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Introduction [1] Fiber optics has many advantages over copper.

You can build much longer point to point links using fiber than is possible with conventional wire cables, the bandwidth is much wider, it is lighter and it occupies less space. By careful adoption of the available tools, you can also multiplex many signals of different types onto a single fiber link. The link can even be bi-directional. [2] Fiber optic cable is available in single-mode and multi-mode types. Multi-mode cable has a larger core diameter (50um or 62.5um) than single-mode fiber (9um core diameter). When light travels down multi-mode fiber it is reflected at different angles as it propagates down the transmission path. These multiple reflections cause the light to spread out in time as it propagates down the fiber, making it more difficult for the receiver to recover the data. Single-mode fiber being much narrower, confines the optical signal to a straighter path with fewer reflections. As a result, optical signal dispersion is significantly reduced, which translates into a cleaner signal. Longer transmission lengths can therefore be achieved with single mode cable. It is also a bonus that single-mode fiber can now be purchased for the same or less than multi-mode fiber. Single-mode and multi-mode cable should not be mixed in the same system. However, if really necessary, it is possible to use multi-mode fiber downstream of singlemode fiber, as the larger diameter multi-mode fiber will collect most of the light emitted from the single mode fiber.

System Design The basic elements found in fiber optic systems are: Transmitter, Fiber optic cable, Receiver, and Connectors. These elements are the foundations to make possible and efficient fiber optic system/ optical transmission/reception system.

1. Transmitter Converts an electrical signal to a light signal, consists of a driver and a source. The source is either a LED or a Laser Diode.

2. Fiber Optic Cable This is a medium for carrying the light signal. The optical fiber contains two concentric layers called the core and the cladding. The main parts of a fiber cable are the optical fiber, cladding, buffer jacket, buffer, strength members, and jacket. 2.1 Hybrid or Composite Optical Cables

When single mode and multimode cables is packet together in a single tube then this type or optical cable is known as hybrid optical cable. This kind of cable can be constructed with different combinations of single and multimode cables. Like 4 multimode and 4 single mode cables can be twisted together as single cable and packed in a protective plastic tube. 2.2 Fiber Optic Cable Color

For data center premise cables, the jacket color depends on the fiber type in the cable. For cables containing single mode fibers, the jacket color is typically yellow, whereas for cables containing multimode fibers, the jacket color is typically orange. For outside plant cables, the standard jacket color is typically black.

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Types of Fiber Optic Cable (Most Popular Fiber Optic Cable Types)

1. Indoor Cables 1.1.1 Simplex Fiber Cables A single cable structure with a single fiber. Simplex cable varieties include 1.6mm and 3mm jacket sizes. 1.1.2 Duplex Fiber Cable cable contains two optical fibers in a single cable structure. Light is not coupled between the two fibers; typically one fiber is used to transmit signals in one direction and the other receives. 1.1.3 Ribbon Fiber Cables Consist of up to 12 fibers contained side by side within a single jacket. Often used for network applications and data centers. 1.1.4 LSZH Fiber Cables Low Smoke Zero Halogen cables are offered as an alternative for halogen free applications. Less toxic and slower to ignite, they are a good choice for many internal installations. They are available as simplex, duplex, and 1.6mm designs. This cable may be run through risers directly to a convenient network or splicing closet for interconnection. 2. Outdoor Fiber Cable 2.2.1 Outdoor Loose Tube Fiber Optic Cables Tube encloses multiple coated fibers that are surrounded by a gel compound that protects the cable from moisture in outside environments. Cable is restricted from indoor use, typically allowing not to exceed 50 feet. 2.2.2 Indoor/Outdoor Tight buffered Fiber Cables

Indoor/outdoor rated tight buffered cables have riser and plenum rated versions. These cables are flexible, easy to handle and simple to install. Since they do not use gel, the connectors can be terminated directly onto the 900um fiber without difficult to-use kits. This provides an easy and overall less expensive installation. 2.2.3 Indoor/Outdoor Dry Loose Tube Fiber Optic

This cable is suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications. One advantage of this cable is that it eliminates of this cable is that it eliminates the need for a splice or connector at the point where the cable transitions between an outdoor and indoor environment. 3. Aerial/Self-Supporting Aerial/self-supporting fiber cables are designed to be strung from poles outdoors and most can also be installed in underground ducts. They have internal stress members of steel of steel or aramid yarn that protect fibers from stress.

4. Direct-buried 4.4.1 Armored Fiber Optic Cable Armored cables are similar to outdoor cables but include an outer armor layer for mechanical protection and to prevent damage. They can be installed in ducts or aerially or directly buried underground. Armor is surrounded by a polyethylene jacket. Armored cable can be used for rodent protection in direct burial if required. This cable is non-gel filled and can also be used in aerial applications. The armor be removed leaving the inner cable suitable for any indoor/outdoor use. Temperature rating -40 to +85 *C. 5. Submarine Fiber Optic Cable (Undersea Fiber Optic Cable) Submarine cables are used in fresh or salt water. To protect them from damage by fishing trawlers and boat anchors they have elaborately designed structures and armors. Long distance submarine cables are especially complex designed.

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Receiver Accepts the light signal and converts it back to an electrical signal. Contains a detector, amplifier, and output section. Connectors is a disconnectable device used to connect a fiber to a source, detector or another fiber

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Connectors is a disconnectable device used to connect a fiber to a source, detector or another fiber.