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CRITICAL STUDY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT THRUOGH CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT - A CASE STUDY OF CO-OPERATIVES IN VASAI TALUKA

Submitted By: Mr. Subhash Anton Dsouza,Assistant Professor, St.Joseph College of Arts and Commerce, Satpala,P.O.-Agashi,Dist-Thane-401201,Maharashtra Subhash.sof@gmail.com

CRITICAL STUDY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT THRUOGH CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT - A CASE STUDY OF CO-OPERATIVES IN VASAI TALUKA
Mr. Subhash Anton Dsouza, Assistant Professor,St.Joseph College of Arts and Commerce, Subhash.sof@gmail.com

1. Introduction:
Co-operative movement is an autonomous working for the benefits of the people specially living in rural areas. In co-operative movement people work together to achieve their common goals. Hence this movement is properly considered as, 'the movement of the people, for the people and by the people.

The history of co-operative movement started by passing the first Co-operative Act in the year 1904. The prime objective of this Act was to finance the poor farmers and protect them from the exploitation of moneylenders and landlords. Co-operative institutions also aim at giving maximum services to its members. In 1901 the Famine Commission expressed the view that in the establishment of mutual credit associations lies a large hope for the future of associations take root and flourish in the country. India is the land of co-operatives. Co-operative movement of India is accepted as one of the largest movement in the world. The objective of this movement is to increase the socio economic status of people basically living in rural areas. The co-operative movement tried to achieve this status through the collective efforts. agriculture in India and the

probability of lasting success which will be greatly strengthened if mutual credit

The largest numbers of co-operatives are there in India. Development corporation reported that there are almost 5,00,000 co-operatives with a membership of 207 million people ,with 43.7 percent share of agriculture credit, 60.5 percent of sugar production capacity, 20 percent of the spinning mills capacity and 30 percent of the fertilizer market in our country. These co-operatives possess Rs.1,16,555 millions as share capital. Their value of assets and working capital is Rs.13,21,246.63 millions and Rs. 16,53,128 millions respectively. The International Labor Organization (I.L.O.) has defined co-operative movement as reforms on the principles of association of persons, usually of limited means, who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a common end through the foundation of democratically controlled business organization, making equitable contribution to the capital required & accepting a joint share of the risks & the benefits of the undertaking. Co-operatives have been functioning in various economic activities like marketing,

credit, industry, consumer, housing, agriculture and other allied areas. Co-operatives are now functioning in every nook and corner of the country and one can say that the infrastructure or networking of co-operatives is the widest in a big country like India. It is very handy for the government agencies to make use of its organizational setup in time of need , such as food grain distribution when there is shortage and also to control prices, procurement of food grains, credit disbursement etc. The co-operative societies have made a significant contribution towards increasing the social-economic, cultural condition of the common man of all categories and fulfill the prime aim of releasing the common people from the clutches of money lenders and Jamindars In spite of all these favorable considerations, the contribution or the development of cooperatives in India is very dismal and co-operatives still do not find a prominence and influence in Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). There is no doubt that the co-operative societies in Vasai Taluka have been doing well in terms of volume of business in the areas assigned to them. The functioning and performance of co-operative societies and co-operative movement itself is becoming

more and more complex and complicated with the entry of new giants and introduction of new technology. On account of these facts, as well as other important issues like globalization and liberalization and also an unavoidable changes in economy, the function and management of these co-operative societies have become much more complicated. The aim and significance of this study is to know the problems faced by these co-operative societies and to develop the strategies and plans to solve the said problems.

2. Exact title of the problem:

Co-operation and co-operative movement are the words that are not unfamiliar to villages and rural areas. However there is not comprehensive understanding of the word cooperative movement because of its limited functioning in certain areas. Rural development cannot be solely equated with one or two segments or economic strata of rural areas. It is a sum total of an integrated functioning which constitutes and covers all the segments of the society and includes total rural development. The word that represents this idea is Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP). The issues before the researcher are: 1) Can co-operative movement play important role in implementing the idea of integrated rural development? 2) Whether the dream of total rural upliftment can be achieved through co-operative movement? At micro level Vasai Taluka becomes a useful pilot study to taste the tenet of cooperative movement and assess the role of co-operation in successful implementation of integrated rural development program. Therefore the proposed title of the study is, Critical study of rural development through co-operative movement A case study of co-operatives in Vasai Taluka.

