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UNIT 12 GRAMMAR Modal verbs. 1. Modal verbs of probability, present and future.

The main modal verbs that express probability are described here in order of certainty. Will is the most certain, and might/could are the least certain. 1) Will. a) Will and wont are used to predict a future action. The truth or certainty of what is asserted is more or less taken for granted. e.g. His latest book will be out next month. b) Will and wont are also used to express what we believe or guess to be true about the present. They indicate an assumption based on our knowledge of people and things, their routines, character and qualities. e.g. Leave the meat in the oven. It wont be cooked yet. Its Monday morning, so I guess right now Sarah will be taking the children to school. 2) Must and cant. a) Must is used to assert what we infer or conclude to be the most logical or rational interpretation of the situation. We do not have all the facts, so it is less certain than will. Must in this meaning is not used to speak about the future. e.g. You say he walked across the Sahara Desert! He must be mad! You must be joking! I simply dont believe you! b) The negative of this use is cant. e.g. She cant have a ten-year-old daughter! Shes only twenty-one herself! 3) Should. a) Should expresses what may reasonably be expected to happen. Expectation means believing that things are or will be as we want them to be. This use of should has the idea of if everything has gone according to plan. e.g. Our guests should be here soon (if they havent got lost). This homework shouldnt take you too long (if youve understood what you have to do). We should be moving into our new house soon (as long as nothing goes wrong). b) Should in this use has the idea that we want the action to happen. It is not used to express negative or unpleasant ideas. e.g. You should pass the exam. Youve worked hard (NOT You should fail the exam). 4) May, might and could. a) May expresses the possibility that an event will happen or is happening. e.g. We may go to Greece this year. We havent decided yet. Wheres Ann? She may be having a bath, I dont know. b) Might and could are slightly more tentative and slightly less certain than may.

e.g. It might rain. Take your umbrella. You could be right. Im not sure. c) Couldnt is not used to express a future possibility. The negative of could in this use is might not. e.g. You might not be right. d) Couldnt has a similar meaning to cant above, only slightly weaker. e.g. She couldnt have a ten-year-old daughter! Shes only twenty-one herself! 2. Modal verbs of probability in the past. All the modal verbs above can be used with the perfect infinitive to speak about probability in the past. They express the same varying degrees of certainty. Again, will have done is the most certain, and might/ could have done is the least certain. e.g. I met a tall girl at your party. Very attractive. Thatll have been my sister, Patsy. It must have been a good party. Everyone stayed till dawn. The music cant have been any good. Nobody danced. Wheres Pete? He shouldve been here ages ago. He may have got lost. He might have decided not to come. He could have had an accident. 3. Other uses of modal verbs. 1) Obligation and advice. a) Must expresses strong obligation. Other verb forms are provided by have to. e.g. You must try harder. Youll have to do this exercise again. I hate having to get up early. b) Must expresses the opinion of the speaker. e.g. I must get my hair cut. You must do this again. (Teacher to student) Have to expresses a general obligation based on a law or rule, or based on the authority of another person. e.g. Children have to go to school until theyre sixteen. Mum says you have to tidy you room. c) Mustnt expresses negative obligation. Dont have to expresses the absence of obligation. e.g. You mustnt steal. Its very naughty. You dont have to go to England if you want to learn English. d) Should and ought to express mild obligation or advice. Should is much more common. Ought to is not used in questions. e.g. You should go to bed. You look very tired.

You ought to take things easier. e) Should (ought to) + the perfect infinitive is used to refer to a desirable action in the past that didnt happen. e.g. You shouldve listened to my advice. I was right all the time. Shouldnt (oughtnt to) + the perfect infinitive is used to refer to an undesirable action in the past that did happen. e.g. You shouldnt have told him he was a loser. It was callous. f) Need is a modal verb, with no 3rd person form. It is used mainly in questions and negatives. The meaning is similar to have to. e.g. Need you ask? The Prime Minister need not worry. Need to is a normal verb. e.g. Sarah needs to be more careful. You don't need to worry. Do I need to fill in this form? g) Didn't need to describes a past situation, where something was not necessary, so it was not done. e.g. Kate looked after the children, so we didn't need to take them to the nursery. Needn't have done describes a past situation, where something happened or was done, but it was not necessary. e.g. I needn't have gone so early to the office. The meeting was cancelled. 2) Permission. a) May, can and could are used to ask for permission. e.g. May I use your phone? Can/could I go home? b) May is used to give permission, but it sounds very formal. Can and cant are more common. e.g. You can use a dictionary in this exam. You cant stay up till midnight. c) To talk about permission generally, or permission in the past, we use can, could or be able to. e.g. Children can (are allowed) to do what they want these days. 3) Ability. a) Can expresses ability. The past is expressed by could. Other forms are provided by be able to. e.g. I can speak three languages. I could swim when I was three. Ive never been able to understand her. b) To express a fulfilled ability on one particular occasion in the past, could is not used. Instead we use was able to or managed to. e.g. She was able to survive by clinging onto the wrecked boat. The prisoner managed to escape by climbing onto the roof. c) Could + the perfect infinitive is used to speak about an unrealized past ability. Someone was able to do something in the past, but didnt try to. e.g. I could have gone to university, but I didnt want to. d) Could (and might) can be used to criticize people for not doing things. e.g. You could (might) have helped me instead of just sitting there!

4) Request. Several modal verbs express a request. e.g. Can/could/will/would you help me? 5) Willingness and refusal. a) Will expresses willingness. Wont expresses a refusal by either people or things. e.g. Ill help you. She says she wont get up until shes had breakfast in bed. The car wont start. b) The past is expressed by wouldnt. e.g. My mum said she wouldnt give me any more money. I. Modal verbs of probability. 1. Choose the best continuation a to i for sentences 1 to 9. 1 You must have met some fascinating people 2 You must know Tokyo is expensive 3 You can't have lived in Tunisia for ten years 4 You can't be tired 5 You must be exhausted 6 You may find it difficult to settle down 7 You couldn't have gone on holiday 8 You might think about going to Spain 9 You could take a taxi a after all your hard work. b after touring the world for years. if you've lived there. d during your trip to Africa. e when you've just had a holiday. f without learning some Arabic. g to the airport tomorrow. h because you had a broken leg. i for your next holiday. 2. Choose the best continuation a to j for sentences 1 to 10. 1 I'm still waiting for the money the bank is supposed to have sent me. 2 There's still no sign of Alex. 3 It's getting rather late to deal with this now. 4 I wish you wouldn't leave your bag near the door like that. 5 You'd better take your umbrella with you. 6 This piece is the right shape, but it doesn't fit. 7 There should be a filling station here. 8 It's a very long book.

9 Oh sorry, yes, these are your keys. 10 Leave yourself plenty of time for the journey. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. You're bound to need it if you don't. Surely you can't have finished it already! It should have got here by now. It can take quite a long time in the rush hour. It can't be the right one after all. That's strange! I can't see one anywhere! You could always come back tomorrow. He may have missed the train I suppose. I must have picked them up by mistake. Someone could easily fall over it and hurt themselves.

