded the Priests and Levites to lay in the side of the Arke and the same which having been lost. That the Book of Joshua was also written long after The Book of Joshua the time of Joshua. i.19. G*m ttoBookes of Samuel were also written after his there are the like arguments.6. So also the name of the Valley of Achor. - . vity.) called the place Perez-Uzzah. beyond the memory of man. 25. 5. the the time Writer saith.63. TheBooke of The same is manifest by like arguments of the Book - Judges O f Judges. for putting out his hand to Ark. where. 17. may be gathered out of many places of the Book ii: self oshua had set U P twelve stones J aftefhis the middest of Jordan. the Writer saith. 14. is a phrase that signifieth In like manner. 8.written that Jonathan and his sonnes were Priests to the long after said.gt. . was long time after found again by Hilkiah. Tabernacles. Achan raised in the Camp. 33. 14. The place is called Gilgal unto this day which to have said in the time of Joshua had been improper. 13. commanded. 5. it is called so to this day Lord had slain the : . 15. a time past. renewed the Covenant between God and them. with them that fought.6.gt. 3&amp. sustain Uzzah.I of judged equall part of the spoiles. 7. where it is &quot. that the ti That the Books me &amp.4. 31. to them that guarded the Ammunition. and sent 8.6-23. &amp. .294 Part of 3- OF A CHRISTIAN And Chap. 6. monument of their timl.2 7. 9. . Again.26.4. of which the Writer saith thus. for a. 29. from the trouble that Josh. 5. 9 passage unto this day for unto this day. who causing it to be read to the People. 6. 2 King. . after David. 2) 3 m . had ad Samuel. remaineth unto this day which must needs bee therefore long after the time of Joshua. 22.gt.24. 18.Tribe of Dan. Josh. untill the day of the captivity of the land. 21. the Writer saith. this is that Law which God their Kings (when they should have established that form of Government) should take a copy Dent. 13. 10. 4. the Writer saith. that . anc* Ruth * T but especially Judg.

the re-edification of the walls and houses of Nehemia}l Jerusalem. 8. person but a Treatise concerning a question in ancient time much disputed. 12.) that he was no fained yet the Book it self seemeth not to be a History. the renovation of the Covenant. to the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel. that the History of them is continued till that time. 9.41.34. 2 Kings 2.6. . 41. : . As for the two Books of the Kings. (Ezekiel 14. 14. remained till his own ana !??f the days.26. . 5. long after the time after the time of the fact of David. and therefore the Writer must have been Captivity of the same time. . . and of the Prophet Addo. and though it appear sufficiently and James 5. where the complaint of Job beginneth.to the Books of the Prophet Serveiah. Chap. and quote the Register as these Books doe in divers places. 10. such as are I Kings 9. The History of Queen Esther is of the time of the Esther. The Books of Esdras and Nehemiah were written [202] because their Ezra and certainly after their return from captivity return. I Chron.22. and good men have been afflicted and it is the more probable. 4-717. 33. - tion of their policy are therein contained.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. For the Facts Registred are alwaies more ancient and much more ancient than such than the Register Books as make mention of. referring the Reader to the Chronicles of the Kings of Juda. Jerome testifies) in prose and from thence to the sixt verse of the last and the rest of that chapter in Hexameter Verses chapter again in prose.13. and the two Books The Books of the Chronicles.22.12. 295 therefore of the writing of that Book. as the Writer saith. besides the places which mention such f * he monuments.23. because from the beginning. So that the dispute is al) in . cAromI 16. 4. must be long that is. . 19.21. 10. to the Books of the Prophet Samuel.. . cient they were written after the captivity in Babylon. cfes. the Hebrew is (as St. n. and ordina. It is argument suffi 17. to the third verse of the third chapter. 17.27. The Book of Job hath no mark in it of the time wherein Job. . of the Prophet Nathan. why wicked men have often prospered in this world. of the Prophet Ahijah to the Vision of Jehdo. . it was written . or after it.

To these are added some and some of them Songs of Moses. that gathered into one body of the Law not the Doctrine only. pain. EcclesiThe Books of Ecclesiastes and the Canticles have astes and nothing that was not Solomons. the most ancient. after the return of the Jews from Babylon. rather then by Agur. and the 126. otherwise Ozias. Isaiah and Michaiah. The Song of Songs. and an Epilogue in the end. and other holy men after the return from the Captivity. For The Words of the Preacher. 33. but the Authors also might be extant. and the prose is added. usual! stile of such. Jonas. especially morall Philosophy. are Sophoniah. except it be the Titles. was the work of some other godly man. for the use of the Quire. . Sayings. as either are themselves in great or of such as come to comfort them. .296 Part 3. so that there is and disputing Gods commandements small probabil ty he should be the Author. But Verse is no. But the Book of Jonas is not properly a Register of his Prophecy. whereby it is manifest that the Psalter was com piled. The Proverbs. . and Azariah. . . yet the collection or compiling them into this one Book. seem to have been made for dis tinctions sake. . when the Books of Scripture were to the end. Prophets. Amos. being a Collection of wise and godly The Proverbs. or Inscriptions. cannot probably be thought to have been collected by Solomon. as the 137. (for that is contained in these few words. in ancient time frequent. Fourty dayes and Ninivy shall be destroyed. who lived in the time of Amaziah. Prophecy.} but a History or Narration of his frowardnesse. Hosea. The Of the Prophets. though the sentences be theirs. as Job as his friends but in Philosophy. and put into the form it now hath. then. that lived after them all. . . King in Jerusalem which is Solomon s. The Psalmes were written the most part by David. partly of Solomon. partly of Agur the son of Jakeh. and partly of the Mother of King Lemuel. the Son and. of David. Kings of Judah. or the Mother of Lemuel and that. seeing he is the But the Book of Amos is his subject of it. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. . The Psalter. but as a Preface in the verse beginning.

14. in the Captivity.Part 3. which were written in thy Law. saying. it is manifest enough. and Zacharias. And if the Books of Apocrypha (which are recommended to us by the Church. And thus much concerning the time of the writing of the Bookes of the Old Testament. though not for Canonicall. but keep the seventy last. may live. publish openly. [-03] 297 Jeremiah. When Joel and Malachi prophecyed. ment and St. except St. Abdias. that the whole Scripture of the Old Testament. that the And Highest spake. But the time wherein the Books of the New Testament were received. Titles of their Books. was set forth in the form we have it. Thy law is burnt therefore no man knoweth the things which thou hast done. and acknowledged by the Church to be of their writing. And verse 45. in the second book. that thou mayst deliver them onely to such as be wise among the people. and before the time of Ptolemceus Philadelphus. and had all of them Testaseen our Saviour. send down the holy Spirit into me. Luke and consequently whatsoever was written by them. that the worthy and unworthy may read it . verse 21. Daniel. which were sent him out of Judea for that purpose. or the works that are to begin. and Habakkuk prophecyed time of Josiah. or been his Disciples. Aggeus. But if I have found Grace before thee. The Writers of the New Testament lived all in lesse The New then an age after Christs Ascension. &c. as the Bookes of the Old Testament are derived to us. he saith thus. . Ezekiel. the Scripture was set forth in the form wee have it in. after the return of the Jews from their Captivity in Babylon. yet for profitable Books for our instruction) may in this point be credited. COMMON-WEALTH. will live in the later days. where speaking to God. and that they which may . chapt. or Writings. 22. it came to passe when the forty dayes were fulfilled. The first that thou hast written. Paul. is as ancient as the time of the Apostles. that men may find thy path. and I shall write all that hath been done in the world. that caused into Greek it to bee translated by seventy men. Chap. is not evident by their But considering the Inscriptions. For. from no higher . in the Nahum. appear by that which he himself saith. is not altogether so ancient.. by Esdras as . since the beginning. 33.

Peter) Bishop of Rome. that recommended the Bible to the then Christian Churches. to yet I am perswaded they did not therefore falsifie the Scriptures. any reason to doubt. they would surely have made them more favorable to their power over Christian Princes. time then that of Esdras. of all the Bookes. were in the hands only of the Ecclesiasticks because if they had had an intention so to doe. and I see not therefore Civill Soveraignty. as no more to esteem Emperours. For after the conquest of Asia by Alexander the Great. And so perhaps are some of those Books which are called Apocrypha.Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN : Chap. both of the Old. [204] supposed to be collected by Clement the first (after St. 33. the people the more obedient to Christian Doctrine. not for inconformity of Doctrine with the rest. as Preachers Governours and thought such frauds as tended to make : . approved. who by the direction of Gods them. yeer after Christ. is in the Canons of the Apostles. than that wherein the Governours of the Church collected. and but for Laws. though Christian. as we have them now. . but only because they are not found in the Hebrew. but that the Old. not for Counsell. . . if left out of the Canon. though the copies of the Books of the New Testament. and Apostles. under whose names they go. At which time. . than they are. the Councell of Laodicea is the first we know. and by many questioned. that were not perfect in the Greek be pious . . there were few learned Jews. for the Writings of the Prophets and Apostles and this Councell was held in the 364. when they were lost Those of the New Testament. as absolute Information. cannot bee derived from a higher time. for the Shepherds of the people. nor could easily be all in any one private mans hand. as the writings of those Spirit retrived Apostles and Disciples The first enumeration and New Testament. for Wolves and endea voured to passe their Doctrine. are the true Registers of those things. and recommended them to us. which were done and said by the Prophets. though ambition had so far prevailed on the great Doctors of the Church. . and New Testa ment. but for Sheep and Emperours not Christian. But because that is but supposed. of which the copies were not many.

to the Captivity. after the manner of their neighbour nations The rest of the History of the Old Testament. and the Gospels and Epistles of the New Testament. : : : . from the creation of the the other four Books World. the Holy Ghost. whose coming was foretold in the Bookes of the Prophets. in the time he lived on earth and the Apostles. the Father. which is the setting forth of the Rights of the Kingdome of God. in that they conspire to one and the same end. have had one and the same scope. and actions. and his claim to the Kingdome. but the authority of the Church. in the Old Testament [205] Christ himself. the Acts. and their successors. all indued with one and the same Spirit. to convert men to the obedience of God i.Part 3. Son. In summe. Ruth. and his successors the High Priests. : : ment The Books : . . written by them eloquently in Greek. and the Authority he left with them. the person of God Moses. for the direction of the Jews. after whom the Evangelists writt his life. to the time of Saul. out of which line was to spring the restorer of the Kingdome of God. and for the invitation of the Gentiles. in the Apostles and the successors to Apostolicall For these three at several times did represent power. For the Book of Genesis. COMMON-WEALTH. written by divers men. and the Priests 2. in the man Christ and 3. the Bible into Greek. 33. and Samuel. derives the succession of the line of David. yet it is manifest the Writers were Scope. and Kings of Judah. even our blessed Saviour God the Son. in Moses. Judges. were all of them Hebrews . from the day of Pentecost (when the Holy Ghost descended on them) to this day. the Histories and the Prophecies of the old Testament. and Epistles of the Apostles. contain the Election of God for their King. Chap. deriveth the Genealogy of Gods people. and we have extant the works of Philo and Josephus both Jews. that maketh And although these Books were Their a Book Canonicall. whilst he lived on earth and lastly. and Holy Ghost. till the time they cast off Gods yoke. describe the acts of Gods people. and their successors. and called for a King. But it is not the Writer. . to the going into Egypt of Moses. 299 For the seventy Interpreters that converted tongue. and the Laws which hee prescribed for their Govern : of Joshua. declare the coming of God.

nor that those that published them. (though all true Christians beleeve it.300 The qucs- Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN a question Chap. U ty Derive their Authority . He therefore. As far as they differ not from the Laws of Nature. is not obliged to obey them. For it is beleeved on all hands. were sent by him. and carry their Authorit y with them legible to all men that have the use of naturall reason but this is no other &amp. or . he knew not they were his. or. to whom God hath not supernaturally revealed. by any Authority. by any other Authority. who only has the Legislative power. Again. that the first and originall Author of them is God and consequently the question disputed. Lastly. which are Laws to them only to whom God hath so sufficiently published them. 33. wee know them to be Scriptures stated.) but those to whom God him self hath revealed it supernaturally and therefore the question is not rightly moved. residing in the Soveraign. and others for other reasons. then that of all other Morall Doctrine conso nant to Reason. By . From How Word Why : And the difficulty of resolving it. It is much disputed between the divers tion of the se cts of Christian whence the Scriptures Religion. that they are his. the we beleeve them to be so of God. the Dictates whereof are Laws. whose Commands have already the force of Laws . . that giveth them the force of Laws. ariseth chiefly from the impropernesse of the words wherein the question it self is couched.gt. it is manifest. as no man can excuse himself. of our Knowledge of it. that is to say. The question truly stated is. not made. is not that. which question is also propounded of fh sometimes in other terms. when the question is propounded of our Beleefe because some are moved to beleeve for one. then that of the Common-wealth. but his. they are of the nature of written Law. : Authority. Their Authority there is no doubt. what Authority they are made Law. Again. there can be rendred no one generall answer for them all. but Eternall. . as. by saying. that none can know they are Gods Word. if it be not the Legislative Authority of the Common-wealth. but they are the Law of God. either private. it must bee some other Authority derived from God. If they be made Law by God himself e.

. . to whom in publique been hath God pleased to reveale it. or if it bee one Common-wealth. and punished by an Universall Soveraigne of all Christendome. nor Voice for all thing these qualities are personall. wee are to judge of the Authority of Inter.[206] with a Common-wealth of Christians wealth. Which question cannot bee resolved. is the same thing called a Common. But if the Church be not one person. 33. (in such a num ber of men. what particular men. nor doe any action at all nor is capable of having any power. deposed. and put to own one death. and Madnesse. . take their it Fancies. because it consisteth in their Soveraign Christian men. it is the Authority of the Common-wealth. : Chap. . immediately under God . 301 if private. to take for Gods Law.) it were impossible that any Divine Law should be acknowledged. testimonies of Gods Spirit pretend to such Divine testimonies. then it hath no authority at all it can neither command. obliges onely him. Reason. falsely. be absolute in : their to Territories. For if particular every man should be obliged. if it be one person. .Part&amp. So that the question of the Authority of the Scriptures. and ignorance. or right to any nor has any Will. and subject to bee judged. by the Universall for .$. without a more from particular consideration of the Kingdome of God whence also. But the Church. or subject Vicar of Christ. or out of ambition. that out of pride. because it consisteth of men united in.one person. and the Soveraigne Assemblies in Christian Common-wealths. or of the Church. or Revelation. should obtrude upon him. . and extravagant . to bee judged. . condemned. as hee shall think expedient. united in one Christian Soveraign. Whether Christian Kings. . constituted over the Universall Church . nor is there an Universall they are not one person Church that hath any authority over them and there fore the Scriptures are not made Laws. and States are private persons. and contrary to their own consciences. Now if the whole number of Christians be not contained in one Common-wealth. own Dreams. is reduced to this. or necessary for the common good. and a Church. deposed. COMMON-WEALTH. on pretence of private Inspiration.gt. then all Church Christian Monarchs. If publique.

the meaning of such words. [207] CHAP. upon them. ^ . OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. or occupyeth some certain and dependeth not on the room. 33. Of the Signification of SPIRIT. ANGEL. but is a reall part of that we call the Uni verse. and INSPIRATION in the Books of Holy Scripture. somtimes of another. there is no reall part thereof that is not also Body nor any thing properly a Body. on the organs of our sense) we attribute to alterations of the Bodies that operate. some various accidents times to stand Still and to seem to our senses sometimes . or Sound. to variety of apparence to the sense of living creatures.302 Part 3. or disputable. is the constant Signification of words which in the how taken Doctrine following. I will begin with the words BODY. as by their ambiguity. that is to say. is called Substance. which filleth. same also. Hot. And according to this accept a- . . & call them Accidents of those Bodies. to as sometimes to be Moved. and SPIRIT. The Word Body. out of the Bible. And this diversity of Seeming. nor (as in common conversa *Scriture tion) on vulgar use. Substances. before I proceed any further. Scripture to determine. or imagined place imagination. hath the power also to approve. that is to say. which in the language of the Schools are termed. sometimes Cold. or disapprove the interpretation of the same. SEEING the foundation of all true Ratiocination. because Bodies are subject to change. and inferre Incorporeall. may render what I am to Body and Spirit . signifieth that in the most generall acceptation. The . power over any Writing. to make it Law. Corporeall. that is not also part of (that Aggregate of all Bodies] the Universe. Subject. XXXIV. being the Aggregate of all Bodies. Smel. but on the sense they carry in the It is necessary. obscure. (produced by the diversity of the operation of bodies. For. . Tast. dependeth not (as in naturall science) on e Will of the Writer. whosoever hath a lawfull preting the Scripture. For the Universe. sometimes of one Colour.

to resist their force. we say. And men. or from the disorderly agitation of the Organs of our Sense. because the sight judges them and some to call them Spirits. use not to be taken for Bodies. 303 tion of the word. but only such parts thereof as they can discern by the sense of Feeling. . But for metaphoricall for sometimes it is taken significations. as when for : the disposition to controwl the sayings of other men. there where they seem and in the brain it self. an Incorporeall Body. proceeding either from the action of the objects. . that are otherwise imployed. I say. or other Idol or Phantasme of the Imagination. gives it life and motion. nothing but tumult. a froundeannesse. spirits. [208] they are (as the Apostle saith generally of all Idols) But Nothing at all. where they are not. by those whose knowledge they much reverence. which represent Bodies to us. is either a sub tile. .Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. there be many for Disposition or Inclination of the mind . or (because the same as when they are called in the Latine Spiritus] Spirits call that aeriall substance. . a dumb spirit. and think them made of aire compacted by a power supernaturall. or Breath. some to call them Bodies. or to a Distempered brain waking. know not of themselves. . : signification of Spirit in common speech. destroy one another. because the corporeall sense of Touch discerneth nothing in the place where So that the proper they appear. then to search into their causes. prospect. an unclean spirit war d spirit for sullennesse. 34. but (as often as men are sensible of their effects) are called Wind. in a Dream. what to call them and may therefore easily be perswaded. signifie the same and therefore Substance incorporeall are words. a spirit of contradiction For a disposition to for perversenesse. Vitall and Animall for those Idols of the brain. fluid. . to resist their fingers nothing to bee . and for . as if a man should say. . and invisible Body. and aeriall substances. or a Ghost. But in the sense of common people. Chap. Aire. as in a Looking-glasse. living creature. to hinder them from a farther Therefore in the common language of men. Substance and Body. or by the sense of their Eyes. not all the Universe is called Body. which in the body of any thing . which when they are joined together.

and that changes not place. Gen. The Spirit of God l^S^ti Gen. i. what he is. 2. i. as when great wisdome is called the spirit of wisdome and mad men . Pharaoh calleth the Wisdome of Joseph. but in our Submission God is said to be a Spirit or where by the Spirit of God. as this * S in whom is * he S P irit God) Thou shalt speak (saith f God ? to all that And Exod. and conse. is meant God himselfe. . and our Faith therein consisteth not in our standing as in all places where Opinion. God intending to abate them. 38. Other signification of Spirit I find no where any where none of these can satisfie the sense of that in Scripture. then is Motion attributed to God. useth the like words. (that is an Aire or Spirit moved. because it was Gods work. ture some- times for a q uen tly Place. or that has not dimension whatsoever has dimension.) which might be called (as in the former place) the Spirit of God. are not to tell one another. Where when the earth was covered with Waters. which are intelligible only of Bodies. . but our desire to honour him with such names as we conceive most honorable amongst our selves. . and again to discover the dry land. are said to be possessed with a spirit. 8. or our understanding. but only that he is and therefore the Attri butes we give him. : and Gods service. The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters. 41. or disease of the mind. 3. he saith thus. : ^ g Under standing. 28. nor to signifie our opinion of his Nature. Gen. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. . [209] For Joseph having advised him to the Spirit of God. or extra ordinary passion. Can we find such a man . that can conceive nothing moved Breath. inclination to godlinesse. are wise hearted. and not of substances incorporeall and so the place is above Wind. as in the beginning. Here if by the Spirit of God be meant God himself. is Body. For the nature of God is incom is that to prehensible say. . and to set him over ordinary e land of Egypt. we understand nothing of what he is. / will bring my Spirit upon the Earth. and word not under humane Under . the place falleth . for extra. 34. the Spirit of God sometimes for any eminent ability. and the in which place by Spirit is waters shall be diminished understood a Wind. But the meaning of those words is best understood by the like place.304 Part 3. Secondly.look out a wise and discreet man.

Gen. as it is in the Latine. 4. not a Ghost. 6. 305 whom I Aaron Garments. and. but by some supernaturall Dream or Vision. and Samson to deliver them from servitude. Exod. is called the Spirit of God. 3. . and Thirdly. 14. not so many Ghosts. that though they spake by the Spirit of God. saith. Where extraordinary though but in making Garments. Spirit of God Jephtha. upon the newes ii. 5. 3. the Spirit with the Spirit of Wisdome. it is said (i Sam. In like manner by the Spirit of God. Gideon. saith to Micaiah (i Kings 22. and man was made a living soul. and his Anger (or. 19. that is to say.) that to Fourthly. The Spirit of God came upon Saul. There HOBBES X . speaking in him. Where manifestly is meant. as from a Vision. but an extraordinary Zeal to punish the cruelty of the Ammonites. greatly. and Visions. of a J. and 35. Saul. And Isaiah n. Judg. 29. and not as from a Spirit. The same is found again. is called the f as when it excited Othoniel. breath of life. of counsell. that came upon Saul. COMMON-WEALTH. being the Gift of God. In the Book of Judges. an extraordinary Zeal. in the Books of the Prophets.) Which way went the Spirit of the Lord from me towards the ii. to thee ? Which cannot be understood Ghost for Micaiah declared before the Kings and Judah. 24. 31. 6. for Earth. 13. In the same manner it appeareth. 19. It is said. God made man of the dust of the Fiftly. 31. 3. but so many eminent graces that God would give him. to make consecrate him. have filled to Chap. The false Prophet Zedekiah. ?e of Israel Breams p ~ them. as and fortitude . Understanding. And of of the insolence of the Ammonites men of Jabesh Gilead. 20. 2. r e ^t Courage in the defence of Gods people. The Spirit of the Lord shall abide upon him. and Musick (i Sam. but an unexpected and sudden zeal to join with them in their devotion. where the Prophet speaking of the Messiah. the Spirit of the fear of the Lord. by a speciall grace of Prediction yet their knowledge of the future. for the gift speak . 6. 25. was not by a Ghost within . 34. 7. the Spirit of wisdome and understanding. and breathed into his nostrills (spiraculum vitae) the Life.) is to be understood. 2.Parts. his Fury) was kindled Where it is not probable was meant a Ghost. the event of the battle. 10. 34. when hee was amongst the Prophets that praised God in Songs. 6.

