Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 382

2013-01-18 00:39:06 UTC

50f89e83a7521

76.65.24.101

Canada

CALCULUS
CALCULUS
MODERN MATHEMATICAL TEXTS EDITED BY Charles S. Slighter ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS Bt Chables S.
MODERN
MATHEMATICAL
TEXTS
EDITED
BY
Charles
S. Slighter
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICAL
ANALYSIS
Bt
Chables
S.
Slichter
i90
5x7^,
IllualraUd
S2.e0
pages,
MATHEMATICS
FOR
AGRICULTURAL
STUDENTS
By
Henry
C.
Wolff
311
SiTHtlll-ustrated
$1.60
pagea,
CALCULUS
By
Hebman
W.
March
Henry
C.
Wolff
and
3B0
SxTa.IlluatraUd
S2.00
pages,
MODERN MATHEMATICAL TEXTS Edited Charles S. Slighter bt CALCULUS BY HERMAN W. MARCH, Ph. D.
MODERN
MATHEMATICAL
TEXTS
Edited
Charles
S. Slighter
bt
CALCULUS
BY
HERMAN
W. MARCH,
Ph. D.
ASSISTANT
FROFSSSOB
OF
MATHEMATICS
TJNIVEBSITY
OF
WISCONSIN
AND
HENRY
C. WOLFF,
Ph. D.
ASSISTANT
PROFESSOB
OF
MATHEMATICS
UNIVERSITY
OP
"WISCONSIN
First Edition
McGRAW-HILL
BOOK
COMPANY,
Inc.
239 WEST
39TH
STREET.
NEW
YORK
LONDON:
HILL PUBLISHING
CO., Ltd.
6 " 8 BOUVERIE
ST., B. C.
1917
".V.
" zr\\ coptbight, 1917, by the McGraw-Hill Book Compant, Inc. TSE AlAPXtX; z'k K S
"
zr\\
coptbight,
1917,
by
the
McGraw-Hill
Book
Compant,
Inc.
TSE
AlAPXtX;
z'k
K
S
S
70SK
FA.
PREFACE One of the purposes of the elementary working courses in mathe-matics of the freshman
PREFACE
One of the purposes of the elementary working courses in mathe-matics
of the freshman and sophomore years isto exhibit the bond
that unites the experimental sciences. "The bond of union among
the physical sciences is the mathematical spiritand the mathe-matical
the
method which pervade them.'' For this reason,
applications of mathematics, not to artificialproblems, but to
the more elementary of the classicalproblems of natural science,
find a place in every working course in mathematics. This
presents probably the most difficulttask of the text-book writer,
" namely, to make clear to the student that mathematics has to do
with the laws of actual phenomena, without at the same
to teach technology, or attempting to buUd upon ideas
which the student does not possess.
It is easy enough
to give
examples of the application of the processes of mathematics to
scientificproblems; itis more difficultto exhibit by these problems;
how, in mathematics, the very language and methods of thought,
fit naturally into the expression and derivation of scientific laws
and of natural concepts.
It is in this spirit that the authors have endeavored to develop
the fundamental processes of the calculus which play so important
a part in the physical sciences;namely, to place the emphasis upon
the mode of thought in the hope that, even though the student
may forget the details of the subject, he will continue to apply
these fundamental modes of thinking in his later scientific or
technical career
It is with this purpose in mind that problems
in geometry, physics, and mechanics have been freely used.
The problems chosen will be readily comprehended by students
ordinarily taking the firstcourse in the calculus.
A second purpose in an elementary working course
in mathe-matics
is to secure
facihty in using the rules of operation which
must be applied in calculations. Of necessity large numbers of
drill problems have been inserted to furnish practice in using the
V

time un- dertaki

VI PREFACE rules. It is hoped that the solution of these problems will be re-
VI
PREFACE
rules. It is hoped that the solution of these problems will be re-
by teacher and student as a necessary part but not the vital
part of the course.
While the needs of technical students have been particularly
in the minds of the authors, itisbelieved that the book is equally
adapted to the needs of any other student pursuing a first course
The authors do not believethat
in calculus .
the purposes of courses
in elementary mathematics for technical students and for students
of pure science differ materially. Either of these classesof
students
gains in mathematical power from the type of study that is often
assumed to be fittedfor the other class.
the differentiation of algebraic functions and before the
differentiation of the transcendental functions. With this arrange-ment
many
of the most important applicationsof the calculus
occur early in the course and constantly recur. Further, with this
arrangement, the student is enabled to pursue more advantageously
courses
in physics and mechanics simultaneously with the calculus.
The attempt has been made to give infinitesimalstheir proper
importance. In this connection Duhamel's Theorem is used as a
valuable working principle, though the refinements of statement
upon which a rigorous proof can be based have not been given.
of inertiahave
The subjects of center of gravity and moments
valuable in emphasizing the concept of the definite
integralas the limit of a sum and as a mode of calculating the mean
value of a function. Sufficient solidanalyticgeometry is given to
enable studentswithout previous knowledge of this subject to work
the problems involving solids. In the last chapter simple types
of differential equations are taken up.
The book isdesigned for a course of four hours a week through-out
the college year. But it is easy to adapt it to a three-hour
course by suitableomissions.
The authors are indebted to numerous
current text-books for
many
of the exercises. To prevent detracting the student'sat-

garded

In agreement with many others, the book is not divided into two parts. DifferentialCalculus and Integral Calculus. Integration with the determination of the constant of integration, and the definiteintegral as the limit of a sum, are given immediately fol-lowing

