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COLONIAL EDUCATIONAL STSTEM 1 Characteristics of Unilinear View of Indian Society: Eurocentrism/Ethnocentrism Eurocentrism is the practice of viewing the world

from a European perspective. The term Eurocentrism was coined during the period of decolonisation in the late 20th century. The Eurocentrism prevalent in international affairs in the 19th century had its historical roots in European colonialism and imperialism from the Early Modern period (16th to 18th centuries). Many international standards (such as the worldwide spread of the Common Era and Latin alphabet, or the Prime Meridian) have their roots in this period. Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.[1][page needed] The ethnocentric individual will judge other groups relative to his or her own particular ethnic group or culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define eachethnicity's unique cultural identity.[2] Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation. [3] First, Unilinear view explicates the Indian society from the point of view of its prospectus for socialist revolution. Second, socialist revolution can only take place inside the capitalist society. Third, Indian society has no prospectus for social revolution. Fourth, colonization by a capitalist power is only viable mechanism to create impetus for revolt in Indian society. 2 The author divides the British Educational policy under Company Rule into three phases 1792-1813, 1814-1835 and 1836-1857 corresponding to policy shifts. 3 From 1792 to 1813 the Company was not interested in the education of the natives. I. II. The British Parliament rejected the proposal of imparting useful education to the Indians on the conviction that it would not serve the interests of the Company and the British government. However, a few minor attempts have been made to impart useful education for example the Company set up Calcutta Madrassa and the Hindu Sanskrit College of Benares to educate the Indian in the field of local languages. The colleges are set up because the Company needs the local people in administrative and juridical departments.

4 From 1814 to 1835 the Company develops interest in the oriental literature and sciences. I. The company first time allocates funds in order to educate the Indian in their languages and sciences. The focus upon the oriental languages and sciences was not due to the Companys openness to the local and indigenous conditions but because the Company knew it well that oriental sciences would not affect the Colonial interests. This was intentionally done in order to silence the growing opinion in the British society about the diffusion of the Western sciences. This policy provoked a reaction among educated Indian. They highlight the importance of Western sciences for the Indian society. However the British persisted on its policy of Oriental Education. In the wake of the consolidation and extension of the British Empire in India, training of the local youth in more useful branches of science became inevitable. In order to create local assistants for medical, administrative and engineering purposes the Company introduces a few schools of engineering and medical sciences.

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In this period the debate rose about the significance of teaching Western sciences in local languages or English. The people in the British government were divided. However the funds were granted for translation of Western Sciences into Arabic and Sanskrit languages.

5 From 1836 to 1857 The Company first time focuses upon Western medical sciences, engineering and geology or geography. The appointment of Lord Macaulay as the President of the Committee of Public Instruction played a major role in the policy shift of the Company. His obsession with English language and literature and sciences was well known. He considered the native sciences and languages as useless and the subjected people as uncivilized. He believed that the Indian society cannot be modernized as long as they are educated through and within local social conditions. The medium of instruction must only be English and subject matter of instruction be Western sciences and literature. By only the use of English language and literature we could turn Indian into modernize subject. They would rise to the scale of human beings. Conclusion: The aim of colonial education was not to civilize and modernize the subjected people. The British was not much concerned about the intellectual and material growth of the natives. The consequences the British education I. II. After 100 years of the British rule the natives considers their own local languages as inferior, useless and sub standard whereas English turns up as superior and modern. It fabricated the mind of the subjected people that still serves the interests of the Western civilization.

POST COLONIAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 1 Colonial Education: Education in colonial times is considered to be in terms of end and means. Education is imparted to the subjected people in order to make them docile and usable. In this way it creates cheap but skillful engineers, doctors, technicians, clerks or resource persons. They eventually serve the interests of the colonial rulers. In British India the natives were not educated about their rights and liberties. In the colonial settings the focus was not upon education but upon useful education (colonial education). Colonial education treats the subjected people (Indians) in terms of resource, utility, instrument and means whereas it considers the British in the manner of human beings. 2 The idea of colonial education is severely challenged in colonial and post colonial times. They challenge the idea of instrumentalization of education and a few of them attempted to establish that the British government was not engaged in the practice of colonial education. British people were sincere to modernize and civilize the natives through modern education. The idea of liberty, freedom, equality, justice, human rights was propagated through modern education. 3 In the post modern times the concept of modern education is critiqued from various circles. Modern education is challenged because it appeals to foundation, universality, essentialism and Reason. Post modernism refutes the university of human beings, essentialism and foundation. It argues that human beings are shaped by culture, traditions, emotions, history, reason and instincts. We cannot and must not reduce human beings just to reason as done by modernism.