3. Choose the correct alternative. You must be / can't be very proud of your son winning so many prizes. 2 We thought our cousins would visit us when they were in town last week, but they didn't even phone. I suppose they must be / must have been too busy. 3 The film's been such a big success. I guess it must be / can't be easy to get tickets to see it. 4 I'm sure you could mend this if you really tried. You must be using / can't be using the right tools. 5 I've just rung the garage to check whether they've fixed my car, but I can't get an answer. I suppose they may have / may be having a tea-break out in the yard. 6 I don't know why you wanted to stay at that party. You might have enjoyed / can't have enjoyed talking to all those boring people. 7 I can't go out this morning. We're getting a new sofa and the store may be delivering / must be delivering it today. 8 Please check these figures again. They're not accurate. You might have been concentrating / can't have been concentrating when you added them up. 9 You must be / must have been thirsty after carrying those heavy boxes. Shall I make some tea?
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4. Choose the correct form. , or C, to complete the sentence. 1 Why don't you phone Katie now? She yet. 2 Take some sun-block and wear a hat, as it get very hot in the middle of the day. 3 There's no point waiting here any longer. We go and have something to eat. 4 Lucky you managed to hang on to that tree. You down the cliff. 5 'What am I going to do about a present for Carol?' 'You some flowers.' 6 I don't know what time I'll be home. I be quite late, I'm afraid. 7 Don't worry about your driving test. You to pass. 8 There's no sign of the dog anywhere. Someone it out.

9 Why don't you ask Nick about it? He know the answer, I suppose. 10There must be some kind of technical problem. The film by now. 1 A can't have left 2 A must 3 A can hardly 4 A could have fallen 5 A might have sent her 6 A must 7 A may 8 A is bound to have let 9 A can 10A should have started must have left can are bound to must have fallen must have sent her can must must have let may as well must have started might have left could have might as well may have fallen could always send her may are bound to can let might might have started

5. Complete the email with the words below. may be seeing may have left could be coming may not have done couldn't have left may have found could have fallen may be visiting From: Robin Nicholas To: Helena Shakespeare Subject: Seeing you again Helena It was good to see you last week and to get your email yesterday. Sorry to hear you lost your rap CD on the journey home. I've looked for it, but it definitely isn't in our car. I think you (1) it on the train. Why not phone the lost property office? It (2) down the side of your seat. Someone (3) it and handed it in. Of course, if they like rap music, they (4)! Anyway, as far as I remember, you (5) it here, because you were listening to it on the way to the station. And now my news. Guess what? I (6) to your part of the world next month! There is a conference in your town which my boss wanted to attend, but now he's heard that some important clients (7) our office at that time. So, we (8) each other sooner than we expected. Let's hope so. Of course it's not settled yet. I'll email as soon as I know for certain. See you, Robin 6. Complete the text using one of the phrases a-j in each gap. a) can't have set off b) could easily be c) could expect d) must have been

e) can't have been f) could easily sail g) might have h) must have made i) should have reached j) might involve 16th-century explorers Imagine what it (1) like to have sailed around the world in a small wooden ship, as Drake and his men did in 1577-1580. On a ship only some 35 metres long, it (2) easy for the 80 or so crew to live comfortably. Exploration was part of war and rivalry with other nations, so these voyages (3) attacks on other ships and towns, and had to make a profit. There were all the usual dangers too. A ship (4) destroyed by a storm or run out of food and water, and the captain (5) little idea of where the ship was or where it was going. Explorers (6) many wrong decisions in an age when there were only basic maps and navigation equipment, and in unknown parts of ocean where a ship (7) for weeks without reaching land. Very often places they thought they (8) turned out to be much further on, or in a different direction. However, they (9) on such long voyages without some general idea of the places they (10) to reach along the way, and as knowledge of navigation improved, voyages became more and more successful. 7. Complete the answers with must, can't or might and any other words you need. 1. GERALD: Can that be James phoning at this hour? It's gone midnight! HILDA: Ithim. He said he'd phone if he passed his exam. 2. JIM: There's a light on in that office block. Do you think it's a thief? HARRY: Itthe cleaners. They always work at night. 3. ELINOR: Where did Adam get that new guitar? He hasn't got any money KATE: It a present. After all, it was his birthday last week. 4. NICKY: Why did Mina ignore me at the party last night? RYAN: She you. She wasn't wearing her glasses. 5. EMMA: Do you think Cindy told the boss I left work early yesterday? NEIL: She's away this week, so she him. 6. JILL: What's making me feel so ill? PAT: It ate. Did you have seafood last night? That sometimes makes people ill. 8. Re-word the following sentences using can, may or must. 1.I don't think he did it all by himself.

2.Perhaps, you're right. 3.It is possible that they forgot it in the car. 4. Is it really true? 5.I don't believe he has been meaning to do it. 6.It is impossible that he should have refused your request. 7.Evidently he has not read the book. 8.I'm certain that he has heard the gong. 9.It was some special occasion, I'm sure. 10.He looks wet and muddy. I'm sure he has been fishing. 11.No doubt, she is out shopping. 12.It's possible that he doesn't know we are here. 13.Is it possible that he is giving a course on the Renaissance at the University? 14.It is possible that the news is being broadcast on all the channels. 15.I'm certain they didn't take notes of the meeting. 16.Is it possible that we are out of wrapping paper? 17.It is possible he will again forget to rule a margin down the left side. 18.Then the firing began again. This time it was impossible for it to be more than a mile away. 19.Let's give her a call again. It is possible that she was asleep and didn't hear the telephone. 20.You have used up all the money I gave you, I suppose. 21.I'm sure she's at home. 22.I'm certain you're crazy. 23.I know that isn't Janet - she's in America. 24.I'm sure she thinks I'm stupid. 25.I bet I look silly in this coat. 26.They're always buying new cars - I'm certain they make a lot of money. 27.I'm sure he's not a teacher - he's too well dressed. 28.You're an architect? I'm sure that's an interesting job. 29.I'm sure you're not serious. I know you're joking. 30.I'm sure he's got another woman: he keeps coming home late. 9. Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown. 1. Running is not allowed on the stairs. There is a danger of accidents. Running is not allowed on the stairs. You ................................................. 2. You'd better not use this ladder. Look at it! I'm sure it's not safe. You'd better not use this ladder. Look at it! It................................................... 3. I think I know how this window got broken. I'm sure someone kicked a ball against it. I think I know how this window got broken. Someone..................................... 4. Unless you follow instructions, it's possible for a gymnasium to be a dangerous place. Unless you follow instructions, a gymnasium...................................................

5. I've turned off the electricity. I'm sure it's safe to touch these wires now. I've turned off the electricity. It.......................................................................... 6. Ouch! Why didn't you tell me that piece of metal was hot! Ouch! You........................................................................................................! 7. Where are the fire fighters? I expected them to have arrived by now. Where are the fire fighters? They...................................................................... 8. I'm sure you didn't clean this bowl properly. You.......................................................................................... I can see stains on it. 10. Read these three short texts about missing people. Then speculate about what you think happened in each case. Use must, might and cant. 1. Linda Peyton has bee missing for three weeks. It is known that she was staying in a hostel near Exeter until quite recently and it is thought that she has a boyfriend in Bristol, over 50 miles away. Linda is only 16 years old and should have been attending school. Her family are worried about her and would like her to get in touch and let them know shes OK. Linda had been living with her grandparents. According to her grandfather, Linda enjoys shopping, is very creative and had hoped to become a beautician. 2. Richard Withers, 43, went missing from his home in Eastbourne last October, leaving behind his glasses, credit cards and various personal documents. Richard was due to report to work at a local factory, but never turned up. His mother claims that he left the house that day in a distressed condition because he had recently been beaten up in a street fight and had also been having some serious personal problems. Richard is a keen football supporter who often went to watch Brighton & Hove Albion play. His mother described him as a lovely, helpful man who wouldnt hurt a fly. 3. Skip Hudson disappeared on Christmas Eve last year. That day, he was due to fly to Almeria in Spain with his fiance and had gone to the bank in Cleethorpes to withdraw some money. He never came back and has not been seen since. Skip had apparently bee looking forward to the holiday, despite his fear of flying. He had never flown before. There was a reported sighting of him on Boxing Day in a nearby town. Skip used to work as a mechanic in a local garage and was also a keen fisherman. . II. Other uses of modal verbs. 1. Can, could, able to. Choose the correct alternative.