In the like sense we read (Deut. and Joshua desired Moses to forbid them which Moses would not doe. as it is exprest. verse 17. Whereby it appears that Joshua knew not they had received of the whom some . . I recovered my vitall strength not that any and Ghost.) Hereby you shall know God . .306 Part 3. Mat. or Authority subordinate to his own. (namely. signifies no more. and set me on my that is. and Mar. 34. 34. . i. feet. i. 30. (Rom. the Spirit of life was in the wheels. and will put it upon an d they shall bear the burthen of the people with th 3 * is. that Jesus is the which cannot be interpreted of a Ghost. because Moses had laid hands upon him that is. authority so to do.gt. So in Ezek.) // any man have not meaning not the Spirit of Christ. to prosecute the work hee had himselfe begun. i. could not finish. I will take (saith a subordination l God) th em&amp.) And Jesus full of the Holy Ghost (that is. but that God gave him life And (Job 27. seventy are said to prophecy in the campe of complained. Chap. of the Holy Spirit. In the ii chap. because he was ordained by Moses. which is upon thee. he is none of his thereby the Ghost of Christ. but prevented by death. upon the seventy Elders : whereupon . for possessed his body. 8. 2. In the like sense it is said. is to say.) was filled with . Sixtly.) that Joshua mind full of the Spirit of wisdome. the breath of life inspired by God. but a submission to his was his : : Doctrine. by a Spirit. OF A CHRISTIAN . i. 4. the wheels were alive. 9.} may be understood. or incorporeall substance entred into (Ezek. and prophecyed according to the of Moses. to [2io~\ ^ ee two of the Spirit.) as long as the Spirit of God is in my nostrils is no more then to say. 3. of Numbers. the bringing of Gods people into the promised land). the Spirit of unfained Christianity. Christ Likewise these words (Luke 4. Christ is the Spirit of As also (i John 4. Every Spirit that confesseth that Jesus come in the flesh. 20. is of God by which is meant . is equivalent to. 2. 9. that Father God himselfe (for so our Saviour was. for Zeal to doe the work for which hee was sent by God the but to interpret it of a Ghost. : . 12. that is to say. or submission to that main Article of Christian faith. And . as long as I live.) the Spirit entred into me.

the Disciples themselves did follow the common opinion of both Jews and Gentiles. : . I examine not : but this I say. Peter was delivered out of but when the Maid Prison.) So also (Acts 12. . 3. 49. and sub. because of the differences of Fancies). it would not be beleeved said he was at the dore. Angels) to declare his will. and unsignificant.[211] tantiall that is to say. . they said it was his Angel by which must be meant a corporeall substance. and Angels. that is to say. 26. (which are not common to many at once. which signifieth nothing. . 7. but Reall as needed not the fancy of man for their Existence These the Jews called Spirits. some extraordinary ability or affection of the Mind. meaning thereby an Aeriall Body. sea. and not a Phantasme for it is said. and Marke 6. 15. and take up roome.) when St. as of Ministers. or we must say. but the Imaginary inhabitants of mans brain. . The Disciples of Christ. . in extraordinary and supernaturall manner. How we came to translate Spirits. Chap. : . (Mat. or . Good or Bad as the Greeks called the same by the name of Damons. . same when he pleaseth. but of Bodies only. But if Corporeall 3e taken in the most vulgar manner. subtile Bodies. 14. by which he formed all things.) supposed him to \)QforAeriall a Spirit. that is to say. they all saw him which cannot be understood of the delusions of the brain. that seeming to be somewhat. which s peculiar to Bodies and therefore are not Ghosts incorporeall. neither in heaven. where he was taken for a Spirit. by the word Ghosts. that are no where that is to say. the word Spirit in the text signifieth no such thing but either properly a reall substance. 34 307 God which is very improper. by the same Apostles (Luke 24. endued with dimensions. as visible Bodies are but singular. or of the Body. In like manner.Part$. COMMON-WEALTH. nor earth. X 2 . that some such and such apparitions were not Imaginary. for such Substances . and make use of. seeing him walking upon the Seventhly. Ghosts that are in no place . Metaphorically. are nothing. and Messengers (that s to say. and execute the : . But when hee hath so formed them :hey are Substances. which God can :orm by the same power. And some such apparitions may be reall. and can be moved from place to place.

is signified. there is nothing delivered in the Scriptures. as are perceptible by our externall Senses then is Substance Incorporeall. . . but that hath the same dimensions that are in grosser Bodies. Incorporeall . . but Accidents of the brain yet when . of living creatures and sometimes the Images that rise in the which are not reall fancy in Dreams. is often repeated but by the name of Spirit. is signified especially : by a Dream. By the . any makes known his extraordinary Presence say. they esteemed the Angels of God. a Messenger of Messenger by a Messenger of God. they are not unproperly termed Gods Messengers. Good and Evill which because they seemed to subsist really. sometimes thin Bodies the Wind. raiseth them supernaturall y. and Visions Substances. Chap. a and most often. name of ANGEL. to signifie his Will. is signified generally.3o8 Part 3. and not dependent on the fancy and out of them framed their opinions of Daemons. though no reall Substances.) that those apparitions (which it pleased God sometimes to produce in the fancie of men. or Vision they appear in which Apparitions. (except the sect of the S adduces. . . without any thing in the Old Testa ment that constrained them thereunto. Concerning the creation of Angels. and therefore called them his Angels) were substances. nor last any longer then the Dream. Invisible. Angel what. that is to say. OF A CHRISTIAN . . the Spirits Vitall. for things really subsistent without them. not dependent on the fancy. . for his own service. they called Evill Angels. That they are Spirits. : God the same ground. both amongst Jews. 34. and Gentiles. the extraordinary manifestation of . but Reall namely. but permanent creatures of God whereof those which they thought were good to them. . God : And thing that that is to his power. a thin Substance. and vulgarly. or Vision. as the Aire. . and Animall. and those they thought would hurt them. had generally an opinion. his Angels. they called Substances and because they could not feel them so also the Jews upon with their hands. both in Scripture. a thing not Imaginary. And as the Gentiles did vulgarly conceive the Imagery of the brain.

19. (for the words are. and a Dream yet being supernaturall. . . 16. 12. Why therefore may not the Angels that appeared to Lot. 28. to stay his hand (Gen. and the Spirits of : the fancy. and are called Gen. there was no Apparition. it may be understood in the same manner.) where Jacob saith thus. that Angel signifieth there. . as God. a Voice supernaturall. saith to Agar. there can nothing else be understood by the C 2I2 1 word Angel.) as but to one. Dcemoniaques.) from slaying Isaac. or Angel of God. 13. but some image raised (supernaturally) in or Evill Spirits . 22. speaketh in the person of God. that caused Agar supernaturally to appre or rather. / will multiply thy seed exceedingly Neither was is. By which manifest. and signs of Gods speciall presence. nothing else but hend a voice from heaven . 31. The same is to be understood (Gen. Lot said unto them. and that one. . For we read Gen. not onely an Angel. and saves the labour of supposing any permanent Ghosts. to signifie the presence of God in the execution and therefore in the rest. of some supernaturall work where their nature is not exprest. 34. The Angels which Jacob saw on the Ladder of Heaven therefore onely (Gen. n. Men and to whom. because it declared Gods will supernaturally. 309 such as was the Spirit of Python. . of Lunatiques. . this apparition a Fancy figured.) is called the Angel of the Lord. . and EpilepFor they esteemed such as were troubled with tiques such diseases. we shall find. Chap. though they were two. Oh not so my Lord) be understood of images of men.) were a Vision of his sleep Fancy. nothing but God himself. that the same apparition is where that which called. in the tenth . 18. Mad-men. The Angel of the . but a Voice. testifying Gods speciall presence there. n. But if we consider the places of the Old Testament where Angels are mentioned. supernaturally formed in the Fancy as well as before by Angel was understood a fancyed Voice ? When the Angel called to Abraham out of heaven. but a Voice which neverthelesse was called properly enough a Messenger. Lot speaketh (ver.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. those apparitions are not improperly called Angels. that in most of them. but God (verse 7. that it is verse.

} that and that may not be.) the Lord himself in the form of a beautifull man. would be too long. is (verse 19. there is. To mention all the places of the Old Testament where the name of Angel is found. there is no text in that part of the Old Testament. as usually they are painted. 14.) God did not answer. . for the false instruction of common people. and fire naturall . nor / will send an Angell in my stead but . presence shall goe with thee. .3io Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN to Chap.) / am the God of Bethel. and stood at the dore of the Tabernacle. [213] fications of Gods presence in supernaturall operations. and (by night) in form of a pillar of and yet this Pillar was all the apparition. which the Church thus. in summe. (as he had done alwaies before the making of the Golden Calfe. is said. which are. 9. or hath been created. was God himself e for the same Angel saith (verse 13. but in form (by day) of a pillar of cloud. is that which all men call a Dreame. 34. that makes them Angels. . attributed to a Cloud. . because the Cloud served as a sign of Gods presence and was no lesse an Angel. Also (Exod. As when Moses (Exod. Lord appeared mee in made to a : man my in his sleep. which is not of . or Child of never so great beauty or Wings. But their use is to be signi: . . by the under hath not quantity that is to say. and to have talked with Moses. and the next part in the next place to it and. 33.) for the Armies guide For this cloudy pillar. whether such Dreame be naturall. Angel promised to Moses (Exod. and then came behind and he appeared not it. For an apparition sleep. or super and that which there Jacob calleth an Angel. . com monly attributed to Angels. 9.) the Angel that went before the Army of Israel to the Red Sea. There you see Motion. and Speech. my England holdeth for Canonicall. from which we can conclude. . . / will goe. 14. There fore to comprehend them all at once. For it is not the shape but their use. 14. then if it had had the form of a Man. to have descended.) had desired God to goe along with the Campe. I say. any permanent thing (understood by the name of Spirit or Angel. considered by parts standing divided so as one part may bee in one place.

and withall incorporeall. Chap. i. Though we find in Daniel two names of Angels. which is some what. That they are permanent. and Ministers of his word. in his dream. let us make this man understand his Vision For God needeth not. in that they were signes of Gods speciall presence. and Christ the Angel of the Covenant and as (according to the same Analogy) the Dove. Nor in the New Testament is there any place. but as a Prince like apparitions made to other holy men in their sleep) was nothing but a supernaturall phantasme. such as are all things Incor . In like manner where St. 25. that Angels (except when they are put for such men.Part 3. . 2. out of which it can be proved. Angels therefore are not thence proved to be Incorporeall. or some but in every place. not and that Gabriel (as the as an Angel.) And the Angels that kept not their first estate. and the Fiery Tongues.) but then it is repugnant to their Imma : because Everlasting fire is no punishment teriality to impatible substances. (Dan. 6. (Mat. (2 Pet. 6.) For if God spared not the Angels that sinned. .) where he saith. by which it seemed to Daniel. (unlesse wee might think the name of Devill and his Angels may be understood of the Churches Adversaries and their Ministers . as God hath made the Messengers. Paul sayes (i Cor. COMMON-WEALTH. but left their owne habitation. which are usefull onely to the short memories of Mortalls. 3. might also be called Angels. 34 311 (taking Body for that. it shall be said to the wicked in the last day.) Know ye not that wee shall judge the Angels? poreall. : : which place is prepared for the Devil and his Angels manifest for the permanence of Evill Angels. . and Michael yet it is cleer out of the text it selfe. 12. And (Jude i. or works) are things permanent. for Messenger Baptist is called an Angel.) that by Michael is meant Christ. 4. Go ye cursed into everlasting fire . to distinguish his Celestiall servants by names. Gabriel. may bee gathered from the words of our Saviour himselfe. Gabriel. one of them said to the other. that two Saints being in talke. the sense will where) Corporeall as John bear the interpretation of Angel. 41. hee hath reserved in everlasting chaines under darknesse unto the Judgment of the last And . but cast them down into hell.

as they (though indirectly) that will have them Incorporeall. There be divers other places out of which may be drawn the like conclusion. 34. nor give in marriage. an acknowledgment. his presence and chiefly to his to say. But the many places of the New Testament. and the nature of Dreams and Visions that happen to men by the ordinary way of Nature I was enclined to this opinion. 22.) In the resurrection men doe neither marry. [214] (Mat. On the signification of the word Spirit. a Phantasme sible . own people. Substance. and in such texts. and not Incorporeall the Angels. . but are as the Angels of God in but in the resurrection men shall be Per heaven so therefore also are manent. and Incor as Incorporeall is taken not for subtile body poreall but for not Body. : . an Angel. but only seem to be . for which is improper to say. and permanent. or if Spirits be not corporeall. or Spirit is (in that sense) an Incorporeall Substance. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. that is to say. they imply a contradiction insomuch as to say. . . in such manner as a man filleth a bladder with his breath. dependeth Inspiration what. which must either be that o f the word INSPIRATION taken properly. is to say in effect. it is nothing but the blowing in of is that say. and our Saviours own words. and impos Phantasmes are not. raised by the speciall and extraordinary operation of God. Considering therefore the signification of the word Angel in the Old Testament. 3. But to beleeve they be in no place. or wind. wherein is no suspicion of corrup tion of the Scripture. To men that understand the signification of these words. cannot by Scripture bee evinced. nothing. and then it is nothing but the blowing into a man some thin and subtile aire. that there be also Angels substantiall. and beleef. have extorted from my feeble Reason. but have their existence only in the fancy. and commandements known to mankind. day though it prove the Permanence of Angelical I And nature. that Angels were nothing but supernaturall apparitions of the Fancy. 30. there is no Angel nor Spirit at all. thereby to make : . it confirmeth also their Materiality.312 Part . no where.

whether attained supernaturally. wee are not to understand it in the proper sense. i. that God inspired into man the breath of life. or Vision super- Nor when our which is not Inspiration Saviour breathing on his Disciples. . to write that which should be usefull. as if his Spirit were like water. and Visions. And though it be said of many. 16. But where St. . and And that is. : [215] . then that God gave unto him vitall motijn.) / will powre out my Spirit upon all flesh. or seeming but only as it is (Acts 17. Receive the Holy Spirit. . and your Sons and your Daughters shall prophecy.) that he gave him life. or by study and for in all cases they are the gifts of God. in speaking of the graces of God. 313 somewhat. . whether that breath were reall. your Old men shall dream Dreams. or infusion but as if God had promised to give them Propheticall Dreams.) saith.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. said. ndustry So likewise where God sayes (Joel 2. and your Young men shall see Visions. but the holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. is an abuse of it for those graces are Vertues. and instructing men in the way of righteous living. but for accumulation of his gifts. 2. breath where it is said (2 Tim. not Bodies to be naturall. such as are the gift of sanctity of life. speaking there of the Scripture of the Old Testament. 21. For the proper use of the word infused. it is an easie metaphor. 3. is meant the voice of God in a Dream. and then blew it into Adam after he was made. For we are not to think that God made first a living breath. made him a living creature. to signifie. that Prophecy came not in old time by the will of man. 25. subject to effusion. by the Holy Spirit.) where it is ture metaphorically onely said. reproving. Peter (2 Pet. and the like. and of our Saviour himself.) all Scripture is given by Inspiration from God. no more is meant. That word therefore is used in the Scrip As (Gen. that God enclined the spirit or mind of those Writers. correcting. but a sign of the spirituall graces he gave unto them. 28. teaching. that he was full of the Holy Spirit yet that Fulnesse is not to be understood for Infusion of the substance of God. 34. in . was that Breath the Spirit. 7. of tongues. . : Chap.

To the contrary. . . a Kingdome pro perly so named. js taken most commonly for Eternall Felicity. or Evill Spirits into those became Phrenetique. say.314 Part 3. 2. over any Subjects acquired by their own consent. after this life in the Highest Heaven. but in the THE Kingdome of God in the Writings of Divines. constituted by the Votes of the People wherein they chose God of Israel in peculiar manner for their King by Covenant made with him. In the same manner. . to take Inspiration in the proper sense. or to say that Good Spirits entred into make them prophecy. which is the Deity it self but for an External! sign of Gods speciall working on their hearts. to effect in them the internall graces. and Treatises of Devotion. XXXV. and specially in Sermons. is not to be understood for the Holy Spirit. 34. and to be powred into men. working by causes to us unknown. the wind. . and holy vertues hee thought requisite for the performance of their Apostleship. Of the Signification in Scripture of KINGDOME OF GOD. Lunatique. which they also call and sometimes for (the the Kingdome of Glory earnest of that felicity) Sanctification. Scriptures proper y.) to men that . OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. and SACRAMENT. . or Epileptique. The Kingof of HOLY. dom God taken Metphorically. which they . that is there said to fill the house wherein the Apostles were assembled on the day of Pentecost. upon Gods promising them the possession of the land of and then and but seldom metaphorically Canaan which . I find the KINGDOME OF GOD. carryed hither and thither. is not to take the word in the sense of the Scripture for the Spirit there is taken for the power of God. [216 CHAP. SACRED. As also (Acts 2. but never for the terme the Kingdome of Grace Power of God is to the that Soveraign Monarchy. is the proper signification of Kingdome. to signifie in most places of Scripture. as into barrels.

the Lord that spake to him and God on his part promiseth to Abraham the land of this : an everlasting possession. From the very Creation. and thy seed after thee in their generations. as one man speaketh to another. for O f Q d. nor of Kingdome to Abraham and his seed yet the thing is the same Canaan for [217] moriall. . . . God not only reigned over all men naturally by his might but also had peculiar Subjects. After this. for their vices. COMMON-WEALTH. it pleased God to speak to Abraham. the land wherein thou art a stranger. God. and his posterity. but by his own New Testament . all the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession. wherein God had at first created him And afterwards God punished his posterity. L . an everlasting Covenant. but tasting thereof. / will establish my Covenant between me. every Subject shall have in the Kingdome of God. . . .) the Sacrament of Circumcision. 7. whom he commanded by a Voice. or Testament and containeth a Contract between God and Abraham by which Abraham obligeth himself.) because such a Dominion as that. And for a meand a token of this Covenant.Part it is 3. judging between Good and Evill. The and (Gen. in a peculiar manner to be subject to Gods positive Law for to the Law Morall he was obliged before. all but eight persons.i 77 -it 7 T Kingaome and thee. . . 8. took upon him to be as God. to be a God to thee. his punishment was a privation of the estate of Eternall life. 315 taken for Dominion over sinne (and only in the . and without prejudice to the Soveraign. as by an Oath of Allegiance. In which manner he reigned over Adam. sense. with an universall deluge And in these eight did consist the then Kingdom of : . not by his Creators commandement. In . and to thy seed after thee And I will give unto thee. he ordaineth This is it (verse n. Covenant Abraham promiseth for himself e and his posterity to obey as God. 17. -i . . which is called the Old Covenant. And though the name of King be not yet given to God. . and gave him commandement to abstaine from the tree of cognizance of Good and Evill which when he obeyed not. and to thy seed after thee.) to make a Covenant with him in originall these words. 35. Chap.

Chap. : . namely. 19. n. Sinai. and Covenant addition to his ordinary title. mine. OF A CHRISTIAN . a Peculiar treasure unto me above all Nations and the Geneva French. : . that he might purifie us to himself. Reign of King James. .) where the Lord comof God is mandeth Moses to speak to the people in this manner. in that he addeth. : . Sovethen yee shall be a peculiar people to me. properly his Civill // you will obey my voice indeed. 35. : . All the but it is not so that you Nations of the world are mine For the}^ are all are mine. then by Circumcision. the most precious Jewel of all Nations. at the Foot of Mount Sinai. Paul saith (Rom. Paul himself (Tit. But the truest Translation is the first. quotidian. or (as in the Lords Prayer) of daily use so the other signifieth that which is overplus. of those that are loyall. peculiar the vulgar Latine hath. and stored up.Part 3. but in a speciall manner but you shall be mine. which followeth immediately. For a Peculiar people. And yee shall be unto me a Sacerdotall over a and an holy Nation. that our blessed Saviour gave himself for us. That the This Covenant.) that he is the Father of the Faithfull that is. Peculium de cunctis populis people by the English Translation made in the beginning of the pact. Kingdome. by reason of my Power which is an by your own Consent. 2. and enjoyed in a speciall manner which and this meaning of the the Latines call Peculium place is confirmed by the reason God rendereth of it. at Mount is expressely called a peculiar Kingdome of God over the Jews and it is of Abraham (not of Moses) St. 14. to all nations. because it is confirmed by St. . an Institution by pact. which is opposed commonly to the word eTzWcnos and as this signifieth ordinary. a peculiar (that is. : . for all the raignty Earth is mine . and doe not violate their Allegiance sworn to God. and keep my Covenant. alluding to that place. 4. 5. of Gods peculiar which in the Soveraignty over the seed of Abraham renewing of the same Covenant by Moses. . hath.) where he saith. and afterwards in the New Covenant by Baptisme. For all the Earth is mine. as if he should say. was Kingdome renewed by Moses (Exod. an extraordinary) people : for the word is in the Greek -rrepiovVios.

but they have rejected me. 7. that was nor any Convo to informe the People of Gods Will cation of Priests ever allowed to enter into the Sanctum Sanctorum. Regnum Sacerdotale. as was the Nation of the Jews. the title of a Holy Nation confirmes the same for Holy signifies. wherein God was King. It is therefore manifest enough by this one place. but also towards one another in point of justice. but onely the High Priest.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. Chap. not by generall Right. is properly meant a Common. by which Priesthood no man might enter into the Sanctum Sanctorum. or Lieutenant. and the regulating of their behaviour. a Regal as also the Institution it self. 2. not onely towards God their King. and an holy Nation. 8. to which agreeth the Translation of that place (i Pet. has. or else it accordeth not with St. and the High priest was to be (after the death of Moses) his sole Viceroy. As first (i Sam. Yee shall be to me a Sacerdotall Kingdome. But there be many other places that clearly prove the same. .) when the Elders of Israel (grieved with the corruption of the Sons of Samuel) demanded a King. that which is Gods by speciall. Again.) Sacerdotium Regale. Peter. : . is of of to say. following that which is either Geneva. and towards other Nations both in peace and warre which properly was a Kingdome. no man might enquire Gods will immediately God himselfe. 9. instituted (by the consent of those which were to be subject thereto) for their Civill Government. nor For there with the exercise of the High priesthood was never any but the High priest onely. that . All the Earth (as is said in the text) is Gods but all the Earth is not called Holy. . for they have not rejected thee. English Translation before mentioned. a Kingdom of Priests meant of the succession of one High Priest after another. that by the Kingdome of God. Hearken unto the voice of the People. 317 The same is again confirmed in expresse words in the same text. The Vulgar Latine hath it. 35. onely which is set apart for his especiall service. . prayed unto the Lord said unto him.wealth. The . but that : [218] . Samuel displeased there and the Lord answering with.