4 Post colonial education draws its argument upon the post modern insights. Therefore 1 It considers modern education in terms of colonization or Westernization. Post colonial scholars argue that modern educations appeal to reason, science, scientific method, privatization, deregularization, marketization, liberalization, review process, knowledge, teacher centered approach, critical pedagogy, discussion, time table, teacher centered class formats etc are shaped by European experiences. They must not be superimposed upon Non Western societies. There is no modern education but Western. The idea of modern education is derived from the Western experiences with education. It has its origin in West. 2 Post colonial scholars also challenge the post modern idea of education (for example experiential education). They consider experiential education as response to the problems generated by modern education. Since it takes place in West, it has no much relevance for Non Western societies. 3 By appealing to post colonial perspective the authors hope that it will surface the suppressed discourses and realities of. Post colonial education draws its resources upon local and indigenous settings, values and beliefs. 5 Post colonial education fosters cultural relativism, multiculturalism, heterogeneity, difference whereas challenge homogeneity, standardization and globalization. 6 It derives both from anti-colonial and anti-imperialist struggles on the one hand, and from the heritage of Western philosophy and of the disciplines that constitute the European humanities on the other. It's a fragmented way of thinking, which is both a strength and a weakness. In spite of its fragmented nature there are some forms of reasoning, and some arguments, which distinguish this current of thought and which have made a major contribution to alternative ways of reading our modernity. 7 To begin with I'd draw your attention to the critique, not of the West per se, but of the effects of cruelty and blindness produced by a certain conception I'd call it colonial - of reason, of humanism, and of universalism. 8 it exposes both the violence inherent in a particular concept of reason, and the gulf separating European moral philosophy from its practical, political and symbolic outcomes. 9 postcolonial thinking stresses humanity-in-the-making, the humanity that will emerge once the colonial figures of the inhuman and of racial difference have been swept away 10 On the one hand, like Edward Said in Orientalism, it deconstructs colonial prose: that is to say the mental set-up, the symbolic forms and representations underpinning the imperial project. It also unmasks the potential of this prose for falsification in a word, the stock of falsehoods and the weight of fantasizing functions without which colonialism as a historical power-system could not have worked. In this way it reveals how what passed for European humanism manifested itself in the colonies as duplicity, double-talk and a travesty of reality.

