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Major Job Attitudes Job Satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Commitment Job satisfaction A positive feeling about ones

nes job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to selfworth. Psychological empowerment employees beliefs in the degree to which they impact their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job and the perceived autonomy in their work. Organizational Commitment A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Affective Commitment an emotional attachment to the organization and belief in its values. Continuance Commitment the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it. Normative Commitment an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons. Perceived Organizational Support is the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. Employee Engagement individuals involvement with, satisfaction with and enthusiasm for the work they do. How employees are measured? Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors and the organization. Provides managers with valuable feedback on how employees perceived their working conditions. The importance of attitudes in workplace diversity Trainings To help reshape attitudes of employees Includes self-evaluation phase Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction Single global rating Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? In general, people are satisfied with their jobs. Depends on facets of satisfactiontend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities. Causes of Job Satisfaction Pay only influences Job Satisfaction to a point After about $40,000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs

How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. Job Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied workers provide better customer service Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. They are less likely to turnover, which helps build longterm customer relationships. They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.

Attitudes and job satisfaction Attitudes- Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people or events. 1. What are the main components of attitudes? 2. How consistent are attitudes? 3. Does behavior always follow from attitudes? 4. What are the major job attitudes? 5. How are employee attitudes measured? 6. What is the important attitudes to workplace diversity? What are the main components of attitudes?

Cognitive = Evaluation The oppinion or belief segment of an attitude Affective = feeling the eemotional part of an attitude Behavioral = action An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something My teacher gave my other classmate a grade that I deserve more. My teacher is unfair. I hate my teacher I will just drop. Skip classes.

How consistent are attitudes? Cognitive dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes How do people cope? Importance Influence Rewards How does Behavior always follow from attitudes? Moderating variables Importance of attitude Specificity Accessibility Social pressures Direct experience Self Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred Personality Personality Determinants Heredity Refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics influences by who your parents are. Environment Culture in which we are raised The norms among our family, friends, and social groups Other influences that we experience Determines the full potential by how we adjust to demands and requirements Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behavior Myers-Briggs Type Indicator A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.

Projective measures Observer-ratings surveys Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Core Self Evaluation Degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves, whether they see themselves as capable and effective, and whether they feel they are in control of their environment, or powerless over their environment

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Machiavellianism Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Narcissism The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of selfimportance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. Self-monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Risk Taking Type A Personality Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people. Proactive Personality People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs. Personality and National Culture

Perception and Individual Decision Making WE DONT SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.

WHAT IS PERCEPTION? A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Influential Factors

The Big Five Model

Measuring Personality There are three main ways personality is measured: Self-report surveys

PERSON PERCEPTIONS Attribution Theory People are motivated to understand the causes of behavior. Attribution theory seeks to explain how and why people make these causal attributions INTERNAL EXTERNAL DISTINCTIVENESS CONSENSUS CONSISTENCY Frequently Used Shortcuts In Judging Others SELECTIVE PERCEPTION HALO EFFECT CONTRAST EFFECT STEREOTYPING Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations.. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The Connection Individuals in the organization makes decisions... Decision-Making occurs as a reaction to the problem.. Awareness that a problem exist and that a decision should be made is a perceptual issue... Decision Making in Organizations Rational Decision-Making Model A decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome. Rational Decision-Making Model Define the problem. Identify the decision criteria. Allocate weights to the criteria. Develop the alternatives. Evaluate the alternatives. Select the best alternative. Rational Decision-Making Model Assumptions The decision maker has complete information Is able to identify all relevant options in an unbiased manner Chooses an option with the highest utility Bounded Rationality A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing their complexity. Bounded Rationality 3 Steps Limited search for criteria and alternatives familiar criteria and easily found alternatives Limited review of alternatives focus alternatives, similar to those already in effect Satisficing selecting the first alternative that is good enough Intuitive Decision Making Intuition The ability to acquire knowledge without inference and/or the use of reason. Intuitive Decision Making An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. Increases with experience Can be a powerful complement to rational analysis in decision making

Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making Overconfidence Bias Is a well-established bias in which someone's subjective confidence in their judgments is reliably greater than their objective accuracy, especially when confidence is relatively high. Anchoring Bias A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information. Confirmation Bias A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information.

