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BrainBuzz Cramsession
Last updated November, 2000. Click here for updates. Click here to see additional documents related to this study guide.

Cramsession for Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert


Abstract: This Cramsession will help you to prepare for Cisco exam #350-001, the CCIE written exam. Exam topics include, Cisco Device Operation, General Networking Theory, Bridging & LAN Switching, Internet Protocol, IP Routing Protocols, Desktop Protocols, Performance Management, WAN, LAN, Security, and Multiservice.

Contents
Contents .............................. 1 Cisco Device Operation........... 2 General Networking Theory .... 5 Bridging & LAN Switching ....... 8 IP Routing Protocols..............17 Desktop Protocols.................26 Performance Management .....28 WAN ...................................29 LAN ....................................33 Security ..............................35 TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) ..............................35 Multiservice .........................36

Notice: While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this material, neither the author nor BrainBuzz.com assumes any liability in the event of loss or damage directly or indirectly caused by any inaccuracies or incompleteness of the material contained in this document. The information in this document is provided and distributed as-is, without any expressed or implied warranty. Your use of the information in this document is solely at your own risk, and Brainbuzz.com cannot be held liable for any damages incurred through the use of this material. The use of product names in this work is for information purposes only, and does not constitute an endorsement by, or affiliation with BrainBuzz.com. Product names used in this work may be registered trademarks of their manufacturers. This document is protected under US and international copyright laws and is intended for individual, personal use only. For more details, visit our legal page. 2000 All Rights Reserved BrainBuzz.com

BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert

Cisco Device Operation


Router Components
ROM (Read-Only Memory) Hosts the basic commands of the router and sometimes a limited version of the IOS (Internet Operating System). ROM is nonvolatile, meaning it is hard-coded and does not change. Contains power-on diagnostics, a bootstrap program, and operating system software. RAM (Random Access Memory) Contains the running version of the IOS and the current running configuration. This is extremely volatile; when the router is shutdown, anything in RAM is lost. Stores routing tables, ARP cache, fast-switching cache, packet buffering (shared RAM), and packet hold queues. NVRAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory) - As the name implies, files can be written to this memory and will not be lost when the system is powered down. This is where the startup version of the router configuration is stored. Flash memory (EEPROM Electronic Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) This is where the IOS version for the router is stored. It is important when determining what version of IOS to load on a router, that you ascertain how much flash is installed. Different versions of IOS require more flash to be loaded. Flash memory holds the operating system image and microcode.

Ways to Configure a New Router


By connecting to the console port and using TFTP to download a configuration file that has been created ahead of time. By connecting to the console port and running the Setup dialog. By connecting to the console port and directly typing in configuration commands. Using bootp in conjunction with SLARP/RARP to download a configuration file that has been created ahead of time.

Determine Hardware Configuration


The EXEC commands that will show hardware configuration of a Cisco router are show hardware and show version

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Mode Prompts
Monitor mode User mode Privileged mode Global configuration mode Interface configuration mode Sub-interface configuration mode Line configuration mode Router configuration mode IPX router configuration mode rommon 1 > router> router# router(config)# router(config-if)# router(config-subif)# router(config-line)# router(config-router)# router(config-ipx-router)#

Really Delete Files from Flash


When you delete a file from flash, it is not removed from flash, and you will not regain the space - it is simply marked for deletion. Once a file is marked for deletion, issuing the squeeze command will perform a function similar to a hard drive defrag and move the files on flash to reclaim the space occupied by the deleted file.

Passwords Things to know:


The user mode password is the only one that cannot be created in the setup dialogue. All passwords can be encrypted. A password can be set for individual lines. If no password is set on the vty lines there is no telnet access into this router. Router(config)# service password-encryption encrypts all passwords in the configuration file.

Procedure to Recover a Lost Password:


Reboot the router Issue the break command in the first 60 seconds (CTRL-Break) Enter the appropriate register value (0x2142) Reboot the router again Avoid the startup script Copy startup to running configuration Change the passwords Copy running to startup configuration
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Types of passwords:
Exec used to restrict access to the EXEC mode, the basic console on the router. Enable used to restrict access to the privileged EXEC mode where changes to the router configuration can be made. Enable Secret Similar to the Enable password, but they are encrypted so they cannot be read.

Setting different types of passwords:


Console password used with the routers console port. router(config)# line con 0 router(config-line)# login router(config-line)# password {password} Auxiliary password - used for the routers auxiliary port. router(config)# line aux 0 router(config-line)# login router(config-line)# password {password} Virtual terminal password used for telnet sessions to router. router(config)# line vty 0 4 router(config-line)# login router(config-line)# password {password} Enable password used when enable secret is not configured or software revision is too old. router(config)# enable password {password} Enable secret password encrypted password that provides enable privileges. router(config)# enable secret {password}

Register Values
0x2102 Default mode 0x2142 - The value used to recover passwords

Debug
By default, all debug information goes to the console port on a Cisco router only. To view debug messages from a VTY session, you must issue the terminal monitor command. Router# debug serial interface - monitors keepalives on an interface. To reduce the impact of a debug command on the CPU of the router, use the scheduler-interval command and be sure to use the debug command as specifically as possible.

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SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)


SNMP is a standard method for Network Management Stations (such as CiscoWorks) to gather information about networked devices. This UDP-based protocol uses MIBs (Management Information DataBases) defined for each type of device to interpret the information provided by the SNMP enabled equipment To enable SNMP on a router the command is "snmp-server community"

General Networking Theory


OSI Model
The OSI is a common tool for conceptualizing how network traffic is handled. In the CCIE track, we will be interested primarily in the lower three levels. Just a reminder, that you can use the old mnemonic All People Seem To Need Data Processing as a way to help remember the sequence. Application User interface tools (such as Telnet, SMTP, FTP, etc.) Presentation Encoding/Decoding (such as ASCII, MPEG, GIF, JPEG, etc.) Session Creating, managing and terminating Presentation layer Transport Error checking and recovery, flow control and multiplexing (TCP, SPX, etc.) 3. Network Routing (IP, IPX, etc.) 2. Data Link (LLC/MAC) LLC Manages communications MAC Manages addressing and access to the physical layer 1. Physical Establish and maintain physical connectivity 7. 6. 5. 4.

Cisco Hierarchical Internetworking Model


Core Concentrates all traffic traversing the network. The focus in on speed and fast switching. Gigabit Ethernet and ATM are seen here. Distribution Control layer; Aggregation of traffic, access lists, compression, encryption and other services that provide the glue between Access and Core layers. Access The point at which users join the network. VLANs, WAN connections, RAS services are all at this layer.