11 In postcolonial thinking, race is the wild region, the beast, of European humanism. Postcolonial thinking aims to take the beast's skeleton apart, to flush out its favourite places of habitation. More radically, it seeks to know what it is to live under the beast's regime, what kind of life it offers, and what sort of death people die from. It shows that there is, in European colonial humanism, something that has to be called unconscious self-hatred. Racism in general, and colonial racism in particular, represents the transference of this self-hatred to the Other. 12 postcolonial critique of European humanism and universalism which, if the term had not given rise to so many misunderstandings, could be called biopolitical (social and political power over life). The face of Europe which was experienced by the colony, and which gradually became familiar, was far from being that of liberty, equality and fraternity. The totem which colonized peoples discovered behind the mask of humanism and universalism was not only deaf and blind most of the time, it was also, above all, characterized by the desire for its own death, but insofar as this death was necessarily conveyed through that of others, it was a delegated death. 13 It was also a place where law had nothing to do with justice but, on the contrary, was a way of starting wars, continuing them and perpetuating them; and above all a place where wealth was but a means of exercising over others the right of life and death. As a result it could be said of postcolonial thinking that it is not a critique of power as usually understood, but of force a force that is incapable of transformation. 14 characterises postcolonial thinking is entanglement and concatenation, unveiled chiefly through its critique of identity and subjectivity. From this viewpoint it is opposed to a particular Western illusion, that there can be no subject other than in the circular, permanent referral to oneself, to an essential and inexhaustible singularity. In countering this, postcolonial thinking stresses the fact that identity arises from multiplicity and dispersion, that self-referral is only possible in the in-between, in the gap between mark and demark, in co-constitution. In this situation colonisation no longer appears as mechanical and unilateral domination forcing the subjugated into silence and inaction. Quite the reverse the colonized person is a living, talking, conscious, active individual whose identity arises from a three-pronged movement of violation, erasure and self-rewriting. 15 The identity of the colonized and of the colonizer was shaped by the intersection between ellipsis (omission of parts), disengagement and renewal. Postcolonial thinking endeavors to analyse this vast area of ambivalence and the aesthetic reasons behind the confusion and its paradoxical effects. 16 This is perhaps the moment to point out that postcolonial thinking, the critique of European humanism and universalism, is not an end in itself. It is carried out with the aim of paving the way for an enquiry into the possibility of a politics of the fellow-creature. The prerequisite for such a politics is the recognition of the Other and of his or her difference. I believe that this enrolment in the future, in the interminable quest for new horizons for man through the recognition of the Other as fundamentally human is an aspect of this thinking that is all to often forgotten. 17 One last point. What constitutes the political strength of postcolonial thought is its enrolment in the historic social struggles of colonized societies and especially its rereading of the theoretical praxis of

what we call liberation movements. So it is a way of thinking which, in several respects, still believes in the postulate that the only true learning is the leaning that aims to transform the world. It is a way of thinking that belongs to the being-subject, to the being-for-itself, to the manner in which the dialectic of master and slave, of colonist and native, might be transcended. 18 . The goal of the anti-colonial framework is to also interrogate power inherent in social relations emerging from colonial relations and their aftermath (Dei 2000). European colonialism was not just some transhistorical impulse to conquer but was an integral part of capitalistdevelopment (Loomba 1998, 20). Furthermore, colonial economic relations were informed or simultaneously constructed by racialized, gendered, and sexualized social processes (Cooper and Stoler 1997; Stoler 2002; Lugones 2007). Anti colonial theory interrogates these material and social foundations of power where the driving motivation has been to gain material, cultural, and discursive resources from colonized relationships. Elaborating the notion of material exploitation, Cesaire (1972) asserts that colonialism not only exploits but dehumanizes and objectifies the colonized subject, as it simultaneously degrades the colonizers themselves. Here, colonization is equated with thingification (Cesaire 1972, 42), a form of objectification of the colonized that has been central to the colonizing process. 19 Orientalism, Said (1978) elucidates how through colonial discourse, the Orient was constructed as diametrically inferior to a European equivalent. Some-times, the Orient was constructed as backward while Europe was developed. At other times, Orientals were seen as irrational and unaccepting of European science, remaining tied to animistic beliefs and magic. Such civilizing discourses were produced in order to consolidate colonial power (Said 1978). Alarmingly, such a binaristic civilizing narrative is present in the evidence-based education movement. According to many proponents of evidence-based education, educational research and practices need to be reformed so that we can bear the fruits of education. 20 In summary, through employing a civilizing colonial discourse, as well as constructing and highlighting the chaos looming over the functionality and production of evidence, proponents of evidence-based education operate from a particular colonial ideology that wishes to counter the barbarous disorder in educational practice and policy-making by instilling scientific-based education. This colonial discourse is also tied to particular epistemology of control. However, these colonial discourses are not unidirectional but are contested in the field of education, as evidenced by the critics mentioned above. GLOBALIZATION: All humans even if different in race, colour, community, nationality and religion - share certain beliefs and values around the globe as all want progress, freedom, development and justice. Humans are global in character, colour, community, nationality and religion is mere chance. Curriculms should not be devised on accidental basis. Task is to undermine accidental factors as they are not substantial part of a human being, a human being cannot be defined upon these factors