Why did you walk all the way from the station? You could hone / could have phoned for a lift. 2 I loved staying with my grandparents when I was a child. They let me read all the books in the house and told me I could go / was able to go to bed as late as I wanted. 3 This carpet was priced at 500, but I could get / was able to get a discount because of this little mark in the corner. 4 I couldn't have found / haven't been able to find my diary for days. It's terribly inconvenient. 5 I've no idea where my brother is living now. He can be / could be at the North Pole for all I know. 6 It's difficult to understand how explorers survive the conditions they encounter in the Antarctic. I'm sure I can't / couldn't. 7 I wish I'd had your opportunities. With a proper education I can be / could have been a rich man now. 8 The day started off misty, but the sun had appeared by the time we reached the mountain and we could climb / were able to climb it quite quickly. 9 Our holiday flat had a kitchen. We could cook / could have cooked our own meals, but we preferred to go to local restaurants. 10 Why did I listen to you? I can be / could have been at home now instead of sitting here in the cold!
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2. Use can, could or able to in the following sentences. . . . you stand on your head? - I . . . when I was at school but I . . . now. (2nd verb negative) 2 When I've passed my driving test I . . . hire a car from our local garage. 3 At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone bill which he . . . pay. (negative) 4 I ... remember the address, (negative) . . . you even remember the street? (negative) 5 When the fog lifts we . . . see where we are. 6 You've put too much in your rucksack; you never . . . carry all that. 7 When I was a child I . . . understand adults, and now that I am an adult I . . . understand children, (negative, negative) 8 When you have taken your degree you . . . put letters after your name? 9 Don't try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you . . . remember any of them, (negative) 10 When I first went to Spain I. . . read Spanish but I . . . speak it. (2nd verb negative) 11 . . . you type?- Yes, I . . . type but I ... do shorthand. (2nd verb negative) 12 I'm locked in. I . . . get out! (negative) - . . . you squeeze between the bars? (negative) -No! I . . .; I'm too fat. (negative) 13 ... I speak to Mr Pitt, please?- I'm afraid he's out at the moment. . . . you
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ring back later? 14 If you stood on my shoulders . . . you reach the top of the wall? ~ No, I'm afraid I . . . (negative) 15 If I sang . . . you accompany me on the piano? -No, I. . ., I . . . play the piano! (negative, negative) 16 If a letter comes for me . . . you please forward it to this address? 17 She made the wall very high so that boys . . . climb over it. (negative) 18 They took his passport so that he . . . leave the country, (negative) 19 . . . you tell me the time, please? I'm afraid I. ... I haven't got a watch, (negative) 20 If you had to, . . . you go without food for a week? I suppose I ... if I had plenty of water. 21 . . . you lend me 5? -No, I . . . (negative) 22 They used to chain valuable books to library desks so that people . . . take them away, (negative) 23 He says that he saw Clementine drowning but. . . help her as he . . . swim, (negative, negative) 24 If you had had the right tools . . . you have repaired the engine? 3. Complete the sentences with could(n't) and was(n't) able to. Sometimes there is more than one answer. Eddie broke his leg last summer, so he swim. 2. Emily's handbag was stolen when she was out yesterday afternoon. Luckily she met a friend, so she use his mobile to call home. 3. I didn't enjoy the play because I forgot my glasses. I see the stage properly. 4. Marion's meeting was cancelled at the last moment, so she come to the sports club with us after all. 5. Robert speak any Dutch when he moved to Amsterdam last year, but he's almost fluent now. 5 I thought I'd have to get a taxi home from the party, but luckily I have a lift with Kate. 6. We really wanted to buy a house last year, but we just afford it. 7. My brother read well by the age of seven, but he's always had problems with maths. 8. Last night we heard a noise outside our window. When we turned off the light, we see a deer in the garden. 9..................................................One day last week I locked my husband out of the house by mistake, but luckily he get in through an open window. 10. He was very strong; he . . . ski all day and dance all night. 11. The car plunged into the river. The driver . . . get out but the passengers were drowned. 12. We . . . borrow umbrellas; so we didn't get wet. 13. . . . you walk or did they have to carry you?
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I had no key so I . . . lock the door, (negative) 15. I knew the town so I . . . advise him where to go. 16. When the garage had repaired our car we . . . continue our journey. 17. At five years old he . . . read quite well. 18. When I arrived everyone was asleep. Fortunately I . . . wake my sister and she let me in. 19. The swimmer was very tired but he . . . reach the shore before he collapsed. 20. The police were suspicious at first but I . . . convince them that we were innocent.
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4. Fill the spaces in the following sentences by inserting must or the present, future, or past form of have to. 1 She . . . leave home at eight every morning at present. 2 Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks and umbrellas ... be left at the desk. 3 He sees very badly; he . . . wear glasses all the time. 4 I ... do all the typing at my office. 5 You . . . read this book. It's really excellent. 6 The children . . . play in the streets till their mothers get home from work. 7 She felt ill and . . . leave early. 8 Mr Pitt . . . cook his own meals. His wife is away. 9 I hadn't enough money and I. . . pay by cheque. 10 I never remember his address; I always . . . look it up. 11 Employer: You . . . come to work in time. 12 If you go to a dentist with a private practice you . . . pay him quite a lot of money. 13 Father to small son: You ... do what Mummy says. 14 My neighbour's child . . . practise the piano for three hours a day. 15 Doctor: I can't come now. Caller: You . . . come; he's terribly ill. 16 English children . . . stay at school till the age of 16. 17 In my district there is no gas laid on. People . . . use electricity for everything. 18 Notice above petrol pump: All engines ... be switched off. 19 Mother to daughter: You . . . come in earlier at night. 20 The shops here don't deliver. We . . . carry everything home ourselves. 21 The buses were all full; I . . . get a taxi. 22 Notice beside escalators: Dogs and push chairs ... be carried. 23 'Au pair' girls usually ... do quite a lot of housework. 24 Tell her that she ... be here by six. I insist on it. 25 When a tyre is punctured the driver . . . change the wheel. 26 Park notice: All dogs ... be kept on leads. 27 She . . . learn how to drive when her local railway station is closed.