Connection-oriented vs. Connectionless Service


Connection-oriented: Similar to HDLC Connection establishment and termination required Sequenced, acknowledged data delivery Built-in error recovery Sliding window flow control Connectionless: Data transfer without virtual circuit
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert No message sequencing No delivery guarantee Higher layer is responsible for error recovery, flow control, and reliability

Routing / Switching
Routing is defined as a Layer-3 activity. Bridging is defined as a Layer-2 activity. Switching is defined as a Layer-2 activity. Switching is often called microsegmentation, in that each switched port is basically its own bridged domain.

Routing and Routed Protocols


A routing protocol, such as BGP or OSPF communicates between routers which paths to follow in order to get data delivered to desired destinations. A routed protocol, such as IP or IPX is the method for passing data, and travels the paths defined by the routing protocol.

Reliability of Protocols
TCP and LLC Type 2 are reliable protocols because they are layer four protocols IP, UDP, and Frame Relay are NOT reliable protocols because they are layer three protocols

802.x Protocols
802.2 802.3 802.4 802.5 802.6 802.7 802.8 802.9 802.10 802.11 802.12 Link Layer Control (LLC) CSMA/CD Access Method (Ethernet) Token Ring Bus Token Ring MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Broadband Fiber-optic LANs Integrated Voice & Data LAN/MAN Security Wireless VGAnyLAN

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Passive Interface
When enabled on an interface this command allows the interface to hear routing updates, but not repeat them. This helps to control routing updates. Example: Router(config-router)# passive-interface s0

Connectivity
(Diagram A-1)

Bridged Environment (Refer to Diagram A-1)


In a bridged environment, a Cisco router will not modify the layer-2 MAC address of a frame when bridging. In other words, a packet retains the true source and destination MAC addresses when crossing a bridge. For example, if in the diagram above Devices B and C were bridges, packets sent from Host A to Host B would have the Source MAC Address of Host As Ethernet adapter and the Destination MAC Address of Host Bs Ethernet adapter, regardless of what segment they were passing through. If a packet were to be lost anywhere between Host A and Host D, the originator would rebroadcast.

Routed Environment (Refer to diagram A-1)


In a routed environment, when a host sends a packet it has the Source MAC Address of either the originating host (if on the first segment) or the last router port it was processed by. It would have the Destination MAC Address of the next hop router port or the destination host, if on the final segment. In other words, a host sending a packet to a router for processing to a remote destination will have the routers local port as a destination address; a host receiving a packet from the router will see a source address of the local router port.

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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert For example, if in the devices in diagram A-1 were routers: Packet from Host A to Host D will have source MAC address of Host A and destination MAC address of Router Bs local Ethernet port on Segment 1. Packet from Host A to Host D will have source MAC address of Router Bs Serial port and destination MAC address of Router Cs local Serial port on Segment 2. Packet from Host A to Host D will have source MAC address of Router Cs Ethernet port and a destination MAC address of Host D on Segment 3.

If a packet sent from Host A to Host D were to be lost: On segment 1, Host A would rebroadcast On segment 2, Router B would rebroadcast On segment 3, Router C would rebroadcast

Bridging & LAN Switching


A View of Bridging
When non-routable protocols, such as NetBEUI, LAT or SNA were developed all devices on a network resided locally. As networks matured and bridges were introduced to segment LANs there was the need for these devices to communicate across networks, especially WAN links. Because these protocols did not have the mechanisms to allow this connectivity, bridging techniques were developed to allow the communication between devices at the Data Link Layer (layer 2 of the OSI model). By default, bridging is disabled on all Cisco routers. However, these services are still an important component of the real-world networks you will be asked to deal with in your professional life. For the purposes of the current discussion, you will also need to know them for the CCIE certification exams, both written and lab. Keep in mind that many non-routable protocols, most importantly SNA, are very time sensitive, and delays can cause loss of data or session connectivity. It is also important to understand that bridging techniques are broadcast intensive, and that this can flood slower WAN links.

Bridging techniques Transparent Bridging (TB) As the name implies, this type of bridging is transparent to the end devices. The end devices are unaware that when they communicate they are not local to one another. This functionality is not enabled by default on Cisco routers, but can be turned on when needed.
When a device wishes to communicate, it will send out a broadcast to search for the requested destination address. When a Transparent Bridge sees the first broadcast from a device, it extracts the MAC address from the packet and enters it into its forwarding table, the list of devices on each interface. This process of determining what devices exist on each of the bridges ports is called learning.
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If the bridge receives a broadcast with a destination address that is in its forwarding table it forwards the broadcast only to that one interface. If it is not in the table, it repeats the broadcast out of all of its interfaces (except the one on which it was received). This process is called flooding.

Source-Route Bridging (SRB) Source routing is called that because instead of an intermediate device determining a path, the originating device creates its own.
Routing Information Fields (RIF) are used to define paths for SRB frames to traverse a network. They are easy to read if you understand their function. For the current discussion its important that you understand how to understand how a RIF works. Later well come back to how to rip um up and read um. When an SNA device needs to access a remote unit, it sends out a test frame that attempts to find the destination. You can think of this as a broadcast in the IP world; it isnt, but that will help you to conceptualize. If the destination is not found, the source device sends out a single-route or allroutes explorer frame. Any bridges that the frame comes across in its travels add their local bridge and ring numbers to the RIF. Eventually the frame either finds its target or dies on the vine. IBM bridges support 8 rings and 7 bridges; IEEE 802.5 bridges support 14 bridges and 13 rings. Once one of the explorer frames finds the destination, it returns to its creator to announce its success. If multiple frames return, the source device takes the route of the first frame to return, assuming this is the best path. Think of it as a race in a maze; the first one to grab the cheese and get home first, wins.

Ripping up a RIF
This will seem complicated, but once you understand how RIFs are defined, simple practice will drive home the necessary techniques The first bit of the first byte of the source address is the Routing Information Indicator (RII), which is exactly what it sounds like; it indicates that what follows is a RIF. If this bit is a 1, the frame is a RIF; if the bit is a 0, it is not. Here are the component parts of the first 2 bytes of a RIF, called the RCF (Routing Control Field): 1. The first 3 bits define what kind of RIF is being examined: 0xx single route frame 10x all-routes explorer frame 11x spanning explorer frame

2. The next 5 bits show the length of the RIF. This indicates how many bytes of bridge/ring numbers follow. 3. The next single bit shows direction: 0 read from left-to-right 1 read from right-to-left

4. The last 3 bits indicate the maximum frame length


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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 up to 512 bytes up to 1,500 bytes up to 2,052 bytes up to 4,472 bytes up to 8,144 bytes up to 11,407 bytes up to 17,800 bytes broadcast frame

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5. The last four bits are not relevant. They are reserved for future use. Heres an example of a RIF: 0810.0011.0023.0040 Translating the first two bytes (0810) to binary gives us: 0000.1000.0001.0000 Rip it up to define: Type 000 RIF Length 01000 Direction 0 Frame Length 000 Not used 0000