3. Background of the research topic: In Vasai Taluka co-operative movement started in the year 1918. The first co-operative credit society known as Bassien Catholic Co-operative Credit Society started in the year 1918. Afterwards in the course of time many co-operative societies started in Vasai Taluka. Some of the co-operatives have played very important role in the development of the Vasai Taluka.

Although many co-operative societies started from 1918 onwards, in the course of time some co-operative societies were closed down due to certain problems.As on today there are 4245 co-operatives in Vasai Taluka. Some co-operatives are playing very important role in rural development. Some co-operatives are closed down in course of time. It is a high time to evaluate the role of co-operatives in the rural development.

The role played by co-operative societies is definitely important and instrumental in shaping co-operative movement. However these co-operatives concentrated their works in certain limited areas like Co-operative credit societies, Housing co-operatives, Consumer co-operatives etc. and neglected some co-operatives like Marketing cooperatives, Fishermen co-operatives, Agriculture co-operatives etc. The basic ideology of co-operation and co-operative movement was thus not given due justice by the movement that was operating all over Vasai Taluka. After independence co-operative movement narrowed down its vision to very selective and profitable areas and neglected other social segments of the society. Thus the broader view of co-operative movement was neglected and overlooked. It becomes essential to find out in how many ways co-operative movement can help, assist and promote the ideology of integrated rural development. The term refers to multifaceted rural development which includes along with the farming other means of economic advancement, social and cultural development and enhancement of quality of

life. Therefore present study stands more relevant on the background of co-operative movement prevalent in Vasai Taluka. 4. Scope of the Study The co-operative sector has become inseparable part of Indian people. It is related to all the fields of life. In Vasai it is very much related to the lives of poor people like farmers, fishermen, tribals, adivasis and other people from weaker section of the society. Although it is a wide topic for this research purpose, researcher has limited it to the geographical boundaries of Vasai Taluka. Apart from that the study is done by considering the performance of all the co-operatives functioning in Vasai Taluka for last 10 years, i.e. from 1998 2008. 5. Significance of the Study: The researcher feels that the study will help all the co-operatives in Vasai Taluka to evaluate its effectiveness and functioning in the light of overall goal of co-operative movement and take necessary measures to improve the situations. This study will answer minor and major queries of the general public with regards to these co-operative societies. It will help the management in proper decision making for themselves with regards to these societies, and thereby help these co-operative societies to flourish and improve. The objective of this study is to understand the functioning of these co-operative societies and the problems being faced by them currently and to develop strategic plans to solve the said problems.

6. Objectives of the study: The major objectives of the study are as follows: 1. To study the role of co-operative movement in economic advancement of Vasai Taluka. 2. To study and examine the different facets of co-operative movement that are functioning in Vasai Taluka.

3. To identify the parameters useful to assess economic and social contribution of co-operative movement in Vasai Taluka. 4. To find out various Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) presently operating in Vasai Taluka. 5. Identify the areas where co-operative movement can rightly be linked with Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). 6. To suggest measures to improve, develop and enhance scope and functioning of co-operatives in Vasai Taluka for successful implementation of Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP).

7. Assumptions: It is assumed that all the co-operatives originated in Vasai Taluka came into existence to protect poor farmers from the exploitation of money lenders and landlords and serve the weaker section of the society in general. It is also assumed that in the course of time many co-operative societies were closed down due to various problems. 8. Hypothesis: Co-operative sector helps to develop rural region of the country. Due to Co-operative sector, financially weaker section of the society is protected from the exploitation of moneylenders and jamindars. Co-operative sector helps in upliftment of poor section especially their education, employment, housing, standard of living etc. and protect them from the exploitation by moneylenders and jamindars. Hence for the purpose of the study, the researcher has laid down following hypothesis: (1) For the purpose of the present study, it is believed that co-operative movement can work as a instrumental force for successful implementation of Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP).