been treated somewhat more fully than is usual. They are par-ticular

PREFACE vii tention from the principles involved, exercisesrequiring compli-cated reductions have been avoided as far
PREFACE
vii
tention from the principles involved, exercisesrequiring compli-cated
reductions have been avoided as far as possible.
The book in a preliminary form has been used for two years
with students in the College of Engineering of the University of
Wisconsin. Many
improvements
have been suggested by our
colleagues, Professor H. T. Burgess, Messrs. E. Taylor, T. C. Fry,
J. A. Nyberg, and R. Keffer. Particular acknowledgment
is
due to the editor of this series, Professor C. S. Slichter,for
suggestions as to the plan of the book and for suggestive criticism
of the manuscript at allstages of its preparation.
The authors will feel repaid if a littlehas been accomplished
toward presenting the calculus in such a way that it wiU appeal to
the average student rather as a means
of studying scientificprob-lems
than as a collectionof proofs and formulas.
UNrVBRSITT OF WISCONSIN,
November 6, 1916.
HbEMAN
W. MAECH,
Henkt
C. Wolff.
CONTENTS Paqb Pbeface V Introdtjction 1. Constant. Variable. 1 Function 1 . 2. The Power
CONTENTS
Paqb
Pbeface
V
Introdtjction
1. Constant. Variable.
1
Function
1
.
2. The Power Function
1
.
3. The
Law
of the Power
Function .
3
4. Polynomials.
Algebraic Function
4
.
.
,
5.
Transcendental Functions
6
6.
Translation
6
7.
Elongation or
Contraction, or Orthographic Projection,of a
7
8.
Shear.
8
.
.
9.
The
Function a' .
9
10.
The
Function
9.
11. The
sin a;
Functions p =
a cos
e, p =
b sin 9, and p =
a
cos
6 +
9
6 sin 9
12.
Fundamental
Transformations of Functions
10
CHAPTER
I
DERIVATryE
13.
13
.
."
14.
The Function
16
y
=
x^
:
.
.
.
15.
Slope of the Tangent
17
.
16. ' Maxima
and Minima
"
20
.
.
17. Derivative
21
18. Velocity of a Falhng Body.
22
19. Illustrations
23
20. Illustrations .
23
.
.
CHAPTER
II
Limits
,
21. Definition
27
22.
Notation
29
ix
X CONTENTS Section Page 23. 29 24. Theorems on Limits 30 25. The Indeterminate Form
X
CONTENTS
Section
Page
23.
29
24.
Theorems on Limits
30
25.
The Indeterminate Form n
"
.30
26.
Continuous and Discontinuous Functions
31
CHAPTER
III
The Power
Function
27.
The Power Function
33
.
28.
The
Derivative
33
of a;"
.
29.
The
Derivative
35
of oa;"
30.
Rate of Change of as"
37
31.
The
Derivative
of the Sum
of a Function and a Constant .
39
32. Derivative
The
41
oi au"
33. The Derivative
of u", n a Positive Fraction
42
34. The
Derivative
of a Constant
43
35. The
Derivative
of the Sum
of Two
Functions
43
36. Differentiation of Implicit Functions
44
37.
Anti-derivative. Integration
46
38. Acceleration
52
CHAPTER
IV
Differentiation
op Ai.gebration Functions
39. Derivative of the Product of a Constant and a Variable .
The
66
40. Derivative
The
of the
Product of Two Functions .
67
41. Derivative of the Quotient of Two Functions
The
68
42.
The
Derivative of u", n negative
59
43.
Maximum
and Minimum
Values
of a Function
60
44. Derivative of a Function of a Function
66
45. Inverse Functions
.
.67
46. Parametric
67
47. Lengths of Tangent, Normal, Subtangent, and Subnormp,! .
68
CHAPTER
V
Second Derivative.
Point op Inflection
48. Second Derivative. Concavity .
70
49. Points of Inflection
71
.
.
CONTENTS XI CHAPTER VI Applications Section Page 50. Area Under Curve: Rectangular Coordinates 75 .
CONTENTS
XI
CHAPTER
VI
Applications
Section
Page
50. Area Under Curve: Rectangular Coordinates
75
.
51. Work
Done
by a Variable Force .
77
.
52. Parabolic Cable
82
53. Acceleration
83
54. The Path of a Projectile
85
CHAPTER
VII
Infinitesimals.
Differentials.
Definite Integrals
55. Infinitesimals
88
.
.
lini sina,
56.
^^
a=0
lim
lim
tan a
lim
tan a
_"
"'-
'a
^^
Q
Owa.
a
=
=
a
a
lim
1 "
cos
a
58. a=0
a
59. Order of Infinitesimals
90
60. Theorem
93
.
61.
95
62. Formulas for the Differentials of Functions
96
.,
.
63. Differential of Length of Arc : Rectangular Coordinates
100
64.
102
The Limit of S/(a;)Aa;
.
65. Definite Integral
103
66. Duhamel's Theorem
105
.
.
67. Work
Done by a Variable Force
107
68. Volume of a Solid of Revolution
109
69. Length of Arc : Rectangular Coordinates
111
70. Area of a Surface of Revolution
112
71. Element of Integration
113
72. Water Pressure
114
73. Arithmetic Mean.
116
74. Mean Value of a Function
117
CHAPTER
VIII
CiKCULAK Functions.
Inverse Circtjlab Functions
75. The
Derivative
122
of
sin u
76. The
Derivative of cos
u, tan u, cot u, sec
124
u, and
esc
ii
.
CONTENTS xii Section Page 77. The Derivative of the Inverse Circular Functions 131 . .
CONTENTS
xii
Section
Page
77. The Derivative of the Inverse Circular Functions
131
.
.
.
78. Velocity and Acceleration
136
.
79. Angular Velocity and Acceleration
139
.
.
.
80. Simple Harmonic Motion
140
.
81. The Simple Pendulum
.141
CHAPTER
IX
Exponential
and Loqahithmic
Functions
82. The Derivative of the Exponential and Logarithmic Funct
tions
145
.
83. Logarithmic Differentiation
153
.
.
.
84. Compoimd
Interest Law
155
85. Relative Rate of Increase
159
.
86. Hyperbolic Functions.
159
87.
Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
160
88. The Catenary
161
.
.
.
.
CHAPTER
X
Maxima
Minima
and
89. Maximum
The
or Minimum
+ 0x + y
166
oi y =
ax^
.
.
90. Function
The
a
cos
a; + b sin a;
165
.
.
" Vo" -
91. The Function mx
x'
.
.168
92. Maxima
Minima by Limits of Curve
169
and
.
.
93. Maxima
Minima
Determined by the Derivative .
169
and
.
.
94. Second-derivative Test for Maxima
and Minima
172
95. Study of a Function by Means of its Derivatives
172
96. Applications of Maxima, and Minima
174
.
.
CHAPTER
XI
Polar
Coordinates
97.
Direction of Curve in Polar Coordinates
178
98. Differential of Arc : Polar Coordinates
181
99. Area: Polar Coordinates.
183
CONTENTS xiu CHAPTER XII Integration Section Paos i 100. Formulas 185 101. Integration of Expressions
CONTENTS
xiu
CHAPTER
XII
Integration
Section
Paos
i
100. Formulas
185
101. Integration of Expressions Containing
Completing the Square
ax'
+
bx +
c, by-
190
.
102. Integrals Containing Fractional Powers
+
bx
192
of a; or
of a
103. Integrals of Powers of Trigonometric Functions
193
104. Integration of Expressions Containing V a" "
x*, V
o*
+
x^,
V a;2 " a', by Trigonometric Substitution .
196
.
105. Change of limits of Integration
199
106. Integration by Parts
201
107. The Integrals I e"' sin nx
dx,
dx
202
I e"*
cos
nx
108. fsin' X
dx
204
109. Wallis' Formulas
204
- r"" sin X +
h cos
x
,
"
T
.
,
.
,
"""
110. ,
Integration of
I
dx
209
"
=
j"i
"
J c sm
X
+
d cos
X
111. PartialFractions
211
CHAPTER
XIII
Applications
Process
of
the
of Integration.
Improper
Integrals
112.
Summary
of Applications
218
113.
Improper
Integrals .
223
.
114.
Improper
Integral: InfiniteLimits
226
CHAPTER
XIV
Solid Geometry
115. Coordinate Axes. Coordinate Planes .
228
116. The Distance Between Two
Points .
230
117. Direction Cosines of a Line
230
118. Angle Between
Two
231
119.
The
Normal
Form
of the Equation of a Plane
232
120.
The Equation
Ax
+ By
+
Cz =
D
233
.
.
121. Intercept Form of the Equation of a Plane
234
122. The Angle Between Two Planes .
236
123.
Parallel and Perpendicular Planes
236
.
CONTENTS xiv Section Page 124. The Distance of a Point From a Plane , .
CONTENTS
xiv
Section
Page
124. The Distance of a Point From
a Plane , .
237
.
125. Symmetrical Form of the Equation of a Line
238
126. Surface of Revolution
240
.
127.
Quadric Surfaces .
242
128.
Cylindrical Surfaces .
244
.
129.
Partial Derivatives
246
130.
Partial Derivatives of Higher Order
247
CHAPTER
XV
SuccBssiVB Integration.
Center
op Gravitt.
Moment
OP Inertia
131.
. 250
132.
Illustration of Double Integration .
251
133.
Area by Double Integration : Rectangular Coordinates
253
134.
GeometricalMeaning of the Definite Double Integral .
255
135.
Area: Polar Coordinates
258
.
.
136.
Volume of a Solid:Triple Integration
260
137.
Center of Mass.
Centroid .
263
138.
Centroid Independent of the Position of the Coordinate
Planes
264
139.
Center of Gravity
264
.
140.
Centroid of a Continuous Mass
265
.
.
141.
Theorems of Pappus
274
.
142.
Centroid: Polar Coordinates.
276
.
143.
Moment
of Inertia
277
144. Transfer of Axes .
280
145. Moment
Inertia of an Area
281
of
146. Moment
Inertia: Polar Coordinates .
283
of
147.
Moment
Inertia of a Solid
284
of
CHAPTER
XVI
Curvature.
Evolutes.
Envelopes
148. Curvature
289
149. of a Circle
Curvature
290
150. Circle of Curvature. Radius of Curvature.
Center of
290
.
151. Formula for Curvature and Radius of Curvature: Rectangu-lar
Coordinates
290
CONTENTS XV Section Pagb 152. Curvature: Parametric Equations 292 153. Approximate Formula for the Curvature
CONTENTS
XV
Section
Pagb
152. Curvature: Parametric Equations
292
153. Approximate Formula for the Curvature
293
154. Center of Curvature. Evolute
294
155. Envelopes.
296
156. The Evolute as the Envelope of the Normals
300
.
.
157. Involutes
.302
CHAPTER
XVII
Series. Taylor's and Maclattein's Theoebms.
Indeter-minate
Forms
158. InfiniteSeries
303
159. RoUe's Theorem
305
.
.
160. Law
of the Mean.
.
.
.
.
.306
161. The Extended Law
of the Mean
.307
162. Taylor's Theorem with the Remainder
308
163. Taylor's and Maclaurin's Series
311
164. Second Proof for Taylor's and Maclaurin's Series.
313
165. Tests for the Convergence of Series .
315
.
.
166. Computation of Logarithms .
320
167. Computation of ir
321
.
.
168. Relation Between the Exponential and Circular Functions. 321
169. DeMoivre's Theorem
323
170. Indeterminate Forms .
324
CHAPTER
XVIII
Total
Derivative.
Exact
DirrERENTiAL
171. The Total Derivative.
328
.
.
172. Exact Differential
332
173. Exact DifferentialEquations
. 335
174. Envelopes.
336
CHAPTER
XIX
^
Differential
Equations
175. DifferentialEquations
338
176. General Solution. Particular Solution
338
177. Exact DifferentialEquation
339
178. DifferentialEquations: Variable Separable
339
xvi CONTENTS Paok Seotzox ^^" 179. Homogeneous DifferentialEquations . 342 180. Linear DifferentialEquations of
xvi
CONTENTS
Paok
Seotzox
^^"
179. Homogeneous DifferentialEquations .
342
180. Linear DifferentialEquations of the First Order .
344
181. Extended Form of the Linear DifferentialEquation.
345
182. Applications
183. Linear DifferentialEquations of Higher Order with Constant
347
Coefficients and Second Member Zero
349
184. Auxiliary Equation
with Equal Boots.
"
"
"
.
350
185. Auxiliary Equation
with Complex Roots
351
186. Damped
Harmonic Motion
Index
354
CALCULUS INTRODUCTION 1. Constant. Variable. Function. 1. A symbol of number or quantity, as a,
CALCULUS
INTRODUCTION
1. Constant. Variable. Function. 1. A symbol of number
or quantity, as a, to which a fixed value is assigned throughout
the same problem or discussionis called a constant.
2. A symbol of number or quantity, as
x, to which a succession
or discussionis called a
of values is assigned in the same problem
variable.
Example.
The mass
or weight of mercury
in a thermometer is
constant. The number that results from measuring this quantity
(weight) is a constant.
The volume
of the mercury
in the "thermometer is variable.
The number that results from measuring this quantity (volume)
is a variable.
3.
The variable y is said to be a functionof the variable x if,
values of y are determined.
when X is given, one
or
more
4.
X, the variable to which values are assigned at wiU is called
the independent variable, or the argument of the function.
5.
variable.
6.
2/ is said to be a function of several variables u, v, w,
"
"
"
v,
w,
"
"
"
if, when
u,
are
given, one
or
more
values of y are
determined.
"
"
7. The variables u, v, w,
" , to which values are assigned
at will are called the independent variables, or the arguments of the
function.
Functions of a single variable or argument are represented
by symbols such ^is the following: fix),F{x),
^{x). Func-tions
"i"{x),
of several arguments are represented by symbols such as
/(m, V, w), Fiu, V, w), ^{u, V, w).
2. The Power
Function.
8. The
function a;", where
is a
n
constant, is called the power function.
1