From this we know: The RIF type is: single route frame The RIF Length: 8 bytes (01000 binary = 8 decimal) Direction to read the RIF: right-to-left The maximum frame length: up to 512 bytes

The rest of the RIF is called the RDF (Route Descriptor Field) and reading it is easy. The first three digits of each two-byte grouping are the ring number (in hexadecimal). The last digit is the bridge number (again, in hex). A zero in the bridge number designation indicates that the destination ring has been reached. Notice that since only four bits are used for the ring number, and zero is already taken, the only bridge numbers available are hex 1 through F (1 to 15 in decimal). Looking at our example again (0810.0011.0023.0040), (remember that the 0x indicates that the number that follows is in Hex) we find that the path is: Ring 0x1 to bridge 0x1 Ring 0x2 to bridge 0x3 Ring 0x4 to the destination

Taking another example: 0A10.0021.00B1.0101.0020 Translating the first two bytes (0A10) to binary gives us: 0000.1010.0001.0000

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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Rip it up to define: Type 000 RIF Length 01010 Direction 0 Frame Length 001 Not used 0000

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From this we know: The RIF type is: single-route The RIF Length: 10 bytes (01010 binary = 10 decimal) Direction to read the RIF: right-to-left The maximum frame length: up to 512 bytes

Following the rest of the RIF Ring 0x2 to bridge 0x1 Ring 0xB to bridge 0x1 Ring 0x10 to bridge 0x1 Ring 0x2 to the destination

Tricky RIF (Common errors when reviewing RIFs) The Apples-to-Oranges rule: If you see 0x before a number, remember that what follows is a hexadecimal. For example, whats the difference between ring 0x14 and ring 14? Since decimal 14 is 0xE, theyre obviously not the same ring designation. The Nice-try rule: SRB only runs on Token Ring networks, so Ethernet devices do not use RIFs. If you are looking at a network diagram and see that one of the hosts is on an Ethernet segment, remember that RIFs are irrelevant. The Roadblock rule: In a DLSw environment the RIF is terminated at the DLSw router (the definition of DLSw occurs later in this document). Source-Route Transparent Bridging (SRT)
Since you now have an understanding of both TB and SRB, this next technique will come easy. An SRT bridge looks at each frame to see if it finds a RIF (looking for the RII). If theres an RII, the frame is processed like SRB; if not, like TB. Some devices, such as Windows 95 workstations do not support RIFs. SRT allows them to communicate through bridges between LAN segments. This all takes place on Token Ring devices. The next technique will address Ethernet translations.

Source-Route Translational Bridging (SR/TLB)


This Cisco proprietary bridging technique allows bridging to take place between Ethernet domains and Token Ring domains. Ethernet frames are not capable of supporting RIFs. This bridging method, when enabled on Cisco routers, handles the
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert conversion from Ethernet frames to Token Ring frames (bit ordering); adjusts the MTU sizes (default for Token Ring is 4,464 bytes, Ethernet 1.500 bytes); and adds and removes RIFs, as necessary. To the Token Ring devices the Ethernet segment looks like an SRB domain using a pseudo ring.

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Remote-Source Route Bridging (RSRB)


An advanced bridging technique that allows legacy protocols, predominantly SNA, to communicate over large bridged environments using IP tunnels as a transport mechanism. Frames from Token Ring networks are encapsulated and sent over the IP network. The methods of encapsulation are: Direct Encapsulation This method uses HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) and adds little overhead, but lacks reliability. This is usually used over a single network connection between two routers attached to Token Ring networks. Fast-Sequenced Transport (FST) This method uses IP encapsulation, which adds some overhead, but is still connectionless. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) This method uses TCP connection, which adds significant overhead, but ensures reliable transport.

The IP network being traversed is considered one hop, using the concept of a virtual ring. Though RIFs pass through the network, they are calculated as if the entire IP network is one hop using this concept, and all acknowledgements are local, conserving valuable WAN bandwidth. Ethernet networks can be traversed as long as the local router is running SR/TLB.

Data-Link Switching Plus (DLSw+)


DLSw was developed as an advanced tool for the transport of SNA and other nonroutable protocols over IP backbones. DLSw+ is Ciscos enhanced version of DLSw, and provides additional functionality over previous versions. DLSw+ has more options and greater functionality then RSRB. The methods of encapsulation include: Direct Encapsulation This method uses HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) and adds little overhead, but lacks reliability. This is usually used over a single network connection between two routers attached to Token Ring networks. (Same as RSRB). Fast-Sequenced Transport (FTS) This method uses IP encapsulation, which adds some overhead, but is still connectionless. (Same as RSRB). Transport Control Protocol (TCP) This method uses TCP connection, which adds significant overhead, but ensures reliable transport. (Same as RSRB). Frame Relay

RIFs are generally terminated at the DLSw router. DLSw+ can support Ethernet without SR/TLB being loaded.
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Additional tools available with DLSw+ include: Dynamic peers, peers on demand, backup peers and the ability to load balance connections.

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Encapsulated Bridging
Used to bridge over an IP Backbone or FDDI Backbone.

IRB (Integrated Routing and Bridging)


A BVI (Bridged Virtual Interface) is created that acts as a member of a bridge-group to allow traffic to be routed. The BVI number must match the bridge-group number.

CRB (Concurrent Routing and Bridging)


Concurrent routing of one group of interfaces, while bridging another.

LAN Switching
All nodes on an Ethernet network can transmit at the same time, so the more nodes you have the greater the possibility of collisions happening, which can slow the network down. LAN Segmentation: breaking up the collision domains by decreasing the number of workstations per segment. Switching examines MAC address. Works like a massive multiport bridge. Switching types: Store-and-Forward copies entire frame into buffer, checks for CRC errors. Higher latency. Used by Catalyst 5000 switches Cut-Through reads only the destination address into buffer, and forwards immediately. Low latency

Spanning Tree and Root Bridge


Developed to prevent routing loops. The STA (Spanning-Tree Algorithm) is used by the STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) to calculate a loop-free network topology. There is one root bridge for Ethernet and switching environments. There is one root bridge per VLAN, with 1 for all VLANs. Route bridge calculation is determined by lowest MAC address.

VLAN (Virtual LAN)


Broadcast domains defined on Cisco switches. Since each VLAN is a separate domain, routing must be enabled between them if data is to be passed. If multiple VLANs exist on a switch, a trunk can be setup on a Fast or Gigabit Ethernet port to pass the separated data between network devices. A trunk passes data from device to device; it does not route data between VLANs. Trunking encapsulations include:
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert ISL Used with Ethernet, and is Cisco Proprietary 802.1Q Used with Ethernet and is IEEE standard

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VTP (VLAN Transport Protocol) VLANs definitions can span switches. VTP is the method for communicating these definitions. Switches can be defined as: Server Listens to, stores and broadcasts VLAN configurations. Can create and delete VLANs. Client Listens to configurations. Can assign ports to participating VLANs. Transparent Forwards VTP traffic, but doesnt participate in the VLANs.

CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol)


A proprietary Data Link layer protocol used between Cisco devices to pass information about local conditions. CDP uses a data-link, multicast address with no protocol ID or network layer field, and cannot be filtered. The only way to prevent their being passed is to configure no cdp enable on those interfaces on which you do not want to run CDP. You can configure a MAC-layer filter to deny a multicast address as an alternative method to block these packets.

Internet Protocol (IP)


IP is a layer-3 routed protocol that provides addressing, fragmentation and reassembly. The minimum and maximum packet headers are 20 and 24 bytes, respectively. An IP address is 32 bits long, and the network and host sections are defined by the subnet mast associate with the address. An IP address can be bound to a host name on a router using the ip host command Example: Router(config)# ip host my-example 10.10.10.1 10.10.10.2 binds name to both addresses

IP Routing Protocols
Static Routes OSPF ISIS EIGRP RIP IGRP

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Common IP Ports
20/21 23 25 37 49 53 68 67 69 161 FTP Telnet SMTP Time Service TACACs DNS BootP Client BootP Server TFTP SNMP

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)


To get away from statically configuring workstations addresses (which is a royal pain in the tuchis), a DHCP server can be configured which will allocate addresses dynamically. To configure a router to pass bootp packets (DHCP requests) you can use the ip helper-address x.x.x.x command.

NAT (Network Address Translation)


Used to translate one set of IP network numbers to another. The primary use for NATing is to translate external valid IP addresses to internal private addresses when connecting a network to the Internet. It can also be used to temporarily merge two networks that have different addressing schemes.

Addressing issues CIDR - Classless Inter-domain Routing, CIDR used by BGP ver4. Route Summarization
Reducing the number of networks being advertised between routers simplifies the routing table, reduces memory and CPU requirements, and makes the network more logical. This results in enhancing network performance and reclaiming bandwidth that would otherwise be used to pass routes back and forth.

Access Lists
Used to permit or deny traffic based on the source network/subnet/host address. Things to know:
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The wildcard mask, which looks like a reversed subnet mask, defines which bits of the address are used for the access list decision-making process. Lists are processed top-down. In other words, the first matching rule preempts further processing. Only one access list is allowed per port/per direction/per protocol. Remember that there is an implicit deny at the end of all access lists. The last configured line should always be a permit statement. Standard lists will most likely be placed close to the destination. Extended lists will most likely be placed close to the source. If the access-group command is configured on an interface and there is no corresponding access-list created, the command will be executed and permit all traffic in and out. An Access Class limits VTY (telnet) access. A Distribution List filters incoming or outgoing routing updates.

Access Lists Numbers


1-99 100-199 200-299 300-399 400-499 500-599 600-699 700-799 800-899 900-999 1000-1099 1100-1199 1200-1299 IP standard Extended IP Protocol type-code DECNet XNS standard XNS extended AppleTalk 48-bit Mac Address IPX standard IPX extended IPX Sap Extended 48-bit Mac Address IPX Summary Address

HSRP (Hot Standby Routing Protocol)


Provides a means of having two default gateways to protect against an equipment failure locking out a group of users from the wider internetwork. The default priority for each router is 100, but can be change to give one priority as the most likely default gateway (if say, one unit were faster than another).

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IP Routing Protocols
Methods for avoiding routing loops Holddowns Learned routes are held incommunicado for a period of time to
prevent updates advertising networks that are misbehaving.

Triggered updates Configuring routing updates to occur after a triggering event, such as a topology change. This allows quicker convergence. Split horizon If a router has received a route advertisement from another router, it will not re-advertise it back to the sending router. Think of this as a sphincter - things are not sent back to where they came from (gross, but you wont forget it, and thats the point). Poison reverse Similar to split horizon, but instead of ignoring the update, the route is advertised back to the originating interface as a poisoned reverse update. The originating router gets its own route back, but with the time-to-live field exceeded, so the route is removed from the table. When the routers re-converge, the holddown timers have expired. This helps to more quickly clear bad routes from the list being passed back and forth between the routers. Administrative Distance
Determines the level of trust each routing protocol will be given when a route is advertised from more than one. The primary ADs are: Directly Connected Static EBGP EIGRP (Internal) IGRP OSPF ISIS RIP EGP EIGRP (External) IBGP BGP Local Unknown 0 1 20 90 100 110 115 120 140 170 200 200 255

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RIP
There are two versions of RIP - version 1 and 2. RIPv2 is classless and supports a variable subnet mask. Both use hop count as the only metric and have a time to live of 15 hops. A hop is basically one pass through a router. Updates include the entire routing table, and are sent out every 30 seconds. RIP requires neither an AS or Process ID number. Example: Router(config)# router rip Configuring a default route in RIP: Example: Router(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.10.1

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) OSPF Areas Types:


Backbone (transit area) - Always labeled area 0, it accepts all LSAs and is used to connect multiple areas. All other areas must connect to this area in order to exchange and route information. When interconnecting multiple areas, the backbone area is the central entity to which all other areas must connect. Standard - Accepts internal and external LSAs and also summary information. Stub - Refers to an area that does not accept Type-5 LSAs to learn of external ASs. If routers need to route to networks outside the autonomous system, they use a default route (0.0.0.0). Totally Stub - Further reduces routing tables by blocking external Type-5 LSAs and summary (Type-3-and-4) LSAs. Intra-area routes and the default of 0.0.0.0 are the only routes known to this area. Cisco proprietary.

Peer Relationships:
OSPF hello packet information must be the same on all routers in an area for peering relationships to be formed. This information includes: Hello/Dead Interval Area ID Authentication Password Stub Area Flag

Router Types:
Internal Router (LSA Type 1 or 2) Routers that have all their interfaces in the same area. They have identical link-state databases and run single copies of the routing algorithm. Backbone Routers (LSA Type 1 or 2) Routers that have at least one interface connected to area 0. Area Border Router (LSA Type 3 or 4) Routers that have interfaces attached to multiple areas. They maintain separate link-state databases for each area.
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Autonomous System Boundary Router (LSA Type 5) Routers that have at least one interface into an external internetwork, such as a non-OSPF network. These routers can redistribute non-OSPF network information to and from an OSPF network.