King of the Jews. and the Sun ashamed. the Angel Gabriel saith .3i8 Part that 3. And (Ezek. . ye said unto me. it is said of the Disciples (Acts 17. and in Jerusalem where he speaketh expressely of his that is. This is also a Kingdome for the claim whereof. When yee saw that Nahash King of the Children of Ammon came against you. Then when the Moon Lord . : Again. And in the New Testament. And after the Israelites had rejected God. I should not reign over them. and governed the Civill State of their Common-wealth. : .) where Samuel saith to the People. 33. and make you to stand to that Covenant which you made with me by Moses. 7. 20.) As I live. surely with a mighty hand. and for in scorn with a crown of Thornes the proclaiming of him. 33. and the Lord shall and he shall [219] give him the throne of his Father David and of his King reign over the house of Jacob for ever dome there shall be no end. and I will bring you into the bond of the Covenant that is. Nay. 32. but only delivered to them that which God from time to time appointed him. and in your election of another King.) He shall be great. of our Saviour (Luke I. I wil rule over yon and (verse 37. (i Sam.) And the Lord shall reign over them in Mount Zion This Mount Zion is in Jerusalem upon the Earth. Out of which it is that God himself was then their King and Samuel did not command the people. of Hosts shall reign in Mount Zion. saying there was another King.) phets did foretell his restitution . saith the Lord God. . 35. evident. . and a stretched out arme. hee was . the shall be confounded. and Jerusalem And (Micah 4. Reign in Zion. the Pro as (Isaiah 24. on Earth. 12. .) That they did all of them contrary to the decrees of Cczsar. but a King shall reign over us. 12. Jesus of Nazareth.) I will cause you to passe under the rod. and be called the Son of the most High. and brake in your rebellion against me in the days of Samuel. 7. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. he was put to death was. as an enemy to upon Earth the title of his crosse. Caesar. and with fury powred out. when the Lord your God was your King : It is manifest that God was their Kin^. one crowned . 23. I will reign over you. .

which by revolt of the Israelites had been interrupted in the election of Saul. . . when we adde.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. the Generalls pretiotis Jewel. or Company of a Generall. And whereas. Chap. in the election of Saul. 319 Jesus. . unlesse it be meant of the Restauration of that Kingdome of God by Christ. The Kingdome therefore of God. not by the Right of Gods Power so that it were super a Kingdome God alwaies hath fluous to say in our prayer. (as it is in St. by force of our for such Covenant. but that it gives too much greater light to Christian Kings to see their right of EcclesiasThis they have observed. . been proper to say. translate. There be so many other places that confirm this interpretation. should deliver to them from before the Cherubins in the Sanctum Sanc torum and which Kingdome having been cast off. . for a peculiar people. or his Treasure. was the Preaching of the Apostles and to which men are prepared. . . and Glory. they put a pretious jewel. that in ticall Government. . by the Teachers of the . and Glory. The Kingdome of Heaven is at hand or to pray. for ever and ever. not onely a metaphoricall Kingdome in the Old Testament. that it were a wonder there is no notice taken of it. first in the obligation of the people of Israel to those Laws. . Peter) into a Priesthood of : Kings. the Power. the and the Power. continued. For thine is the Kingdome. For thine is the Kingdome. stead of a Sacerdotall Kingdome. 35. a man might as well call the speciall Regiment. not and so taken. Thy Kingdome come. should be restored by Christ and the Restauration whereof we daily pray for. when we say in the Lords Prayer. it is to be understood of Gods Kingdome. which Moses should bring unto them from Mount Sinai and which afterwards the High Priest for the time being. . In short. a Kingdome for they may as well translate a Royall of Priests Priesthood. the Prophets foretold. or treasure. if it had still . the Kingdome of God is a Civill Kingdome which consisted. Thy and the Right whereof we acknow Kingdome come ledge. Thy Kingdome come. Nor had it . but the New when we say. is a reall. Amen Proclaiming whereof.

is called (Exod. nor any King have denied it them. Children of God hereafter. and actually to govern his owne people. 35. If the Kingdome of God (called also the Kingdome of Heaven. . . from the gloriousnesse. is the Nation of that Soveraign. ariseth also the true interpretation of the word HOLY. who deliver his Commandements to the people. and warre. were For by Holy. And God the King of Israel was the Holy one of Israel. or Vicars. OF A CHRISTIAN . to embrace which Gospel. Therefore the Sabbath (Gods day) is a Holy day the Temple. . which is called the Kingdome of Glory. have been so much contention. (that is to say. or Representative of all his own Subjects. either God himselfe. Holy what. by whom God speaketh to us neither would many Priests have troubled themselves with Spiritual Jurisdiction. which men in their Kingdomes use . under Christ . is alwaies meant is Gods in propriety either the Person of the Common-wealth it self. Tithes. alwaies understood. to Gospel promise obedience to Gods government) is. as no private person can claim any propriety therein. who were Gods Nation. For it is a word. or the Kings. about who it is. gotten . and Offerings (Gods tribute) Holy duties . when Christ shall come in Majesty to judge the world.320 Part 3. Prophets.) a Holy Nation. The King of any Countrey is the Publique Person. of the Publique Person. So the Jews. and anointed Kings. which in Gods Kingdome answereth to that. that is. there is still something signified of Propriety. did exercise on Earth there would not . or something that is so the Common-wealths. 19. because God hath gratis given to such the power to bee the Subjects (that is. Priests. The Nation which is subject to one earthly Soveraign. 6. Out of this liter all interpretation of the Kingdome of God. or that which as by Publique. and admirable height of that throne) were not a Kingdome which God by his Lieu[220] tenants. Chap. (Gods house) a Holy house Sacriiices. to call Publique. the Ccelestiall ministring (Gods Ministers) Holy men and the like Spirits (Gods Messengers) Holy Angels and wheresoever the word Holy is taken properly. : . to bee in the Kingdome of Grace.

. either of our admission into the HOBBES Y : Degrees of Sanctity. . sense. by the dedication of men. but because they became his Propriety by covenant ? And the word Profane. we do but pray to God for grace to keep the first Commandement. Why. and wholly In the proper devoted. in the Kingdome But figuratively. and said to be consecrated. Of Holinesse there be degrees for of those things that are set apart for the service of God. Victimes. those of God must be the same also. when they were endued with the And that which is made Holy Sacred Spirit of godlinesse. . and Proper. and given to God. . 321 In saying Hallowed be thy name. men also are called Holy. that led such godly lives. Sacra- ment - . and their Utensils. were a people Holy to God yet the tribe of Levi was amongst the Israelites a Holy tribe and amongst the Levites. of having no other Gods but him. but the Holy City wherein God was to be worshipped. [221] . is called also SACRED. their contraries. as they had forsaken all worldly designs. and given themselves to God. was more Holy and again. Mankind is but the Jews only were Gods Nation in propriety a Holy Nation. is said to be sanctified by God. Priests. the Temple more Holy than the City and the Sanctum Sanctorum more Holy than the rest of the Temple. A SACRAMENT. . and other Houses of Publique Prayer. is usually taken in the Scrip and consequently ture for the same wi-th Common by consent. Chap. is a separation of some visible thing from common use and a consecration of it to Gods service. and Ministers. the High Priest was the most So the Land of Judea was the Holy Land Holy. for a neerer and more The whole Nation of fhe Israelites especial service. for a sign. as the Seventh day in the fourth Commandement and as the Elect in the New Testament were said to bee sanctified. Offerings. there may bee some set apart again. externall matter of Sacraments. : . and the if . the Priests were yet more Holy and amongst the Priests. so as to be used onely in his publique service.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. as Temples. 35. . that which is made Holy by Gods appropriating or separating it to his own use. Holy.

OF GOD. that signifies a Word but Sermo. denieth. are but once to be used. The Commemora tion of it in the Old Testament. . because there needs but one Admission but because we have need of being often put in mind of our deliverance. or any simple voice. XXXVI. which sense it is not Vocabulum. Of the WORD is Word what. Discourse. There be also other Conse crations. . and the Passeover the New Testament. which was Anniversary) of the Paschall by which they were put in mind of the night wherein they were delivered out of their bondage in Egypt and in the New Testament. by our Blessed Saviours death upon the crosse. and of our Alleagance.322 Part 3. or for a number of his Commemoration of the same. WHEN there . threatneth. that may be called Sacraments. without a contexture with other words to make but a perfect Speech or Discourse. we are put in mind. as the word but as implyeth onely Consecration to Gods service it implies an oath. but Baptisme. [222] CHAP. mention of the Word of God. some Speech. the Sacraments of Commemoration have need to be reiterated. but Circum nor are there any other in cision. such as Grammarians call a Nown. . and as it were the solemne oathes we make of our Alleageance. . or interrogated. peculiar In the . . The Sacraments of Admission. it significative whereby the speaker affirmeth. Old Testament. of our deliverance from the bondage of sin. the celebrating of the Lords Supper by which. was the Eating (at New a certaine time. Kingdome people. In promiseth. . or a Verb. wisheth. or promise of Alleageance to God. or of Man. OF A CHRISTIAN of God. commas deth. there were no other in the Old Testament. And these are the principal! Sacraments. (in Greek Ao yos) that is. the sign of Admission was Circumcision in the Testament. to be of the Chap. 35. or Saying. Baptisme. and the Lords Lamb . it doth not signifie a part of Speech. Supper. . and of PROPHETS.

that as is of Christ come. 8. ment spoken by God. the Doctrine of the Gospel as is evident by what they did in the Temple. when we read in the Bible. days of the Kings of Israel. as it is all one. . and said. That which is here called the Word of God. that Doctrine which wee usually call logia : . not that which is the . Divinity. but concerning God. and in every house they ceased not to teach and preach Christ In which place it is manifest. if we say the Word of God.] the Word of God. was the Doctrine of Christian Religion as it appears evidently by that which goes before. So [Acts 15. or Judah. that our Saviour offered them. Daily in the Temple. or that a Man hath In which sense. The words of : : : Pken by Concern ing God. is. but seeing you put it from you. [Mat. and is expressed in the last verse of the same Chap. 10. 36.] and raised from the dead. tis meant. When any one hearcth the Word Y 2 there expressed. Chap. both are ^ c d yfold in Scripture.Part$. Matthew to be In and sometimes of the Subject the Writer of it which sense. 20. it may bee understood sometimes of the Speaker. is meant. all the Words of this life by the Words of this life. COMMON-WEALTH. we understand St. Go stand and speak in the Temple. because 13. to say Xoyo? Ocov. and his govern that is to say.] is called the Word Faith . the Gospel spoken of St. Kingdome of Christ . by the Word of God is oftentimes meant. that Jesus Jesus Christ was the subject of this Word of life or (which is all one) the subject of the Words of this life eternall. were the And in the Greek. when we say. as is manifest by the places following [Acts waxed bold. loe. that the acts that were done in those days. : . we turn to the Gentiles. (as the words that God hath spoken. And [Acts 5.] where it is said to the Apostles by an Angel. and Theowhich is. 9. which (in Subject of those Words the Scripture) retaineth many Hebraismes. 13. . is called the Word of the Gospel. the Doctrine of Religion Insomuch. 7. 19. s 323 The words Again.] Then Paul and Barnabas It was necessary that the Word of . . God should first have been spoken to you. Matthew. and judge your selves unworthy of everlasting life. the Doctrine Also [223] of the . it containeth the Doctrine of the and the same of Word [Rom. or of Man. 46.

till that was prison.i : Decrees t ww Word Sftd make man. i. for the effect of his Word . till his Word was come come to passe which he had [Gen.324 Part 3. but the Doctrine of Heathen iTirn. God spake these words and said. 36. &c. for the f which by his Word is Affirmed. men concerning Dcemons. [Gen. : . For example.] The worlds were framed by the Word of God. Chap. Considering these two significations of the WORD OF GOD. Power. is sometimes MetaThe Word understood sometimes Properly. . and those Phantasms which they worshipped as Gods. the same Word. as it is taken for that which he hath spoken. Again. is to be understood for the Words of him that wrote the holy History. but of the Voice. be a firmament. which sense.] to grow and to be multiply ed understand of the Evangelicall Doctrine is easie. The Word of God. Threatned. 19. the Doctrine of the Kingdome Kingdome taught by Christ. 24. or Speech of God. were spoken by God to Moses yet the Preface.] foretold to or the thing it self. is said which to [Acts 12. As also and many other places to the same sense amongst the Latines. signifieth not the Words of any Devill.3. as the words. Let there for the . by that is. J!5? 77 . I am the Lord thy God. first.] He upnothing made that was made holdeth all things by the Word of his Power that is. Let their be light.] are the same sense u is said [J hn i. which signiiieth properly The word spoken. is taken in the same sense. : : Secondly. it is manifest in this later sense (where it is taken for the Doctrine of Christian Religion.i. : j. 40. In the same sense the Doctrine of Devils. OF A CHRISTIAN . and without it was And [Heb. Properly. &c. i. Let us of God - And in the : . that is to say. as it is taken in Scripture.] All things were made by it. in making the world used. those Fiats. by his Power and the Power of his Word [Heb. . of God phorically. Secondly. though these words.* phoncally ^ n Metaphorically. hard and strange. 11. or Promised 105. -r\ i 11-in and eternall Decree. he hath spoken te T to his Prophets for his Wisdome. .^. 13. 3. 3. that is.] where Joseph is said to have been kept in that is. the name of Fate. .) that the whole Scripture is the Word of God but in the former sense not so. to the end of the Ten Commandements. as [Psalm UsWord Commanded.

or Promise that Christ should who in the beginning was come into the world that is to say. nor is any substance corporeall. or Man whereas our Saviour is both. or spirituall and therefore it cannot be said to bee either God. Chap. . verse i. Where is the Evill he And \_Ezek. 36. and actually incarnate So that our Saviour is there called the Word. he that hath procured us Eternall life.] called the Word of life . 325 Pharaohs Butler. And in the New Testament [Mat. . the So also [i King. my Words shat not pass away there is nothing that I have promised or fore And in this sense it told. so also by Verbe. and. God for as by Nown. 13. which was with the Father so that he can be in no other sense called the Word. then in that.] Where is Word. is [in his : . wherein he is called Eternall life that is. . i Epistle. 24. John in his Gospel saith was with God. that neither affirms. in stead of / have done all these things at thy and [Jer. that shall not come to passe. nor denies. 17. concerning his being restored to his for there by his word was come. They that taking occasion from this place. to but it was enlighten men in the way of Eternall life not till then put in execution. nor promiseth. John onely calleth our Saviour himself as in the flesh the Word of God [as Joh. which God promised to his people. but the thing promised. 28. And this Word which St. 12. John the Evangelist. So also [Apocalypse 19. that St. is. 15. not because he was the promise. thing it self was come to passe. . St.Parts.] the Word was made Flesh that is to say.] Elijah saith to God. 35. the Word. I think. do but render the text more obscure. by his comming in the flesh. . COMMON-WEALTH. is put for. 36. a sound. nor commands. They might as well term him the Nown of that is.] the Eternall life. 18. or commandement the Word of the Lord.] heaven and earth shal pass away. / have done all these thy office : Words. men understand nothing but a part of speech. is meant. . to send God the Son into the world.] There shall none of my threatned Words be prolonged any more by words are understood : : : those things. i . but . doe commonly call him the Verbe of God.] the Apostle speaking of . a voice. it was in the purpose of God [224] with God the Father. .14. and [verse : 2.

. 24. And in this sense the High Priest was a Prophet. . 30. 23. 4. Acts i. . Jeremiah. 35. 31. and many other like . 14. when the same is said in the Scriptures to bee written in mans heart as Psalm 36. Thirdly. . faith his God which is to be understood. vers. though spoken sometimes neither by Prophet. for the garment dipt in bloud. 22. . Divers The name of accept ions times Prolocutor of the PROPHET. and equity.326 Part 3. 31. 33. whatsoever be written in the Apocrypha. . that as the same History is related in the first Book of Esdras. from the mouth of the Lord. 36. But wee are to give credit to the Canonicall Scripture. and according to his Word and promises delivered by the So that there is nothing here of the Incarna Prophets. is signified such Words as are consonant to and equity. places. or [225] And sometimes one that a foreteller of things to come speaketh incoherently. The Word of God. There are also places of the Scripture. signifieth in Scripture : some that to word is. and equity. clothed in a is the Word of . Jerem. are said to have and that Josiah not proceeded from the mouth of God as is to be hearkning to them. n. but Jeremiah spake these words to Josiah. as men that are distracted. as if he had said his name had been. read 2 Chron. or from man God And sometimes : Prczdictor. by the name Christ. but of the Incarnation of God the Son. For Pharaoh Necho was an Idolater yet his Words to the good King Josiah. is then also to be taken for the Dic tates of reason. he that speaketh from God to Prophet. So Moses. for he only went into the and was to Sanctum Sanctorum. therefore called the Word. Deut. and others were Prophets. He that was come according to the purpose of God from the beginning. Chap. was slain in the battle reason. words reason Word of of God. to enquire of God And therefore when declare his answer to the people. in which he advised him by Messengers. not to oppose him in his march against Carchemish. where. Luke 49. Elijah. Samuel. nor by a holy man. tion of a Word. It is most frequently used in the sense of speaking from God to the People. 21. Man. OF A CHRISTIAN . because his Incarnation was the Performance of the Promise In like manner as the Holy Ghost is called the Promise. Isaiah. It is true. . not Pharaoh.

20. Chap. were called Vates (Prophets) as is well enough known by all that are versed in the Books of the Gentiles. 3. [Exod. in In the like sense. 12. and.] are said to Prophecy. 6. though it were not lawfull for them to speak to the Congregation. Now . Paul saith of the Cretians.] See (saith God) / have made thee interpreted Prophet a God to Pharaoh. &c. 10. for he is a Prophet. 36.] where St. . Prophet. 5. 51.] where God in a Dream speaketh to Abimelech in this manner. is [chap. Abraham is called a Prophet [Genes. Every man that prayeth or prophecyeth with his head covered.] concerning and he Aaron. but acknowledgeth that the word Prophet : . and shall pray for thee be also gathered.] where St. and Holy Songs which women might doe in the Church. the Prophets that came down from the High place (or Hill of God) with a Psaltery. 7.io. . n. So is it also to be taken [i Cor. and as is evident [Tit. he prophesied that one man should dye for the nation. is. and every woman that prayeth or prophecyeth with her head uncovered For Prophecy in that place. 16. Paul saith. have a Calling to say publique prayers for the Congregation. not unproperly to the name of Prophet . Paul held their Poets said.] that He spake not this of himself e. is Miriam that manner publiquely. St. they were Liars for Prophets. : . that composed Hymnes and other sorts of Poems in the honor of their Gods. and a Tabret.] called a Prophetesse.] Saul amongst them. 7. that the Poets of the Heathen. may may them that in Christian Churches. i. 20.] and [vers. are said to Prophecy. therefore restore the man his wife. that whereby be given. that a Prophet of their owne not that St. In the same sense. in that they praised God. and a Harp [i Sam. And in this signification it is. 4.3- COMMON-WEALTH. 5. it was expedient that one man should die for the people. He shall be thy Spokes-man to the People shall be to thee a mouth. n. and Aaron thy Brother shall be thy In the sense of speaking from man to God. 327 Caiphas said. that God saith to Moses [Exod. 4. thou shalt be to him instead of God that which here is Spokes-man. I. John saith [chap. signifieth no more. Also they that in Christian Congregations taught the people In the like sense it [i Cor. and a Pipe. 15. but praising God in Psalmes. but being High Priest that year. 14.