y, whose values are thereby determined, is called the de-penden

CALCULUS ["2 If n is pwsitive the functionis said to be of the parabolic type,
CALCULUS
["2
If n is pwsitive the functionis said to be of the parabolic type,
and the curve representingsuch a function is alsosaid to be of the
If n =
2, the curve,
parabolic type.
y =
x\ is a parabola.
Fig. 1. "
Curves for 2/
1, 2, 3, and 4.
=
ar*, ra =
If n is negative the function a;" is said to be of the hyperbolic
type, and the curve representing such a function is alsosaid to be
"3] INTRODUCTION of the hyperbolic type. If n is an = " 1, the curve,
"3]
INTRODUCTION
of the hyperbolic type.
If n
is an
=
"
1, the curve,
y
=
x-'-,
equilateral hyperbola.
In Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, curves
representing y = x' for,different
In Fig.,1, n has positive integral values;
values of n are drawn.
in Fig. 2, positive fractional values; in Fig. 3, negative integral
values; and in Fig. 4, negative fractional values. The curves
for
Fig. 2. "
Curves for y =
x",
i,i,f , and f .
n
=
y = x" a]lpass through the point (1,1). They also pass through
the point (0,0) if n is positive. If n is negative, they do not
pass through (0,0). In the latter case the coordinate axes
are
asymptotes to the curves.
3. The Law
of the Power Function.
9. In any power function,
ifX changes by a fixed multiple, y also changes by a fixed multiple.
law can be stated as follows:
The same
CALCULUS 10. In any power function,if x increasesby a fixed percent, y function, if x
CALCULUS
10. In any power function,if x increasesby a fixed percent,
y
function, if x runs
the terms
11. In any
power
over
of a
the terms of a
geometrical progression, then y also runs over
geometrical progression.
Fig. 3. "
Curves ioi y =
x",
n
=
"1,
"2, and "3.
4. Polynomials.
Algebraic Function.
in
12. A polynomial
of a finite number of terms of the form ax",
a; isa sum
where a is a
constant and ?i isa positive integer or zero.
For example:
ax' + bx^ -\- ex
-\- d.
and y is " sum
13. A polynomial in x
of a finite number of

["4

also increasesby a fixed percent. The preceding statements are also equivalent to the fol-lowing

"4] INTRODUCTION terms and n are of the form ax'^", where a is a "constant
"4]
INTRODUCTION
terms
and n
are
of the form ax'^", where a is a "constant and m
positive integers or zero.
For example:
as^y' + bxy^ + cx^ -{- dy + e,
14. Functions of a variable x which are expressed by means
of a
of terms involving only constant integral
finite number
and
"=--r:
Fig. 4. "
Curves for y =
x",
n
=
"J, " f, " |, and " |.
fractional powers of x and of polynomials in x are included in the
classof functionsknown as algebraic functions^ of
x.
For example :
(o) x\
(6) xi + (2x -
3)i
(e) a; + 5 +
Vx -7
(c)Vx^ + 4" + 7 + 4a; + 5.
(/)
3x^ + 5a; + 7
3a; + 2
a;' -
1 A function of x defined by the equation F(x, y) = 0, where FCi, y) is a polynomial
in'2; and y, is an algebraic function of a;.
For example,
y
=
is an algebraic
"\/x'^ -t~ 2
function
For by squaring and transposing we
of x.
obtain
2
0,
!/2 -
a;2
-
=
in which the first member
is a polynomial
in x and y.
6 CALCULUS ("5 15. An algebraic function is said to be rational if it can
6
CALCULUS
("5
15. An algebraic function is said to be rational if it can be
of only integral powers of x together with
expressed by means
constants.
Rational algebraic functions are
divided into two classes:
rational integralfunctions and rational fractionalfunctions.
16. A
rational integralfunction of a; isa polynomial in x.
in X.
It is usually desirable to reduce rational fractional functions
is of lower degree than
of a; to a form in which the numerator
the denominator. This can always be done by performing long
division.
I
q
O
Thus
y
"
-r" 7 is equivalent to y =
-r- y,
and
"
1 -\
3x^ + 5x"7.
14a: + 1
.
,
,,
,
to 2/ =
3 . +
y
=
2 '^ eq^'^^l^"*
^.-3x.+
^.
3^ ^. 2
_
6. Transcendental Functions.
the logarithmic, and the exponential functions are included in the
class of functions known as transcendental functions.
6. Translation. If,in the equation of a curve
fix, V) =
0,
X is replaced by {x " a), the resulting equation,
/(z -
0,
a,y) =
translated parallel to the axis of a; a
represents the firstcurve
distance a; to the right if a
is
is positive; to the left if a
negative.
If y is replaced by (y " ^) the resulting equation,
fix,2/ -
/3) = 0,
translated parallel to the axis of y
represents the original curve
a
distance /S;up if |3 is positive; down if /3 is negative. Thus
y
=
(x+'3y "
4l is the parabola y = x^ translatedthree units
See Fig. 5.
to the left and four units down.
' All functions which
are
not algebraic functions as defined by the footnote on
p.
5 are transcendental functions.

17. A rational fractionalfunction is a quotient of two poly-nomials

The circular (ortrigonometric)

"7] INTRODUCTION 7. Elongation or Contfaction, or Orthographic Projection,of a Locus The substitutionof - X
"7]
INTRODUCTION
7. Elongation or Contfaction, or Orthographic Projection,of a
Locus
The substitutionof -
X
for x in the equation of any locus
a
multipliesallof the abscissas by a.
Fig. 5.
This transformation can be considered as the orthographic
projection of
a curve lying in one plane upon another plane, the
two planes intersectingin the axis oi y. If a " 1 the second curve
the former curve upon a second plane through
isthe projection of
Fig. 6.
the F-axis and making an angle
a,
whose
cosine is equal to a,
with the first plane. If a " 1, the firstcurve is the projection of
the second when the cosine of the angle between their planes
1
.
IS
z-
a
8 CALCULUS ["8 Similarlythe substitutionof - f or 2/ ia the equation of a locus
8
CALCULUS
["8
Similarlythe substitutionof - f or 2/ ia the equation of a locus
multiplies the ordinates by a. The interpretation from the
standpoint of orthographic projection is evident from what has
just been said. See Figs. 6 and 7.
8. Shear.
The
is the curve
curve
y = f{x)+ ma;
y = /(")
sheared in the Une y = mx in such a way that the ^-intercepts
y = fix) to the
remain unchanged. Every point on the curve
distance
rightof
the F-axisis moved up (down if m is negative) a
proportional to its abscissa;and every point to the left of the Y-
axis is moved down (up ifto is negative) a
distance proportional
to its abscissa. The factor of proportionality is m.
In general a curve is changed in shape by shearing itin a line.
The parabola is an exception to this rule.
Thus y =
mx becomes
ax^ sheared in the line y =
y
=
ax^
+
mx,
I TO \ 2
TO^
,
This may alSo be considered as the result of translating the
"11] INTRODUCTION T' ^ the x and y direc-tions, original curve by the amounts "
"11]
INTRODUCTION
T' ^ the x and y direc-tions,
original curve by the amounts
"
s- and ~
respectively. Hence, by shearing, the parabola y = ax^
is merely translated.
9. The Function a*.
In Fig.8 are given the graphs oi y =
a',
for the values a = 1, 2, and 3. By reflecting these curves
in the
line y =
xwe
have the corresponding curves for y = log,, x.
The exponential function y =
w
has the property that if x is
given a series of values in arithmetical progression the corre-
values of y are in geometrical progression.
"" X
Fig. 8. "
Curves for y =
o*,
a
=
1, 2, and 3.
10. The
Function sin a;. The
function 2/ =
sin x
is repre-
sented
in Fig. 53.
11. The Functions p "
6, p =
a cos
b sia 6, and p =
a cos
B +
6 sin 6. The function p =
Fig. 9, and
a cos d is the circle OA,
The function p =
p
=
6 sin 0 is the circle OB, Fig. 9.
a
cos
B +
6
sin B can
be put in the form p =
B
cos
{0 "
a), where