The Effects of globalization on Education are not homogeneous since the globalization and its mechanisms vary. There are 8 mechanisms through which globalization affect education: traditional mechanism borrowing, learning, teaching, global mechanisms harmonization, dissemination, standardization, installing interdependence and imposition. The nature of mechanisms also influences the globalization. These mechanisms are not neutral but value-laden framework through which globalization intrudes into the nation states. Globalization has dramatically affected the structure of nation states, its policy framework and its goals. However the nation states have not become irrelevant and obsolete. The basic features of globalization are economic, political and cultural strands. Among them, economic or neoliberalism is a defining characteristic (privatization, deregularization, limited role of the state, competition, liberty defined in terms of absence of constraints etc). The nation states have taken two broad forms: competition states and governance without government (WB, IMF, G-8, NATO, EU, NAFTA, ADP). Globalization does not affect the education in a direct manner. The effects upon education are the consequence of a nation state to be globally competitive. Dimensions of global Mechanisms 1 imposition of policy 2 the process and goal are not made explicit 3 affect program, organizations and policy goals 4 the locus of viability is shifting from national to global obligations 5 the scope of global mechanisms is not just limited to what they target 6 the range of parterres. There is no intrinsic difference between globalization and imperialism or colonialism. Agenda is same as common world and global world

COMMON WORLD EDUCATIONAL CULTURE (CWEC) 1. John Meyer proposed (CWEC) universal model of education 2. It focuses on the commonalities in curricular aspect 3. These scholars are known as world institutionalists since their work develops central tenets of what has become known as sociological institutionalism 4. Education is a recourse that should be promoted through common curriculum and mass schooling 5. Education should create a common identity 6. It is a resource as it can reach the final target that is progress, freedom, development and justice 7. It negates the traditional ideas of learning for knowledge or for love 8. To impose the world order by USA the idea of religion, culture and identity should be shed away

9. They believe in global political aims and can reach these aims at any cost even the use of violence is an option 10. Institutions of a nation state should be formed according to supranational level by a dominant world or western ideology 11. The states form their policies according to the universal culture that are according to western modernity 12. Education is central to this philosophy as the aims can be obtained through mass schooling. Education can address individuals as well as the society. The aim is fulfilled through isomorphism of curriculum. 13. Therefore we see homogeneity in curriculum across societies irrespective of their location, culture, religion 14. Education is central to modernizing mission and the structure of schools is central to increase the standardized model of education 15. The body of knowledge taught at schools id to be externally prescribed. At the core of prescription lies rational discourse on how the socialization of children in various subjects is linked to the self realization of the individual and, ultimately, to the construction of an ideal society. 16. These homogenous curricula develop homogenized cultural effect undermining the impact of national and local factors 17. Schools are ritual organizations that create a taken-for-granted set of beliefs in the power of education 18. The CWEC approach consists of a coherent theory of a relationship between globalization and education 19. The first limitation of this approach is lack of data, as it cannot be studied that how much of the curriculum was actually implemented in a school 20. There is lack of language specifity in the theory 21. The third area of ambiguity is the scope and consequences of CWEC GLOBALLY STRUCTURED AGENDA FOR EDUCATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. They treat education as a commodity that can be used and exchanged They believe in free market economy They tone down freedom, progress and development in favour of capitol Capitol is necessary to gain all the agendas If you have capitol the society is free and can progress and develop Accumulation of wealth is important Inclined towards the privatization of education and give importance to non-governmental organizations Students should be taught that which brings money global education under the watchword for the new world order according to the United Nation's Agenda 21, "sustainable development". Countries take their own decisions upon their education policy but within a broader agenda that comes from the outside This approach also defines the mechanisms through which the global agenda is achieved by the nation states They try to understand the problems that education has ina particular system or society and try to find ways to solve them