In the Scripture I find it also so taken [i Sam. nor (when it is taken for Prediction) a constant Vocation : . were for the time really mad. whereby a Prophetesse nor does it appear she could raise such a Phantasme that God commanded the raising of it but onely guided that Imposture to be a means of Sauls terror and dis couragement and by consequent. and thereby to have raised a Phantasme of Samuel. it was amongst the Gentiles taken for one sort of Prophecy. and he Prophecyed in the midst of the house. from false causes. . yet is ?poken to the which Jt taken for him to that the most frequent. to foretell the like events in time to come of which (as I have declared already in the 12. and foretold those things to but also all others. than can be lost again by never so many failings. but sometimes also of the Wicked. who gain in the opinion of the common sort of men. and spake like mad men of whose loose words a sense might be made to fit any event. as all bodies are said to be made of Materia prima. not was commonly used to signifie them that celebrated the honour of God in Verse. And for Incoherent Speech. . or to the people. or by superstitious divination of events past. The woman of Endor. immediately. The manAnd although there be so many significations in Scrip. 36. that pretend by the helpe of familiar Prophecy. Prophecy is not an Art. . in such sort. by which he fell. which God had foretold to them . or foretelling of future Contigents not only they were Prophets. And the Evill spirit came upon Saul. who is said to have had a familiar spirit. .] in these words. . Pvcediction of gents. 18. a greater reputation of Prophecy. was not therefore for neither had she any science. by one casuall event that may bee but wrested to their purpose. most often of Good men. and temporary Employment from [226] God. of the discomfiture. And hereupon to some other man. chapter of this Discourse) there be many kinds. whom God s P eaketh Prophets. who were Gods Spokes-men. alwales those Impostors. ner but an extraordinary. that which the Prophet is to say from him. 10. intoxicated with a spirit. When by Prophecy is meant Prediction. and foretold Saul his death.328 Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. spirits. because the Prophets of their Oracles. or vapor from the cave of the Pythian Oracle at Delphi. . how ture of the in k word Prophet is .

without declar ing in what manner yet there be again many places. or other organs. when it cannot Can it be properly said. To Lot [Gen.Part 3. 36. somewhat. O f t ^e old trey to Sichem in the land of Canaan 12. and Noah. There fore we are to interpret Gods speaking to men imme diately. as it would be the greatest contumely in the world to ascribe them to him. not hear ? (as usually) to signifie Gods nature. appeared as Gods Messenger. and Eve.] by a dream : : : . in the strict. For to see. So there is Testament one way. and that person.] by the apparition Angels of one Angel And to Abraham again [Gen. but to signifie our intention to honor him. 17. and may be given to God. not that made the ear. 15. till such time as he came out of his own coun. . The Word of the Lord came to Abraham in a Vision that is to say. 18. . are many and to be sought onely in the . and proper sense. that deliver also the signes by which they were to acknow and by these ledge his presence. (may some say) be properly that God hath voice and language. . 20. 329 a question said. : . COMMON-WEALTH. i-] is. n. he hath a tongue. many times it be said. that he had also the same use of them which we have which would be many of them so uncomely. [227] the Lord appeared to Abraham [Gen. one might argue from his making of all other parts of mans body. and commandement may be understood. God spake to this. and hear. for that way (whatsoever it be).] in . is not expressed Abraham. Holy Scripture that : where though . in what manner Chap. and To the nor how he spake to ExtraCain.] by an apparition of two And to Hagar [Gen. by which God makes them understand his will And the wayes where by he doth this. how he spake to many of the rest. 19. God speaketh to such a Prophet. 22. Shall he that made the eye. as a sign of Gods presence. Again. to declare (as far as our capacity can con But if it were to be taken ceive) his Almighty power. 3. and then [Gen. [Gen. 21. or Vision. . i. by an Apparition.] God is said to have appeared to him. are Honorable Attributes. not see ? or he But this may be spoken. 7. as a man ? The Prophet David argueth thus.pjJjJJJJ^ . i. whereby God made his presence manifest that hespakeby And again. In what manner God spake to A dam. may be asked. to speak to him.] by an appari tion of three Angels and to Abimelech [Gen.

was by mediation of an Angel. [Exod. 6. 3. : j i .330 Part 3. . and degree in Gods favour And God himself in . Acts 7. and will speak unto him in a Dream. Isaiah. I. 19. 24. Peter. Apocalypse. Onely to Moses hee spake in a more extraordinary manner in Mount Sinai. John the Evangelist in the . i. 8. and after him the High Priests were Prophets of a more eminent place. 7.). 33. 28. Elisha. as to Joseph. Eliah. Samuel. And [Gen. and 53. and the rest of the Prophets and often in the New Testament. 3. that to other Prophets hee spake in Dreams and Visions.] Your sons and your daughters shall behold. (where the manner how God spake immediately to man in the Old Testament. 12. as appears expressely. and was therefore a Vision.] // there be a Prophet among you. . but to his servant Moses. the apparition of a voice from heaven And [Gen. or Dreamer of Dreams. and your Prophecy where again. But Moses. or Angels. And conformable hereunto. 32. And j your old men shall dream Dreams. 12.] in a dream that is to say (as are the words of the text) Jacob dreamed that he saw a ladder. 35.] in a Vision of Angels And to Moses [Exod. or by a Dream as to Gideon. where God saith (Deut. and in the Tabernacle and to the High Priest in the Tabernacle. u. And yet this speaking of God to Moses. OF A CHRISTIAN : Chap. the later word is but the interpretation of the former. as a man speaketh to his friend. and in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple. not in dark speeches and the similitude of the Lord shall he My . who is faithfull in all my house with him I will speak mouth to mouth. express words declareth. : .] The Lord spake to Moses face to face. 36. 13. or by dream) And to Jacob [Gen. is expressed) hee spake alwaies by a Vision. And [Joel 2.] to Isaac in the night (that is. &c. in his sleep. 2. The words are these [Numb. : : . 26. in such manner as a man speaketh to his friend. and Gal. ver. even apparently. 18. to St. // there arise amongst you a Prophet. Ezekiel. and to St. Paul. I the Lord will make my self known to him in a Vision. the word young men shall see Visions . servant Moses is not so. to St. though a more cleer Vision than was given to other Prophets.] in the apparition of a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush And after the time of Moses. .

preme.] he commands the Priest to bring the Ark neer him and [ver. because he saw an advantage upon his enemies. Of Prophets. 19. and were deprived of their office. that he should no more reign over G d s P ke them. they put on the holy vestments. and Seat. The same Prophets were neverthelesse said to speak as [Zach. was not a particular manner of Gods speaking. lest they should hear the law. or (which is all one) a new Dream. than from their Dreams. 7. and Vision. Chap. . and the words which the Lord of Hosts hath sent in his Spirit by the former Prophets.. and [i Sam. and Honor Prophecy the . - : . 331 Priests office became Ministeriall. those Kings which submitted themselves to Gods xeltament and the High f rom the government. For King Saul [i Sam. . By which it is manifest.] where the Prophet [228] by the Spirit speaking of the Jewes. different from Vision. In like manner King David. 36. 18. from the imaginations which they had in their sleep.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. that speaking by the Spirit. And in the same chapter Saul asketh counsell of God. : . some were supreme. . and So that generally the Prophets behold it was a Dream extraordinary in the Old Testament took notice of the Word of God no otherwise.] again to let it alone. had rejected God. passed in the Scripture. every one for his time. as the King commanded them. that God spake to Solomon. 9. were to have a particular Commission. or Inspiration. [i Kings 3. in a ** r enquired of the Lord. 14. Riches. They made their hearts hard as Adamant. or feigned. or in an Extasie which imagina but in tions in every true Prophet were supernaturall false Prophets were either naturall. when the King thought text saith. for the promising him Wisdome. same manner it was. were also his chief Prophets : And in is expounded by Dream. or Vision. . that were so by a perpetuall Calling in To Prothe Old Testament. and some P hets f subordinate Supreme were first Moses and after him filing the High Priests. saith. when they that were said to speak by the Spirit. 15. as long as the an d suPriesthood was Royall and after the people of the Jews. . such as for every new message. . after his fit.] commanded the burnt offering to be brought. were extraordinary Prophets.] And Solomon awoak. 13. 12. And when God was Mercy to be consulted. or Visions that is to say.

or gifts of the Holy Spirit. and the Prophet to whom he spake. though before he had possession of the Kingdome. is to Intellectuall. whose office it was to enquire of him. there was no Sove both Morall. Therefore Moses. or not.J whether he should fight against the Philistines at Keilah and [verse 10. is to deny his Infinitenesse. and the . and gave it [verse 35. is contrary to that distinction which God made between Moses. being anointed. 7. In the time of the New Testament. Justice. I find not any place that proveth God spake to them super. To say that when Moses went up to God in Mount Sinai. as naturally he to Piety. to Beleef. To Prophets of perpetuall who was both God raign Prophet. in his speaking to the High Priests. and ordinary. as the or Infusion of the Spirit signifieth the Deity. 2. and and by . they cannot [229] be applyed to him. or Vision. Incomprehensi bility. To say God spake or appeared as he is in his own nature. to enquire whether he should stay in Keilah. lastly.332 Part 3. is not mani fest. example. it was a Dream. and other Prophets. but our Saviour that spake.] David commandeth the Priest to bring him the Ephod. is to attribute nothing to him supernaturall. at Mount Sinai so also. Mercy. Truth. 36. Therefore in what manner God spake to those Soveraign Prophets of the Old Testament. 23.] to Zadoc. Holy make Moses equall with Christ. pious Kings. Faith. naturall.] took the Priesthood from Abiathar. to Holy Spirit. Paul speaketh Col. and the High Priests. as it signifieth the graces. 6. in whom onely the Godhead And [as St. in his speaking to Moses. say he spake by the Holy Spirit. and all manner of Vertue. 12. Numb. But in what manner God spake unto them. such as other Prophets had. by doctrine. And King Solomon [i Kings 2. but sub- men . occasions. na turally inclineth . 27.] dwelleth bodily. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. Invisibility. To say he spake by Inspiration. For God disposeth men to Piety. to Righteousnesse. were all Soveraign Prophets. is said to enquire of the Lord [i Sam. 2. is not intelligible. 8. who enquired of God on all extraordinary how they were to carry themselves. To subordinate Prophets of perpetuall Calling. from the Mercy-Seat. 9. And as these ways cannot be applyed to God. severall occasions. but onely in such manner. or what event they were to have.

though it consist in Constitution. . they Prophecyed.] a complaint made against them to Moses and Joshua would have Moses to have forbidden them which he did not. all Chap. Bee not jealous in my behalf. (which we in our language call the Holy Ghost) For there is no good inclination. and assist Moses in the adminis tration of the Government. For there was [verse 27. that the Spirit of God in that place.] that. In what manner God spake to them. COMMON-WEALTH. 333 ordinate. that guided them to co-operate with Moses from whom their Spirit was derived. the Divine nature. Secondly. first. Which way. Education. and the occasions and invitements men have to Christian vertues yet it is truly attributed to the operation of the Spirit of God. signifieth nothing but the Mind and Disposition to obey. The Lord came down in a cloud. For the most common acceptation of the word Spirit. and did not cease. for that God took of the Spirit of Moses. when the Spiiit rested upon them. and gave it to the seventy Elders.Part 3. And it came to passe. that Prophecyed in the Campe of the Israelites. It is meant therefore of the Gift and Grace of God. Instruction. then they had it in no lesse manner then Christ himself. but said to Joshua. God dwelt bodily. there were seventy men besides himself. and took of the Spirit that was naturall. was sub servient. to put upon them so that they Prophecyed as Moses would have them otherwise they had not been suffered to Prophecy at all. verse 25. . or by the Spirit of God. is declared in the ii of Numbers. and to other vertues other Christian men. but that he speaks according to Gods will. . we are to understand no more. mind. that is not of the opera tion of God. And it appeareth [verse 16. they were such as Moses of . is in the signification of a mans intention. 36. . inspired into them. and spake unto Moses. declared by the supreme Prophet. in whom onely the Spirit . or disposition. For if it were meant they had the substantiall Spirit of God that is. But these operations are not alwaies super. : When therefore a Prophet is said to speak in the Spirit. In the time of Moses. : G d s P ake t /p^ upon him. or Holy Spirit. and subordinate to the Prophecying of Moses. that their Prophecying to the people. By which it is manifest.

with divers sorts of flesh. and unclean beasts of an Angel And to all the Apostles. and left Saul God giving his graces to him he chose to govern his people. inclined to aid Moses in the Administration of the Kingdome and in this sense the Spirit of God is said [i Sam. 10. did appoint Judges. and in prison. People whom thou knowest to be Elders and Officers of the people where. by Vision of clean. God someGod spake also many times by the event of Lots times also w hich were ordered by such as he had put in Authority over his people. are the same. 14. And [Josh. 36. to have come upon David. 16. 45. &c. man og/^ (which two. contrary to the oath taken by the people. . 14. To To Joseph the Virgin Mary. All which ways he used also in the New Testament. himself should appoint for Elders and Officers of the For the words are. and Writers of the New Testament. Gather unto me seventy men. : : : . such as feared God : . putting upon them Moses spirit. : . 16. were those [230] the people. So that by the Spirit is meant Inclination to Gods service and not any supernaturall Revelation. 18. 13. So wee read that God manifested by the Lots which Saul caused to be drawn [i Sam. And these are the wayes whereby God declared his Will in the Old Testament. or Dream. of Judas Iscariot) by lot. is the same with thou appointest. by the graces of his Spirit and to the Apostles again (at the choosing of Matthias in the place Seventy. he rejected. For we are told before [Exod.] the crime of Achan. by the lots that Joshua did cast before the Lord in Shiloh. and Officers over and of these.] presently upon the anointing of David. in eating a honey-comb. and taking them away from him.] that Moses following the counsell of Jethro his Father-in-law. when they be naturall. thou knowest. In the same manner it seemeth to be. 18.] the fault that Jonathan had committed. or hast appointed to be such. Seeing then all Prophecy supposeth Vision. that God discovered [Joshua 7.) or Every .334 Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN : Chap. : whom God by .] God divided the land of Canaan amongst the Israelite. by a Vision of an Angel in a Dream again to Paul in the way to Damascus in and to Peter in the Vision of a Vision of our Saviour a sheet let down from heaven. .

Calling. there is need tion. . but onely one Michaiah. that there were many more false then true Prophets. The Prophets (saith the Lord by Jeremy. i. Chap. . that when Ahab [i Kings 12. that all rule. some . and reign over them men naturally desire. and by mediation of second causes of Reason and Judgment to discern between naturall. or Dreams. at their own perill. appears by this. and is therefore worthy to be and conse suspected of Ambition and Imposture quently. and Visions. then of true every one is . ought to be examined. . it had been to no purpose. may proceed from God. pretends to govern them which is a thing. so rarely observed in mankind. &c. . men had need to be very circumspect. were not allowed to every one of the people. .] consulted four hundred Prophets. and And consequently supernaturall Visions. by which every man might be able. unlesse he have. 335 to examine especiall gift of God. . 14. and Spirits. of And obeying their directions.Prophets naturall.] to know a Prophet by and [i John 4. And a little before the time of the Captivity. and tryed by every man. which he in Gods name telleth us to be the way to happinesse. yeelded it them already. and between naturall. &c. and those whom they ought not to follow. And if this examina tion of Prophets. whom they ought. in obeying the voice of man. 36. to beware first. that pretending himself to be a Prophet. as the most extraordinary Dreams. they were all false Impostors.] to know a Spirit by and seeing there is so much Prophecying in the Old Testa ment and so much Preaching in the New Testament and so much greater a number against Prophets ordinarily of false Prophets. 13. in the institution of a Common wealth as when the Prophet is the Civill Soveraign. i. not onely by his super. before heeyeeld them obedience. requires us to obey God in that way. cha. and supernaturall Gifts. Seeing therefore such [231! marks are set out \Deut. . and immediate. For he that pretends to teach men the way of so great that is to say. and wary. to dis tinguish between those. to felicity. . to set out the marks. but also by his naturall opera.Parts- COMMON-WEALTH. And seeing as well as to be admired where observed such gifts. the Prophets were generally lyars. or by the Civil Soveraign Authorized. : .

and asking. Of which Rules. A II pro Seeing then there was in the time of the Old Testament. 14. one of the contesting with another. that is. verse 14. . amongst Subject. 16.. a thing of naught . .] it was a true Prophet. not that is approved and allowed as a Prophet of God he is a godly man.. that prophecy to you. 13. Thus saith the Lord of Hosts. Hereby know ye the Spirit of God. saith thus. Prophet and such giving of and the rest of the four hundred -is to be examined the Lye to one another. . that he confesseth. That Jesus is the Christ. in the Old Testament. 4. . phecy but such quarrells amongst the Visionary Prophets. that is. the King of the Jews. 23. Every Spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. i. nor spake unto them. and the deceit of their heart. hearken not unto the words of the Prophets. &c.) and such by everv controversies in the New Testament at this day. or not that there would arise false Prophets. to apply to all Prophecy those Rules which God hath given us. they prophecy to you a false Vision. 36. he was a false Prophet. is of God. And in the New Testament there was and that was the preaching of but one onely mark this Doctrine. promised in the Old Testament. for this. speaking expressely of the means to examine Spirits. to discern the true from the false. as I have already shewn out of Deut. whatsoever and he that taught miracles he might seem to work For St.) prophecy Lies in my name. John [i Epist. or one of the Elect. When departed Soveraign the Spirit from me. neither have I commanded them.] not to obey them. conformable doctrine to that which Moses the Soveraign Prophet had taught them and the other the miraculous power of foretelling what God would bring to passe. 14. whose persons he hath . or preacheth Jesus to be the Christ but for that he is a Prophet avowed. Whosoever denyed that Article. They make you vain. I sent them not. the Spirituall Prophets Every man then was. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. they speak a Vision of their own heart. 2.336 Part 3. In so much as God commanded the People by the mouth of the Prophet Jeremiah [chap. to go to thee ? as between Michaiah. after he had told them whether they be of God. &c. professeth. (as in Jerem. one was. and now is bound to make use of his Naturall Reason. For God sometimes speaketh by Prophets. and not out of the mouth of the Lord. : . : .

is not of Christ. that is Gods Vicegerent on Earth and hath next under God. as men to whom God hath given a part of the For when Christian men. . Every man therefore ought to that is to say. hee hath commanded to bee taught and thereby to examine and try out the truth of those him . then sometimes an : . Chap. for the Prophecy they mean to bee governed by. . to the first Chaos of Violence. that. and by this extraordinary successe. the Spirit of Antichrist. . Again in the next verse. to doe as they did. 321 in some future Impostor. . and complained that there were some that Prop[h]ecyed in the Campe. and looketh for . or to forbid them. which preacheth both sides and the Messiah already come. . which pretended Prophets with miracle. they must either take their owne Dreames.Part 3. without other miracle to confirm their calling. and humane. whom the Apostle there properly calleth Antichrist. that Doctrine. HOBBES 7 . consider who is the Soveraign Prophet who it is. Doctrines. for Gods Prophet . both divine. and Society. by the Witch of Endor. and the tumour of their own hearts for the Spirit oi God or they must suffer themselves to bee lead by some strange Prince or by some of their fellow subjects. came to Moses. take not their Christian Soveraign. . COMMON-WEALTH. shall at any time advance it contrary to that Rule. Spirit of their Soveraigne. the Authority of Governing Christian men and to observe for a Rule. And this is [2 So that the Rule is perfect on that he is a true Prophet. 337 and as he foretold as he did by Baalam not accepted Saul of his death. Government. Every Spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. as they they doubted of did to Moses to uphold. which in the name of God. . then no more to or if he approve them. by slaunder of the government. that shall take upon him that honour falsely. reduce all Order. or and if they find without. then to obey obey their voice them. 36. . and Impunity means destroying all laws. into rebellion. in the person of Jesus he a false one that denyeth him come. whose Authority so to doe and leave to the Soveraign. as hee should see cause and if hee disavow them. that can bewitch them. and Civill warre. . . .

it is a but if a peece of wood be Miracle because strange and so changed because we see it often. But when wee see some possible. and Portenta. to naturall cause difficult to imagin see a strange deviation of nature. if it be strange. than the other. though we know no more how this is done. it is no Miracle the of what no we know God. And there be but : : . if a man be usuall. And because they are for the most part. But when a man. as without : BY are apt to doubt. understand what works they are. we must therefore anywhere. XXXVII. as they are called by the them. : : . Therefore. 37. and foresignifying that. an(^ ca^ Admirable. nor esteem it for a Miracle. &amp.at of there naturall C known which meri wonder two things. or very rarely been produced when it is produced. how impossible soever it be to imagine a naturall means thereof. but onely by the immediate hand of God. done. it is no Miracle. that is to say. more. as the like of it hath The other is. A is Miracle a work causeth Admiration. for a signification of his commandement. if a Horse. . metamorphosed into a stone. which the Almighty is about to bring to passe. & the So also were it. must To understand therefore what is a Miracle.gt. in the production of some new shape of a living creature. or other Animal. we cannot imagine it to have been done by naturall means. Ostenta. and what not. : . from shewing. engenders his like. Of MIRACLES. [233] Use. (following their private reasoning. naturall cause of it. it were a Miracle because both the thing is strange. how rarely soever the like has been done or if the like have been often done. we no more wonder.338 Part 3. in the same sense. OF A CHRISTIAN CHAP. such. in such occasions. . they are commonly in Holy Scripture. than the other yet because tis In like manner. called Signes. by operation yet one is brought to passe. or Cow should speak. which make men wonder at any event The one is. Miracles are signified the Admirable works of God & therefore they are also called Wonders. and their Chap. men naturall And Latines. if nev er. or into a pillar. .) what he hath commanded.