sponding

["12 10 CALCULUS This function R = Va* + 6*1 and where cos a =
["12
10
CALCULUS
This function
R
=
Va* + 6*1 and where cos a = ^andsina =
"'
is represented by a circle, Fig. 9, passing through the pole, with
The
diameter equal to B, and with the angle AOC
equal to a.
value of the function is R and the minimum
value is
maximum
12. Fundamental Transformations of Functions. It is valuable
to formulate the transformations of simple functions, that most
commonly occur, in terms of the effect that these transformations
of the functions. The
following list
have upon
the graphs
of theorems
on
loci contains useful facts concerning these
transformations:
Fig. 9.
THEOREMS
ON
LOCI
I. If X be replaced by {"x) in any equation containing x and
y, the new graph isthe reflectionof the former graph in the F-axis.
II. If 2/ be replaced by {"y) in any equation containing x and
y, the new
graph isthe reflectionof the former graph in the X-axis.
III. If X and y be interchanged in any equation containing
X and y, the new graph isthe reflectionof the former graph in the
line y =
X.
IV. Substituting/ - j for a; in the equation of any locus multiplies
allabscissas by a.
"12] INTRODUCTION 11 V. Substituting / r ) for y in the equation of any
"12]
INTRODUCTION
11
V.
Substituting / r ) for y in the equation of any locus multiplies
allordinates of the curve by 6.
VI.
If (a; "
d) be substituted for x throughout any equation,
the locus is translateda distance a in the a;-direction.
VII.
If {y " b) be substituted for y in any equation, the locus
is translated the distance 6 in the ^/-direction.
VIII. The
addition of the term
mx
to the right side of
y
= f{x)shears the locus y = f(x) in the line y =
mx.
IX.
li {B " a)he substituted for 6 throughout the polar equa-tion
of any locus, the curve is rotated about the pole through the
angle a.
X.
If the equation of any locus is given in rectangular coordi-nates,
the curve
is rotated through the positive angle a by the
substitutions
for x
X
cos
a
+ y sin a
and
for y.
y cos
a
"
a; sin a
Exercises
1. Translate the curves
(o)
2x^,
y
=
(e) y
=
e'',
(t) 3/ =
"'
{b) y
3x',
(/) y
=
(j) y
=
a;^
-j-
(c)y
log X,
=
(g)y =
(k)y =
aiax,
x^,
2
(d)
y
=
e-",
(h)y =
cos
(I) y = x^,
x,
two units to the right; three units to the left;five units up; one unit
dovm;
two units to the left and one
unit down.
Sketch each curve
in
its original and translated position on a sheet of squared paper.
2. Shear each
curve
in Exercise 1 in the line y =
\x;
given
Sketch each curve
y
=
"
3x; y =
x; y =
"x.
in its original and
sheared position.
3.
given in Exercise
Write the equation of each curve
1 when
re-
flected
in the X-axis; in the F-axis; in the line y =
x; in the
Une
Sketch each curve
y
=
"
X.
before and after reflection.
4.
Rotate the ^curves
12 CALCULUS (a)p = a sin 6, (e)p = a(l + cos 9), (6)p =
12
CALCULUS
(a)p =
a
sin 6,
(e)p
=
a(l +
cos 9),
(6)p
=
a
cos
9,
(/)p
=
o(l "
sin e),
(c)p
=
o
cos
9 + 6 sin 9,
(g)p
=
a(l + sin 9),
(d)p = o
(1 "
cos 9),
(A)p = ae,
about the pole through an angle s' ^" s' '"'" ~ o' Sketch each curve
in its originaland rotated position.
6. Sketch the following pairs of curves
on squared paper:
6. Rotate the
following curves
about the origin through the angle
indicated.

["12

CHAPTER I DERIVATIVE In Elementary Analysis the student investigatedthe dependence of a function upon one
CHAPTER
I
DERIVATIVE
In Elementary Analysis the student investigatedthe dependence
of a function upon one
or more
variableswith the help of algebra
and geometry.
He is now to study a very powerful method of investigatingthe
behavior of functions, the method of the infinitesimalcalculus,
which was discovered by i^ewton and Leibnitz in the latter part
of the 17th century. This method has made possible the great
development of mathematical analysis and of its applications to
and physics.
13. Increments. Let us consider the following examples which
illustratethe principlesof the calculus:
Example 1. A steel bar, subjected to a tension, wiU stretch,
and the amount of stretching, or the elongation,will continue to
increase as the intensity of the force applied increases, until
The elongation isa function of the applied force.
rupture occurs.
In fact,ifthe force is not too great, so that the elastic limitis not
exceeded, experiment has shown that the elongation is propor-tional
to the applied force (Hooke'sLaw). If we denote the
elongation by y and the forceby x, the functional relation between
them will be expressed by the simple equation
kx,
y
=
where fcis a constant. This relation is represented graphically
by a straight linethrough the origin. Fig. 10.
Suppose that after the bar has been stretched to a certain length,
the force is changed. This change in the force produces a cor-
change in the elongation, an increase if the force is
increased,a decreaseif the force is decreased. Evidently, from
the law connecting the elongation and the force,this change in the
13

problems in almost every field of science, particularly in engi-neering

respon

14 CALCULUS 1"13 of x" or "delta x"). The corresponding change in the elongation we
14
CALCULUS
1"13
of x" or "delta x"). The corresponding change in the
elongation we call the increment of the elongation, or the increment
of y, and denote itby Ay.
In
Fig. 10 letP be any point on the line y =
kx.
If x takes on
an increment Ax, y takes on an
increment Ay.
We see that the
Aw .
of the magnitude and sense of Aa: and of the positionof P
on the line. Indeed this ratio is the slope of the line. Here the
increment of y is everywhere k times the increment of x.
Fig. 10.
The relation between Ay and Ax can be shown without the use
of the figureas follows: If x is given the increment Ax, y takes on
an increment Ay so that
y -\- Ay = k{x + Ax).
a quantity independent of x and of Aa;.
Exam-pie 2. A train is moving along a straight track with a
constant velocity, i.e.,it passes over equal distancesin equal inter-

elongation isdirectly proportional to the change in the force. We shall call the change in the force x, the increment of the force, or the increment of x, and shall denote itby the symbol Ax (read "in-crement

ratio of these increments, i.e.,the quotient -r" is entirely inde-pendent

DERIVATIVE 15 "13] vals of time. Denoting by s the distance measured, say in miles,
DERIVATIVE
15
"13]
vals of time. Denoting by s the distance measured, say in miles,
from a fixed point, and
by t the time measured, say in hours,
which has elapsed since the train passed this point, the functional
relation between s and t is expressed by
s
=
ct,
a constant denoting the velocity of the train. This
where c is
function is
represented graphically by a straight line,Fig. 11. If
we take an increment of time At followingan instant t and measure
As
the distance As passed over in this time, the. quotient -i-. repre-sents
the velocityof the train, since we have assumed the velocity
of the train to be uniform.
As
Furthermore, the quotient -r-. will
Fig. 11.
be independent of the length of At and of the time t to which the
increment was
c times
At.
This is
given. As is everywhere
evident from the graph.
In these two examples the functions were both linearfunctions
of the independent variable. We have seen in these cases
(and
clearly the same is true for any linear function, y = ax + b)
that the ratioof Ay to Aa; is constant. Ay is everywhere equal to a
matter how large Aa;istaken and no matter
constant times Aa;,no
at what point (a;, y) on the graph the ratio is computed.
Example
3.
Let us
take an example in which the func-tional
now
relation is no Ibnger a Unear one.
We shall find that the
ratio of the increment of the function to the increment of the
variable isno longer constant. Suppose that the train of Example
As
2 is not moving with constant velocity. Then the quotient -ir-.
16 CALCULUS ["14 is called the average velodty of the train during the interval of
16
CALCULUS
["14
is called the average velodty of the train during the interval of
time At. Evidently this quotient will approximate more and
more closely to a fixed value the smaller the interval of time
At, is chosen. The limiting value
of the quotient ^ as At approaches
zero is called the velocity at thetime t.
Let the curve
of Fig. 12 repre-sent
graphically the relation be-
As
tween s and t. The ratio ^
at any point P on the curve
isno longer constant as in Example
2, but varies with At and also with the position of the point P.
14. The Function
Consider the power
function
y
=
x^.
Let us
y
=
x^.
find the ratio of Ay to
Ax at a certain point of the curve,
say
(0.2,0.04), for different values of Ax.
The results are given in the adjoining
table.
We observe that as Ax istaken smaller
Ay
and smaller the ratio ir- approaches more
and more
closely a value in the vicinity
of 0.4.
Ay
The value of
-r"
will now
be calculated
Ax
for any point P, {x, y), on the curve
y =
x'.
From
this value, which is a function
of X
and Ax, the limiting value as Ax approaches zero
wiU be
found. The point P, Fig. 13, has the abscissa x.
If we
give to x
an increment Ax, we have corresponding to the abscissa, x + Ax,
the point Q on the curve. Its ordinate is
y + Ay "= {x+ Ax)2.
Ay is equal to the differencebetween the ordinatesof P and Q, or
Ay=
(x+ Axy "
x'
= 2a;Ak + {Ax)\