Organizational Constraints Performance evaluations - evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions. Reward systems Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization Formal regulations Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers Self-imposed time constraints organizations require decisions by specific deadlines Historical precedents past decisions influence current decisions Ethics in Decision Making Three Ethical Decision Criteria Utilitarianism- seeking the greatest good for the greatest number Rights- respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals Justice- imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially Creativity in Decision Making The ability to produce novel and useful ideas Helps people to: Better understand the problem See problems others cant see Identify all viable alternatives Identify alternatives that arent readily apparent Improving Creativity in Decision Making Three-Component Model of Creativity

Global implications Attributions Cross-cultural differences exist especially in collectivist traditions Decision Making Cultural background of the decision maker can have significant influence on decisions made Ethics No global ethical standards exist Need organizational-level guidance

Summary and Implications for Managers Perception: To increase productivity, influence workers perceptions of their jobs To improve decision making: Analyze the situation Be aware of biases and minimize their impact Combine rational analysis with intuition Try to enhance your creativity D. McClellands Theory of needs by David McClelland -states that achievement , power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation Need for achievement (nAch) Drive to excel, to achieve relationship to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for power (nPow) Need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have to behaved otherwise. Need for affiliation (nAff) Desire to friendly and close interpersonal relationship

Concepts of Motivation I. Definition Motivation the processes that account for an individuals, and of effort toward attaining a goal. II. Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Abraham Maslow -Exists as hierarchy of five needs

Higher Need

Lower Need

ERG Theory by Clayton Aldefer - Revised need hierarchy

B. Theory X and Theory Y by Douglas McGregor - two distinct views of human being : THEORY X (negative) and THEORY Y (positive) Theory X Assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. C. Two-Factor Theory by Federick Herzberg Motivation-hygiene theory -relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction Herzbergs View

EMOTIONS & AFFECT Objectives Differentiate emotions from moods and list the basic emotions and moods. Discuss whether emotions are rational and what functions they serve. Identify the sources of emotions and moods. Show the impact emotional labor has on employees. Describe affective events theory and identify its applications. Contrast the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence. Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues. Contrast the experience, interpretation, and expression of emotions across cultures. Affect Defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience. It can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods. Emotions Caused by specific event Very brief in duration (seconds or minutes) Specific and numerous in nature (many specific emotions such as anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise, etc.) Usually accompanied by distinct facial expression Action oriented in nature Moods Cause is often general and unclear Last longer than emotions (hours or days) More general (two main dimensions- positive affect and negative affect- that are composed of multiple specific emotions) Generally not indicated by distinct expressions Cognitive in nature Emotions and Moods can influence each other. Basic Emotions There are dozens of emotions including anger, contempt, enthusiasm, envy, fear, frustration, disappointment, embarrassment, disgust, happiness, hate ,hope , jealousy, joy, love, pride, surprise and sadness.

Basic Emotions Rene Descartes Founder of Modern Philosophy Six simple and primitive passions Wonder, Love, Hatred, Desire, Joy and Sadness Basic Emotions Six essentially universal emotions Happiness-Surprise-Fear-Sadness-Anger-Disgust Functions of Emotions Emotions help us to think rationally. Emotions motivate people to engage in actions that are important for survival- actions such as foraging for food, seeking shelter, choosing mates, guarding against predators and predicting others behaviors.

Evolutionary Psychology This field of study says that we must experience emotions- whether they are positive or negative-because they serve a purpose. OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Selection One implication from the evidence to date on EI is that employers should consider it a factor in hiring employees, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction. Example: U.S. Air Force and LOreal Decision Making Traditional approaches to the study of decision making in organizations have emphasized rationality. Positive moods and emotions seem to help decision making. People in good mood or experiencing positive emotions tend to use heuristics, or rules of thumb to make good decisions. Creativity People who are in good mood tend to be more creative than people in bad moods. It seems that people who are experiencing positive moods or emotions are more flexible and open in their thinking. Motivation Two studies have highlighted the importance of moods and emotions on motivation. Both studies highlight the effects of mood and emotions on motivation and suggest that organizations that promote positive moods at work are likely to have more motivated workers.

Leadership Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey their messages. In fact, the expression of emotions in speeches is often the critical element that makes us accept or reject a leaders message. Negotiation Negotiation is an emotional process; however, we often say a skilled negotiator has a poker face. It is a game of bluff and there is fantastic human emotion and tension, seeing who can bluff the longest. Customer Service A workers emotional state influence customer service, which influences levels of repeat business and levels of customer satisfaction. In addition, employees emotions may transfer to the customer. Studies indicate a matching effect between employee and customer emotions, an effect that is called emotional contagion. Job Attitudes Ever hear the advice Never take your work home with you, meaning that people should forget about their work once they go home? Several studies have shown that people who had a good day at work tend to be in better mood at home that evening. Deviant Workplace Behaviors Anyone who has spent much time in an organization realizes that people often behave in ways that violate established norms and that threaten the organization, its members, or both. How Managers Can Influence Moods? Global Issues Does the Degree to Which People Experience Emotions Vary Across Cultures? Do Peoples Interpretations of Emotions Vary Across Cultures? Do the Norms for the Expression of Emotions Differ Across Cultures?

Emotional Labor- A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. Emotional Dissonance- Inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotions they project. Emotions Felt- An individuals actual emotion Displayed- Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. Surface Acting- Hiding ones inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to displayed rules. Deep Acting- Trying to modify ones true inner feelings based on display rules.

A model that suggest that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors Emotional Intelligence Be self- aware Detect emotions in others Manage emotional cues and information