: - . we count them not for Miracles. or other Minister of God. Again. and after that intelligence. : . Chap. by the common when neverthelesse. 37. by confederacy. (which is not the immediate. but by mediation of humane Industry. there should be no more an universall But at this day. cannot easily be done. 339 The in the world. placed in heaven. a Miracle. wherewith men which are endued. because they are frequent. Rainbow that was seen . and not to another.) admire not at all As when Ecclipses of the Sun and Moon have been taken for supernaturall works.End of Miracles. which other men. some lesse it followeth. have foretold the very hour Or. the destruction of all living creatures in the universall deluge. seeing Admiration and Wonder. destruction of the world by Water. gers. there be many rare works produced by the Art of man yet when we know they are done because thereby wee know also the means how they are done. unwary man. employed by God. nor to them who know them not. is conse. may be a Miracle to one. they use not to be called Miracles. though the creation of the world. Again. . and Prophets. they should arrive . they called. as when a man. And thence it is. and cautelous men. because the first and consequently strange and served for a sign from God.Thai quent to the knowledge and experience. that the same thing. otherwise to another knowing to proceed from Nature. Ministers.Part 3first COMMON-WEALTH. that thereby men may are and and know. : and secret actions knowledge of the private an ignorant. And there fore. there were others. was . they are not Miracles. but the ordinary work of God. what he has done in former time it seems to him a Miraculous thing but amongst wise. Z2 . [234] Furthermore. some more. were admirable works yet because they were not done to procure credit to any Prophet. that ignorant. it belongeth to the nature of a Miracle. that it The be wrought for the procuring of credit to Gods Messen. to assure his people. neither to them that know their naturall causes. because not wrought by the immediate hand of God. such Miracles as those. . could people from their naturall causes. getting of . thereby tells him. sent. and superstitious men may seem make great Wonders of those works. thereby be the better inclined to obey them.

to make the Children of Israel beleeve (as it is verse 5. because men naturally beleeve the Almighty can doe all things. because they were done with were properly Miracles intention to make the people of Israel beleeve. Moses came unto them. and his Apostles afterward [ 2 35] their end was alwaies to beget. Wee may further observe in Scripture. . and reprobate that is to say. but will say. till the Captivity and those of we shall find.) that they and again by pulling it : Neverthelesse. to turn the Rod he had in his hand into a Serpent. in such as God had determined should become his Subjects. the conversion of Pharaoh For God had told Moses before. that they came not of their own motion. . not out of any design of his owne but as sent from God. Therefore the other works which were done to plague Pharaoh.340 Part 3. and all the rest of the Prophets. In like manner if we consider all the Miracles done by the hand of Moses. but the plagues forced him to it. 37. . to make it leprous . OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. Therefore after God had commanded him to deliver the Israelites from the Egyptian bondage. had not for end. they durst not yet obey him. i. the Admiration consisteth not in that it could be done. that he should not let the people goe And when he let them goe at last. our Saviour. or confirm beleefe. for fear of Pharaoh. but were sent by God. interest. or Word of a man. was to beget beleef. and the Egyptians. and again to return it into a Rod and by putting his hand into his bosome. God gave him power. that the end of Miracles. tended all to make the Israelites beleeve in Moses. and were properly Miracles. not the Miracles So pers waded him. &c Exo. : . * 4. he gave him power to turn their waters into bloud. when he said They will not beleeve me. it is said (verse 41. . out to make it whole. the Lord hath not appeared unto me. For those miraculous plagues of Egypt. elect. beleeved him. but because he does it at the Prayer. that . .) that the God of their Fathers had appeared unto him And if that were not enough. For how admirable soever any work be. . But the works of God in Egypt. And when hee had done these Miracles before the people. not universally in but in the elect only all men. by the hand of Moses. that he would harden the heart of Pharaoh.

: . not because he wanted power which to say. and consequently no Miracle. whom his Father had rejected. as a subordinate cause. it is. of our Saviour. They that expounding this place of St. From that which I have here set down. can do a Miracle. there is some power that proceedeth not from God which all men deny and if they doe it by power given them. then is the work not from the immediate hand of God. such as God had elected. ordained in the Creation. the all work done. . because the end of their Miracles. He would not. . 58. that no Devil. or other created Spirit. or by Incantation. and of his Apostles was to adde men to the Church but it was. . should be saved Seeing therefore our Saviour was sent from his Father. he could work none. (Mat. For it must either be by vertue of some naturall science. 5. And from this definition. do it without example in the also of our Saviour. we may define it thus. .) and thereby lay a as if Christ stumbling block before weak Christians could doe no Miracles. of the nature. but) such as that is to say. Marke. say. were nor that the end of Miracles blasphemy against God for the was not to convert incredulous men to Christ end of all the Miracles of Moses.) in stead because of their unbeleef It was of. God hath done it. A MIRACLE. of the Prophets. . Greek tongue. without using the Prophet therein. that is. 341 written. is put sometimes for Could not. is . that have no will but Could not. is put for. and use of a Miracle.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. vertue of words.} done. Hee could not. never. . . we may inferre Miracles. Angel. that this word. . and (in Marke 6. but amongst the credulous. was to adde to the Church (not all men. in things inanimate. hee could not use his power in the conversion of those. he wrought not many. for Would not. (where Would not. that in The denot the effect of any vertue finition of in the Prophet because it is the effect of the immediate a Miracle hand of God that is to say. Secondly. the mission of an extraordinary Minister for . First. their salvation. for the making manifest to his elect. For if the Inchanters do it by their own power independent. it is Chappy. is a work of God. (besides his operation by the way of Nature. . 13. but naturall. .) that he wrought not many Miracles in his own countrey.

or any other Miracle seemeth done by Enchantment if it be not to the edification of Gods people. wrought by ordinary means and so far from supernatural!. So that all the Miracle consisteth in Spectator. wrought upon by the Words. land. . or other passions. and Pooles of water into blood. stupidity. There fore when a Rod seemeth a Serpent. but the Pt . . by false Miracles. but to signifie the intentions. nor the Water. There be some texts of Scripture. .7. and superstition of mankind. this. Rivers. or conceptions in the hearer. or the Waters Bloud. to doe them those texts that seem to countenance the power of Magick. 37. a working of but Imposture. and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt will not a man be apt to attribute Miracles to Enchantments that is to say. If therefore Enchantment be not. but the ordinary ignorance. as the Impostors need not the study so much as of naturall causes. .) to certain Arts of Magick. the Magicians of Egypt did the ll like by their Enchantments. . that Words have no effect. than at first sight they seem . ground became a Serpent. must needs have another sense. Exod. 8. That men . and think the same very well proved out of this. As for example. . to bear. not the Rod. but a very easie matter to doe. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. Witchcraft. that seem to attribute the power of working wonders (equall to some of those immediate Miracles. or passions deceived of them that speak and thereby produce. For it is evident enough.342 Part 3. and Enchantment. when [236] we read that after the Rod of Moses being cast on the Exod. fear. Ponds. which that the Enchanter has deceived a man Miracle. the Magicians of Egypt did so likewise. to the efficacy of the sound of Words. 7. the Magicians also did so with their Enchantments. nor any other thing is enchanted that is to say. with their Enchantments and that after Moses had by the power of God brought frogs upon the Exod. and words and delusion. and other such places ? and yet there is no place of Scripture that telleth us what an Enchantment is. and Incantation. tol? ^ ave no ther. bat on those that un( and then they ?erstand them. as many think it. . 7. strange effects by spells. is no . and that after Moses had turned the waters of the Egyptian Streams. wrought by God himself. hope.

obtain the reputation of being Conjurers. of Deuteronomy That wee take not any for Prophets. another so to cure him. or day the Sun should be darkned ? A Juggler by the handling of his goblets. is able to make very many men beleeve it is a voice from Heaven. as by innumerable and easie and interests of men For such ally of all . and all the rest to bear witnesse will deceive What by drawing . by things wonderfull their own single dexterity. before it was known there was a Science of the course of the Stars. to tell them him again is no hard matter and yet there be many. will deceive many but many conspiring. : . Chap. would be thought to do his wonders by the power at A man that hath practised to speak least of the Devil. to [237] reckon up the severall sorts of those men. tricks to be abused. that should have told the people.Part 3. that is to say. is COMMON-WEALTH. (which kind of men in antient time were called Ventriloqui. workers of and yet these do all they do. and of the nature. that by such means as that.) and so make the weaknesse of his voice seem to proceed. 37. there can be no better. and end of the 18. (as I have said before in the precedent chapter. many more. to give too hasty beleefe Cautions to pretended Miracles. in of his breath. In this aptitude of mankind. and other trinkets. one to seem lame. And for a crafty man. there is nothing how impossible soever to be done. then that which God hath prescribed. . 343 the ignorance. and aptitude to error gener men. But it is too long a businesse. . not from the weak impulsion of the organs of Speech. one to seem lame. opinion of miraculous power. which the Greeks called Thaumaturgi. . first by Moses. 5~ ^/^f Miracles. nor I think against any other caution. whatsoever he please to tell them. if it were not now ordinarily practised. For two men conspiring.) in the beginning of the 13. But if we looke upon the Impostures wrought by Confederacy. This hour. that hath enquired into the secrets. but especially of them that have not much knowledge of naturall causes. the other to cure him with a charme. but from distance of place. and familiar confessions that one man ordinarily maketh to another of his actions and adventures past. might a man have gained. that is impossible to bee beleeved.

or read of. the thing they pretend to be a Miracle. And in this also we must have recourse to Gods Lieutenant to whom in all doubtfull cases. and Aaron. 22) he hath spoken it presumptuously.344 Parts. done by the charm. . would think and the question is no more. And when that is done. that teach any other Religion. (which at that time was Moses. but onely hear tell of a Miracle. (Deut.) whose Prediction we doe not see come to passe. and his successors in their times. or not. I do not know one man.) hath estab lished nor any. or Prophet. that is to say. by his Vicar. or at the word. . were a real! work. till he enquire of God. . or both. (though he teach the same Religion. and use all means possible to consider. whether it be done. Moses therefore in his time. before wee give credit to a pretended Miracle. really done as no man can do the like by his naturall power. then followeth that which Moses saith. but whether it be such. thou shalt not fear him. In which question we are not every : . how far we are to give credit to the relators of it. and neverthelesse it looketh still as like bread as ever it did there is no reason for any man to think it really done nor consequently to fear him. that in these days live under Christian Soveraigns. but that it requires the immediate hand of God. . whether the report be true. or Lieutenant. endued but with a mediocrity of reason. . If he say tis done. and not the Act of a tongue. what doctrine he hath established. or prayer of a man. and not onely so. are to be consulted. that ever saw any such wondrous work. or a lye. And this is chiefly the case of men. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. whether supernaturall whether the Miracle what wee see done. the Head of the Church in all times. If he say not. So also if wee see not. or a man. then that which Gods Lieutenant. then he is not to contradict it. and the Soveraign Governour of Gods people. we are to consult the Lawful Church that is to say. For in these times. but a God. wee have submitted our private . that pre sently God hath made it not bread. next under God himself. 37. that a man judgments. if a man pretend. or pen but in plain terms. that after For example certain words spoken over a peece of bread. be a Miracle we hear. 18. we must both see it done. . the lawful Head thereof. whether it be . .

what is meant in holy Scripture. already.) )lace hereafter. But who is this Lieutenant of God. Of the Signification in Scripture of ETERNALL LIFE. of all men that desire (by obeying Authority) to avoid the calamities of Confusion. by Life and Torment Eternall and for what offences. but the Publique Reason. A private man has alwaies the liberty. to those that pretend. and against whom committed. But when it comes to confession of that faith. to make our own private Reason. and other lesse Rewards and Punishments. Publique. or not beleeve in his heart. those acts that have been given out for Miracles. CHAP. residing in them :hat have the Soveraignty of the Common-wealth It is mpossible a Common-wealth should stand. or Conscience. and thereby conjecture. to Gods Lieutenant. :han the life present and Eternall torment a greater punishment than the death of Nature It is a thing worthy to be well considered. whether they be Miracles. where any other than the Soveraign. . depending on Jusand Justice on the power of Life and Death. the reason of Gods Supreme and indeed we have made him Judge wee have given him a Soveraign power. they are to obtain and Civill Eternall. or Lies. seeing Eternall life is a greater reward. shall be considered in its proper is free. 38. [238] to beleeve. THE WORLD TO COME. the Private Reason must submit to the. :han Death. SALVATION. HELL. hath a power of giving greater rewards than Life and of inflicting greater punishments. ice . men are to be Eternally tormented and for what actions. (because thought Lieutenant. that is. or countenance them. what benefit can accrew by mens belief. THE maintenance . . . Judge if . .Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. of Civill Society. to doe all that is necessary for our peace and defence. according as he shall see. and REDEMPTION. XXXVIII. 345 one. Eternall life. Now war. and Head of the Church. that is to say. . Chap. .

Not that actuall Death then entred for Adam then could never have had children whereas he lived long after. which Christ hath obtained for them. had been whereof he was so long allowed to eat. by man came For as in also the resurrection of the dead. 38. in committing sin.) As by the offence of one. even so by the righteousnesse of one. whose Subject I am. sinned. and saw a numerous posterity ere he dyed. ceming ^fife* Eternall for Beleevers. . even so in Christ shall all be made alive. which was lost by the sin of Adam. and Eternall Life on Earth. have forfeited Paradise. whereof the determination dependeth on the Scriptures. all die. had had an Eternall Life on Earth and that Mortality entred upon himself. For if as in Adam. it must needs bee meant of his Mortality. But where it is said. And therefore as soon as he had eaten of it. and certitude of death. and his posterity. For since by man came death. the free gift came upon all men to Justification of Life. 3. the texts next before alledged seem to make it on Earth. and take also of the tree of life. God thrust him out of Paradise. 19. 18. 5. as &amp. Which is again (i Cor. Chap. 21. 22. he that should cancell that forfeiture was to recover : . Paul holdeth (Rom. Judgment came upon all men to condemnation.gt. (with submission neverthelesse both in this. he should put forth his hand. as he should forthe terbear to eat of the tree of Knowledge of Good and Evill wri ih was not allowed him. Adam was created in such had he not broken the comof God he had enjoyed it in the Paradise fohadwt f Eden For there was the Tree of life Everlastingly. Concerning the place wherein men shall enjoy that Eternall Life. Seeing then Eternall life was lost by Adams forfeiture. that Life again. by his first Sin. lest Gen. . And that of Adams a condition man dement of life. that for the sins of all that beleeve in the comparison of St. 22. Now Jesus Christ hath satisfied . even so in Christ all shall bee .) more perspicuously delivered in these words. and in all questions. thou shalt surely die.) that Adam if he had not sinned. 15. him and therefore recovered to all beleevers.346 The place Part 3first OF A CHRISTIAN we find. By which it seemeth to me. And in this sense it is. that is. . Texts con- Adam all die. In the day that thou eatest thereof. Common-wealth. and live for ever. that ETERNALL LIFE. to the interpretation of the Bible authorized by the [239] thereby.

133. instituted under Moses which was a Political government of the Jews on Earth. seemeth to be confirmed again by St. and not they goe up to it from Earth. in the resurrection. as you have seen him go up into Heaven. is in Jerusalem. The Jews that asked our Saviour the question. . the two Angels) said to the Apostles.) To him that overcommeth I will give to eat of the tree of life. . is a descrip tion of an Eternall Life.Part 3. that saying of our Saviour (Mat. (Rev. 7. as Mankind doth now the Earth in a small time. at the coming again of Christ. coming down from God out of heaven. the Paradise of God. the new Jerusalem. Eternally here them in Heaven and is conformable to the Restauration of the Kingdom of God. / John saw the Holy City. : . nor are given in mar riage. had lived on Earth it is manifest. (Psal. 21. would not have been able to afford them place to stand on. Joh. 10. . COMMON-WEALTH. n. Joh. For if Immortals should have generated. 30. who is taken up from you into Heaven. This was the tree of Adams Eternall life but his life was to have been on Earth. and Eve. Which soundeth as if they had said. if they had not sinned. Chap. 3. . he should come down to govern them under his and not take them up to govern Father. 22. but are as the Angels of God in heaven. . which the two men in white clothing (that is. upon Earth that of S. prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband : and again v. should come down to Gods people from Heaven. For seeing Adam. Eternally. Again. And this differs nothing from that. 347 then all men shall be made to live on Earth Hereunto the comparison were not proper. should be. which is in the midst of the Paradise of God.) where he saith. The same made for alive else : : . resembling that which we lost in Adam in the point of Marriage. even Life for as also evermore for Zion. knew not what were the consequences . (Rev. that were looking upon Christ ascending (Acts I. seemeth to agree that of the Psalmist.) Upon Zion God commanded the blessing.) This same Jesiis. to the same effect As if he should say. New Jerusalem. 2. 38. shall so come. 2.) that in the Resurrection they neither marry. whose wife the woman that had married many brothers. in their individuall persons they should not continually have procreated their kind. .

his Victory this. no more than there is Marriage. Resurrection of them that are elected in Christ. as those which go immediately before. For as Death is reckoned from the Condemnation of Adam. not from the Execution so Life is reckoned from the Absolution. meant the Kingdom of the King that dwelleth in Heaven and his Kingdome was the people of Israel. which are the most remote from Earth. after the manner of other Nations. whose throne is Heaven without . in another Higher Heaven. as where the stars are. (whereof there is no mention in Scripture. that man shall ascend to his happinesse any higher than Gods footstool. that and yet lived after it for a time so the faithful Christian hath recovered Eternal Life by Christs passion. of Life Eternall and therefore our Saviour puts them in mind of this consequence of Immortality that there shal be no Generation. 38. Adam by . till in the days of Samuel they rebelled. is the Heavens. . Where I observe by the way. nor ground in Reason) is not easily to be drawn from any text that I can find. we find written (Joh. and the Soveraign Priests. . though he die a natural death. shall have perswaded the Jews to return. [240] over death hath recovered as holdeth also in his sin. called Ccelum Empyreum. 13. till the Resurrection. whom he ruled by the Prophets his Lieutenants. those parts of the world. and after him Eleazar. the words of our . by the preaching is .348 Part$. or above the stars. any necessity evident in the Scripture. By the Kingdome of Heaven. the Earth. and consequently no marriage.) that no man hath ascended into Heaven. Chap. then shall there be a new Kingdom of Heaven because our King shall then be God. that these words are not. or generation among the Angels. tirst Moses. after the Resurrection. On the contrary. even the Son of man. 3. and remaine dead for a time namely. that is in Heaven. and called the Gentiles to his obedience. That the place wherein men are to live Eternally. : OF A CHRISTIAN . Ascension into heaven. And when our Saviour Christ. of his Ministers. The comparison between that Eternall life which Adam lost. not from the lost Eternall Life . but he that came down from Heaven. meaning by Heaven. and our Saviour by . and would have a mortall man for their King.

. they were written in the Book of Life with them that were absolved of their sinnes. Moses shewed. is a complaint of this Mortality of Nature and yet no contradiction of the Immortality at the Resurrection. . stood only of the Immortality of the Soul. that was pleased of his mere grace. That the dead are raised. 10.Parti. But to this a man may easily answer.) where St. COMMON-WEALTH. yet their souls were in Heaven as soon as they which also seemeth were departed from their bodies to be confirmed by the words of our Saviour (Luke 20. nor suffer thine Holy one to see corruption. Therefore our Saviour not meaneth. which was the Resurrection of the Body. (except Enos and Elias. saith thus. and ordained to Life eternall at the Resurrection. even . but upon the Earth. at the bush. .) if it be cast . that those Patriarchs were Immortall by a property consequent to the essence. the Immortality of the Man. but) of Christ Reason. and say. but of St. but of himselfe.} is a doctrine not apparent in Scripture. For David is not ascended into Heaven. Chapter of Job. 38. and the God of Jacob. but of the Living But if these words be to be under for they all live to him. they lived to God that is. [241] . yet as it is in the text. 34. and a living Creature independent on the body or that any meer man is Immortall. 37. which is the speech not of his friends. to bestow Eternall life upon the faithfull. 349 for Christ was then Saviour. . . using the words of the Psalmist. saith. they prove not at all that which our Saviour intended to prove. Chap.) Thou wilt not leave my soule in Hell. The whole 14. . Peter. And though at that time the Patriarchs and many other faithfull men were dead. that though their bodies were notsto ascend till the generall day of Judg ment. that is to say. (Psal. when he calleth the Lord. John himself not in Heaven. The like is said of David (Acts 2. otherwise than by the Resurrec tion in the last day. 16. That the Soul of man is in its own nature Eternall. There is hope of a tree (saith hee verse 7. 38. .) who proving the Resurrection out of the words of Moses. they were spoken (not of and to prove it. to prove the Ascension of Christ. the God of Abraham. and the God of Isaac. For he is not a God of the Dead. addeth this David. and nature of mankind but by the will of God.

till the Resurrection. But man and wasteth away. that the . yet when it senteth the water it will bud. . . till the heavens be no more. Chapter. and a new Earth. and (verse 12. Promise. wherein he the same places reigneth by his Vicar. Epistle. But when is it. to reign actually. he saith. 38. Therefore where Job saith. chapter of Kingdom of God is a Civil Common wealth. and where is he ? and (verse dyeth. by vertue first of the Old. But because this doctrine (though proved out of places of Scripture not few. man lyeth down. that after the comming again this book. and perdition of ungodly men. and 7 verse. 3. as if he had said. . and the Elements shall melt with fervent Neverthelesse. we according to the promise look for new Heavens. . . do usually signifie the same thing) beginneth not in man. the Heavens be no more the Immortall Life (and Soule and Life in the Scripture. where God himself is Soveraign. or any other paradox of Religion attending the end of that dispute of the sword. and a new earth. Lastly. wherein dwelleth righteousnesse. Wee look for new heavens. in the 35.) by which all sorts of doctrine are to bee of our Saviour in his Majesty. and since of the New Covenant.350 Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN the Chap. not his specificall nature. and bring forth boughes like a Plant. and day of Judgement and hath for cause. are reserved unto fire against the day of Judgment. and shall be dissolved. . and generation but the Promise. con cerning the Authority. Peter tells us. 12. root thereof wax old. . and riseth not. that it is at the generall Resurrection. (from Nature. that the Heavens and the Earth that are now. yea.} but from heat. For in his 2. (not yet amongst my Countreymen decided. that the heavens shall be no more ? St. man riseth not till it is all one.) looking for. or Lieutenant do therefore also prove. . Though thereof die in the ground. seeing it hath been already proved out of divers evident places of Scripture. wherein the Heavens shall be on fire. and the stock down. For St. and glory. and Eternally the Kingdom of God is to be on Earth. nor obscure) will appear to most men a novelty I doe but propound it maintaining but nothing in this.) man giveth up the Ghost. and hasting to the comming of God. Peter saies not.

not determined. as any other deeper place. that under God have the Soveraign Power. COMMON-WEALTH. the Bis patet in prczceps. doctrine concerning Romans called Tartarus Damons. but also (compared to the height of the Stars) of no considerable magnitude. a hole of infinite depth. that they are in Inferno. . For the points of doctrine con cerning the Kingdome [of] God. 38. such as the Greeks in their D&monologie (that is to say. approved. : : Tartarus. 351 and whose commands. there could be in the globe of the Earth. where such wicked men were. had destroyed from off the face of the Earth As for example. and miraculous manner. (whatsoever be the opinions of men) must by all men. and Abirom. both in and writing. where those men are.gt.lt.been in. and Inferi. were swallowed up alive into the earth. taineth as well the Grave. . or in the bottomelesse pit because Corah. to have their place on Earth. Quantus ad celhereum cceli suspectus Olympum : is a thing the proportion of Earth to Heaven cannot bear but that wee should beleeve them there. which is not only finite. and their Torments after Judgment. or rejected speech. in Tartarus. have so great influence on the Kingdome of Man. as God in former times in extraordinary. that mean to be protected by their Laws. on whom God inflicted for that : that Exemplary punnishment. in their it is . . by any note of situation pany as that it shall bee. a place where men cannot see and con. indefinitely. private ^ f&quot. be obeyed. . that were either buryed. as not to be determined. a fte * appear by the Scripture. is usually called in Scripture. so also The place Gods Enemies. . are cast ou But for the place of the damned after the Resurrection. . and the Greeks having that is to say. but [242] by them. Dathan.) and after them of which Virgill saves. by words read Latines which the that signifie under ground ^God^r generally Infernus. . neither in the Old. Not that the Writers of the Scripture would have us beleeve. nor New Testa but onely by the com ment. and Eternal Life. Chap. As the Kingdome of God. a pit without a bottome that is.&amp. where all men remain till the those who never were Resurrection. a&?&amp. . tantum tenditque sub umbras. w / The name of the place.Parts. or swallowed up the of the Earth.