cal-culated

"15] DERIVATIVE 17 Then 2x + Ax. = Ax As Ax approaches zero the firstterm
"15]
DERIVATIVE
17
Then
2x + Ax.
=
Ax
As Ax approaches zero the firstterm in the second member remains
It follows
unchanged, while the second term approaches zero.
Ay
is 2x.
This
that the hmiting value of rr-
as Ax approaches zero
result is expressed by the equation
lim 4^ _
oo.
Fig. 13.
Ay
(read "limit of ^ as Ax approaches zero"). When
0.2,
x
=
= 0-4- This is the hmiting value which the ratio tabu-lated
Ax=OA~
in the last column of the table above is approaching. When
3 Urn A^ ^
g
When
X
1-
Thus
the
i" Ax=OAi =
formula just obtained enables us to
calculatevery easily, for any
of X, the limit of -r-
value
as Ax approaches zero.
16. Slope of the Tangent. "
of Fig. 14
The curve
isthe graph of
the function y = f{x). On this curve take the point P with
18 CALCULUS ["16 coordinates x and y, and a second point Q with coordinates a;
18
CALCULUS
["16
coordinates x and y, and a second point Q with coordinates
a; + Aa: and y + Aj/. Draw
the secant PQ
making
the angle 0
with the X-axis and the tangent PT' making the angle t with the
X-axis. From the figure, -r^ is the slope of PQ, or
Aj/
= *^" *"
Ai
As Ax istaken smallerand smaller the secant PQ revolvesabout
closely as its limiting
approaching more
and more
the point P,
tangent PT', and tan "^ approaches tan t.
(The
position the
Fig. 14.
student will recall that the tangent to a curve
at a point P is
defined as the limiting position of the secant PQ as the point Q
approaches P.) Hence
lim .
lim ^2/
,
.
=
Ax^otan" =tanr.
/u?oAi
lim Aj/
iim
^y
**
*?""' '"''^" ^'ope o/ /Ae tangent to the curve
Hence ai=s=o^
y = fix)at the "point for which thislimitis computed.
x\ the slope of the tangent at
In the case of the parabola, y =
2
|15] DERIVATIVE 19 curve becomes steeper the poiiit (a;, y) is2x. This' shows that the
|15]
DERIVATIVE
19
curve becomes steeper
the poiiit (a;, y) is2x. This' shows that the
and steeper for larger positiveand negative values of x and that at
X =
0 the slope is zero.
In Fig. 15, letthe Z-axis be divided uniformly and letthe F-axis
be divided in such a way
that distances measured from 0 on a
uniform scale are equal to the squares of the numbers afHxed to
the points of division. Draw
lines parallel to the F-axis
through equidistant points
on the X-axis and lines par-allel
to the X-axis through
points on the F-axis whose
affixednumbers on the non-
uniform
scale are
equal to
the numbers affixed to the
points on the X-axis through
which lines were drawn.
On the cross section paper
thus constructed, any point
at the intersection of a hori-zontal
and a vertical line
bearing the same
number is
the curve
y
=
a point on
x^
which would be constructed
in the usual way
by using
the Y-
the uniform scale on
axis as well as on the X-axis.
Join the consecutive points
thus located by straight lines.
These lines are the diagonals
of the rectangles on the cross
Fig. 15.
they are
section paper
and
Let PQ be such a diagonal and
secants of the parabola y =
:
let PR
Ax.
Then
=
RQ =
At/ and
*^^ '^"P^ "^ the
PR^ATx'
secant PQ. The diagonals give an approximate idea of the slope
of the curve.
The construction shows why the slope increases
so rapidly with x.
20 CALCULUS ["16 As more and more horizontal and vertical linesare inserted,the diagonals approach more
20
CALCULUS
["16
As more and more horizontal and vertical linesare inserted,the
diagonals approach more and more nearly the direction of the
tangent lines.
x^
The fact that the slope of the tangent to the parabola y =
is 2x furnishes an easy way of constructing the tangent at any
point P (a;, y). We have only to draw from P in the direction of
ex-
of thisline,a lineKT parallel to the F-axis, whose length
is twice the abscissaof P. The line j oining PIT is the tangent to the
parabola at P. When the abscissa is negative the lineKT isto be
drawn downward.
16. Maxima
and Minima.
The algebraic sign of ^qTI
enables us to tell at once where the function y is increasing and
where itis decreasing as x increases. For, ifthe slope is positive
at a point, the functionisincreasing with x at that point and the
greater the slope the greater the rate of increase. Similarlyifthe
slope is negative, the functionisdecreasingas x increases. Hence
the function y = x^ is a, decreasing function when a;"0 and an
increasingfunction when a;"0, since the slope is equal to 2x.
When
a; =
0 the slope is zero
and the tangent is parallel to the
X-axis. Since the function is decreasing to the left of a; = 0
and increasingto the right of thisline,itfollowsthat the function
decreasesto the value zero when a; = 0 and then increases. This
value zero is a minimum value of the function y = x^. In general
values of a function as follows:
we define minimum
and maximum
Definition. Let y = /(a;),where /(a;) is any function
of a single
// y decreases to a value m
as x increases and then
argument.
begins to increase,m is called a minimum value of the function.If
increasesto the value M as x increases and then begins to decrease,
y
.
M
value of the function.
is called a maximum
Thus in Fig. 16, ifABDFHI
= f{x),the func-tion
isthe graph oi y
increases to the value represented by the
then begins to decrease. bB is then a maximum
ordinate bB and
value of the
function. Similarly fF is another maximum value. dD and hH
values of the function.
are minimum
In referring to the graph of a function, points corresponding to
maximum
and points corresponding to minimum
values of the

the positive Z-axis, a line PK of unit length, and from the tremity

"17] DERIVATIVE 21 function will be called,respectively, the maximum and minimum points of the curve.
"17]
DERIVATIVE
21
function will be called,respectively, the maximum
and minimum
points of the curve.
Thus B and F, Fig. 16, are maximum
points
and D and H are minimum
points of the curve.
Thus, zero is a minimum
value oly =
x^ or (0,0) is a minimum
point on
the curve
y =
xK
value, as here defined,is not
It wiU be noticed that a maximum
necessarily the largest value of the function, nor is a minimum
value the smallest value of the function. A maximum
value may
even be less than a minimum value.
17. Derivative. We see that the limit of the ratioof the incre-ment
of the function to the increment of the independent variable
as the latterincrement approaches zero, is very useful in studying
the behavior of the function. This limit is called the derivative of
the function vdth respect to the variahle. Hence the following
definition:
The derivative of a function of a single independent variable
ratio of theincrement
mth respect to that variable is the limit of the
of the function to the increment of the variable as thelatterincrement
The derivative of a function y with respect to a
approaches zero.
dv
variable x isdenoted by the symbol -^- This symbol wiU not be
considered at present as representing the quotient of two- quan-tities
Later it will be
but as a symbol for a single quantity.
interpreted as a quotient. (See"61.) It is read, "the derivative
The process of finding the derivative
of y with respect to x."
is called differentiation.
22 CALCULUS ["18 18. Velocity of a FallingBody. As a further illustration of the applicationof
22
CALCULUS
["18
18. Velocity of a FallingBody. As a further illustration of the
applicationof the derivativelet us
a fallingbody at any instant. The
determined to be
s = igt\
where s is the distancethrough which the body fallsfronl rest in
in feet and t in
time t. If s is measured
g is 32.2 feet per
seconds, the constant
second per second, s is plotted as a func-tion
of the time in Fig. 17.
At
any time
t,let( take on an increment At. s will take
on
an increment As, represented in the
figureby the line RQ.
s +
As =
Since s = ^gt^,
\g{t+ Aty.
(1)
Time
(t)
Pig. 17.
Hence
As = hg{t+
Aty -
hgt\
As = gtAt + \g{AtY.
(2)
This is the distance through which the body fallsin the interval
As
At counted from the time t. The
quotient -^ is the average
velocity for the interval At. The velocity at t has been de-
A.Q
T
fined as ^^Q-^^,
i.e., as the derivative of s with respect to t.
To findthislimit divide (2) by At and obtain
As
9t + hgAt,
^=
the average velocity for the interval At.
From which
lim^f
gt.
(3)
A(=0
At
or
(4)
dt
the velocity at
is 96.6 feet per
t. Thus the velocity at the end of three seconds
second; at the end of four seconds, 128.8 feet per
second.

attempt to find the velocityof law of motion has been experi-mentally

23 "20] DERIVATIVE 19. Illustration. As an example of the use of the derivativein studying
23
"20]
DERIVATIVE
19. Illustration. As an example of the use of the derivativein
studying the behavior of a function,,let us consider the power
function
y =
x^.
y +
Ay
=
y + Ay
=
{x+ Ax)',
x'' + 3a;=(Aa;) +
3a;('Aa;)''
+
(Aa;)",
Ay
=
3x\Ax) + SxiAxy + (Ax)',
Ay
= 3a;2 + 3a;(Aa;) +
(Ax)*
Then
lim A^
"
.
_
^ =
3.".
ax
For a; = 0 the derivativeis equal to zero and consequently the
tangent at (0,0) is horizontal and coincideswith the X-axis.
For
the derivative is positive. This
all other values of x
shows that the function is an increasing function for all these
Where
values of x.
Equal to Vs?
is the slope
of the
curve
1?
equal to
20. Illustration. The
solutionof the following problem will
further illustratethe use
of the derivative.
Find the dimensions of the gutter with
p
the greatest possible carrying capacity ^
,
^
and with rectangular cross section,which
can be made from stripsof tin 30 inches
wide by bending up
^
the edges to form
the sides. See Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.
If the depth MB
is determined, the
width is also determined, since the sum of the three sides MR,
PQ, and RQ
is 30 inches. We
of the
seek to express the area
function of the depth. Denote the depth by
cross
section as a
by
A.
2x.
Hence
X and the area
The width RQ is 30 "
A
=
(30 -
2x)x.
In Fig. 19, A is plotted as a function of x.
A firstincreases with x
24 CALCULUS ["20 and then decreases. The value of x for which A reaches its
24
CALCULUS
["20
and then decreases. The value of x for which A reaches its
greatest value can be determined from a graph with a high degree
of approximation. The derivative can
be used to calculate
accurately this value of x and this saves construction of an
accurate graph.
From 0 to H, 4 is an increasingfunction. Its derivativeis
therefore positive for this part of the curve
From
H to N the
.
function A is decreasing. Its derivative is therefore negative
for this part of the curve.
At the point H the derivative changes
sign,passing from positivevalues through zero to negative values.
The abscissaof the point H can then be found by findingthe
Fig. 19.
derivative of A with respect to x and determining where
it changes
sign. In thiscase the change of sign occurs where the derivative
is equal to zero. We find by the method of increments
^
30 -
4a;
=
4(7.5 -
x).
ax
dx 0 when x =
7.5. If a;"7.5,
is positive and A is an
t" dx
dA
increasingfunction. If a;"7.5, -y-
function. This shows that A increases up to a certain
value at a; = 7.5 and then begins to decrease. Hence the gutter

is negative and A is a de-creasin

"20] DERIVATIVE 25 section if its depth be made 7.5 will have the greatest cross
"20]
DERIVATIVE
25
section if its depth be made
7.5
will have the greatest cross
inches.
It isinterestingto plot the derivative as a function of x on the
See the dotted line,Fig. 19. The statements made
same
axes.
concerning the derivativeare verified in the graph.
Exercises
1. Consider the function y =
f{x)whose graph is given in Fig. 20.
is the derivative positive? In what
In what
portions of the curve
portions negative? Where is the derivative equal to zero?
b
Fig. 20.
2. Find -r-, if 2/ =
Zx^.
For what values decreasing?
At what
point does the
tangent
line drawn to the curve
representing the function, make an
the
angle of 45" with the positive direction of the axis of x? Find
points on the curve.
coordinates of the maximum
or minimum
3.
Answer
in
Exercise
2, ii y =
questions
asked
a;'.
4.
Answer
in
Exercise
questions
asked
2, if 2/ =
x*.
6.
Answer
in
Exercise
questions
asked
2, if j/
=
x^.
6.
Answer
in
Exercise
2, if y =
2x + 3.
questions
asked
x^
"
3x^
x^
7.
Answer
in
Exercise
2, ii y =
J- 2i "
6.
questidns asked
-^
^ "
8. Find the derivative of "\/x.
SOI.TJTION. Let y =
\/x.
Then
y + Ay
=
y/x + Aa;
and
At/ =
-s/x +
Ax " s/x
Ay _ \/x + Ax " yfx
~
Ax
Ax