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Connection to area 0 - The main dictate in OSPF is that multiple areas all connect directly to the backbone area. The connection to the backbone area is via an ABR, which is resident in both areas and holds a full topological database for each area. A remote network can connect to area 0 via a virtual link, essentially a tunnel through the ABR in the intermediate area. From the viewpoint of OSPF, it has a direct connection.
Packets designated to a different AS (Autonomous System) are forwarded to an ABR, which sends the packet through the backbone area (area 0) to the destination network ABR, which forwards it to the appropriate host. All packets that pass between ASs must pass through the backbone area when being forwarded from one area to another. The ABRs have the responsibility for maintaining the routing information between areas. To set a designated router in an OSPF network, you can set the priority or use the router with the highest loopback address. Setting the priority to 0 makes the router ineligible to become the DR. To make an OSPF router the designated router, set the priority with the highest value: Example: Router(config)# ip ospf priority 100

Recalculating the database:


Calculate routes within the local AS using Type-1 and Type-2 LSAs. Calculate routes to other ASs (inter-area routes) using Type-3 and Type-4 summary LSAs. Remember that a totally stubby area will not accept summary LSAs. Calculate routes to external networks using Type-5 LSAs. Remember that stub and totally stubby areas will not accept Autonomous system LSAs.

Stub and Totally Stubby Area Similarities:


Inter-area routing is based on a default route (0.0.0.0). The backbone area cannot be a stub area. There can only be one exit point for a stub or totally stubby area - a single ABR. Routers within the area must be configured as stub routers or they will not form neighbor adjacencies. The area cannot be used for a transit area for virtual links to the backbone. An ASBR cannot be internal to a stub area. Typically used in a hub and spoke topology, with the spokes being remote offices set-up as stub or totally stubby areas.
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Stub and Totally Stubby Area Differences:


Both reduce the size of routing tables, although more so with totally stubby areas. Both will not accept Type-5 (autonomous system entries), and totally stubby will also not accept Summary LSAs either (Type-3 and Type-4). Totally stubby is Cisco proprietary. Totally stubby area is preferable, since it increases stability and scalability while reducing the routing information that must be maintained. Remember that you cannot use totally stubby areas if there is a mixture of Cisco and non-Cisco routers.

LSA Types:
Router link entry - This is a Type 1 LSA. Broadcast only in a specific area. Contains all the default link state information. Generated by each router for each area to which it belongs. It describes the states of the routers link to the area. These are only flooded within a particular area. The link status and cost are two of the descriptors provided. Network entry - This is a Type 2 LSA. Multicast to all area routers in a multiaccess network by the DR (Designated Router). Contains network specific information. They describe the set of routers attached to a particular network and are flooded only within the area that contains the network. Summary entry - Type 3 LSAs have route information for the internal networks and are sent to the backbone routers. Type 4 LSAs have information about the ASBRs. This information is broadcast by the ABR, and it will reach all the backbone routers. Autonomous system entry - This is a Type 5 LSA. It come from the ASBR and has information relating to the external networks.

No special commands are required to turn a router into an ABR or ASBR. The router takes on this role by virtue of the areas to which it is connected. As a reminder, the basic OSPF configuration steps are as follows and you would simply add another network statement for the ABR or ASBR to cover another area.

To configure OSPF, do the following:


1. Enable global configuration mode 2. Enable OSPF on the ABR or ASBR router 3. Identify the ip networks and their areas

Enable OSPF on the router


Router(config)# router ospf process-id
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Remember that OSPF has a process ID (BGP, EIGRP and IGRP have AS numbers; RIP requires neither) Example: Router (config)# router ospf 1

Identify which IP networks on the router are part of the OSPF network
Router(config-router)# network address wildcard-mask area area-id

Configuring Stub and Totally Stubby Areas (remember that an ASBR cannot be internal to a stub area)
Configure a stub network Router(config-router)# area area-id stub

Configure a totally stub network


Router(config-router)# area area-id stub no-summary

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)


BGP is the routing protocol of the Internet. It comes in two flavors, internal and external.

When to use BGP:


Connecting to two or more ISPs. Multi-homing network that connects to more than one AS. When youre a monstrously huge ISP.

Attributes of BGP
Routers are considered to be peers or neighbors whenever they open up a TCP session to exchange routing information. When routers communicate for the first time, they exchange their entire routing table. From then on, they send only incremental updates. Uses TCP as its transport protocol, via port 179.

Configuring BGP
Enable BGP using a local BGP AS number assigned by InterNIC: Router(config)# router bgp <AS-number> Remember that BGP, EIGRP and IGRP have AS numbers (OSPF has a process ID, RIP requires neither). Example: Router (config)# router bgp 1 All networks you want to advertise: Router(config)# network <network-number>

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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Specify BGP neighbors and peers (peers use the local BGP AS-number): Router(config)# neighbor <address> remote-as <AS-number>

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Clear the BGP information when you make a BGP configuration change:
Router# clear ip bgp *.

Path Selection:
BGP will select one path as the best path. This path is put into the BGP routing table and then propagated to its neighbors. The criteria for selecting the path for a destination is: If the path specifies a next hop that is not accessible the update is dropped. The path with the largest weight is preferred. If the weights are the same, the path with larger local preference is preferred. If the local preference is the same, then prefer the path that originated on this router. If no route originated on this router, then prefer the one with shortest AS-path. If they have the same AS_path, then prefer the path with the lowest origin path. If the origin codes are the same, then prefer the path with the lowest MED. If the MED is the same, then prefer an external path to an internal path. If these are the same, then prefer a path through the closest IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) neighbor. Lastly, prefer path with the lowest IP address, as specified by the BGP router ID.

Three ways to set the weight of updates


Access lists Neighbor weight command Route map

BGP peering functions


A BGP peer group is a defined group of BGP neighbors that are configured to share the same update policies. Instead of defining the same policies for each individual neighbor, you define a peer group name and assign policies to the peer group itself.

IBGP
Exchanges information within the same AS between routers.
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Is more flexible, scalable, and more efficient for controlling the exchange of information within an AS. Shows a consistent view of the AS to external neighbors.

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EBGP
Used when routers belong to different ASs and exchange BGP updates. BGP Synchronization rule: If an AS provides transit service to another AS, then BGP should not advertise the route until all of the routers within this AS have learned the route through the IGP. When to disable synchronization: o Your AS does not transfer traffic from one AS to another. o All the transit routers on your AS are running BGP.

BGP synchronization
BGP must be synchronized with the IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol, such as OSPF or EIGRP). To do this it waits until the IGP has propagated routing information across the autonomous system before advertising transit routes to other ASs.

Scalability problems associated with internal BGP


Autonomous systems consisting of hundreds of routing nodes can pose a serious routing management problem for network administrators. There are two good methods for dealing with this situation; confederations and route reflectors.

Confederations
Confederations eliminate the need to fully mesh BGP communications by splitting a single AS into what amount to sub-ASs and using EBGP between them; although to external ASs the entire confederation grouping looks like a single AS.

Route Reflectors
Defined central points of distribution for routers within an AS. In other words, it receives data and distributes it to other routers. This eliminates the need for a fully meshed BGP environment.