28 Railway notice: Passengers . . . cross the line by the footbridge. 29 I got lost and . . . ask a policeman the way. 30 Farmers . . . get up early. 5. Use the required form of the infinitive after ought to and should. But we ought (to have) your brother here, to tell us exactly how far we can go. 2. Tea is between half past five and six, and it should (to be) ready now. 3. He couldn't see anything. He thought that he ought (to bring) a torch. 4. Should the baby (to play) with a box of matches? 5. If you're in love it ought (to make) you happy. You ought (to laugh). 6. The doctor said it was appendicitis and she ought (to operate) on. 7. You should (to see) him yesterday on horseback. 8. One day the headmaster came on Jack, who should (to sweat) on the sports ground, sitting comfortably in a gardener's shed reading a book and eating a large piece of cocoa-nut ice. 9. "Your father and I should (to arrange) everything before I came here," he said. 10. Oughtn't you (to answer) that letter now? 11. Where is his car? He shouldn't (to leave) it unattended. 12. He drove at great speed. He knew that about this hour the guests should (to arrive) at his house. 13. "Well, I'm very glad to know at last what it was all about." "You ought (to tell) before." 14. Then he should (to laugh), but instead he heard himself saying: "Everything you say is quite true." 15. Anything we can do to clear up this miserable affair ought (to do). 16. "I don't think he had the least idea of what I meant." "You should (to be) more explicit, my dear."
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III. Consolidation. 1. Fill in the blanks with can (be able), may or must: 1. "Will you know where to go?" "Yes, thank you. I ... always ask my brother." 2."Didn't she hear our shouting?" "She says she heard nothing." "She ... have wandered a long way." 3.What ... he have meant when he said it? 4. He hesitated and said, "I ... go to South America. As a tea planter." I said,"I ... be wrong, Jason, but I don't think they grow tea in South America." 5. He ... have flown off after he dropped us. He ... not land here. Not in a plane with wheels.

6. "I'd give anything to meet that fellow." "We ... see what ... be done." 7. Cindy ... have laughed aloud. Instead, she nodded. 8. You ... hardly have been more surprised than I was. 9. The old man cupped his ear in his palm. "I think I ... be getting deaf. I ... not hear you." 10."There was someone on the phone for you," he said. "Oh, who?" "I don't know, he didn't say. Some man." "It ... have been Mike." "I know Mike. It wasn't Mike." "Oh. Then I ... not think who it ... have been." 11.I went straight from the station to the club and played billiards. It ... have been after eleven when I reached the flat. 12.She was beginning to want to ask him in but she knew that she ... not do it yet. 13.It's a most interesting story. He ... not possibly have invented it. You ... have told him something. 14.I've other things to attend to which ... be put through immediately. 15.I admire your mother's looks. She ... have been a lovely girl. 16.The apples are very good. You ... eat them all. 17.My wife ... leave the hospital in a week's time. 18.My wife ... to leave the hospital a few days ago. 19.I'm trying to think where he ... have gone. 20.Of course it occurred to me that if he had found the watch as he said, it ... have been lying in the garden for more than a year. 21.He began absently to eat one of the buttered biscuits. He'd lose his appetite if his wife didn't hurry up. She ... be talking to Frau Schmidt. 22.A day or two later Mrs Strickland sent me a note asking if I ... go and see her that evening after dinner. 23."I don't know why he did it." "It ... have amused him." 24."You know, I'm a bit of a writer myself in a small way." "What are you writing? A novel?" "Oh, come off it. I ... not write a novel. No, it's a sort of history of the regiment, as a matter of fact." 25."He's up in Barbie's room. He's decorating it with shells. He ... have brought in a ton." 26."She's gone out. Something awful ... have happened." "How ... she have got out? The door is locked." 27.I'm going to tell him that he ... not do any building here. 28.They say the driver .,. have been going fifty miles round that blind corner for the body to have been thrown and injured like it was. 29.She looked unusually pale and gloomy. I wondered what ... have upset her. 30."... you drive a car, Mooey?" "Yes, indeed I ... ," he answered. 31.You ... be very prosperous, Eustace, to own a car like that, 32. Obviously Haviland had worked late the night before, as he ... have done for several nights in a row, because he looked drawn and pale. 33. The water of the pool ... have been heated for it steamed gently in the beams of the lamps.

34. Mr Hardy takes a lot of aspirin. He ... have had at least twelve tablets during the day. 35. The man danced very well. He ... have spent hours taking lessons, Jack thought. 2. Must(n't), need(n't)f should(n't) and don't have to Match the beginning of each sentence with the most suitable ending. 1 Lucy should be having breakfast, 2 Patsy shouldn't go clubbing all night 3 Jenny shouldn't have gone out 4 Megan mustn't oversleep 5 Nicky doesn't have to get up yet 6 Natalie didn't need to hurry 7 Sharon needn't have set the alarm clock a when she was supposed to be studying. b because she woke up early anyway. c but shes too nervous to eat. d when she has an exam the next day. e if she's not going to work today. f or she'll be late for her interview g because she wasn't late. 3. Choose the correct alternative. Thursday NEIL: I'm doing a training session after work next Monday. Can you email these people? ROBBIE: (1) Must I do / Should I do it now? NEIL: Well, we (2) must have sent / should have sent them earlier really. ROBBIE: Oh, all right then. Friday NAOMI: I've had an email about a training day on Monday. Do you think I (3) must / ought to take my laptop? ELLIE: Well, you (4) mustn't / don't have to. But I always take mine, just in case I need it. Monday NAOMI: Hi, Neil. I've brought my laptop. NEIL: Oh, you (5) needn't bother / needn't have bothered. There are There are plenty of computers. But why isn't Ellie with you? Is she away? NAOMI: She wasn't asked to come. She's gone home. NEIL: Oh, dear. The email (6) must go / must have gone to the wrong

address. And I don't know where Robbie is. He (7) must be / should be here. NAOMI: Well, he had to go out earlier. He (8) must have missed / should have missed the bus back. I expect he'll be here soon 4. Choose the correct form.
4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

12. 13.

You mustn't / don't have to conduct any chemistry experiments unless you are wearing safety glasses. There are a lot of books which Anna did not have to read / need not have read as part of her university course, but which she decided to read out of interest. We don't have to / We'd better not talk for too long. These calls are expensive. I went to see the dentist yesterday, but luckily / didn't need to have /1 needn't have had any painful treatment! You didn't have to tell me /shouldn't have told me about the party. Now it's not a surprise! Some people believe that the government does not have to / should not allow genetically modified crops to be grown on a large scale, as they could spread out of control. These books are on the wrong shelf. They shouldn't/ mustn't be here. The report concluded that the rescuers should not have attempted / didn't have to attempt to move the injured passengers before medical help arrived. Please put the paper cups and plates in the bin. We mustn't / don't have to leave the room in a mess. There is plenty of time. We mustn't be /don't have to be at the cinema until 8.00.

5. Complete the sentences with must(n't), needn't or should(n't). We've run out of soap. I get some more in the morning. 2 You finish that report tonight if you're too tired. Midday tomorrow is the deadline. 3 What are you doing here? you be at college? 4 He really have told his brother about this present. It was supposed to be a secret. 5 You bring your mobile because I've got mine with me. 6 You make so much noise. We'll be asked to leave if you don't stop it. 7 I'm going to be in trouble. I have emailed my brother yesterday afternoon and I completely forgot. 8 You have written a letter - a text message would have been OK.
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6. Complete the sentence using one word in each gap.