For what values of x is the function in-creasin

["20 26 CALCULUS Rationalize the numerator : Ay 1 ^^ Vx + Ax+V^ As Ax
["20
26
CALCULUS
Rationalize the numerator
:
Ay
1
^^
Vx + Ax+V^
As Ax approaches zero the right-hand side of this equation approaches
1
Then
Vx + y/x
lim
Ay
1
Ax=0
As
2\/x
or
dx
2Vs
9. Find
the derivative of -y/x
2.
"
10. Find
the derivative of Vx' "
4.
CHAPTER II LIMITS In "17 the derivativewas definedas the limit of a certainratio. as the
CHAPTER
II
LIMITS
In "17 the derivativewas definedas the limit of a certainratio.
as the reader was supposed to have a fair conception of the mean-
ing
of this term from previous courses
in mathematics. How-ever,
since the entire subject of the calculus is based on limit
processes it is well to review the precise definition and to state
certain theorems from
the theory of limits.
21. Definition. If a variablechanges by an unlimited number
large number of steps,
of steps in such a way that, after a
sufficiently
the numerical value of the difference between the variableand a
constant becomes and remains, for allsubsequent steps, lessthan any
preassigned positiveconstant, however small, the variable is said to
approach the constant as a limit, and the constant is called the limit
of the variable.
1 \^
1" M
1
A
Xi
Xi
Xi
Xi
B
Fig. 21.
Illustration1. Let AB, Fig. 21, be a Une two units in length,
and let x be the distance from A to a point on thisline. Suppose
that X increases from 0 by steps such that any valiieof x is greater
than the precedingvalue by one-halfpf the differencebetween 2 and
2
"
X
xi,
x^,
" are the
this preceding value, i.e.,by " 5 "
X3,
X4,
"
"
end points of the portions of the line representing the successive
Then
the lengths XiB =
=
values of x.
1, x^
J, XaB =
XiB =
(I)', "
=
" "
XnB
,
between the constant length 2 and the variable length x.
This differencebecomes and remains less than any preassigned
length KB
of steps has been taken.
after a sufficientnumber
27

The word limit was used without giving its precise definition,

(J)',

(I)""' are the successive differ-ences

28 CALCULUS ["21 This istrue however small the length KB is chosen. Therefore, by the
28
CALCULUS
["21
This istrue however small the length KB is chosen. Therefore,
by the definition of the limit of a variable, 2 is the limit of the
variable x.
Illustration2. Consider the variable x^ -
2.
Give to x the
3(2" -
1)
values 0, f , \-,V, if, M,
"
"
" , -^
-['-?}
to
it
which are chosen by startingwith x = 0 and giving
successive
increments which are one-half the differencebetween 3 and
the
1
6
6
4
83
Fig. 22.
precedingvalue of x. The corresponding values of a;' " 2 are
given in the adjoining table. The correspondingpoints,excepting
(0, - 2), are plotted in Fig. 22.
From the table and the expression x' "
2 it
is readily seen that the differencebetween 7
and the variable x'^ " 2 becomes and remains
lessthan any previously assignedquantity (such
as KB, Fig. 22) after a suflB.ciently large number
of steps. Therefore 7 is the limit of the vari-able
2 as X approaches 3.
x'' "
Illustration3. By giving x values nearer
and nearer
" becomes
2, the value of '
nu-
'
-
X "2
merically larger and larger. Indeed its numeri-cal
value can
be made greater than any preas-
signed positivenumber however large by choosing x sufl"ciently
" "23] LIMITS 29 2. near The variable 5 does not approach a limit as
"
"23]
LIMITS
29
2.
near
The variable
5 does not approach a limit as x ap-
proaches 2. Instead of doing so it increases without limit.
7/ a variablechanges by an unlimited number of steps in such
a way that after a
sufidenUy large number of steps its numerical
value becomes and remains, for all subsequent steps, greater than
any preassigned positivenumber however large,the variable is said
to become infinite. Illustration3 of this section is an example
of a variable which becomes infinite, or approaches infinity.
22. Notation. If in any limit process, the variable,say y, is a
function of another variable, say x, the successive steps by
which y changes are determined by those by which x changes.
Ify approaches a limit A, as x approaches a limita, we say that the
limit of y as X approaches a is A, and write
x=a
After what has just been said, the meaning of the two following
expressions will be clear:
lim y =
lim V ^
A,
"".
1=
ra
x=a
In the second case
a limit does not really exist. The form of
.expression is only a convenient way of saying that if a; is taken
to become
sufficiently near
a, the value of y can
be made
and
remain greater in numerical value than any preassignedpositive
number however large.
From the illustrations of the preceding section we have:
1. '^'^
X =
steps taken.
2, where n is the number
of
'
71 ==
03
2. J.ip (x^ -
2) =
7.
lim
1
Q
"
'=2
a; -2
23. Infinitesimal. In the particular case where the limit of a
variable is zero, the variable is said to be an infinitesimal. An
infinitesimal
is
a
variablewhose limit is zero. Thus Aj/ and Ax
which were used in ""13, 14, and 16 are thought of as approaching
30 CALCULUS ["24 zero and are infinitesimals.Hence the derivative, "17, is defined as the limit
30
CALCULUS
["24
zero and are infinitesimals.Hence the derivative, "17, is defined
as the limit of the quotient of two infinitesimals. Infinitesimals
are of fundamental importance in the Calculus. Indeed the
subject is often called the InfinitesimalCalculus.
24. Theorems
on Limits. The following theorems concerning
limits are stated without proof:
Theorem I. If two variables are always equaland if one approaches
a limit,the otherapproaches the same limit.
Theorem II. The limit of the sum of two variables,each of which
approaches a limit,is equal to the sum of their limits.
Theorem in.
The limit of the difference
of two variables,each
of which approaches a limit,is equal to thedifference
their limits.
of
Theorem IV. The limit of the product of two variables,each of
which approaches a limit,is equal to the product of theirlimits.
' Theorem V. The limit of the quotient of two variables,each
of
which approaches a limit,is equal to the quotient of their limits,
provided the limit of the divisoris not zero.
If the limit of
the divisoris zero, the quotient of the limits in
Theorem V
has no meaning, since divisionby zero isan impossible
A
is
operation. For, the quotient Q of two numbers
and B
defined as the number such that when it is multiplied by the
divisorB, the product is the dividend A. Now ifB iszero while A
is not zero, there clearly is no such number.
26.
The Indeterminate Form 5. If,in the quotient considered
above, A is also zero, any number willsatisfy the requirement,
so that Q is not determined. One encounters exactly this diffi-
4
3;2 _
culty in seeking the value of ^ at a; = 2. Its value is not
determined at this point but it is determined for all finite values
of X differentfrom 2. We defineits value at a; =
2 as the limit of
its value as x approaches 2. The
student should construct a
graph of thisfunction. Usually we proceed as followsto find the
desiredlimit.
lim x^ -i
lim
(a;+ 2) =
4.
=^=2
X -2
4
a;" "
^ is said to be indeterminate at a; =
The expression
2,
"26] LIMITS 31 since any one of an infinite number of values can be assigned
"26]
LIMITS
31
since any one of an infinite number of values can be assigned to it.
The determination of itslimiting value as x approaches the value 2 "
is called the evaluation of the indeterminate form. Indeterminate
forms of this and other types are frequently found in the Calculus.
A?/
D.
Thus J" is an indeterminate form for Ax =
We have already
in several cases how it can be evaluated. Exactly as in the
seen
example justgiven, we have sought the limit of the quotient as
Aa; approaches zero and not the quotientwhen Aa; = 0,becausethe
latter quotient has no meaning.
Exercises
1. Determine the following limits,if they exist.
lim
,,,
.
(6) ^^gcota;.
Draw
for values of x between "
the curve
t and + r.
2. Evaluate the following indeterminate forms :
a"
X*
+
6x'|
-91
^' ^x' +
^"'' a;-3|;r=3
x^\x=Q
3. Find
^^JA
i^-ft;^^J^,;'^J^^. Discuss the
00
Show that it is an indeterminate form.
symbol "
26. Continuous
Discontinuous
Functions.
Draw
and
the
graphs of the followingfunctions:
!."
S. y =
7x +
=
-.
2. 2/ =
x^.
-
X
X
\
tana;.
5. y =
6. y
3'^
4. 2/ =
sin a;.
=
Hint.
In 6, values in the vicinityof a; = 0 should be carefully
determined.
Take a set of values of x approaching 0 from the
left and another set approaching itfrom the right.
1
8.y = ^"^.
7. 2/ =
3'.
3'+l
32 CALCULUS 0. See 6. Study the vicinityof a; = The functions 2, 5, and
32
CALCULUS
0.
See 6.
Study the vicinityof a; =
The
functions 2, 5, and 7 are
said to be contimums while
8
discontinuous. The meaning
of these
are
1, 3, 4, 6, and
terms
is obvious from the graphs that have been drawn.
A
precise definitionfollows: A function/(") is said to be continuous
'*"""
/(a;) =
/(o).
atx = aif
0,
In 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8, this condition is not satisfiedat a; =
0, 5, 0, and 0, respectively. In these examples the functions
either become infinitefor the values of x in question or
approach
differentUmits as the value of a; is approached from larger or
(fi, d), i.e.,the intervalc ^ x ^ d, if itis continuousat every
point in this interval. Thus the functions2, 5, and 7 are continu-ous
in any finiteinterval. The remaining functionsare continu-ous
in any interval not containing the points to which attention
has been called.