Policy Routing
Policy routing is a means of controlling routes. It relies on the source, or source and destination, of traffic rather than destination alone. Policy routing can be used to control traffic inside an AS as well as between ASs. Policy routing is a glorified form of static routing, and has many of the same types of problems.

Route Dampening Policy


A BGP feature that attempts to minimize the propagation of flapping routes (up, down, up, down, etc.) across an internetwork. Penalties are assigned for each flap and when the accumulated penalty reaches a specified limit, BGP suppresses further advertisement of that route, even if it is back up. The accumulated penalty is reduced over time and eventually the route is trusted again.

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EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)


EIGRP is a stable and scalable Cisco proprietary protocol that combines the advantages of link state and distance vector routing protocols. It supports automatic route summarization and VLSM addressing. EIGRP was designed to overcome scaling limitations of IGRP. This was achieved by implementing: The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) Loop-free networks Incremental updates The holding of information about neighbors as opposed to the entire network

Types of Successors
Successor - A route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. Feasible Successor - A backup route. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained, kept in topology table.

Features of EIGRP
Neighbor Discovery/Recovery: Routers dynamically learn of other routers on their directly attached networks by sending a 'Hello Packet'. As long as the neighbor receives these packets the router is assumed to be 'alive'. Reliable Transport: Ordered delivery of EIGRP packets to neighbors is guaranteed. For better efficiency, reliable transport is provided only when it is needed. DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm): Tracks all the routes advertised by all neighbors. DUAL will use the metric to select an efficient path. It selects routes to be inserted into the routing table based on feasible successors. Protocol Dependent Modules: These are responsible for the network layer. The IPX EIGRP module is responsible for sending and receiving EIGRP packets that are encapsulated in IPX.

Tables
Neighbor table The current state of all the routers immediately adjacent neighbors. Topology table - This table is maintained by the protocol dependent modules and is used by DUAL. It has all the destinations advertised by the neighbor routers. Routing table - EIGRP chooses the best (successor) routes to a destination from the topology table and places these routes in the routing table. The routing table contains: How the route was found
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Destination network address and the subnet mask in prefix format Administrative Distance: This is the metric or cost from the neighbor advertising that particular route Metric Distance: This is the cost or the metric from the router The address of the next hop How old the route is Outbound interface designation

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Choosing routes
DUAL selects primary and backup routes based on the composite metric and ensures that the selected routes are loop free. The primary routes are then moved to a routing table. The rest (up to 6) are stored in the topology table. EIGRP uses the same composite metric as IGRP to determine the best path. The default criteria used are: Bandwidth - the smallest bandwidth cost between source and destination Delay - cumulative interface delay along the path Reliability - worst reliability between source and destination based on keepalives Load - load on a link between source and destination based on bits per second on its worst link MTU - the smallest Maximum Transition Unit

Configure Enhanced IGRP


Configure EIGRP for IP Enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system Router(config)# router eigrp autonomous-system-number Remember that BGP, EIGRP and IGRP have AS numbers (OSPF has a process ID, RIP requires neither). Example: Router (config)# router eigrp 1 Indicate which networks are part of the EIGRP autonomous system Router(config-router)# network network-number Define bandwidth of a link Router(config-if)# bandwidth kilobits

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Desktop Protocols
IPX (Internet Packet Exchange)
IPX is Novells network layer protocol. An IPX address consists of two parts, the network ID followed by a host ID taken from the MAC address of the device. The default Cisco encapsulation type are: Ethernet - Novell-Ether, the Novell-specific version of IEEE 802.2 standard Token Ring SAP FDDI SNAP

Other Ethernet Encapsulation Types and their Cisco Equivalents.

Novell Frame Type


Ethernet_II Ethernet_802.2 Ethernet_802.3 Ethernet_SNAP

Cisco IOS Encapsulation Name


arpa SAP novell-ether SNAP

Things to know:
The Cisco router does not forward SAP broadcasts, but constructs its own SAP table and broadcasts that every 60 seconds (by default). Only one encapsulation type is allowed per network. You can have several networks running on the same wire, but they must have different network addresses. The IPX address is 80 bits long; 32 for network bits, 48 for host bits. To load balance you must use the ipx maximum-paths {number} command and all parallel paths must have the same tick count and the same hop counts as the tick and hop counts are used by IPX as a metric.

To configure IPX routing you must: 1. Enable IPX routing 2. Assign IPX network numbers to interfaces Example: Router(config)# ipx routing Router(config)# interface E0 Router(config-if)#ipx network badbed (network name in hexadecimal)
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Routing IPX
IPX can use these routing protocols: Static Routes IPX RIP Similar to IP RIP IPX EIGRP The IPX version of Ciscos proprietary routing protocols (see later in this document) IPX NLSP An IPX link-state routing protocol IPXWAN - A protocol that negotiates end-to-end options for new links before IPX traffic can traverse the WAN link

IPX Split Horizon is not supported in any of the IPX feature sets IPX supports load balancing; though not default, it must be configured

SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol)


Used when a server needs to advertise its availability. SAP updates can carry a maximum default of seven services. SAP entries are dependent on having a routing table entry. If a SAP entry has no routing table reference, it will not be sent.

AppleTalk
The proprietary protocol stack developed by Apple Computer. Designed to be easy to use for the end-user, it has often been seen as the bane of the Network Engineer. Besides being complicated to configure, it is very chatty (a bandwidth hog). AppleTalk can run over most physical media: EtherTalk = running over Ethernet TokenTalk = running over Token Ring FDDITalk = running over, you guessed it, FDDI

There are two versions of AppleTalk: Phase 1 a limit of 254 nodes on a network and non-extended networks. Phase 2 created in 1989, overcomes the 254-node limit and runs over extended networks. Cable ranges were added with a numbering scheme that allows sequential network numbers acting as a single network.

AppleTalk Protocols
DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol) Layer 3 protocol. AppleTalk equivalent to IP or IPX. AARP (AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol) Equivalent to DHCP in the IP world. RTMP (Routing Table Maintenance Protocol) A distance vector routing protocol in which routes are exchanged only with immediate neighboring routers. Sends routing table information every 10 seconds.

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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert AURP (AppleTalk Update-based Routing Protocol) An extension of RTMP that enables tunneling of AppleTalk traffic through IP networks using external routers that counts as one hop. Sends routing table information every 30 seconds. AppleTalk EIGRP A version of the Cisco proprietary routing protocol for AppleTalk.

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Addressing
AppleTalk addresses are made up of 16-bit network numbers, 8-bit node numbers, and 8-bit socket numbers. Zone A logical grouping of AppleTalk nodes.

Multicasting
PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) Used to forward multicast packets through a network.