38. and Brimstone which is the second Death. at the 14. and Gomorrah. were consumed for their wickednesse with Fire and Brimstone. But the timorous. . as it is in the 20. or place of Torment : : . (that is. (if the sense be literall. 23. shall have their part in the Lake that burneth with Fire. incredulous. Fourthly. by the extraordinary wrath of God. is under the water. shall remain in the congregation of the Giants.) which is the same with no more Dying. were abolished. . but all the Children of Israel had . Again. verse where it is said. 10. no more going to Hades (from going into Hell is . and Here the place of the Damned. which word perhaps our word Hell is derived. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. neither rose any man from his place for three days . that Death and Hell were cast into the Lake of Fire that is to as if after the day say. but . were begotten. And Isaiah 14. and Whoremongers. Lake Fire. from the Plague of Darknesse inflicted on the Egyptians. because the Cities of Sodom. of standing. Behold the Giants groan under water. So that it is manifest. and Murderers.. and destroyed of Judgment. 5. to be taken indefinitely. Hell is troubled how to meet thee. with the children of men. and Sorcerers.352 The congregation of Giants. and together : [243] with them the countrey about made a stinking bituminous Lake the place of the Damned is sometimes expressed by Fire. Chapter. before the floud. of which it is written (Exod. that Hell Fire. and the Scripture Giants. and all Lyars. and Idolaters. because those mighty men of the Earth. for Destruction. which is here expressed by Metaphor.) They saw not one another. and Job 26.) were for their wicked life the place of the destroyed by the generall deluge . 9. by copulation of the children of God. (which the Q ree ks caiied Heroes. Utter Darknesse. there shall be no more Dying. they that dwell with them. from the reall Fire of Sodorne. Damned. .) is to be under water. that lived in the time of Noah. by the company of those deceased Giants as Proverbs 21. and abominable.8. 16. and a Fiery Lake as in the Apocalypse ch. nor no more that is. Part 3. signineth not any certain kind. Thirdly. the King of Babylon) and will dis and here again the place of the place the Giants for thee Damned. 21. The man that wandreth out of the way of under . is therefore also sometimes marked out. and both say.

the Jews used ever after to call the place of the Damned. out of the City and there used to be fires made. which is of Hinnon. me thinks. .Of the ture. that that which is thus said concerning Hell Fire. Gehenna. . and take away the stench of Carrion. 13.Part 3. and garbage which was carried thither. lasting. the wicked liter all s are all Eternally to be punished in the Valley of Hinnon or that they shall so rise again. as that after the day of Judgment. to receive the filth. 38. none. without the to : originall) (Mat. Jews Tophet. and Tormentors. grievous Idolatry. and to cast him out. as to be ever after under tre ground. HOBBES A a Seeing now there is . . but where that darknesse is to be namely. Externall darknesse. or under water or that after the Resurrection. . or (as it is in the Darknesse without. that may be expressed in proper words) both of the Place of Hell. is spoken and that therefore there is metaphorically a proper sense to bee enquired after. bind hand and foot the man that had not on his Wed ding garment. the place served afterwards. . is that word. that so interprets the Scrip. abominable place. sacrificing their children to the Idol Moloch and wherein also God had afflicted his enemies . very neces place to another sarily. habitation of Gods Elect. efc TO O-KOTOS TO ewTepoi/. . . . they shall no more see one another it followeth. we have the notion of Ever . 22. and Unquenchable Fire. or Darknesse without which though translated Utter darknesse. . cernin nor stir from one Hell. and the nature of Hellish Torments. where the King commandeth his Servants. with most grievous punishments and wherein Josias had burnt the Priests of Moloch upon their own Altars. or Valley And this Gehenna. called the Valley of the Children of Hinnon in a part and called the had committed most T P het whereof. 23. whereas there was a place neer Jerusalem. 353 in their dwellings Judgment. (for of all Metaphors there is some reall ground. does not signifie how great. and from the fires from usually now translated HELL time to time there burning. from time to time. as appeareth at large in the 2 of Kings chap. And so it is expressed is . by the name of Gehenna. COMMON-WEALTH. Chap. to purifie the From this aire.) the place of the wicked after called Utter Darknesse. Lastly.

and gnashing of teeth. set not forth to us any Appella Individuall person. not names of. and Mark 9. And is because by the Enemy. Sometimes. and For so also was his it. from the sight of that Eternal felicity in others. some to shame. and discon tent of mind. The Accuser. . deposed God. were the Kingdomes of the Enemy Earthly . dome of God therefore if the Kingdome of God after the Resurrection. [244] and properties. . and contrary to that of Moses. and Modern Bibles because thereby they seem to be the proper names of D&mons and men are the more easily seduced to beleeve the which at that time was the Religion doctrine of Devills of the Gentiles. as are . 38. by the worm of Conscience as Isa. the Enemy of them that shall be in the King. and calamities. . 24. Satan. are expressed sometimes. but and are therefore Appella onely an office. The Torments of Hell. and of Christ. Devill. as Mat. out names. life . sometimes. as Dan. as in the place now 48 quoted. exactly and properly delivered by the Satan. as proper names use to doe tives. The Enemy. where the worm dyeth not. time before the Jews had . Kingdome must be on Earth in the also. in the Latine. and consequently by Satan. the Accuser. wee have their nature. and everlasting contempt. bolus or Abaddon. and many places beside and contempt. is meant any of the Church. - . or Satan. or Diaroper The Destroyer. is not sensible but by comparison with : : it followeth that they are their own actuall miseries to suffer such bodily paines. or quality which ought not to have been left untranslated. weeping. tives as they are. 66. Devill. and the fire is not sometimes by shame. 8. Enemy . which they themselves through their own incredu And because such lity. which places design metaphorically a grief. shall awake . the Tormenters. For Gods Kingdome was in Palestine and the Nations round about. bee upon the Earth. 12. some to Everlasting All and. and disobedience have lost.354 OF A CHRISTIAN And first for Chap. . quenched. . by Fire. . . 12. 46. and Destroyer. felicity in others. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the Earth. by Torments of Hell. meant. Which significant --names. 44.) The Enemy. (as in the former Chapter I have shewn by Scripture it seems to be. Abaddon. 2.

and is raised in incorruption . : 3&amp. who not Chap. bee applyed to those that can never die but once And although in Metaphoricall speech. and the torments but it cannot thence be inferred. It is sown in dishonour.) to the question concerning what bodies men shall rise with again. Death and the . is to be reckoned also to every one of the wicked a second Death. it is raised in glory . 38. This is the Second Death. . : : : cruell Governours. the Eternall . that the body is sown in corruption. it is sown in weaknesse. God Almighty. and every man be judged J 14. or be tormented with those torments. Whereby it is evident. the estate wherein no man can be without torture. And though there be many places that affirm Everlasting Fire. 355 incident to those. For whereas St. and the Grave shall have delivered Apoc. 42. may bee called an Everlasting Death yet it cannot well be understood of a Second Death. that Everlasting hee who shall be cast into that fire. For though the Scripture bee clear for an universall Resurrection yet wee do not read. that to any of the Reprobate is promised an Eternall life. nor die. and yet never be destroyed. up the dead which were in them. an Everlasting Death. and Torments (into which men may be cast successively one after another for ever yet I find none that affirm there shall bee an Eternall Life therein of any individuall person but to the contrary. Grave shall also be cast into the Lake of Fire. which is the Second Death For after Death. and tortured. that there is to bee a Second Death of every one that shall bee condemned at the day of Judgement. 20. . it is raised in power Glory and Power cannot be applyed to the Nor can the name of Second bodies of the wicked Death. a Calamitous life Everlasting. A a 2 according to his works . and resist them so. shall endure. Paul (i Cor. . is an Everlasting [245] Fire that is to say. 15. onely live under evill and Enemy.gt.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. The fire prepared for the wicked. after which hee shall die no more. 43. shall endure for ever the Fire shall be unquenchable. but have also for King of the Saints. : as to be eternally burnt. saith. both of body and mind. And amongst these bodily paines. after the and in that sense Resurrection.

that a man ing should pretend to forgive Sins. . Concerning Particular Salvations. the discharge of Sinne. . because man was created in a condition Immortall. thou savest me from violence and 2 Kings 13. Arise and walk signifying thereby. 38. thing. by the power. Thy Sins are forgiven. there is great difficulty n concerning the Place. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. such as the faithfull are to enjoy after the day of Judgment. 5. . like. On one side. i that [246] Sam. tendeth to the dissolution of his nature and fell from *&& happinesse by the sin of Adam it followeth. from their temporary enemies. God gave the Israelites a Saviour. against all Evill. as it appears by the words of our Saviour. . either respectively. are in Scripture compreall under the name of SALVATION.) whether it were easier to say. and the there being neither difficulty. 9. is to be saved from all the Evill. and consequently to nothing that from Sin. Sicknesse. to corrupt the interpretation of texts of that kind. and all one! Calamities that Sinne hath brought upon us. Salvation absolute. and favour of Jesus Christ. 14. were the punishments of Sin. and Death it self.356 The Joyes of Life Part 3. 5. or being saved. not Salvation subject to corruption. and 2 Sam. . The Place of Eternall But concerning the Generall Salvation. ^ * s to ^ e secured. is the same thing. 22. . I need say nothing is. . nor interest. because it must be in the Kingdome of Heaven. and so they were delivered from the hand of the Assyrians. Thou art my Saviour. thy Sins be forgiven thee and know that the Scribes took for blasphemy. Remission of Sinne. onely to shew he had power to forgive Sins. 2. as the Lord liveth that saveth Israel. and Arise and walk and that he used that form of speech. must also be a discharge of Death and Misery that is to say. against and^Salvat-ion the speciall Evills. And it is besides evident in reason.. or absolutely. stood. such as are under .) The hended ^ ^e save&amp. as to the saving of the sick. to say.lt. that since Death and Misery. (Mat. by Kingdome (which . asked them (v. Thy Sinnes be forgiven thee. 4. who having cured a man sick of the Palsey. that Misery to be saved from Sin. 39. joyes of Life Eternall. And there fore in the Holy Scripture. or. and Salvation from Death and Misery. by saying. that it was all one. who for that cause is called our SAVIOUR. compresame And hending Want. Son be of good cheer.

they could not spread the sail : then is the prey of a great spoil divided . then. when God shall reign. . Jerusalem shall proceed the Salvation of the Gentiles . The condition of the Saved. we must look also for Triumph . And the Inhabitant shall not say. 24. . 357 an estate ordained by men for their perpetuall security against enemies. shall be in Heaven. not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be state of Salvation removed. . he will save us Lord shall be to them as a broad mote of swift waters. their Judge. that Salvation shall be on Earth. without very evident places of Scripture. a glorious Reign of our King. neither shall gallant ship passe thereby. the people that shall dwell therein shall be forgiven their Iniquity. by Conquest not a safety by Escape and therefore there where we look for Salvation. and streams . a quiet habitation the Eternity of it. 38. thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation. and from (at the coming again of Christ) in Jerusalem : am sick And lastly. a tabernacle that shall not be taken down . : . and want) it seemeth that this Salva tion should be on Earth. But there the glorious Lord will be unto us a place of broad rivers. Look upon Zion. and before Triumph. The is described at large. the Lawgiver. the Lord. 22. neither shall any of the cords thereof be broken. not trust to it. I am sicke . 23. By which it is evident. wherein shall goe no Gaily with oares . &c. they could not well strengthen their mast . For by Salvation is set forth unto us. their the Salvation. he will save us. the lame take the prey. Isaiah 33. I all this is comprehended in The people that dwell therein shall be forgiven their iniquity. In which words wee have the place from whence Salvation is to proceed. I will . 21. Forgivenesse of sin. the condition of their Enemies. The Inhabitant shal not say.Part is 3- COMMON-WEALTH. a tabernacle that shall not be taken down. for Battell which cannot well be supposed. their masts weak. Chap. their tacklings are loose. Jerusalem. But how good soever this reason may be. 20. their King. the lame shal take the spoil of them. . the Lord is our Lawgiver. The Saviour of it. &c. Thy tacklings are loosed . for Victory and before Victory. ver. the City of our solemnities . the Lord is our King. For the Lord is our Judge.

saith the Lord : Whereby it is manifest. and in litters. and the Moon into bloud. as we doe. before the great and terrible day of the Lord come. In the like sense the Prophet Joel describing the day of Judgment.) The Gospel is the power of God to Salvation to every one that beleeveth : To the Jew first. and in charets. and pillars of smoak. Salvation is from the Jews. that shall be received into Gods Kingdome as is also more expressely declared by the same Prophet. for an offering Lord. in his discourse with the woman of Samaria. but know not by whom he wil save you. and there shall be holinesse. that the chief seat of Gods Kingdome (which [247] is the Place. (chap 2. that is. you worship God. saith the same. out of all nations. . So that which our Saviour saith. and also to the Greek. and in earth. And Obadiah verse 17. John 4. and fire. upon horses. the . And therefore also the woman not impertinently answered him again. and upon swift beasts. and upon mules. 30. as the Children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessell into the House of the Lord. begins at the Jews) : . 38. bloud. For therein is the from righteousnesse of God revealed from faith to faith the faith of the Jew. 22. 17. and in Jerusalem shall be Salvation. OF A CHRISTIAN : Chap. And I will also take of them for in bondage) to the Priests and for Levites. the Gentiles who had any Jew shall bring all your brethren. that whosoever For shall call upon the name of the Lord. 16. 21. concerning the place of Gods worship to whom he saith. not a Samaritan.) that God would shew wonders in heaven. to the faith of the Gentile. but the Jews worship what they knew. Upon Mount Zion shall be Deliverance .358 Part 3. he addeth verse 32. that is. Jerusalem. : should say. 31. The Sun should be turned to darknesse. a Jew. that the Samaritans worshipped they knew not what. that know it shall be by one of the tribe of Judah. shall proceed) shall be Jerusalem same is also confirmed by our Saviour. in Mount Zion. is the same that Paul sayes (Rom. For Salvation is of the as if he Jews (ex Judceis. i. from whence the Salvation of us that were And the Gentiles. We know the Messias shall come. and it shall come to passe. Chap. saith the Lord. and the house of Jacob shall possesse their possessions. to my holy mountain. 65. 20. And they (that is. shall be saved.

[ 4 8 1 was from Adam to the generall Flood. sent to Moses by Angels from Heaven and after their revolt. it seemeth not sutable to the dignity of a King. bringing the 2 flood upon the world of the ungodly. but saved Noah the From in holy Scripture. and the Kingdome of God (after the day of Judgement) upon Earth. 5. and of Salvation. to reduce them to their obedience and shall send him thence again. : . 3. St. I have not found any text that can probably be drawn. For he came onely to teach men the way of Salvation. of Samaria.) My Kingdome is not of this World. 2 Pet. shall send his Angels. which possessions he expres- seth more particularly in the following verses. Everlastingly or from that. On the other side. and concludes with these words. in the clouds. 359 possessions of the Heathen. Of the first. All these places are for Salvation. it been said of the Kingdom of God. to prove any Ascension of the Saints into Heaven that is to say. Peter speaks. that the whereas Throne of this our Great King is in Heaven the Earth is but his Footstoole. and a new Earth. wherein Christ coming down from Heaven. this that hath Pet. and to renew the Kingdome of his Father. 2 // God spared not the Old World. or other aetheriall Region saving that it is called the Kingdome of Heaven which name it may have. governed them by his commands. &c. Gilead. into any Ccelum Empyreum. our Saviour speaks (John 18. 2. and the World to come. the Old World. the Kingdom shall be the Lords. Peter speaks. St. nor can I find any evident text for . Of the present World. the fields of Ephraim. Of the World to come. There are three worlds mentioned in Scripture. and . by his doctrine. This is that ORLD. . or higher than his Footstoole. to rule both them. : . because God. But that the Subjects of God should have any place as high as his Throne. sent his Son from Heaven. that was King of the Jews.1 3. by the mount of Esau. . 38. and the Cities of the South. 36. Chap. Neverthelesse we according to his promise look for T new Heavens. eighth person. it is not hard to interpret what is meant by the WORLD TO COME. a Preacher of righteousnesse. and glory. and all other faithfull men. from the day of Judgment. the Land of the Philistines.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. So the first World. W with great power. the Present World.

equiva lent to the Offence. shall gather together his elect. and Oblation. of such as in the mean time should repent. . that is to say. reign over them. as God hath been pleased to require. and beleeve in him. was some Sacri To forgive sin is not an act of Injustice. . at his first coming. which God was pleased to require. but sometimes a Price yet by Price we are not to under stand any thing. by the value whereof. as he that is offended. either gratis. or Oblation. promises of Evill. a thing vendible. but right to a pardon for us. and has him in his power. And seeing the person offended. That which God usually accepted in the Old Testament. in whose power are all things such Ransome is to be paid before Salvation can be acquired. . fice. though the promise of Good. Even though the punishment have been threatned. . or recompence. shall require. . and thence forth Redemption. or upon such penalty. is not intended a satisfaction for Sin. amongst men. make be taken away by recompence the liberty to sin. he may make amends for by restitution. which no sinner for himself e.360 Part 3. But sins may bee pardoned to the repentant. be not alwaies in Scripture called a Sacrifice. nor righteous man can ever be able to make for another The dammage a man does to another. bind the promiser yet threats. (under his Father) Everlastingly. from the four winds. Our Saviour Christ therefore to Redeem us. supposeth a precedent REDEMPTION for he that is once guilty of Sin. 38. he could claim tion of . And though this act of our Redemption. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. is Almighty God. is obnoxious to and must pay (or some other the Penalty of the same or him) such Ransome. Salvation of a sinner. of its own vertue. as that his Death. but sin cannot for that were to. and Obla Eternall death . much lesse shall they bind God. and from the uttermost parts of the Earth. . from his offended Father that Price which God the Father was pleased in mercy to demand. who more merciful then men. did not in that sense satisfie for infinitely the Sins of men. could make it unjust in God to punish sinners with but did make that Sacrifice. for the Salvation at his second coming. : . bind them not is . By this Ransome. as God is pleased to accept. himself.

It is taken also sometimes for the men that have right to be of the Congregation. and the House and so is any Edifice dedicated by Christians Prayer to the worship of Christ. 39. And sometimes for a certain part of Christians. CHAP. for a Congregation assembled. for the whole multitude of Christian men. 8. to dis tinguish between the Temples of Christians. I Cor. for a Temple. and Church. The Temple of . and seditious clamor. 3. called forth. of Jerusalem was Gods house. a Congregation. and Idolaters. 14. And when they were called forth by lawfull Authority. women keep silence in the Churches but this is Meta phorically put. and without blemish which is meant of the Church triumphant. though not actually assembled that is to say. . Church (when not taken for a House) signifieth the same that Ecclesia signified in the Grecian Common.) A Glorious Church. 4. as he that spake was called Ecclesiastes. it was Ecclesia legitima. evvo/xo? EK/cA^o-ia. holy. (Ecclesia) -signifieth in the Books Church Lords - divers things. . : : the Elect onely as (Ephes. 5.Ecclesia wealths that is to say. that Saul made havock And in of the Church this sense is Christ said to be Head of the Church. The Lords house and thence. for the Congregation there assembled and hath been since used for the Edifice it self. But when they were excited 39Church. . and Concionator. XXXIX. that is to say. to hear the Magistrate speak unto them and which in the Common-wealth of Rome was called Concio. a Lawfull Acts 19.lt. as (Col.COMMON-WEALTH. O/ of ^&amp. then it was a con fused Church. 361 [247] signification in Scripture of the word CHURCH. Sometimes. wherein Christians assemble to perform holy duties publiquely Let your as. . of professors . l&KK\r)orLa o-vyKexvjJitvr). Sometimes also for : . 34. or wrinkle. or. in our language it came to be called Kyrke. by tumultuous. Christs house and therefore the Greek Fathers call it Kv/ata/o). Church to come. - .) Salute the Church that is in his house. without spot. Holy Scripture . how far soever they be dispersed as (Act. 27. ver. or an Assembly properly what of Citizens. Sometimes (though house not often) it is taken for Gods House. 15. the THE word Church.2 Chap.) where it is said. : .