1. In the early years of motoring, drivers didn't to take a driving test. 2. You sign the application form at the end of the page, or it will not be accepted. 3. Hurry up. We to get to the airport by 9.30. 4. I think we had stop and ask someone the way. 5. This bus is going to take ages. We have taken a taxi. 6. Important notice. All new arrivals to report to the reception desk. 7. Thanks for coming. I'm glad you make it. 8. You look really tired. You take a few days off and have a holiday. 9. Sorry I'm a bit late. I to pick up the children from school. 10. You not decide immediately whether to join the class. 7. Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown. 1. If I were you, I'd take an umbrella. I think you'd.. 2. Is Saturday morning school compulsory in your country? Do students........................................................................................................... 3. In the third week, students must hand in a typed copy of their first lab report. In the third week, students are.............................................................................. 4. Sheila changed the battery in her camera, but it wasn't necessary. Sheila...................................................................................the battery in her camera. 5. You look really ill. If I were you, I'd stay at home today. You look really ill. I..................................................................to stay at home today. 6. It was a bad idea to leave the windows open while it was raining. You........................................................................................................................ 7. The theatre tickets were free, so there was no need for us to pay. The theatre tickets were free, so we................................................................ 8. I can stay here until 10.00. I................................................................................................leave until 10.00. 9. Helen managed to stop the car before it crashed into a wall. Helen was........................................................................................................ 10. Steve's laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so there was no need for him to connect it to a phone line. Steve's laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so he................................. 8. Complete the second sentence with must(n't), need(n't), should(n't) or (don't) have to so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. 1 It is vital to wear a helmet when you ride a motorbike. You....... 2 I expect we'll get the contract because we offered the best price.

We offered the best price, so we.............................................................................. 3 It isn't necessary for us to spend a long time in the museum if it's not interesting. We...............................................:............................................................................ 4 It was wrong of you to speak to my mother like that. You........................................................................................................................... 5 She promised to phone me before lunch. It's seven o'clock now. She.................................................................................................................by now. 6 I made far more sandwiches than we needed. I....................................................................................................so many sandwiches. 7 It's essential that my father doesn't find out what I've done. My father.................................................................................................................. 8 In my opinion it would be wrong for them to move house now. I don't think they....................................................................................................... 9 My sister offered me a lift, so it wasn't necessary for me to call a taxi. As my sister offered me a lift, I............................................................................... 10 1 think it's a good idea to check the timetable before we leave. We............................................................................................................................ 9. Complete the text with one word in each gap. Rubbish - or refuse as we (1) really call it - is big news at the moment. For many years, people in Britain (2) had to pay a local tax (council tax) which includes a charge for refuse collection. In many parts of the country people have also been (3) to ask their local council to remove unwanted household items, such as furniture and electrical appliances. However, in recent years, as a result of EU legislation, councils have (4) to reconsider how they collect rubbish, and what they do with it. In the past, householders simply (5) to put out their dustbins once a week, and the council collected the rubbish. Now the emphasis is on recycling, and householders (6) to separate recyclable waste (paper, plastic, cans and bottles) from organic waste (food and garden waste) and other items. 'Really we (7) have started doing this years ago,' explained Karen Graham from recycling consultants WasteNot. 'We (8) to stop filling up holes in the ground with rubbish and look at what other countries have (9) able to do.' One likely change is that soon householders (10) have to pay for their rubbish collections. 'People (11) pay according to how much rubbish they produce, and we (12) to reward people who recycle and consume less. People in Belgium, for example, (13) had to get used to this system - and it seems to have worked.' And if you think that weighing your rubbish is a strange idea, you had (14) get used to it. Before long, an electronic chip in your dustbin will be weighing the bin and calculating how much you (15) to pay. 10. Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with a suitable modal

verb. 1. Jack: I've finished. Ann: But you were only half way through when I went to bed. You (work) all night! 2 The instructions were in French. I translated them into English for him.You (not translate) them. He knows French. 3 Tom: What's happened to Jack? We said 7.30 and now it's 8.00 and there's no sign of him. Ann: He (forget) that we invited him. He is rather forgetful. I (telephone) him yesterday to remind him. (It was foolish of me not to telephone.) 4 Tom: Or he (get) lost. He hasn't been to this house before. I (give) him directions. (I didn't give him directions, which was stupid of me.) Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a puncture. Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long. 5 Ann: Or he (stop) for a drink and (get) involved in an argument. Jack's arguments go on for hours! Tom: Or he (run) out of petrol. Perhaps we'd better go and look for him. 6 You (not feed) the bears! (It was foolish of you to feed them.) Now they'll be angry if the next campers don't feed them too. 7 Nobody has been in this house for a month. ~ Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper basket; somebody (be) here quite recently. 8 Two of the players spent the night before the big match at a party. ~ That was very foolish of them. They (go) to bed early. 9 He says that when walking across Kensington Gardens he was attacked by wolves. ~ He (not be attacked) by wolves. There aren't any wolves in Kensington. He (see) some Alsatian dogs and (think) they were wolves. 10I waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock and he says he waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock, and we didn't see each other! -You (wait) under different clocks! There are two in the station, you know. 11He set off alone a month ago and hasn't been heard of since. ~ He (fall) into a river and (be eaten) by crocodiles. ~ Or (be kidnapped) by tribesmen. ~ Or (catch) fever and (die) of it. 12 We (start) yesterday (this was the plan); but the flight was cancelled because of the fog, so we're still here, as you see. 13 Mary to Ann, who has just toiled up six flights of stairs: You (not walk) up! You (come) up in the lift. It's working now. 14 I left my car here under the No Parking sign; and now it's gone. It (be) stolen! - Not necessarily. The police (drive) it away. 15 He had two bottles of Coke and got frightfully drunk. -He (not get) drunk on Coke. He (drink) gin with it.

16He was riding a bicycle along the motorway when he was hit by the trailer of a lorry. These big lorries are very dangerous. ~ Perhaps, but Paul (not ride) a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed. 17I've lost one of my gloves! The puppy (take) it. I saw him running by just now with something in his mouth. It (be) your glove. 18 We've run out of petrol! I'm not surprised. I noticed that the tank was nearly empty when we left home. ~ You (tell) me! We (get) petrol at the last village. Now we've got a 10-mile walk! 19If the ground hadn't been so soft the horse I backed (win) instead of coming in second. He never does very well on soft ground. 20I've written to Paul. ~ You (not write). He's coming here tomorrow. You'll see him before he gets your letter. 21 They (build) a two-storey house (this was the original plan), but money ran out so they built a bungalow instead. 22If the dog hadn't woken us we (not notice) the fire for several hours, and by that time it (spread) the house next door. 23Why didn't you wait for me yesterday? ~ I waited five minutes. ~ You (wait) a little longer! 24 How did Peter get here? He (come) on a motorcycle. (This is a possibility.)-He (not come) on a motorcycle. He doesn't ride one. He (come) as a pillion passenger. 25 (Alice, staying at a hotel for the first time, carefully washes up the early morning tea things.) Mother: You (not do) that. The hotel staff do the washing up. 26Why are you so late? You (be) here two hours ago! 27Mrs Smith: I've cooked scrambled eggs for Mr Jones, because of his diet, and steak and onions for everyone else. Mr Jones: You (not cook) anything special for me, Mrs Smith; I'm not on a diet any longer. 28If I'd known we'd have to wait so long I (bring) a book. ~ If I'd known it was going to be so cold I (not come) at all! 29Tom (looking out of the window): Fortunately that teapot didn't hit anyone, but you (not throw) it out of the window, Ann! You (kill) someone. 30 Look at this beautiful painting! Only a very great artist (paint) such a picture! Nonsense! A child of five (paint) it with his eyes shut. 31 I wonder how the fire started. ~ Oh, someone (drop) a lighted cigarette. Or it (be) an electrical fault. ~ 32 You don't think it (be started) deliberately?Well, I suppose it (be). (It is possible.) But who would do a thing like that? 33There is only one set of footprints, so the kidnapper (carry) his prisoner out. He not (do) it in daylight or he (be) seen. He (wait) till dark.