Other important Multicast protocols:


IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) Standard protocol to manage if multicast transmissions are passed to routed ports. One of the problems with this is if a VLAN on a switch is set to receive, all the workstations on that VLAN will get the multicast stream. CGMP (Cisco Group Management Protocol) Cisco proprietary protocols to control the flow of multicast streams to individual VLAN port members. Solves the problem sited above. Requires IGMP to be running on the router.

Performance Management
Queuing Methods Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Most basic queuing option that gives highvolume traffic a lower priority than lower-volume traffic. For example, a time sensitive SNA conversation would have a higher priority then a file transfer where latencies will probably not be noticed. WFQ is enabled by default on all Cisco routers with link speeds of less than E1 (2.048MB). Priority Queuing Provides the software tools to define a hierarchy of need between different types of traffic. There are four types of queues; high, medium, normal and low. You can configure up to four of each type on a router, for a total of 16 queues. Unless otherwise defined, all traffic is normal. The person who configures that queue can determine higher or lower levels of priority for different types of traffic based on protocol or port number and data passing through the router. Medium queue traffic will not be passed until high queue has been cleared; the normal queue traffic will not be passed until medium queue traffic has been cleared; etc. This can create a situation where a higher-level queue can monopolize a link to the exclusion of lower level data and packets will be dropped.
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Custom Queuing 16 queues are configured that operate in a round-robin


fashion. Each queue is allocated 1,500 bytes by default, although this can be changed. When the appropriate number of bytes has been sent, the next queue is addressed. If the byte count has been reached and a packet has not been completely sent, it will continue to be sent; a packet will not be fragmented. In this way it is possible to allocate a percentage of the bandwidth to a specific protocol. For example, 50% of the bandwidth is reserved for IP, 25% for IPX and the remainder for miscellaneous traffic. Because of the nature of Custom Queuing, no one queue can monopolize the link to the exclusion of other queues.

WAN
Serial line conditions:
Serial 0 line is down, line protocol is down - No cable or modem is connected. Serial 0 line is up, line protocol is up - The WAN service is working fine and keepalives from the remote site are being sent and received. Serial 0 line is up, line protocol is down - A cable is plugged into the router, but no keepalives are being received from the remote router. Serial 0 is administratively down, line protocol is down - The interface has to have been enabled by the administrator.

ISDN
Provides digital service that runs over existing telephone networks. Normally used to support applications requiring high-speed voice, video, and data communications for home users, remote offices, etc.

Protocols standards
E specifies ISDN on existing telephone technology. I specify concepts, terminology and services. Q specifies switching and signaling.

Graphic 2 TE1---|---S/T-----NT1---U---LT---V---ET | TE2---R---TA--|

Equipment
TA Terminal adapter converts from RS-232, V.35, and other signals into BRI. TE1|2 - Terminal equipment 1 (integrated TA, understands ISDN) or 2 (needs TA, predates ISDN). NT1 - Network termination type 1 equipment that connects the subscription 4 wires to the 2 wire local loop.
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert NT2 Network termination type 1 equipment that performs protocol functions of the data link and network layers. LT Local Termination portion of the local exchange that terminates the local loop.

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ET Exchange Termination portion of the exchange that communicates with the ISDN components.

Reference Points
R reference points define the hand-off from non-ISDN equipment and the TA. S reference points define hand-off from user terminals to an NT2. T reference points define hand-off between NT1 and NT2. U reference points define hand-off between NT1 and line-termination equipment in a carrier network. (Only US/Japan, where NT1 not provided by carrier).

Channels
B(earer) channel: Used for data transfer (voice or data). D(ata) channel: Used for control/signaling information using LAPD.

Types of Equipment
CPE Customer Premise Equipment (on-site). DCE Data Communications Equipment. The devices and connections that make up the network end of the user-to-network interface. DTE Data Terminal Equipment. The devices and connections that make up the user end of the user-to-network interface. Terminals, PCs, and routers would be examples.

Flavors of ISDN
BRI 2B /1D (D = 16kb) PRI (T1) 23B / 1D (D = 64kb) E1 (Europe) 30B / 1D (D = 64kb)

Things to Know
Encapsulation can be PPP, HDLC or LAPD, with the default encapsulation method being HDLC. CHAP authentication is associated with PPP. A SPID is similar to a telephone number and is provided by Telco.

ISDN Switch Types


basic-5ess AT&T basic rate switches (USA) basic-dms100 NT DMS-100 (North America) basic-nil National ISDN-1 (North America)
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BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert basic-Itr6 German ITR6 ISDN switches basic-nwnet3 Norwegian Net3 switches basic-nznet3 New Zealand Net3 switches basic-ts013 - Australian TS013 switches basic-net3 Switch type for Net3 in UK and Europe ntt NTT ISDN switch (Japan) vn3 French VN3 ISDN switches none No specific switch specified

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Frame-Relay
Frame-relay is a simple and streamlined layer2, connection-oriented access protocol, meaning it only defines signaling and data formats between the DTE and the Frame Relay Switch. It is closely related to X.25, but without the error correction and retransmission overhead.

Things to Remember:
LMI - Local Management Interface - control protocol for PVC setup and management. Frame-relay LMI types used in Cisco routers are ansi, cisco and q933a (default is cisco). The encapsulation types for frame-relay are cisco and Ietf (default is cisco). Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs), are assigned by the carrier. Wide range of speeds from 56K over T1 (1.5Kbps) to DS3 (45Mbps) FCS - Frame Check Sequence, similar to CRC. Appended to every frame for simple error checking. Frame Relay can use ISDN/LAPD, HDLC, and PPP.

These Provide Congestion Information:


Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) Bit set by a frame relay network in frames traveling in opposite direction of frames encountering a congested path. DTE receiving frames with the BECN bit set can request higher level protocols take flow control action. Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN) Bit set by a frame relay network to inform DTE receiving frame that congestion was experienced in the path from source to destination. Discard Eligible bit (DE) A bit set by either the DTE or frame-relay switch that marks this frame as a likely candidate to drop if there is congestion on the line.

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Likely Problems on a Frame Relay config:


LMI Does not have to match end to end (default is Cisco), however, it must match what the frame-relay cloud is using. This defines the parameters of communication between the router and the frame-relay switch. Encapsulation Needs to match end to end (default is Cisco). Frame map statement The IP address here needs to be the next hop address, and the DLCI number needs to be the local DLCI. If you are able to see remote sites from a central site, but the remote sites cannot see each other, poison reverse should be disabled on split horizon.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)


Developed as a compromise between voice and data needs, ATM is commonly found either on large telecom networks or built into networks that have a strong need for QoS (Quality of Service) needs. ATM uses Cells that are uniform in size - 53 bytes; 5 bytes for a header, and 48 bytes for payload. This allows a great deal of control over traffic and allows for Qos, but is wasteful in that the header is a greater percentage of the traffic then in other methods. ATM is connection-oriented with traffic traveling from end-to-end over either: SVC (Switched Virtual Circuits) Dynamically created on-demand circuits. PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuits) Permanently allocated circuits that are always established and active.