13. Non-state actors can help reach the goal of globalization. These non state actors strengthen support and legitimize this process 14. Global Economy Global Agenda for Education Global Mechanism MODERNIZATION IN PAKISTAN 1 Modernism cannot be adequately explained by making reference to its general features such as nation-state, industrialization, global system of communication, mass education, international finance and commerce, internal agencies etc. 2 It may rightly be understood from the perspective of micro or local level such as looking at the practices of marriage, social interaction, personal identities, social values etc. 3 In order to understand the effects of modernism upon Pakistan we need to make distinction between modernization as a process and modernity as a cultural dominant. 3 Pakistan was created in the name of Islam (two nation theory: Hindu and Muslim). So, the existence of Pakistan refutes the fundamentals of modernism. 4 Gellners distinction (Sufism and fundamentalism) is not appropriate to capture the conditions in Pakistan because the concepts have their roots in Western civilization; saints are not obsolete, are not based in rural areas and are playing political roles. 5 Gellners distinction between religious (superstitious and mystical) and modern (scientific and objective) life world (modern and traditional) is not viable. 6 The identity formation in Pakistan is not drawn upon the modern lines. It is shaped by the spheres that are marginalized in modernity. Kinship (holism) VS Individualism 1 There is deep down ingrained distinction made between son and daughter in a family structure. The conception of son and daughter may give a hint of Pakistani society. Son and daughter are bound with different roles and obligation. They complete each other making up whole. 2 Migration to more developed countries played a part in the globalization of Pakistan. 3 The concept of marriage, how marriages are conducted, the importance of relatives, the idea of wife and husband, the role of family lineage and caste and race etc. Saints The concept of Saint, Pir, noble race etc MARKETIZATION OF EDUCATION

Marketisation of education emerged in the 1990s when the 'social justice' period of education, during which one of the aims of education was to create a more equal and fair society, was replaced by the 'marketised model'. This change in policy occurred in response to globalisation and the resulting need to increase standards in order to compete on a global scale. This saw education being viewed and treated as a useful commodity of exchange value, with no intrinsic value, rather than something that simply exists for its use value for the betterment of individuals' lives. The application of market forces and economic measurements to education, along with the partial withdrawal of government funding has resulted in costs of education are being increasingly shifted on to individuals and families directly, rather than through taxation there is as yet no demonstrated or substantiated improvement of learning attributable to shifts to the self-managing school. United States based Fred Newman and Associates report one of the few positive outcomes which links improvements in results to school based management. However, the schools used in the studies were exceptional and reasonably autonomous and not representative of public schools in general the competition that inevitably results from the introduction of a free market agenda to education leads to inequity. the creation of markets in schooling is likely to result in large gaps between schools that succeed and those that do not. Meadmore (1999: 96) goes further to say that this widening gap will place the most vulnerable students (working class, indigenous, migrant) at further risk in an increasing inequitable education system. Wadham et al. (2007: 56) consider the blame culture that can emerge from this widening gap with those schools at the bottom being labelled 'failing schools'. It is argued that this blame culture weakens both pupils and staff, destroying their confidence as they lose self-repect and self-esteem. some positive outcomes of this marketisation, such as allowing people greater freedom of choice, increasing competition driving up the standards of schooling, and, through the power of parents to choose, schools being made accountable for their promises. However, Meadmore also suggests that this leads to schools becoming overly concerned with management of appearance, emphasizing features that have little to do with the substance of a good education. With both government and nongovernment schools increasingly competing with one another for a slice of the market, Meadmore stresses a considerable source for concern is the large variation in the ability to raise funds between and among areas of different socio-economic status. The article, Schools in a Spin Corporate Partnerships with Schools, discusses the rapidly increasing instances of corporate sponsorships in schools already established in Western cultures, and explains the effects its continuation may have on education. It is quite clear throughout the article that the author is firmly against the marketisation of education, a stance which is further accentuated by Katharine Ainger's interviewees, who were likely chosen to further emphasise the profit-seeking intentions of large corporations.

Anti-marketisation rhetoric is prevalent throughout the article. Some of the worst corporations are very skilled at covering this all up with humanitarian gestures and 'cause related marketing' illustrates the use of negative language used with the purpose of conjuring similar feelings in the readers' minds. Moreover, the author exhibits a very dualistic interpretation of the topic, frequently referring to corporations as them. The quote, we have to recognize this fact and do something about controlling them clearly exemplifies the binary approach to the issue (Wadham et al., 2007, chapter 6: 180). The author also mentions that 'under-funded' schools often have little choice but to comply to the demands of corporations, indicating that part of the blame falls on the government, due to the ongoing withdrawal of public funding. This 'desperation' of under-funded schools, along with the hierarchical interpretation caused by binary thinking, creates a perception of bullying, implying that the power lies in the hands of the large corporations.