I went with him to show him the way. You (not do) that. (That wasn't necessary.) He knows the way. 35Then an enormous man, ten feet tall, came into the ring. -He (not be) ten feet tall really. He (walk) on stilts. 36He jumped out of a sixth-floor window and broke his neck. ~ You say 'jumped'. It (not be) an accident? No. The window was too small. It (be) deliberate.
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11. Read the description of the following situations and say what the people should/must/could (not) have done and what may/must happen in future. a) It was Sunday yesterday and Mike took his fathers car without permission to go to a disco. At the disco he had too much beer and on the way home he skidded as he was driving too fast and had a minor accident. However, he managed to return home unnoticed. Naturally, he didnt tell anybody at home about what had happened. Now it is Monday evening. Mikes father has just returned home and he looks very angry. b) Oscar took his friends for a drive in his car. They went about 30 miles along a highway and stopped at a service station. Oscar entered a fastfood restaurant which was nearby to get some food. When he came out his car wasnt there. His friends had disappeared too.

12. Fill in the blanks in the following texts with suitable modal verbs. 1. "Hallo, Tim. What have you been doing?" Mary called to the boy. "I've been up at the station," Tim said, "watching the trains. You ... learn a lot there. You ... go up there more often. And I've got a message for you." "For me?" "Yes. From Mike. I saw him off back to London. He said he was called away unexpectedly and ... (not) to see you again. He also said if you were in London he'd like you to call on him but he didn't give me his address, so I ... (not) tell it to you." "But he ... (not) have gone," Mary cried out. "Why not?" Tim looked puzzled. "I've just seen him go." 2. "Granddad says he'll be glad when you get out of the house," the little girl said after she had been sitting still for nearly a minute. "Does he?" said Ted. "Yes. He says he ... (not) trust you round the corner." "Oh?" "What ... you do round the corner?" "I ... do a lot of things." "What sort of things?"

"All sorts of things." The girl occupied herself for a short time with her own thoughts. Then she said: "Mummy says you're a cheat. What is a cheat?" "I don't know," said Ted rather bitterly. "But ... you be a cheat if you don't know what it is?" "I ... (not), of course. I am not one." "Is Grandad a cheat?" "I shouldn't be surprised." "... I ask him if he is a cheat?" "I don't think you ... ." "Why not?" "He ... (not) like it." "Why not?" "I don't know," said Ted. "I don't, really know anything about cheats, Ann. And I think you ... have made a mistake about the word altogether." 3. "The house is absolutely full of gas. Whatever have you been doing?" I asked, the maid, entering her bedroom. "I have done nothing," she said, weakly. "Oh, then, who was it?" I said, trying to open the windows. "You ... have been dead. I ... (not) think what you ... have been doing. The gas oven was on. I suppose it ... have been Flora. Was she playing in the kitchen?" "Yes. She ... have done it. What a naughty girl, trying to kill us all." "Do you mean," I said, "that you didn't even notice? That since seven o'clock you haven't noticed a thing?" "I did not notice anything, no." "You ... be an idiot," I said. "What if I had stayed out all night, you'd probably all have been dead by the morning." 13. Supply the necessary modal verbs for the following sentences, noticing carefully the Russian equivalents given in brackets. l.He ... not and ... not believe her. ( ; ) 2. sat, thinking unhappily of his talk with Jimmy. He wondered if he ... have stayed with him. He felt he ... have said something at least, to warn Jimmy against Smith. But what ... he have said? And Jimmy ... not have listened, ( ; ; ; ) 3."By the way," I asked, "what's Bill doing now?" "How in the world ... I know?" Arthur looked pained. "I thought he ... have been bothering you for money." ( ; ) 4. came out of the water, smiling. "You ... have come earlier," he said. "We ... have swum together. The water is great." ( ; ) 5. "Last night, you know, Hugh suddenly began to speak to me about what my future was going to be like." "What ... it have meant?" "How ... I know?" ( ; ) 6. There was an old apple tree beside the path. I said, "I bet I ... climb that." "No,

you ... not," said Jack, (; ) 7. "Well, then, ... you hold the line while I find the letter?" "I ... not, I'm in a telephone box." "Then ... I ring you back?" "I'm not on the telephone." "Then I think perhaps you ... ring me back in half an hour. By then I ... have some idea what this is all about." ( ; ; ; ; ) 8. knows he ... read classics. He ... change to something else. ( ; ) 9. "Monday will be my last day in London," Hudson said. "I stay down here fairly late." ( , ) 10. In any case, I ... not hang about outside indefinitely while the sisters finished their quarrel. They ... continue for hours, ( ; ) 11.It's too bad she ... not have a drink with us. We ... have learned a great deal about the theatre tonight, ( ; ) 12.If you help me now I ..... help you later, ( , ) 13."I shall wait to hear what Lily has to say about it." "You wait a long time." ( , ) 14.1 think you ... certainly have told us the truth, and we ... have decided what was the best thing to do. ( ; ) 15. If your mother calls, tell her I. .be a little late, (, ) 16. On Saturday Charles broke the news to his father. Mr March began to grumble: "You ... have chosen a more suitable time to tell me. You ... have known that hearing this would put me out of step for the day." ( ; )

VOCAB & SPEAKING. 1. Here are several idioms to express surprise. Study them and use them in your own sentences. It beats me! This expression is used to express surprise at something that you find difficult to understand, "It beats me how he can live in that horrible apartment!" It's beyond me. The expression "it's beyond me" means: "it's impossible for me to understand" "It's beyond me why Mary wants to marry John." A bolt from the blue. To refer to something as a bolt from the blue means that it happened completely unexpectedly. The chairman's resignation came as a bolt from the blue!" Out of the blue If something happens out of the blue, it happens unexpectedly Caught unawares. If someone is caught unawares, they are surprised and unprepared for what happens. "The security guard moved so silently that the thief was caught unawares" Drop a bombshell. If someone makes an unexpected or shocking announcement, they drop a bombshell. "Her new husband dropped a bombshell when he announced that he was already the father of three children!" A doubting Thomas is one who habitually or instinctively doubts or questions. He was a doubting Thomas about the coming merger, not believing it would ever happen. One's jaw drops. If someone's jaw drops, they show total amazement. "When the prize was announced, the winner's jaw dropped." Jump out of one's skin. If you jump out of your skin, you are extremely surprised or shocked. "Jane nearly jumped out of her skin when the horse put its head through the window!" The mind boggles. The expression "the mind boggles" is used as a reaction to something you find amazing or difficult to understand Pigs might fly. To say pigs might fly expresses disbelief, or the idea that miracles might happen but are extremely unlikely. "My grandmother buying a computer? ...Yeah! ...and pigs might fly!" Raise eyebrows. If something raises eyebrows, it causes surprise or disapproval. "When the boss arrived in jeans, it raised a few eyebrows." Rooted to the spot. If you are so shocked, surprised or scared that you are rooted to the spot, your reaction is so strong that you are unable to move. "Joe stood rooted to the spot as the plane landed on the water." It's a small world This expression is used by someone who is surprised to meet familiar people, events or situations in unexpected places. "Wow! It's a small world. I never expected to meet a neighbour on a transatlantic flight!" Struck dumb. If someone is struck dumb, they are unable to speak because they are so

surprised, shocked or frightened by something. "The accused was struck dumb when the verdict was announced." Words fail me. This expression is often used when someone is so shocked, surprised or touched by something that they don't know what to say. "What do you think of Bob's attitude?" "Words fail me!" Wonders will never cease! This saying is used to express pleasure or surprise at something. "Idioms are increasingly popular with learners of English. Wonders will never cease!" 2. Complete each of these idioms.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

"Wow, how did you get that bruise?" " me!" We were struck by the candidate's announcement The mind at the thought of what you could do with all that money. We might have fine weather for our holidays.' `Yes, and pigs!' Actress Sharon Stone raised a few last night when she donned an enormous Fendi fox wrap to the Cinema Against AIDS benefit in Rome. Mary won't believe that I have a dog until she sees it. She's such a Thomas. They seemed to be talking calmly when out she slapped him in the face! The actress was caught when the audience recognized her and started to make a beeline asking for autographs. Imagine you knowing Erik! It's a, isn't it? The Liverpool football club dropped a when they announced that they had sacked their manager.