There are two types of interfaces: NNI (Network-to-Network) connections within the network cloud between two ATM devices. UNI (User-to-Network) connects a workstation to an ATM switch.

There are four major layers in the ATM reference model (equivalent to the OSI Model) Higher layers ATM signaling, addressing and routing. AAL (ATM Adoption Layer) Converts from higher level to ATM cells. ATM Defines ATM cell relaying and multiplexing. Physical Defines the physical network media and framing.

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LAN
Token Ring
Token Ring is an older technology that is still prevalent in modern day networking, and should be reviewed carefully when preparing for the CCIE certification track, both written and lab. TR is defined in both the original IBM specification and IEEE 802.5 and comes in two speeds, the original 4 Mbps and later 16 Mbps versions. Token Ring is installed as a physical star configuration in that all stations are attached to a MAU (Multi-station Access Unit, similar to a hub in Ethernet); but a logical ring in that the token which provides permission to speak travels from node to node.

Token Ring Operation


1. A token frame is passed from station to station through the ring. 2. When a device has a need to transmit data, it must wait until the token can be seized. A data frame is attached to the token and both the A and C bits are set to 0. 3. The Token continues on its path from station to station until it reaches the destination MAC address. The data frame is copied and the A and C bits are changed to 1. 4. The Token once again resumes its travels and eventually returns to the source device, which analyzes the A and C bits, and releases the token. To review again the function of the control bits: A-bit - Address Recognized (as a mnemonic device, think of this as the acknowledgement bit, even though it isnt). That the destination sets this bit to 1 tells the source device that the destination machine was found. C bit Copy bit. That the destination changed this bit to 1 tells the source device that the data frame was copied.

When the token returns, these bits will tell the sender that the destination received the token and copied the data from the token. For example, if the A bit is set (1) and the C bit is not (0), that would mean that the destination or receiving station is recognized, but cannot copy the data from the frame. Collisions are impossible in a Token Ring network that is functioning normally. The only time you might see them is when an error condition exists. Early token release can be enabled in the TR configuration. This allows the token to be available as soon as the data has been delivered.

Token Ring Error Detection


The most common error condition in TR is a Beacon, which indicates a major problem such as a cable break or a defective NIC. One of the devices on the ring will be selected as the Active Monitor, which removes orphaned data frames from the ring and regenerates tokens.

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Ethernet
Ethernet is the most common LAN technology currently available, and provides for CSMA/CD, which will be explained later in this document. There are two flavors of Ethernet: 802.3 and Ethernet version II. Both standards support multiple physical media types. The primary differences are:

Ethernet II
Specifies a type field, which contains a two-byte field to indicate protocol type of the contents of the data (IP, IPX, DEC, etc.). Supports both layer 1 and 2 of the OSI model. Supports only 10Mb.

802.3
Specifies a length field. Does not contain any information about protocol type. Has this information in the DSAP and SSAP (Destination Service Access Protocol and Source Service Access Protocol) fields. Supports all of the OSI layer 1 functionality, and parts of layer 2. Supports 10Mb, 100Mb, and 1,000Mb (Gigabit Ethernet).

CSMA/CD
Since only one device can talk on an individual Ethernet segment, CSMA/CD is used anytime two or more stations share the same segment and, by extension, available bandwidth. CSMA/CD listens before transmitting. If a collision occurs it backs off the clear line, waits a random period of time, and attempts to transmit again.

EtherChannel
EtherChannel is a Cisco proprietary method for aggregating the bandwidth of up to four Fast Ethernet channels on a switch and having them appear to be one logical connection. The requirements are that all the ports be in the same VLAN, have the same speed and duplex settings, and if the switch is not a Cat6000, that contiguous ports be used. Besides increasing the bandwidth available between devices, this also adds a level of protection, because if one of the links within the EtherChannel were to go down, the traffic would continue to pass at the reduced rate without interruption.

FDDI (Fiber Data Distributed Interface)


FDDI, and its copper cousin, CDDI represent an older technology that was the standard for backbone connectivity for some years. It is still found in many legacy
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It is based on a token-passing scheme similar to Token Ring, but with dual counterrotating rings that provide redundancy in the event of a fiber (or copper in the case of CDDI) cut. The primary ring carries traffic; the secondary is the backup link. The rings have a speed of 100Mbps, which was perfectly acceptable in the backbone until the introduction of inexpensive Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. There are two types of devices on the network: DAS (Dual-Attached Station) which would be attached directly to both rings. SAS (Single-Attached Station) - which would be connected to a concentrator.

Security
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
A standard feature set of software security tools that identify when users are logged into a router; control each users authority level; and monitor user activity to provide accounting information.

TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System)


A centralized validation service that accepts or rejects user name and password pairs. TACACS+ uses TCP for transport and the entire body of TACACS+ packets is encrypted if a there is a shared key on the router and server. TACACS+ can log every command that is entered at the router exec command. Works with PPP or CHAP authentication. Transmits passwords in clear text. TACACS+ can pass caller ID or called party values from NAS to the server. TACACS+ requires AAA, although earlier versions, TACACS and Extended TACACS did not work with AAA.

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service)


A client-server based protocol that accepts or rejects a user name and password pairs. Works with PPP or CHAP authentication. Transmits passwords encrypted by MD5 algorithm when they are sent across the data network. Server component can run on a Microsoft NT or Unix host. Used with AAA to enable authentication, authorization and accounting.
More study guides and information available at www.cramsession.brainbuzz.com. 2000 All Rights Reserved BrainBuzz.com

BrainBuzz Cramsession: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert User names and passwords are encrypted.

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PIX (Private Internet Exchange) Firewall


A Cisco hardware and software platform that prevents unauthorized connections between two networks based on a defined security policy. It most commonly sits between a companys internal network and the Internet.

Multiservice
Voice/Video Protocols Erlang B A traffic model used by telephone system designers to estimate
the number of lines required for trunks.

H.323 Standard for real-time multimedia communications and conferencing over


packet-based networks.

SS7 (Signaling System 7) International standard for common channel signaling between PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network) switches. This standard provides for out-of-band signaling and is responsible for routing, link status, and connection control. 1-800 calls, local phone number portability, in-network phone mail and portable phone roaming all are defined by SS7. RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) Provides support for applications with real-time properties such as video or voice over IP. Compression
The compress {predictor | stac} command can be used to enhance service on slow point-to-point links using HDLC, PPP, and LAPB. This will cause an increase in CPU utilization on the router.

Special Thanks to Dennis Laganiere for contributing this Cramsession. Make sure to visit his site at: http://www.routedpacket.com

More study guides and information available at www.cramsession.brainbuzz.com. 2000 All Rights Reserved BrainBuzz.com