362 Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN whether their profession be true. 18. Church . According to this sense. to command. as of one body much lesse the act of them that were absent. that the bodies of the faith full. as it is understood. and mistake their Lawfull It is true. are but two words brought into the world. is unlawful that Church also. or to doe any other action whatso ever For without authority from a lawfull Congrega tion. or of Christianity.. or Publican. And because in all Common-wealths. to be obeyed. were not willing it should be done. to make men see double. Temporall and Spirituall Government.wealth. united in the person defined. let him be to thee as a Gentile. whatsoever act be done in a concourse of people. where it is said. to Judge. : . that there is on Earth. Mat. Tell it to the Church. to make laws. therefore a Church. no such Christian universall Church. 17. . A company of men professing Christian Religion. of one Soveraign . or do any other act. Condemn. such a one as is capable to Command. and if hee neglect to hear the Church. that hath forbidden them to assemble. . A It followeth also. In what sense the And in this last sense only . is an unlawfull Assembly. as all Christians are bound to obey Because there is no power on Earth. which is without warrant from the Civil Soveraign. . Soveraign. cannot be he is himself a member And subject to the commands of any other Person. . . and gave their aid to the performance of it and not the act of them all in grosse. which is assembled in any Common-wealth. or that taken for one Person that is . consisting of and is called a Civill State. . coun terfeit. to which all other wealth Common. is the same thing with a Civil Common-wealth. [248] it is the particular act of every one of those that were present. in and a but every Church all the Dominions of severall Princes and States one of them is subject to that Common. for that the Christian men and a Church. . it is that the Church can be to say. that it can be said Church t have power to will. being present. to pronounce. and without whose authority they ought not to assemble. at whose command they ought to assemble. I define a CHURCH to be. that Assembly.wealths are subject There are Christians. whereof and consequently. Absolve. for that the subjects of it are Men subjects thereof are Christians.

-

COMMON-WEALTH.
:

Chap. 40.

363

after the Resurrection, shall be not onely Spiritual!, but but in this life they are grosse, and corruptible. Eternall

There
neither

is

therefore
of

no other Government

in

this
;

life,

nor State, nor Religion, but Temporall teaching of any doctrine, lawful! to any Subject, which the Governour both of the State, and of the Religion, And that Governor must be forbiddeth to be taught one or else there must needs follow Faction, and Civil
:

;

war

Common-wealth, between the Church and between Spiritualists, and Temporalists between the Sword of Justice, and the Shield of Faith and (which is more) in every Christian mans own brest, between the The Doctors of the Church, Christian, and the Man.
in the
;

State

;

;

so also are Civill Soveraignes But Pastors be not subordinate one to another, so as that there may bee one chief Pastor, men will be taught con
are called Pastors
: ;

if

trary Doctrines, whereof both may be, and one must be false. Who that one chief Pastor is, according to the law of Nature, hath been already shewn namely, that it is the Civill Soveraign And to whom the Scripture hath assigned that Office, we shall see in the Chapters
;
:

following.

CHAP. XL.
Of the RIGHTS
of the

[249]

Kingdome of God, in Abraham, Moses, the High Priests, and the Kings of Judah. THE Father of the Faithfull, and first in the Kingdome The of God by Covenant, was Abraham. For with him was Soveraign
the Covenant first made wherein he obliged himself, and his seed after him, to acknowledge and obey the commands of God not onely such, as he could take notice of, (as Morall Laws,) by the light of Nature but also such, as God should in speciall manner deliver to him by Dreams, and Visions. For as to the Morall law, they were already obliged, and needed not have been contracted withall, by promise of the Land of Canaan. Nor was there any Contract, that could adde to, or strengthen the Obligation, by which both they, and all men else were bound naturally to obey God Almighty
;
;

%*?

^

;

:

364

Part

3.

OF A CHRISTIAN

Chap. 40.

And therefore the Covenant which Abraham made with God, was to take for the Commandement of God, that which in the name of God was commanded him, in a
and to deliver it to his family, and Dream, or Vision cause them to observe the same. In this Contract of God with Abraham, wee may observe three points of important consequence in the government of Gods people. First, that at the making
;

this Covenant, God spake onely to Abraham, and therefore contracted not with any of his family, or seed, otherwise then as their wills (which make the essence of all Covenants) were before the Contract involved in the will of Abraham who was therefore supposed to have had a lawfull power, to make them perform all that he
of.
;

covenanted

for

them.

18, 19.) God saith, All the blessed in him, For I know

According whereunto (Gen. 18. Nations of the Earth shall be

him

that he will

command

his

children
the

and

way

his houshold after him, From whence of the Lord.

and they

shall keep

this first point, that

they to

may be concluded whom God hath not spoken
;

immediately, are to receive the positive commandements of God, from their Soveraign as the family and seed of Abraham Abraham did from Abraham their Father, and Lord, had the an d Civill Soveraign. And consequently in every who have no supernaturall Revelaofwler-* Common-wealth, they tion to the contrary, ought to obey the laws of their own ing the Religion Soveraign, in the externall acts and profession of Religion. of his own AS for the inward thought, and beleef of men, which people. humane Governours can take no notice of, (for God onely knoweth the heart) they are not voluntary, nor [250] the effect of the laws, but of the unrevealed will, and of the power of God and consequently fall not under
;

obligation.

No pretence of
Spirit*
against
the

From whence proceedeth another point, that it was not unlawfull for Abraham, when any of his Subjects should P retend Private Vision, or Spirit, or other Revelation from God, for the countenancing of any doctrine which
Abraham should
to
forbid, or

Re-

ligion of

Abraham,

any such pretender,
it

to punish
for the

when they followed, or adhered them and consequently
;

^at man

Soveraign to punish any that shall oppose his Private Spirit against the
is

lawfull

now

Part

3.
:

COMMON-WEALTH.
For hee hath the same place
in the

Chap. 40.

365

Laws

Common
;

wealth, that
as

Abraham had

in his

own Family.

that Abraham There ariseth also from the same, a third point none but Abraham in his family, so none but the solejudge, e Soveraign in a Christian Common- wealth, can take ^f t For jj^t Q O(I notice what is, or what is not the Word of God. God spake onely to Abraham and it was he onely, that spake.

^

/"

;

was able to know what God said, and to interpret the same to his family And therefore also, they that have the place of Abraham in a Common-wealth, are the onely Interpreters of what God hath spoken. The same Covenant was renewed- with Isaac and The afterwards with Jacob but afterwards no more, till the authority Moses Israelites were freed from the Egyptians, and arrived at of and then it was renewed by the Foot of Mount Sinai Moses (as I have said before, chap. 35.) in such manner, as they became from that time forward the Peculiar whose Lieutenant was Moses, for Kingdome of God and the succession to that office was his owne time setled upon Aaron, and his heirs after him, to bee to
:

;

;

:

;

:

God a

Kingdome for ever. Kingdome is acquired to God. But seeing Moses had no authority to govern the Israelites, as a successor to the right of Abraham, because he could it appeareth not as yet, that not claim it by inheritance the people were obliged to take him for Gods Lieutenant, longer than they beleeved that God spake unto him. And

Sacerdotall

By

this constitution, a

;

therefore his authority (notwithstanding the Covenant they made with God) depended yet merely upon the opinion they had of his Sanctity, and of the reality of his Conferences with God, and the verity of his Miracles which opinion coming to change, they were no more obliged to take any thing for the law of God, which he are therefore propounded to them in Gods name. to consider, what other ground there was, of their obliga tion to obey him. For it could not be the commandement of God that could oblige them because God spake not to them immediately, but by the mediation of Moses himself: And our Saviour saith of himself, // / bear witnesse of my self, my witnesse is not true much lesse if Moses bear witnesse of himselfe, (especially in a claim
;

We

;

;

366

Part
of

3.

OF A CHRISTIAN

Chap. 40.

[251]

Kingly power over Gods people) ought his testimony His authority therefore, as the authority of all other Princes, must be grounded on the Consent of the People, and their Promise to obey him. And so it was For the people (Exod. 20. 18.) when they saw the Thunderings, and the Lightnings, and the noyse of the Trumpet, and the mountaine smoaking, removed, and
to be received.
:

stood a far
lest

And they said unto Moses, speak thou off. with us, and we will hear, but let not God speak with us
we
this
die.
it

by
of

Here was their promise of obedience and was they obliged themselves to obey whatso
;

ever he should deliver unto

them

for the

Commandement

God.

Moses was
(under

God) Soveraign of the Jews,
all his

own
had

time,

though

Aaron
the

Covenant constituteth a Kingdome, that is to say, a Kingdome yet that is to be understood of hereditary to Aaron the succession, after Moses should bee dead. For whoso ever ordereth, and establisheth the Policy, as first founder of a Common-wealth (be it Monarchy, Aristo cracy, or Democracy) must needs have Soveraign Power
notwithstanding the
;

And

Sacerdotall

Priest hood.

over the people all the while he is doing of it. And that Moses had that power all his own time, is evidently affirmed in the Scripture. First, in the text last before cited, because the people promised obedience, not to Aaron but to him. Secondly, (Exod. 24. i, 2.) And God said unto Moses, Come up unto the Lord, thou, and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the Elders of Israel.

And Moses

alone shall come neer the Lord, but they shall not come nigh, neither shall the people goe up with him. By which it is plain, that Moses who was alone called up to God, (and not Aaron, nor the other Priests, nor the

Seventy Elders, nor the People who were forbidden to come up) was alone he, that represented to the Israelites that is to say, was their sole Sove the Person of God And though afterwards it be said raign under God. (verse 9.) Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the Elders of Israel, and they saw the God of Israel, and there was under his feet, as it were a paved work of a saphire stone, &c. yet this was not till after Moses had been with God before, and had brought to the people the words which God had said to him.
;

Part

3.

COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 40.
;

367

He

onely went for the businesse of the people

the

others, as the Nobles of his retinue,

honour to that speciall which was, (as in the verse after appeareth) the people to see God and live. God laid not his hand upon them., they saw God, and did eat and drink (that is, did live), but did not carry any commandement from him to the people. Again, it is every where said, The Lord spake unto Moses, so also in the as in all other occasions of Government ordering of the Ceremonies of Religion, contained in the
;
;

were admitted for grace, which was not allowed to

and 31 Chapters of Exodus, and to Aaron seldome. The Calfe throughout Leviticus that Aaron made, Moses threw into the fire. Lastly, the question of the Authority of Aaron, by occasion of his and Miriams mutiny against Moses, was (Numbers 12.) judged by God himself for Moses. So also in the question between Moses, and the People, who had the Right of Governing the People, when Corah, Dathan, and Abiram,
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
:

and two hundred and

fifty

Princes of the Assembly

gathered themselves together (Numb. 16. 3.) against Moses, and against Aaron, and said unto them, Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are Holy, every one of them, and the Lord is amongst them, why lift up your selves above the congregation of the Lord ? God caused the Earth to swallow Corah, Dathan, and Abiram with their wives and children alive, and consumed those two [252] hundred and fifty Princes with fire. Therefore neither Aaron, nor the People, nor any Aristocracy of the chief Princes of the People, but Moses alone had next under

God the Soveraignty over the Israelites And that not For onely in causes of Civill Policy, but also of Religion Moses onely spake with God, and therefore onely could tell the People, what it was that God required at their No man upon pain of death might be so pre hands. sumptuous as to approach the Mountain where God talked with Moses. Thou shalt set bounds (saith the Lord, Exod. 19. 12.) to the people round about, and say, Take
:
:

heed to your selves that you goe not up into the Mount, or touch the border of it ; whosoever toucheth the Mount shall
surely be put to death.

charge the people,

lest

And again (verse 21.) Goe down, they break through unto the Lord to

368

Part
gaze. in a

3.

OF A CHRISTIAN
Out
of

Chap. 40.

which we

Moses,
his

Christian is the sole Messenger of God,

may conclude, that whosoever Common-wealth holdeth the place of
and Interpreter
of

according hereunto, no man ought in the interpretation of the Scripture to proceed further then the bounds which are set by their severall Soveraigns. For the Scriptures since God now speaketh in them, are the Mount Sinai the bounds whereof are the Laws of them that represent Gods Person on Earth. To look upon them, and therein to behold the wondrous works of God, and learn to fear him is allowed but to that is, to pry into what God saith to interpret them him whom he appointeth to govern under him, and make themselves Judges whether he govern as God commandeth him, or not, is to transgresse the bounds God
;

Comman dements. And

;

;

hath set us, and to gaze upon God irreverently. There was no Prophet in the time of Moses, nor preAll spirits were sub- tender to the Spirit of God, but such as Moses had
?*?(****
spirit of

Moses.

For there were in his time Seventy men, that are said to Prophecy by the Spirit of God, and these were of all Moses his election con cerning whom God said to Moses (Numb. n. 16.) Gal her to mee Seventy of the Elders of Israel, whom thou knowest To these God imparted to be the Elders of the People. his Spirit but it was not a different Spirit from that of Moses for it is said (verse 25.) God came down in a cloud, and took of the Spirit that was upon Moses, and gave it But as I have shewn before to the Seventy Elders. so that (chap. 36.) by Spirit, is understood the Mind the sense of the place is no other than this, that God endued them with a mind conformable, and subordinate to that of Moses, that they might Prophecy, that is to say, speak to the people in Gods name, in such manner, as to set forward (as Ministers of Moses, and by his authority) such doctrine as was agreeable to Moses his and when two doctrine. For they were but Ministers of them Prophecyed in the Camp, it was thought a new and unlawful! thing and as it is in the 27. and 28. verses of the same Chapter, they were accused of it, and Joshua advised Moses to forbid them, as not knowing that it was by Moses his Spirit that they Prophecyed. By which

k^

approved, and Authorized.

;

;

;

;

;

;

Part
it

3-

COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 40.

369

is

manifest,

Prophecy, or to the established by him, Moses.

that no Subject ought to pretend to Spirit, in opposition to the doctrine whom God hath set in the place of [253]

Aaron being dead, and after him also Moses, the After the Kingdome, as being a Sacerdotall Kingdome, descended Moses to vertue of the Aarons Eleazar th Covenant, Son, by And God declared him (next under himHigh Priest self) for Soveraign, at the same time that he appointed the High Joshua for the Generall of their Army. For thus God Priest. saith expressely (Numb. 27. 21.) concerning Joshua He shall stand before Eleazar the Priest, who shall ask counsell for him, before the Lord, at his word shall they goe out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the Children of Israel with him Therefore the Supreme Power of making War and Peace, was in the Priest. The Supreme Power of Judicature belonged also to the High Priest For the Book of the Law was in their keeping and the Priests and Levites onely, were the subordinate
: ;
:

:

;

Judges

And
Saul,

for the

in causes Civill, as appears in Deut. 17. 8, 9, 10. manner of Gods worship, there was never
till

doubt made, but that the High Priest

the time of

had the Supreme Authority. Therefore the Civill and Ecclesiasticall Power were both joined together in one and the same person, the High Priest and ought to bee so, in whosoever governeth by Divine Right that is, by Authority immediate from God.
;

;

After the death of Joshua, till the time of Saul, the time between is noted frequently in the Book of Judges, that there was in those dayes no King in Israel and sometimes with this addition, that every man did that which was right in his own eyes. By which is to bee understood, that where it is said, there was no King, is meant, there was no Soveraign Power in Israel. And so it was, if we consider the Act, and Exercise of such power. For after the death of Joshua, & Eleazar, there arose
;

Of

the

Soveraign

P

er

t jie t j

me

Ot

Joshua and of

another generation (Judges 2. 10.) that knew not the Lord, nor the works which he had done for Israel, but did evill in the sight of the Lord, and served Baalim. And the Jews had that quality which St. Paul noteth, to look for a sign, not onely before they would submit themselves to the

HOBBES

B b

370

Part

3.

OF A CHRISTIAN
of Moses, but also after they by their submission. Whereas

Chap. 40.

government
themselves

had obliged Signs, and
;

[254]

Of

the

Rights of
of Israel

Miracles had for End to procure Faith, not to keep men from violating it, when they have once given it for to that men are obliged by the law of Nature. But if we consider not the Exercise, but the Right of Governing, the Soveraign power was still in the High Priest. There fore whatsoever obedience was yeelded to any of the Judges (who were men chosen by God extraordinarily, to save his rebellious subjects out of the hands of the enemy,) it cannot bee drawn into argument against the Right the High Priest had to the Soveraign Power, in all matters, both of Policy and Religion. And neither the Judges, nor Samuel himself e had an ordinary, but and were extraordinary calling to the Government obeyed by the Israelites, not out of duty, but out of reverence to their favour with God, appearing in their wisdome, courage, or felicity. Hitherto therefore the Right of Regulating both the Policy, and the Religion, were inseparable. To the Judges, succeeded Kings And whereas before, all authority, both in Religion, and Policy, was in the so now it was all in the King. For the High Priest Soveraignty over the people, which was before, not onely
;
:

;

by vertue of the Divine Power, but also by a particular pact of the Israelites in God, and next under him, in the High Priest, as his Vicegerent on earth, was cast off by the People, with the consent of God himselfe. For when they said to Samuel (i Sam. 8. 5.) make us a King to judge us, like all the Nations, they signified that they would no more bee governed by the commands that should bee laid upon them by the Priest, in the name of God but by one that should command them in the same manner that all other nations were commanded and consequently in deposing the High Priest of Royall authority, they deposed that peculiar Government of God. And yet God consented to it, saying to Samuel (verse 7.) Hearken unto the voice of the People, in all that they shall say unto thee ; for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected mee, that I should not reign over them.
; ;

Having therefore rejected God,

in

whose Right the

Priests

Parts-

COMMON-WEALTH.
;

Chap. 40.

371

governed, there was no authority left to the Priests, but such as the King was pleased to allow them which was more, or lesse, according as the Kings were good, or evill. And for the Government of Civill affaires, it is manifest, it was all in the hands of the King. For in the same Chapter, verse 20. They say they will be like all the Nations that their King shall be their Judge, and goe that is, he shall before them, and fight their battells have the whole authority, both in Peace and War. In for which is contained also the ordering of Religion there was no other Word of God in that time, by which to regulate Religion, but the Law of Moses, which was their Civill Law. Besides, we read (i Kings 2. 27.) that Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being Priest before the Lord He had therefore authority over the High Priest, which is a great mark of as over any other Subject Supremacy in Religion. And we read also (i Kings 8.) that he blessed the that hee dedicated the Temple and that he himselfe in person made that People excellent prayer, used in the Consecrations of all Churches, which is another great mark of and houses of Prayer Again, we read (2 Kings 22.) Supremacy in Religion. that when there was question concerning the Book of the Law found in the Temple, the same was not decided by the High Priest, but Josiah sent both him, and others to which enquire concerning it, of Hulda, the Prophetesse is another mark of the Supremacy in Religion. Lastly, wee read (i Chron. 26. 30.) that David made Hashabiah
;

;

:

:

;

;

;

;

;

and

his brethren, Hebronites,
all

Officers of Israel

among

them Westward, in

businesse of the Lord, and in the service of the King. Likewise (verse 32.) that hee made other Hebronites, rulers over the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the halfe tribe of Manasseh (these were the rest of Israel that dwelt beyond Jordan) for every matter per Is not this full taining to God, and affairs of the King. Power, both temporall and spirituall, as they call it, that would divide it ? To conclude from the first institution of Gods Kingdome, to the Captivity, the Supremacy of [255]
;

was in the same hand with that of the Civill and the Priests office after the election of Soveraignty Saul, was not Magisteriall, but Ministeriall. B b 2
Religion,
;

372
The
practice of
1

Part

3-

OF A CHRISTIAN

Chap. 40.
in Policy

Notwithstanding the government both

and
;

appeareth by the same Holy History, that the but there being amongst people understood it not the time of them a great part, and probably the greatest part, that no l n g er than tne y saw g r eat miracles, or (which is according to the equivalent to a miracle) great abilities, or great felicity in the enterprises of their Governours, gave sufficient Right thereof. credit, either to the fame of Moses, or to the Colloquies between God and the Priests they took occasion as oft as their Governours displeased them, by blaming some times the Policy, sometimes the Religion, to change the Government, or revolt from their Obedience at their And from thence proceeded from time to time pleasure the civill troubles, divisions, and calamities of the Nation. As for example, after the death of Eleazar and Joshua, the next generation which had not seen the wonders of God, but were left to their own weak reason, not knowing themselves obliged by the Covenant of a Sacerdotall Kingdome, regarded no more the Commandement of the Priest, nor any law of Moses, but did and every man that which was right in his own eyes obeyed in Civill affairs, such men, as from time to time
Religion, was not in

acvin

Religion, were joined, first in the High Priests, and afterwar ds the Kings, so far forth as concerned the Right

m

Ye t

it

;

;

:

;

they thought able to deliver them from the neighbour and consulted not with Nations that oppressed them God (as they ought to doe,) but with such men, or women, as they guessed to bee Prophets by their Predictions of and though they had an Idol in their things to come if Chappel, yet they had a Levite for their Chaplain, they made account they worshipped the God of Israel.
;
;

And afterwards when they demanded a King, after the manner of the nations yet it was not with a design but to depart from the worship of God their King despairing of the justice of the sons of Samuel, they but would have a King to judg them in Civill actions not that they would allow their King to change the
;
; ;

Religion which they thought was recommended to them by Moses. So that they alwaies kept in store a pretext, either of Justice, or Religion, to discharge them selves of
their obedience,

whensoever they had hope to

prevaile.

Part

3-

COMMON-WEALTH.

Chap. 40.

373

Samuel was displeased with the people, for that they desired a King, (for God was their King already, and Samuel had but an authority under him) yet did
;

Samuel, when Saul observed not his counsell, in destroy ing Agag as God had commanded, anoint another King, namely, David, to take the succession from his heirs. Rehoboam was no Idolater but when the people that Civil pretence carried thought him an Oppressor from him ten Tribes to Jeroboam an Idolater. And generally through the whole History of the Kings, as well of Judah, as of Israel, there were Prophets that alwaies controlled the Kings, for transgressing the and sometimes also for Errours of State as 2Chro. Religion 2 Jehosaphat was reproved by the Prophet Jehu, for aiding the King of Israel against the Syrians and Hezekiah, by [256] Isaiah, for shewing his treasures to the Ambassadors of Babylon. By all which it appeareth, that though the power both of State and Religion were in the Kings yet none of them were uncontrolled in the use of it, but such as were gracious for their own naturall abilities, or
;
; ; ;

19.