3. Render the following text into English using modal verbs and at least 15 active words and expressions (including the idioms). Suggest your own explanation of the mystery. Make sure you use the modal verbs of probability.
- , , , -, - , , . (). "-172" , . , . , : ", , . , . , , ". , . : " ?!" , .

-: , , . , , , . , , , , . , , , , , - , . , . 1975 - . , , . , .

READING & SPEAKING 1. Fill the gaps in the sentences using key words from the text. The paragraph numbers are given to help you. 1. An ____________________ is someone who studies the stars and planets using scientific equipment, including telescopes. (para 1) 2. If you ____________________ a radio signal, you send it through the air. (para 1) 3. An ____________________ is a person or creature from a planet other than Earth. (para 1) 4. A ____________________ is an extremely large group of stars and planets. (para 3) 5. The planets of our solar system ____________________ the sun. (para 3)
6. ____________________ communication is communication between different

stars. (para 3) 7. A ____________________ is the distance that light travels in a year. (two words, para 5) 8. A ____________________ is a period of one thousand years. (para 6) 9. A ____________________ is a hole or space that allows gas to escape. (para 8)

10.A ____________________ is a substance in food that plants, animals and people need to grow. (para 9) 2. Decide if these statements are true (T) or false (F). Then check your answers in the text. 1. There are almost a million stars in our galaxy. 2. The oldest broadcast has already travelled 80 light years from Earth. 3. It would take a thousand years for a message from a planet 1,000 light years away to reach Earth. 4. In the early days of research, astronomers focused on finding planets like the Earth. 5. Some single-cell Earth creatures can live in temperatures of minus 200C. 6. Everyone agrees that making contact with aliens would be a good thing. 3. Read the text. Retell it paying special attention to the use of your active grammar and vocab.

Is Stephen Hawking right about aliens?


Stephen Hawking thinks that making contact with aliens would be a very bad idea indeed. But with new, massive telescopes, we humans are stepping up the search. Have we really thought this through? The hunt for intelligent species outside Earth may be a staple of literature and film but it is happening in real life, too. Space probes are searching for planets outside our solar system, and astronomers are carefully listening for any messages being beamed through space. How awe-inspiring it would be to get confirmation that we are not alone in the universe, to finally speak to an alien race. Wouldnt it? Well, no, according to the eminent physicist Stephen Hawking. If aliens visited us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didnt turn out well for the Native Americans, Hawking says. He argues that, instead of trying to find and communicate with life in the cosmos, humans would be better off doing everything they can to avoid contact. Hawking believes that, based on the sheer number of planets that scientists know must exist, we are not the only life form in the universe. There are, after all, billions and billions of stars in our galaxy alone, with, it is reasonable to expect, an even greater number of planets orbiting them. And it is not unreasonable to expect some of that alien life to be intelligent, and capable of interstellar communication. So, when someone with Hawkings knowledge of the universe advises against contact, its worth listening, isnt it? Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer at the SETI Institute in California, the worlds leading organization searching for telltale alien signals, is not so sure. This is an unwarranted fear, Shostak says. If their interest in our planet is for something valuable that our planet has to offer, theres no particular reason to worry about

them now. If theyre interested in resources, they have ways of finding rocky planets that dont depend on whether we broadcast or not. They could have found us a billion years ago. If we were really worried about letting aliens know we were here, Shostak says, the first thing to do would be to shut down the BBC, NBC, CBS and the radars at all airports. Those broadcasts have been streaming into space for years the oldest is already more than 80 light years from Earth so it is already too late to stop passing aliens watching every episode of TV programmes like Big Brother. There are lots of practical problems involved in hunting for aliens, of course, chief among them being distance. If our nearest neighbours were life forms on the (fictional) forest moon of Endor, 1,000 light years away, it would take a millennium for us to receive any message they might send. If the Endorians were watching us, the light reaching them from Earth at this very moment would show them our planet as it was 1,000 years ago; in Europe that means lots of fighting between knights around castles and, in north America, small bands of natives living on the great plains. It is not a timescale that allows for quick banter and, anyway, they might not be communicating in our direction. The lack of a signal from ET has not, however, prevented astronomers and biologists (not to mention film-makers) coming up with a whole range of ideas about what aliens might be like. In the early days of SETI, astronomers focused on the search for planets like ours the idea being that, since the only biology we know about is our own, we might as well assume aliens are going to be something like us. But theres no reason why that should be true. You dont even need to step off the Earth to find life that is radically different from our common experience of it. Extremophiles are species that can survive in places that would quickly kill humans and other normal life-forms. These single-celled creatures have been found in boiling hot vents of water that come through the ocean floor, or at temperatures well below the freezing point of water. The front ends of some creatures that live near deep-sea vents are 200C warmer than their back ends. On Earth, life exists in water and on land but, on a giant gas planet, for example, it might exist high in the atmosphere, trapping nutrients from the air swirling around it. And given that aliens may be so out of our experience, guessing motives and intentions if they ever got in touch seems beyond the realms even of Hawkings mind. Paul Davies, an astrophysicist at Arizona State University argues that alien brains, with their different architecture, would interpret information very differently from ours. Lots of people think that because they would be so wise and knowledgeable, they would be peaceful, adds Stewart. I dont think you can assume that. I dont think you can put human views onto them; thats a dangerous way of thinking. Aliens are alien. If they exist at all, we cannot assume theyre like us. Guardian News & Media 2010

4. Choose the best answer according to the text. 1. Stephen Hawking believes a. we should continue to try to make contact with aliens. b. we should only make contact with intelligent life forms. c. we should do everything we can to avoid contact with aliens. 2. According to Seth Shostak, a. TV and radio stations and radars should be shut down. b. TV and radio stations and radars could let aliens know we are here. c. TV and radio stations and radars are an effective way of contacting aliens. 3. The biggest problem in contacting aliens is a. the lack of technology. b. the fact that we dont speak their language. c. the enormous distances involved. 4. What are extremophiles ? a. people who like extreme sports b. organisms that live in extreme temperatures c. creatures with front ends and back ends that have different temperatures 5. Find the following words and phrases in the text.
1.

a two-word noun meaning a vehicle containing cameras and other equipment that is sent outside the Earths atmosphere to collect information (para 1) a two-word adjective meaning making you feel great respect and admiration and sometimes fear (para 1) an adjective meaning obvious (para 4) an adjective meaning not necessary (para 4) a noun meaning friendly conversation in which people tell jokes and laugh at each other (para 6) a verb meaning move quickly in circles (para 9) a four-word expression meaning outside the area of knowledge, experience or interest (para 9) an adjective meaning knowing a lot about different subjects (para 10)

2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

8.