(2) It is assumed that right implementation of IRDP with co-operative movement is useful to enhance the process of rural transformation.

(3) It is believed that the co-operative movement acts as change agents for socioeconomic transformation in rural areas.

9. Research Methodology: The present research shall require information from both original and hired sources as such the data requirement would be both primary and secondary. The primary information by researcher would be from first hand sources whereas for secondary data the researcher shall rely on allied sources of data. A detail outline of proposed sources of data to be used is given in the table.

Primary sources

Secondary sources

1. Information from respondents by way of 1. Gazetteers interviews, questioners, schedules 2. Discussion with office-bearers, directors, shareholders of co-operative societies. 3. Basic recorded data from the various agencies. 4. Registers, diaries and reports maintained by co-operatives as per the law. 3. Information from registrar of cooperatives 4. Bylaws and other regulating system of co-operatives 5. Annual reports and other publications, studies of other researchers in this field 2. Government publications, Journals and periodicals

(1) Parameters of the study:

The researchers intension is to study co-operative societies as socio-economic change agents. As such the parameters with the help of which the study shall be conducted are as follows: 1. Number of co-operatives , Number of functioning co-operatives. Their period, status, volumes ,Type of activities undertaken ,Membership and contribution from the members, Number of beneficiaries and nature of benefits derived. 2. Social, cultural transformation through economic activities , Social awareness through social integration ,Implementation of government schemes 3. Qualitative and quantitative parameters ,Creation of self employment ,Reduction in indebtedness , Generation of social capital 4. Awareness regarding financial and economic independence

(2) Techniques of data analysis:

The researcher shall analyse the data so collected by using following techniques:

Sr. No. 1 2

Techniques Means of Tendency Chi-square test

Justification To measure general statistical trend To assess relationship between qualitative variables To assess relationship between select qualitative variables To represent data on select parameters

3 4

F & t test Graphics

(3) Universe and sample:

Universe

Sample

Method

Co-operative societies

4245

80

Stratified random sample method

Directors

800 (Broad estimate)

80

Random sampling

Beneficiaries 1. Farmers 2. Women 3. Self employed & entrepreneurs 4.Other professional business

3,59,935 (Broad estimate) 150 150 150

Stratified random

150

10. Limitations of the Study: The topic of this thesis is related to co-operative societies existing in Vasai Taluka only. The background of this region may not be fully applicable to other parts of the country because the situation and contexts may differ in those regions. The conclusions of this study may or may not be applicable in toto to co-operative societies outside Vasai Taluka.

11.Conclusion: The co-operative legislation played a major role in shaping the road and giving the cooperative movement the right direction. Legal framework is a very important factor and plays a vital role in ensuring the survival of the co-operatives. After independence, various Acts have been passed to meet the requirements of the co-operatives at the local as well as the State level. Though considerable steps have been taken, there is an urgent need for drafting accurate rules and regulations for protecting the interests of the members and the poor and needy people.

Co-operation has failed but Co-operation must succeed Rural Credit Survey made 35 years ago still seems valid that Co-operation has failed but Co-operation must succeed. Although co-operative sector has gone through many ups and downs all these years still we can say that there is no option for co-operative societies in Country like India where majority of the people are from rural areas and they have been struggling to come out of poverty. Co-operative sector has many limitation and defects due to which many places it could not succeed. But wherever it succeeded, it has done wonderful job for its members and local community.

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References: 1. Misra S K, Indian Economy, Himalaya Publishing House, sixteenth Edition 1998. 2. Ramkishen Y, Management of Co-operatives. Jaico Publishing House 3rd Impression, 2005. 3. Rayuda C S, Rural Credit in India, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, 1991. 4. Shrivastava A K, Integrated Rural Development Programme in India, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. 5. Sundarajan S, Dimensions of Co-operative Management, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, 1991. 6. Wadvah D, Rural Banks for Rural Development, Macmillion Company of India limited, Bombay.

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