Marxist/Lefts conception of Marketization of Education: Private Property and Denial of Liberty Traditional and local view of Marketization of Education Classical liberalism and Marketization: Liberty and Private Property; market order must manifest the idea of private ownership through which liberty is exercised; Freedom is defined through private possession of property; the idea of private property protects freedom/liberty Individual Autonomy, Individual Rights, Popular Sovereignty, Democracy, Private Property, Universalism and Progressivism Criticism of Liberalism: 1 Is liberalism as universal as it claims? Liberalism has historically excluded women, slaves, children, and propertyless wage workers. How universal is an ideology that explicitly defends the property of the wealthy? 2. Is liberalism democratic? Is voting for representatives and running for office all there is to political participation? 3. The contradiction of liberal democracy. We live in a society in which we all possess equal political rights, but in which wealth is held unevenly. How democratic is a society where people possess equal political rights but unequal social power? 4. The dilemma between freedom and equality. If we allow people to try to seek unlimited wealth, we are denying the ability of others to acquire wealth, and thus we are denying them their liberty. On the other hand, if we allow all people equal access to the means of producing wealth, then we have to prevent people from accumulating as much wealth as they can. Revisionist, Welfare State, Social Justice Liberalism developed in response to three factors

The ability of market to sustain balance and freedom was challenged in view of economic disparity and class division and monopoly of private firms and high unemployment; loss of faith in market as an agency to protect and enhance freedom; property rights generated inequality in social and political power. Neo-liberalism ( economic liberalizations, free trade and open markets, privatization, deregulation, and increasing the role of the private sector ): Homo-economics: Marketisation of education in the Western world has emerged as a result of economic rationalism. Economic rationalism, also referred to as neo-liberalism, has been adopted by governments since the early 1980s, in an attempt to raise national standards and become more competitive in the face of globalisation. It encourages the market economy, rather than governments controlling the provision of national services, with the aim of solving economic problems and allowing people greater freedom and control over their own lives as a result of market forces (supply, demand, competition and choice) and economic measurements being applied to education, education is increasingly viewed as a commodity with an 'exchange value' on the market. Free market economy, De-regularization, privatization, limited role of state intervention in Economy and Society, elimination of tariffs etc Consequence of Neo Liberalism Gulf between Rich and Poor, Economic Disparity Marketization of Education 1 Rejects the Simplest notion of Marketization of Education on three accounts: 1 Individuals and group confront several different situations 2 each situation may disclose distinctive method of Marketization 3 creates a misguided conception of the world breaking it into two parts: Golden and Dark World 2 Marketization of education is an attack on liberal and traditional value and Education. It has undermined the ability, right and freedom of individuals to pursue education. It has created the professional and managerial paradigms (market oriented); Traditional education focus upon input whereas the market education on output; education institutes are considered to be like firms where the mechanisms of market are employed to make profit; students are viewed as customers and managers of academic institutes as sellers; education turn up as commodity and a product subject to the obligations of market. Problems of Conceiving Education through Market Mechanism Four Ps: Product, Place, Price and Promotion are four defining characteristics of market. If one revisits the blanket application of market to education one may find that it is problematic.

Three Ps: People, Process and Physical Evidence Three Cs: Caliber or champions, capabilities, charisma and collateral gives a much viable model to explicate the Marketization of Education. Caliber or Champions: Individuality is translated into Caliber; Caliber of the staff play the primary role in the advancement of any educational institute; By consequence institutes focus upon the staff through various mechanisms such as surveillance, accountability, benefits, teaching load, research obligations, promotions, job security, work load etc; change in the management style (showing workplace like a family institution). Capabilities (process): communication among staff members, of staff with students, timely submission course outlines or results, lecture provisions, fellowships, refreshments, value added products, extracurricular activities etc Charisma Visual representation of institutions, electronic promotion, slogan, mission statement, aims, brand logo, uniqueness etc Features of Marketization of Education Intangibility (not physical product), inseparability (from students and staff), heterogeneity (focus not upon critical study but upon learning) and perishability (services are perishable and irreversible).