6. Match the beginnings and endings to make phrases from the text. 1. freezing 2. solar 3. light 4. life
5.

a. inspiring b. year c. point d. number e. form

awe-

6.

sheer

f. system

7. Discussion Do aliens exist? Should we try to make contact with them? Why? Why not? 8. Comment on the following quotations about mystery and faith. To one who has faith, no explanation is necessary. To one without faith, no explanation is possible. St. Thomas Aquinas Man is what he believes. Anton Chekhov The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invisible. Oscar Wilde All is mystery; but he is a slave who will not struggle to penetrate the dark veil. Benjamin Disraeli Mystery is another name for our ignorance; if we were omniscient, all would be perfectly plain. Tryon Edwards When people cease to believe in God, they don't believe in nothing; they believe in anything. G. K. Chesterton I respect faith, but doubt is what gives you an education. Wilson Mizner Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind. Albert Einstein Life without faith in something is too narrow a space to live. George Lancaster Spalding There is only one religion, though there are a hundred versions of it. George Bernard Shaw There are ten church members by inheritance for every one by conviction. Author Unknown As knowledge increases, wonder deepens. Charles Morgan

READING & SPEAKING (2) 1. Read the article below. Discuss the importance of learning foreign slang at school and University.

In other words
Foreign slang is often overlooked at school which isnt much good for real life, says Thomas Stephens. Whaassssuuupppp??!! If, during a freshers party, I introduce myself with these words (all right, word), youll probably smile nervously and make a mental note to change course if necessary to avoid me. If, however, Id said exactly the same thing two years ago, youd probably have burst into laughter at my Wildean wit and whassupped me straight back. Whats up, indeed? English is English you might think a means of communication for millions of people around the world. And you wouldnt be wrong. But language is also a fundamental means of self-expression the dress of thought, according to Dr Johnson and of identity. When social groups want to create an identity (why they want to do this is another story!), they create their own customs and language; if you are then aware of the codes of conduct and slang, you can gain membership of these exclusive groups. But its not just good enough to learn these passwords. Language is alive: every year new words are born and others die, and if you dont keep your fingers on the linguistic pulse, youll be exposed as an imposter, a culturally out-of-touch fake. Thats whassupp. In the case of students, however, the social group is very large. University is a melting pot of national dialects and apart from a few local idioms, students in Southampton will be on the same wavelength as those at St Andrews. This linguistic globalization leads, depending on your point of view, to either cultural enrichment or bland homogeneity. But your point of view is not important! In the box below you will find common words heard on campuses across the UK which you probably didnt learn at school. Learn them, understand them and, if you want, use them. Sorted!

i Slang Glossary
All right? Hi Wicked! Fantastic! Nice one! Well done! A brew a cup of tea/coffee A sarnie a sandwich

A Ruby (Murray) a curry Spag bol spaghetti Bolognese Fit physically attractive Rough physically unattractive Minging physically unattractive Lush (of food, men, etc) delicious Booze alcohol Lashed terribly, terribly drunk Heaving (of a place) very busy Loaded very rich Skint very poor Knackered very tired Naff of inferior style/ taste To chill to relax Sorted! No problem! No hassle! No problem! A bloke a boy/ man A copper a policeman A mate a friend To kip to sleep A pad a house A geek someone lacking social skills Cheers! Thanks! or Good health! or Goodbye! 2. Can you guess the meaning of the slangy and colloquial phrases in bold?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

I searched high and low for my keys, but no joy. I found myself cooking for eighteen people the other night. My friend is always going on about his job. I wouldnt have the first idea how to go about fixing a car, let alone telling anyone else how to fix theirs. David has only gone and got married! I had a bit of a dodgy stomach earlier, but now its sorted. I really hate people messing with my personal possessions, my hair, my head, and most of all me. The bar last night was completely rammed. It was so packed we couldnt find a place to stand. When a man gives a woman a compliment, you know hes after something. 100 for a piece of toast? Youre having a laugh! 100 for a piece of toast? What a rip-off! In the morning Im a real scatterbrain. Id forget my head if it wasnt screwed on! Are you reading this paper? No, go right ahead. Do you want chips with that? No, thatll be it, thanks. Ill be the first to admit, my cooking leaves a lot to be desired.

16.

When the girl taking my order kept on asking me if I wouldnt rather have a salad, it took me a while to understand what she was getting at.

TEST YOURSELF 1. Grammar. Choose the correct answer. 1. You pay the bills today. I know. I promise I wont forget. A would B shall C must 2. we go to the beach tomorrow? Yes, thats a great idea. A Shall B Mustnt C Would 3. Im going to the cinema. Do you want to come with me? No, thank you. I do my work. A could B would C have to 4. You put that shirt in the washing machine. I know. It has to be dry-cleaned. A must B mustnt C couldnt 5. Was your suitcase very heavy? Yes, but I carry it by myself. A was able to B cant C ought 6. you drive? Yes, but I havent got my own car. A Might B Should C Can 7. I ride a bicycle until I was eight. Neither could I. A couldnt B could C cant 8. you open the door for me, please? Yes, certainly. A Shall B Must C Would 9. Ben had a hard time trying to find the leak in the pipe. But he stop it, wasnt he? A was allowed to B was able to C could 10. I saw Tina in town last night. You have seen her. She is on holiday in Spain. A would B could C cant 11. Wheres Colin? Im not sure. He be in the study. A might B will C ought 12. I feel very tired today. You have stayed up so late last night. A shouldnt B could C mightnt 13. Did you phone Alan yesterday? No, I . He came round to see me. A didnt need to B neednt C have to 14. you give me a lift to work tomorrow. Yes, Ill pick you up at eight oclock. A May B Shall C Will

15. I help you, madam? Yes, Im looking for the manager. A Would B Must C May 2. Vocab. Suggest active vocabulary units corresponding to the following definitions (phr.v., inf.) to spoil or damage something, or to do something wrong or badly 2. (inf.) to throw something carelessly 3. (inf.) (a situation causing) difficulty or trouble 4. a strong expression of anger and disapproval about something, made by a group of people or by the public 5. someone who is taken as a prisoner by an enemy in order to force the other people involved to do what the enemy wants 6. a television or radio programme 7. describes a place where ghosts often appear 8. to give something and be given something else instead; to exchange 9. to disappear or stop being present or existing, especially in a sudden, surprising way 10.(idiom) to be deserved under the circumstances 11.(idiom) in a position of great happiness or success 12.(idiom) be very different from something else 13.(idiom) in a very remote place 14. (idiom) to have a chance, as of gaining or accomplishing something. 15. (idiom) to be overcome by one's feelings
1.

ACTIVE VOCAB. p. 94 (Learn the colloquialisms in V12.1) p. 96 (Learn the words and phrases in V12.2), a news bulletin, flee (ones homes, country, etc.), an adaptation, a playwright, a series of smth, a broadcast, cause panic, sue smb, a court case, fictious p. 97 swap, take turns to do smth, pay a (phone) bill p. 98 99 haunted, spooky, a werewolf, vanish, reveal, claim, give smb a talk on smth, take smb on a tour of, weird, an encounter, sufficient, (learn the words and phrases in V12.3), fortune-telling R12.1 put smb straight through to (voicemail), its bound to, work out, a mate, text smb, stare at smb R12.7 get smb a drink, Cheers!, settle in to (a new flat), a (two)-bedroomed flat, move in, be keen to do smth, odd, the other day (night), next door, have a look, clothes from the fifties, vanish into thin air, hold ones hands out, freezing cold, an option Vocabulary plus: Idioms about feelings/opportunities. Be on top of the world, get carried away, have a rough time, keep an eye on, stand a chance, be in two minds, get your act together, miss the boat, serve you right, be thrilled to bits

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