-

;

;

So that from the practise of those times, there can no argument be drawn, that the Right of Supremacy in Religion was not in the Kings, unlesse we place it in the Prophets and conclude, that because Hezekiah praying to the Lord before the Cherubins, was not answered from thence, nor then, but afterwards by the Prophet Isaiah, therefore Isaiah was supreme Head of the Church or because Josiah consulted Hulda the Prophetesse, con cerning the Book of the Law, that therefore neither he, nor the High Priest, but Hulda the Prophetesse had the Supreme authority in matter of Religion which I thinke is not the opinion of any Doctor. During the Captivity, the Jews had no Common-wealth After
felicities.
; ; ;

the

though they renewed Captivity their Covenant with God, yet there was no promise made the J ews of obedience, neither to Esdras, nor to any other And e% presently after they became subjects to the Greeks (from Commonwhose Customes, and Daemonology, and from the doc- wealth.
at
all
:

And

after their return,

:

^

trine of the Cabalists, their Religion became much cor In such sort as nothing can be gathered from rupted) their confusion, both in State and Religion, concerning
:

shall begin that his glorious Reign over his elect. as Moses and the High Priests were in their severall times. Not that the death of one man. of one that payeth the Ransome of Sin (which Ransome is Death. can satisfie for the offences of all men. by the Sacrifice. in the rigour of Justice. . that whosoever had the Soveraignty of the Common wealth amongst the Jews. and thereby bare upon his own head. : Three 6 ffi ^e Messiah WE find in : Holy Scripture three parts of the Office of The first of a Redeemer. [261] CHAP. we may conclude. And after his coming again. . iniquities. For our Redemp tion he wrought at his first coming. XLI. Of which we are to speak in the Chapter following. and carryed away from us our : : . though without sinne.gt. and that is the person of God the represented Gods Person Father though he were not called by the name of Father. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. Counsellor. which is to last eternally. And therefore so far forth as concerneth the Old Testament. To the Office of a Redeemer.) it appertaineth. . Jesus Christ. Of the OFFICE of our BLESSED SAVIOUR. of a Prophet sent from God. that ordained such Sacrifices for In the sin. the same had also the Supreme Authority in matter of Gods externall worship . to be saved for evermore. wherein he offered up himself for our sinnes upon the Crosse our Conversion he wrought partly then in his own Person and partly worketh now by his Ministers and will continue to work till his coming again. to redeem mankind from their sins. as he was pleased in his mercy to accept. &amp. or Saviour The Christ His Office secon d of a Pastor. but in the Mercy of God. that is. that is. or Teacher. that he was Sacrificed. 40.374 Parts. the Supremacy in either. And to these three parts are correspondent three times. in such sort as God had required. to convert such as God hath elected to Salvation The third of a King. and bring them into his Everlasting Kingdome. an eternall King. but under his Father. . till such time as he sent into the world his Son .

he was to lay his hands on the head thereof. 375 Old Law (as we may read. (ver.) the Lord hath laid upon him the iniquities of us all And so he is the Scape Goat. .Parts* COMMON-WEALTH. Chap. which was the Scape Goat. . 4. and for the doing whereof. hath no Christs title to the thing redeemed. . Our Saviour Christs sufferings seem to be here figured. For as much therefore. . he opened not his mouth . as cleerly. 7. because there was no more required. and as . both Priests. Aaron alone was to others sacrifice for himself and the Priests a young Bullock and for the rest of the people. And again.) and carried our sorrows (ver. that there should every year once. sacri equivalent to both those Goates in that he dyed and escaping.) the Lord required. during that time hee conversed suffered death . and carry away with him the iniquities of the people. he was to receive from them two young Goates. 6. 41. and the Scape Goat and he was afflicted (Esay 53. for the Sins of all mankind. to lay them all on that head. and by a confession of the iniquities of the people. and removed from the habitation of men in his Ascension.) for the transgression of my People : is the sacrificed Goat.). or in : He was both the type of him in the Old Testament Hee was oppressed. He was cut off from the land mouth : dumbe Here he before the shearer. to cause the Goat to be led into the wildernesse. he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter. as he that redeemeth. sacrificed Goat. that our Saviour (as Redeemer man) was not King of those that he Redeemed. bee made an Atonement for the Sins of all Israel.) he shall bear their sins Hee is the Scape Goat. Thus is of the : Lamb ficed. and there to escape. As the . in his Resurrection of . He hath born our And again. 8. before hee that is. Griefs. . of which he was to sacrifice one but as for the other. Leviticus the 16. before the Redemption. is a sufficient price. n. as in the oblation of Isaac. being raised opportunely by his Father. so is opened he not his : [262] : There again he the living (ver. and then by some opportune man. . Sacrifice of the one Goat was a sufficient (because so an acceptable) price for the Ransome of all Israel the death of the Messiah. (ver. any other a sheep is the sacrificed Goat. God . . and Kingdome this Ransome paid and this Ransome was the Death of the it is manifest.

23. but hath committed all judgment to the Son. 14. To reward every man according to his works. when there shall bee a new Heaven. (Mat. (under his Father) whensoever he should be pleased to take the Kingdome upon him. According whereunto. : . and. 19. that is. 28. that is. that observe and doe hee declareth plainly. but to them. our Saviour himself expressely : saith. and a new Earth . for that time. where he saith. which the faithfull make with him in Baptisme Neverthelesse. maketh mention but of two now. . saies expressely (chap.) Yee / came not : .) The Father judgeth no man. All therefore whatsoever they bid you doe. (Mat. but to save the world.) The Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father. the Anointed that is to say. 18. John in the Kings that succeeded the Priests. 27. Now of (John . the Christ. [263] judge the world the other of the world to come as also where it is said. ver. 5. or Divider over you ? And (John 12. Father. And so hee doth also.) .) and that which shall bee after the day of Judgement. 47. yet our Saviour came into this world that hee might bee a King. by the renewing of their Pact with God in Baptisme. 41. I came not to for this is spoken of the world present. that at the second coming of Christ.) The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses seat . And that is it which our Saviour saith. they were obliged to obey him for King. the last day . not to himselfe. is to execute the Office of a King this is not to be till he come in the glory of his When our Saviour saith. and . and And St. 2. bodily on the Earth. And this is not repugnant to that other place. and the Soveraign Prophet of God he was to have all the power that was in Moses the Prophet. (which is therefore also called. then he shall reward every man according to his works. I say. (Luke 12. Priest. (Mat. And to judge the world. and a Judge in the world to come For hee was the Messiah.) Who made mee a Judge. with his Angells. 22. and shall remain to the day Judgment. 16. he was not then King in present.376 Part 3- OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. 36. the Kingdome of Christ is not to begin till the general! Resurrection. in the High Priests that succeeded Moses. by vertue of the Pact. with his Angels .) My seeing the Scripture this that is worlds Kingdome is not of this world. that hee ascribeth Kingly Power.

to take possession of his Fathers Kingdome. by a new Covenant.and to fice for the sinnes of them that should by faith submit perswade and in case the nation generally ih* themselves thereto If that have followed me in the Regeneration. as naturalized in that heavenly Kingdome. and Kingdome of God which they could not have done if their Laws had forbidden him (when he came) to manifest. to obedience such as should beleeve in him amongst the Gentiles. but by Preachcall to his . and to beleeve in him For which cause the Godly are said to bee already in the Kingdome of Grace. (for hee commanded to obey those that sate then in Moses chaire. For as touching the Commonwealth which then was amongst the Jews. and declare himself. as to be worthy of the Immortality Beleevers were to enjoy. So that there are two parts of our Saviours Office during his aboad upon the Earth: One to Proclaim himself the Christ. that the time of his preaching. them. or of Caesar. that is. Hitherto therefore there is nothing done. then Christ whilest hee was on Earth. . the then law of the . . or taught by Christ. and thereby a warrant to deny obedience to the Magistrates that then were. should refuse him. to dome . and prepare men to live so. judging the twelve tribes of Israel. to those to whom God had given the grace to be his disciples. Chap. and they that were governed. and another by Teaching. and by working of Miracles. that tendeth to the diminution of the Civill Right of the Jewes. the King promised /oj to them by the Prophets and to offer himself e in sacri. had renew the been cut off by the rebellion of the Israelites in the Covenant Which to doe. which being his by the Old Covenant. the was t/ Kingdom. and to pay tribute to Caesar but onely an earnest of the Kingdome of God that was to come. 377 End Thc^ what end was his first coming ? f Christs It was to restore unto God. Seeing therefore he did nothing.3- COMMON-WEALTH. had no Kingin this world. is often by himself called the Regenera tion which is not properly a Kingdome. yee shall also sit on twelve thrones. * J was the second . Jews * nor - CcesaY . both they that bare rule amongst them. when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his Glory. that he was the Messiah. at such time as he should come in majesty. . 41. did all expect the Messiah. And therefore it is. he was to preach unto f the election of Saul. The preaching of Christ JJJ^J&quot. to perswade.

and Father) of ever shall be. 29. 27. to be King (under his not onely as God.378 Part ing. for the reduction of his elect to their former covenanted obedience. to prove himselfe to be that hee did therein nothing against their laws. and ingratitude. whereby he would bring the same to effect. but also peculiarly of his own Elect. . refused to alter it saying. and Miracles go about Messiah.) The Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father. 13. 26. 19. or actions bee seditious. and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. that our Saviour saith (Mat. and 14. 3- OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. for the means. that you may eat and Marke my drink at my table in my Kingdome. 62. : made no fault in him And put for title of his condemnation. of all the Earth. When the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory whereby he signified that he and (Mat. 41. I have written. King but simply. should reign then in his humane nature 16. which was to be part of his Kj n g^ i have already shewn that his Kingdome was not 6 to be S in tiu the Resurrection. That hee was King of the Jews and notwith standing their clamour.) that his Apostles should sit upon twelve thrones. The third As for the third part of his Office. that the Kingdome of Christ appointed to him by his . But then he shall be King. . by vertue potence of the pact they make with him in their Baptisme. The Kingdome hee claimed was to bee in another world He taught all men to obey in the mean time them that sate in Moses seat He allowed them to give Caesar his tribute. Luke 22. in which sense he is King already. : . What I have written. Nor was it contrary to the laws of Caesar. and then he shall reward every . How then could his words. . in vertue of his omnithe Elect. : : [264] use of their malice. 30. with his Angels. as Father hath appointed to mee. And therefore it is. By which it is manifest. that he pretended to bee. For though Pilate himself (to gratifie the Jews) delivered him to be crucified yet before he did so. and refused to take upon himselfe to be a Judg. or tend to the overthrow of their then Civill Government ? But God having determined his sacrifice. 28. / appoint unto you a Kingdome. that he found . he pronounced openly. and more expressely for the time. not as the Jews required. The same we may read. judging the twelve tribes of Israel. man according to his works.

marriage in the Kingdome of Heaven. who shall sit on twelve thrones. Again. whilest he was conversant on Earth. is also apparent in the actions of our Saviour himself. Labour not for the meat which perisheth. the enjoying of Immortality. when St. against those of the Seventy that prophecyed in the camp of Israel. . and make his Apostles Judges of the twelve tribes But a man may here ask. is on our . to preach his Kingdome. to receive the Spirit of God. to govern under him so did our Saviour choose twelve Apostles.) from amongst their Brethren like unto thee. that is. whether men shall what eating therefore is meant in then eat. as Moses and as the High Priests were was in the wildernesse and as the Kings were after it. 50. by him in his humane nature. he justified them in it. For as Moses chose twelve Princes of the tribes. justified him therein. or Vicegerent of God the Father. in the Kingdome of the Son of Man. is not to be before the Son of Man shall come in Glory. 41.Part 3- COMMON-WEALTH. is meant the eating of the Tree of Life that is to say. before the reign of Saul For it is one of the Prophecies concerning Christ. This is expounded by our Saviour (John 6. : Christs authority : subordinate to * at f his . as being subservient therein to his so also our Saviour. he is to be King then. it is evident. and drink . his name. and this similitude with Moses. saying. 27. not. 18. And as Moses and judge the twelve tribes of Israel authorized Seventy Elders. which the Son of man shall give you. 379 Father. By which places. that / will raise them he should be like (in Office) to Moses up a Prophet (saith the Lord. Deut. and Salvation to all Nations.) Forbid him part. 18. and to Prophecy to the people. Chap. and many more. seeing there is no of Israel. that our Saviours Kingdome is to bee this place ? . for hee that is not against us. (Luke 9. and will put my words into his mouth. [265] : . no otherwise than as subordinate.) to speak unto them in the name of God Saviour also ordained seventy Disciples. John com government plained to him of a certain man that cast out Devills in exercised . And as when a complaint was made to Moses. (as I have said so our before. but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting So that by eating life.) where he saith. at Christs table.

are received into the Church with the solemnity There is another conjecture drawn from of Baptisme. by Washing. And this may therefore bee a type of the Washing in Baptisme wherein such men as are cleansed of the Leprousie of Sin by Faith. This rite St. .38o Part 3. OF A CHRISTIAN Chap. . in a certain case that and that is. of washing with water all those that being Gentiles. . as they would doe to converse with a Ghost. may prob ably enough have crept into the Religion of the Jews. in the time that Judaea was under the Dominion of Alexander. other men made scruple to converse with him. But seeing it is not likely our Saviour would countenance a Heathen rite. the rite of Circumcision. hee was admitted into the campe after a solemne Washing. had a rite of Baptizing. unlesse hee were received again into the number of men. before the time of Moses. embraced the God of Israel. and the Greeks his successors. concerning Leprousie wherein the Leprous man was commanded to be kept out of the after which time campe of Israel for a certain time being judged by the Priest to be clean. . that is. whom hee preached to bee and our Saviour instituted already come into the world the same for a Sacrament to be taken by all that beleeved in him. As the Children of Israel had for Sacrament of their Reception into the Kingdome of God. both of Admission into the Kingdome of God. which was a kind of new birth. was again restored as soon as they came into the land of Promise so also the Jews. when a man that was rarely happens thought dead. . as Children new born were washed from the uncleannesse of their nativity. Again. and of Commemoration of his deliverance of his Elect from their miserable condition. it is most likely it proceeded from the . John the Baptist used in the reception of all them that gave their names to the Christ. 41. before the coming of our Saviour. the Ceremonies of the Gentiles. . is not expressed formally in the Scripture but it may be probably thought to be an imitation of the law of Moses. our Saviour resembled Moses in the institution of Sacraments. . which rite having been omitted in the Wildernesse. chanced to recover. This ceremony of the Greeks. From what cause the rite of Baptisme first proceeded.

Paul saith. Let thy Kingdome come and. . that Christ. 24. Our Saviour p^ented one Person as represented by Moses. by that that hee teacheth us to pray. And for the other Sacrament. as the eating of the Paschall Lambe. For Person and by Christ. whose a Lieutenant to God authority. and in whom it is. COMMON-WEALTH. The same is more expressely signified. . or Civill Soveraign embraced. XLII. of eating the Paschall Lambe. and the pouring out of the Wine. being a relative to a Representer. was to bee like that of Moses. before any King. . For thine is the Kingdome. we are to distinguish the time from the Ascension of our Saviour. . that there bee a plurality of Persons. but not before.Parts . For it was long after the Ascension. that Hee shall come in the Glory of his Father and by that which St. as represented by his Sonne the Christ. Seeing therefore the authority of Moses was but subordinate. One and which the same representeth (as Moses did) the Person of God God from that time forward. Our Father. into two parts one before the Conversion of Kings. Chap. is . do keep in memory our deliverance from the Misery of Sin. was no more but subordinate to the authority of his Father. 381 Legall Ceremony of Washing after Leprosie. 42. . and publiquely allowed the teaching of Christian Religion. and Reigning. what. in which the Breaking of the Bread. Of FOR the understanding of POWER ECCLESIASTICALL. it is [266] manifestly imitated in the Sacrament of the Lords Supper. it is consequent to plurality of Representers. by Christs Passion. kept in memory the deliverance of the Jewes out of the Bondage of Egypt.) then cometh the end. therefore. and the Glory and by that it is said. both in Teaching. is called the ^f d * 5 tjie Father and being still one and the same substance. (i Cor. even the Father and by many other most expresse places. . the Power. though of one and the same Substance. 15. and another Person by Moses. [267] . when he& shall have delivered up the Kingdome to God. . CHAP. and hee but it followeth. . as man. POWER ECCLESIASTICALL. and men endued with Soveraign Civill Power the other after their Conversion.

in them that received the same from the Apostles. [268] in the Office of Preaching. and after these the Power was delivered again to others manifest hereby. was an imitation of that which Moses did. .y. as Moses did to Joshua. and saying. have Represented him ever since. as often as hee is Represented that it is by these ordained. a mighty and not by Imposition wind. or Spirit of God. in whom the Power Ecclesiremained. and their successors. . 4.his Resurrection. So that Imposition of hands.) is he that is Represented. was nothing else but the Seal of their Commission to Preach Christ. : . that is to say. . But a Person. gave his Spirit to 1he first. OF A CHRISTIAN for the Chap. and Teaching. chapt. that had received the Holy Spirit. fdon them Ecclesiasticall. . in . 2. and to direct them that were converted in the way of Salvation . and to convert men to Christianity. . Here wee have the Person of God born now the third Of the Trinity. by successive laying on of hands. by Breathing on them. (as I have shewn before. . : asticall continually . transmitted the same Spirit by Imposition of hands. and Ascension. during his abode on earth Ghost. and the High Priests. and our Saviour Representative in the Old Testament So the Holy himselfe as Man. For as Moses. and teach his Doctrine and the giving of the Holy Ghost by that ceremony of Imposition of hands. and Cloven tongues of fire of hands as neither did God lay his hands on Moses and his Apostles afterward. Gospell. was in such as were by it is manifest. Apostles. 3. as wee read Deuteronomy 34. .) Receive yee the Holy Spirit sion (Acts 2.Part 3. to advance his Kingdome. So . in those first times. where there was not any Christian Common-wealth namely. 22. the Apostles. that the the Apostles and after them ordained to Preach the . to those whom they ordained Ministers of God. were Gods time. and this was done by Imposition of hands upon such as were ordained by which was signi fied the giving of the Holy Spirit. (John Apostles and after his Ascen 20. Our Saviour therefore between . 13.) by sending down upon them. H Of the l And Power the time between. And Joshua the Son of Nun was full of the Spirit of Wisdome for Moses had laid his hands upon him. For Moses used the same ceremony to his Minister Joshua. 9. . ver.

For so God the Father. 42. . . . . and the Water. unto that same day that hee was taken up from us. it was the character of the Apostleship. if it should bee asked. that is to say. by his Son himself that had received the Holy Spirit all which in their times Represented the Person of God and either prophecyed. wherein that testimony for he hath testified appeareth. John indeed (i Epist. St. the Father. useth these words. heaven. in the twelve first and great Apostles. and the Holy Spirit . . the Answer is easie the same by the miracles he wrought. Moses.) that they bear witnesse. and these : three agree in one Spirit. Peter. as appeareth expressely (Acts I. or preached Jesus Christ. here ask. Personated) thrice. the Word. And as for the Apostles. must one bee ordained to be a Witnesse with us of his Resurrection which words interpret the bearing of Witnesse. to bear Witnesse of his Resur . 383 and therefore God.) he saith. that God hath given us eternall life in his Son. these : . COMMON-WEALTH. and the Lords : . There be three that bear witnesse in . there are three that bear Witnesse in Earth. and by the Doctors that taught by authority from them and yet every Person here. mentioned by St. beginning at the Baptisme of John. as Represented by and as Represented by his Sonne. . John. may properly enough be said to be three Persons though neither the word Person. There is in the same place mentioned another Trinity of Witnesses in Earth.Part$. Again. what it was whereof these three bare witnesse. derived. 21. and the Bloud . John therefore tells us (verse n. 22. the Spirit. Chap. is one Person another Person and as Represented by the Apostles. nor Trinity be ascribed to him in the Bible.) where St. the graces of Gods and the two Sacraments. For (ver. 7. Baptisme. but accordeth fitly with three Persons in the proper significa which is. secondly. when a new Apostle was to be chosen in the place of Judas men which have companied Iscariot. Of these with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out amongst us. who has been Represented (that is. 8.) saith. ver. is a third Person But a man may is the Person of one and the same God. St. that which is Represented by tion of Persons another. rection . first by Moses and lastly by his Apostles. and Three are One But this disagreeth not. 5. .

as far as can be gathered directly from the Scripture. or IS buule power teach. they have their names from which could not be. the Father.) endued with the Holy Spirit. and the Bloud. the Holy Spirit by which they spake. that is. Power of the Pope of Rome and begins Whether it ought to be Monarchicall. Man). and Coercive. under him. Son. Ecclesihath handled a great many questions concerning the sometime signifieth in the New an Assister. the Unity is not of the thing for the Spirit. the Persons are the persons of one and the same God. the Son is that God and the High Priests. till divers men had Representing Represented Gods Person in ruling. : Father. or Democraticall. consider the Power it selfe. are Soveraign. are never used in the Old Testament they are Persons. was the Person Represented by Moses and the Person Represented by his Son Incarnate Person Represented by the Apostles. though Represented in three different times and occasions. or in directing : . though Let us now it bee commonly translated a Comforter. craticall. is that God whence we may gather the reason why those names . is . All which sorts of Power. though they give the same testimony But in the Trinity of Heaven. the From Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. : . OF A CHRISTIAN . which is therefore called . are not the same substance. Aristo. of eternall life of which Testimony he saith (verse 10. . Thus wee see how the Power Ecclesiasticall was left by our Saviour to the Apostles and how they were (to the end they might the better exercise that Power. If now it should appear. ThePnwer Cardinall Bellarmine in his third generall Controversie. . . which all agree in one Testimony. God As Represented by his Son (that was God and As represented by Moses. Testament Paracletus which one called to for helpe. To conclude. Supper. As Represented by the Apostles. to assure the consciences of beleevers. 42.384 Part 3. is in substance this that God who is alwaies One and the the [269] same. that is to say. the doctrine of the Trinity. and over whom. to Ecclesiasticall with this. the Water.) He that beleeveth on the Son of man hath the Witnesse in himself. . what it was. and Holy Spirit in the signification of the For Godhead. Chap. In this Trinity on Earth.

not to his Apostles. at the day of Judgment appeareth by the w