["26

smaller values. A functionfix) is said to he continuous in an in-terval

CHAPTER III THE POWER FUNCTION 27. In Chapter I the derivative of a function was
CHAPTER
III
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
27. In Chapter I the derivative of a function was found by what
may be called the fundamental method, viz., by giving to the
independent variable an increment, calculating the corresponding
increment of the dependent variable,and finding the limit of the
ratio of these increments as the increment of the independent
This method islaborious and since it
variable approaches zero.
will be necessary to find derivativesin a large number of problems,
of which the derivatives of
rules will be established by means
certain functions can be written down at once.
The process of
finding the derivative of a function is called differentiation.
In this chapter we shall find the derivative of the power
function, and study the function by means
of this derivative.
x", for various values of n, appear in Figs.
The graphs of y =
1, 2, 3, and 4.
go through the points
If n is positive, the curves
(0,0)and (1,1),and are said to be of the parabolic type. In this
case a;" is an increasingfunction of x in the first quadrant. If n
is negative, the curves go through the point (1,1) but do not go
through the point (0,0). They are asymptotic to both axes of
coordinates. These curves are said to be of the hyperbolic type.
In this case x" is a decreasingfunction of x in the first quadrant.
The
law of the power
function, as stated in "3, should be
reviewed at this point.
28. Derivative of x".
Let
y =
x", where n is at first assumed
to be a positive integer.
Ay
y +
=
(x +
Aa;)".
y + Ay
=
x"
+
nx"-^
"
Ax -\
^^ " x''-'(Ax)^+ " +(Ax)".
+ '^^"'^^ x"-^
Ay =
(Ax)2+ " . +(Aa:)".
nx--'Ax
If
33
R
34 CALCULUS ^ = wx--' + ^L^~^}. x''-^Ax+ " " " +(Aa;)"-". lim Ay _
34
CALCULUS
^ =
wx--'
+ ^L^~^}. x''-^Ax+ " " " +(Aa;)"-".
lim Ay
_
~ "_i
Ax
OAa;
'
or
This proof holds when n is a positive integer.In ""33 and 42
it will be shown that the formula obtained holds for fractional and
For
negative exponents.
the
the present
we
shall assume
formula true for these exponents.
Illvistraiions.
1. ^
3.^.
=
ax
2 ^t^)
_-^=^(^)=
_2^-,=
_2.
dx
dx
x'
*'"
dt
dG*) , -i
1
dv
2\/v
Exercises
Find J- in each of the following fifteen exercises:
1. y
%. y
11. y
=
x'.
=
X.
=
X*.
i. y
T. y
12. y
=
X*.
=
X'.
= a^.
8. y
13.
3/ =
X*.
=
X'.
=
X
14,. 2/ =
2.
4. 2/ =
x".
9. 2/ =
X*.
X
1.
16. y =
B.y=l- 10. y = -1=.
16. Knd
the slope of each of the curves
of Exercises 1-15 at the
point (1,1); also at the point whose abscissa is J and whose ordinate
is positive.
of the derivative, find for what values of x
17. By making
use
each function given in Exercises 1-15 is increasing;is decreasing.

["28

"29] THE POWER FUNCTION 35 18. How with increasing x, if x does the slope
"29]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
35
18. How
with increasing x, if x
does the slope of y =
x" change
is positive and if n is positive and less than 1 ? If ra is positive and
greater than 17
given in Exercises 1-15 is
19. Find where
the slope of each curve
equal to zero; equal to 1.
29. The Derivative of ax".
In case the power function is writ-ten
in the more
it is easy to see that the
general form ax",
con-
stant
the
multiplier o wUl appear as a coefficient in all terms on
right-hand side of the equations in the proof in "28, and the
derivative oi y = az" is,therefore,
fx =
""^""''
(^)
or
(2)
-S^=nax'-K
The
proof of the formula isfor positive integral values of n only,
but as
in "28 will be assumed for all commensurable exponents.'
Since aa;"~' is the given power
function y =
divided by x,
ax"
formula (1)may be written
1 The relation of formula (2) to that of "28 is at once evident when itis recalled that
the
curve
=
be thought of as obtained from the curve
y
ax^
can
y
=
x^ by stretching
Then the slope of the tangent
is
allordlnates in the ratio 1 : a.
=^
at a point oiy
ax"
a times the slope of the tangent
toy
=" x^ at the corresponding point; i.e.,
dCai")
d(x")
"_,
=
a
=
an-x"
,
ax
ax
36 CALCULUS ["29 The geometrical meaning of formula (3) is shown by Fig. 23. The
36
CALCULUS
["29
The geometrical meaning of formula (3) is shown by Fig. 23.
The fraction - isthe slope of the radius vector OP from the origin
to
the point P on
the curve.
Formula (3)states that
the slope,
ax", is n times the
at
any point of the graph of the function, y =
Thus, if w =
slope of the radius vector OP.
1, t/ =
aa;" reduces
to a straight line through the origin,and the line has the same
If n =
the
slope as OP-
2 the curve
isthe parabola y = ax^, and
curve
is always twice that of OP.
If n =
the
slope of the
"1
Fig. 23.
curve is the rectangular hyperbola, y =
and the slope of the
curve is the negative of the slope of OP.
Illustrations.
d(7x^)
^
^
'
14a:.
=
dx
10
it dx
d(5x-=) .d(a;-2)
dx
dx
'
d(.6Vt^)
d(.ti)
~^
dt
dt
If, =
5x",
g =
37 Exercises Find J- in each of the following fifteen exercises. 1. y 4a;'. 6.
37
Exercises
Find J- in each of the following fifteen exercises.
1. y
4a;'.
6. y
2x^.
11. y =
=
=
-Zx\
2. y
3\/x.
7. y
4:X^.
12. y =
=
=
x.
3. y
5xK
8. y
13. y
=
=
fs".
=
-x.
4. y
3a;.
14. y
=
9. 2/ =
10-^.
=
-SVx.
2
4
4
5. ^
10. y =
15. y =
=
-,'
--J-
--.^
a;"
ds
.
16. Find ^r in each of the following:
(o) s = 2t^. (b) s = ZVi.
(c) s =
-it'.
17. Find -jt in each of the following:
(a)y = 4-^. (6)2/ =
U.
(c)2/ =
-
-3"2.
given in Exercises 1-15,
18. Find the slope of each of the curves
at the point whose abscissa is 1 ; at the point whose abscissa is |.
19. For what
function given in Exercises 1-15
values of x is each
increasing? Decreasing?
Where, if at all, is the slope of each of
these curves
zero?
20. Draw
the curves
Ix^,y = -, y =
y
=
x^,
y
=
s/x; and draw
tangent linesto them at the points for which the abscissas are 1, 2, 3,
and 4.
tangent
Make a table showing the slope of the radius vector and the
line for each of these points.
30. Rate of Change of ax".
Let y =
ax", where a; is a function
of the time t. Since a; is a function of t,y is a, function of t. For
t
1'.
example, y =
Sx", where x =
"
Let Aa; and Ay be the increments of x and y, respectively, corf e-
Aw
to the increment At
spending
of t. -r-r is the average rate of
dv
change of y during the interval Ai. tt is the rate of change of y
at the instant t.
At any time, t
y
=
aa;".
["30 38 CALCULUS At the time t + At, y + Ay a{x + Ax)".
["30
38
CALCULUS
At the time t + At,
y + Ay
a{x + Ax)".
"
"
;
y+Ay=
alx" +
''^'' ~
Ay = affix-' +
As At approaches zero, the expression within the brackets ap-
prqaches nx"~', and -rr approaches ^"
Hence
dy
, dx
or
The rate of change of the function ax" is expressed in terms of x
and of -rr, the rate
of change of a;. If then the rate of change of
X for a given value of x is known, the rate of change of the func-tion
for that value of x can be calculated.
IllustrationI. The side of a square is increasing at the uni-form
rate of 0.2 inch per second. Find the rate at which the area
isincreasing when the side is 10 inches long.
Let X be the
length of the side,and y the area of the square.
dx
Then
dij
0.2 and 37
isthe rate of increase of the area.
To find
37- =
at
at
this rate of increase,differentiatethe function y = x^.
dy _
dx
^
dt ~
''^dt'
Since
-
-02
""^-
dt

nx'-'Ax + '^^'^ ~^K-KAxy +""" + (Aa:

^^ x^-^Ax + " " " + (Ax)"-

"31] THE POWER FUNCTION 39 When a; = 10, -^ = 4. The is increasing
"31]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
39
When
a; =
10, -^ =
4.
The
is increasing at the rate of 4
area
a; = 13, -3^
square inches per second. When
=
5.2, the rate of
change of the area at thisinstant.
Illustration2. A sphericalsoap bubble is being inflated at the
rate of 0.2 cubic inch per second.
Find the rate at which the
radius is increasing when it is 1.5 inch"s long.
dV
0.2
Let r be the radius,and V the volume of the bubble.
=
-37-
dT
and -37 " the rate of increase of the radius, isto be found.
V
4irr3.
=
Exercises
1. Find the rate at which the surface of the soap bubble of Illustra-tion
2 is increasing when r = 1.5 inches.
2. If each side of an equilateral triangle is increasing at the rate
of 0.3 inch per minute, at what rate isthe area of the triangle increas-ing
when the side is 6 inches long?
3. Water is flowing at a uniform rate of 10 cubic inches per minute
into a right circular cone whose semi-verticalangle is 45", whose apex
is down, and whose
axis is vertical. At what rate is the surface of
the water in the cone rising,and at what rate is the area of this surface
increasing when the water in the cone is 25 inches deep?
31. The Derivative of the Sum
of a Function and a Constant.
Sketch, on
the graphs of the functions:
the same
set of axes,
40 CALCULUS ["31 5; y = 3; y = 10. y = x"; y =
40
CALCULUS
["31
5; y =
3; y =
10.
y =
x"; y =
x^
-
x'
+
x'^ +
Find ^ for each
of the functions. Find
#,
if y =
C
x^ + C, where
is any
constant.
Sketch a graph of any function y = f{x), and on
the same
set
of axes, graphs oi y " f{x) + C for severalvalues of the constant
dt/
C. What relation exists between -r- for the differentfunctions
corresponding to the same value of x?
From these illustrationsit is clear that the derivatives of all
functions which differonly by an additiveconstant are the same.
The reason
for this is geometricallyevident. For, the addition ^
of a constant to a function has the effectof merely translatingthe
to any given abscissa is clearlynot changed by this
translation. Hence,
d[i(x) +
C] d[tix)]
(1)
_
dz
dx
In particular
C]
d[M"]
(l[ax" +
(2)
dz
dx
Thus, if
5a;3 + 7,
2/ =
dy
d{5x')
15x2
dx
dx
Exercises
1. Prove formula (2) above by the
increment process.
Differentiate:
2. y = 3x2 ^2.
11. y
=
+ 6.
-4x^
3. ^ = SVa; + 4.
12. y
Sx" + 2.
=
-
i. y
2x^ -
3.
13. y
=
7x^ -
=
3.
6.
+ 5.
14.
4a;3 + 5.
y
=
"^
2/ =
6.
2t* + 7.
16. 2/ =
=
i + 2.
y
7. s
16"2 J- 5.
16. 2/ =
=
-
Ja;6+ 3.
8. 2\/t'+ 6.
17. 2/ =
"
=
ix' + 2.
9- "
4.
=
5.
-
-3
18. y =^x* -
10.
4"' -
2.
X
=

graph of the function parallel to the y-axis. The slope corre- sponding

"32] THE POWER FUNCTION 4 1 32. The Derivative of au". li y = where
"32]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
4 1
32. The Derivative of au".
li y =
where m is a function
aw,
that
dy
,du
ax
ax
or
=
anu"-^-
dx
Ax
Illustrations.
1. '-^^^^^ =
5.3(.^+ 3)^ '-^^ =
15(x^ + 3)^ 2x
= 30x(2;2+ 3)2.
)
\.^
-r
dx
dx
^y.
= 2-4(a;2 + 4)' 2a; = \Qx{x^ + 4)'.
3. If 2/ = (2a;2+ l)^ find g-
d^ _ d{^x^+lY
d(2a:''+ l)
,,
^^^"^ +
^^
-
_",",,
~
d"
dt
dt
= 2(22;2 +
l).2-2x ^ = 8x(2x2+ 1) ^"
4. =
If y
(x^+ l)t,
^ =
'(a;2 +
D* 2a; =
3a;(a;''
+
1)^
ax
and

of X and n is a positive integer, the student will prove, as in "30,

42 CALCULUS ' 1^- y 16. 2/ = "" = -^ /" V3X-2 l "'i^x^
42
CALCULUS
'
1^- y
16. 2/ =
""
=
-^
/"
V3X-2
l
"'i^x^ +
^
12. y =
16. y
=
.-I".
13. 2/ =
V(x" + 4).
17. y
= j^^rj-^2
14. 2/ = V(a: + 1).
18. y =
(g _
^a^^-
33. The Derivative of u", n a PositiveFraction.
We
are
now
in a position to prove that the rule for the derivative of w holds
when n is a positive fraction of the form -"
where
p and q are
integers. Let
p
y =
M".
Haise each member
to the power
q:
yl =
yp.
Since m isa function of x,y\SB, function of x. Hence each member
is a function of x raised to a positive integral power.
Then each
can be differentiatedby the rule of "32 which was
member
proved for positive integral exponents.
We find
dy
du
Then
dy _
du
p
Q
dx
dx
q

["33

"35] THE FUNCTION 43 POWER and the rule is proved that du" , du -
"35]
THE
FUNCTION
43
POWER
and the rule is proved that
du"
, du
-
"
=
nM"~i
^-"
dx
dx
numerous
where n is a positive fraction whose numerator and denominator
are integers. This rule has already been used in the solution of
exercises.
34. The Derivative of a Constant.
Let y =
c is a
c, where
constant. Corresponding to any Ax, Ay " 0, and consequently
"'
Ax
and
lim
0
"
=
'
Aa;
Aa;=o
or
^ =
0.
dx
The derivative of a constant is zero.
Interpret this result geometrically.
35. The Derivative of the Sum
of Two Functions.
Let
y
=
u
+
V,
where u and v are functions of x.
Let Am, Av, and Ay be the incre-ments
of u, V, and y, respectively,corresponding to the increment
Ax.
y +
Ay
+
Au
V +
Av
=
u
+
Ay =
Au + Av
or
The derivative of the sum of two functions is eqiud to the sum of
theirderivatives.
" 44 CALCULUS ["36 The student willobserve that the proof given can be extended to
"
44
CALCULUS
["36
The student willobserve that the proof given can be extended
to the sum of three,four, or any finite number of functions.
Illustrations.
d{6x+ 15a;')
d^x)
djlbx^) ^
^
^^^
^
dx
dx
dx
2 d(2v^ + 3x' + 4) _ d(2Vx)
d(3x^) , d{A) _ J_
,. g^
dx
dx
dx
dx
y/x
Exercises
Differentiatethe following functions with respect to x, also with
respect to t :
17. y =
5x + 4.
-v/x2 -
18. 3/ =
(3x2+ 2x4- 2)'.
36. Differentiation of Implicit Functions. The derivative of
one variablewith respect to another can be found from an equa-tion
connecting the variables without solving
the equation for
y,yia a, function
eithervariable. For, if the variables are x and
of X,
even
though its explicit form may not be known, and the
usual rules for findingthe derivative of functions can be applied
to each member of the equation.
The following example wiU illustratethe process.
Illustration.Let x^ + y^ =
Find ^"
a'.
The left-hand member
is the sum
of the given equation
of
"36] THE POWER FUNCTION 45 two functions of x, sincey isa function of x. Further,
"36]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
45
two functions of x, sincey isa function of x.
Further, the deriva-tive
of the left-hand member
is equal to the derivative of the
The derivative of the latter is in this case
right-hand member.
x-\- y-a
x^+y^=a^
Fig. 24.
ing the left-hand member as the sum
of two functions, we obtain
When the derivativeis found by differentiating each member of
the operation is called implicitdifferentiation.

zeroi since the right-hand member is constant. On differentiat-

an equation in the implicitform, as in the foregoing illustration,

46 CALCULUS I"37 Exercises 1. Draw the circle x^ + y^ = o* and show
46
CALCULUS
I"37
Exercises
1.
Draw
the circle x^ + y^ =
o* and show geometrically that the
'.
X
.
slope of the tangent at the point (x, y) is "-"
dy
2.
Solve the equation of Exercise 1 for y and find j--
From the following equations find -3- by implicit differentiation:
3. 3x^ + 4y' =
12.
4. y^ =
x'
-
a'.
X^
"2
6.
+
1. (Do not clear of fractions.)
"
=
;
r5
If
y is an implicit function of x expressed by an
equation of the
form
(1)
X'
+ y
=
a",
differentiation gives
0,
=
nx"-^ + ny-'-'J^
or
The equation (1) includes'a number of important special cases.
The graphs corresponding to the following values of n are shown in
Fig. 24.
For
n
I, x^
=
=
+ y'
a',
a, parabola,
222.
a^, an important hypocycloid,
n
=
f, 1^+2/^=
l,
n
=
X
+
y
=a,
a straight line,
2,
n
=
x'
+ y^
=
a^,
a circle.
The graph of (1)passes through
the points (0, a) and (a,0) ifn is
positive.
222
6.
a;" + 2/' =
aK
111
7. x^
+y'
=
a^.
8. x' +y'
=
a\
9. I* + j/2 =
a^.
37. Anti-derivatives. Integration. Let it be required to
find the equation of a curve whose slope at any point is equal to
twice the abscissaof that point.
"37] THE POWER FUNCTION 47 This means point of the curve 2x. We that at
"37]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
47
This means
point of the curve
2x.
We
that at every
-^ =
seek then a function whose derivativeis 2x. y =
x^ is such
a
function. But
y
=
x^ + C, where
C is a constant, is also
a
function having the same
derivative. Hence there is an infinite
number of functions whose derivatives are all equal to 2x. The
problem as proposed has then an infinite number of solutions,
viz., the
system
of parabolas y =
x^ + C, corresponding to the
infinitely many values of C.
If now we add to the statement of the problem the requirement
that the curve
shallpass through a given point, say (1,2), it is
geometricallyevident that but one of the curves
y =
x^ + C will
pass through the point. In other words there isbut one value of C
by substituting the coordinates of the point in the
equation y = x'^ + C, since they must satisfy this equation for
some value of C, if the problem has a solution. On making the
substitution we have
2
1 + C,
=
C
1.
Hence
the
from which
=
y
=
x^ -\- 1 is the equation of
curve whose slope at any point is equal to twice the abscissaof the
point and which passes through the point (1,2).
The nature of the problem which has just been solved can be
further explained by the following geometrical solution. Draw,
Fig. 25, at the vertices of each small square on a sheet of co-
paper on
which a set of axes
has been chosen, short
lines whose slopes are equal to two times the abscissasof the
respectivevertices. A curve
is to be drawn which at each of its
points is tangent to a line such as those which have been drawn.
Now itisimpossible in the figureto draw linesthrough every point
in the plane, but ifthe points through which the linesare drawn
are sufficiently thick,the lines will serve to indicatethe direction
which the curve takes at nearby points. The lines may be
regarded as pointers indicating the
stream linesin flowing water.
Then a point tracingthe curve would move
as a small cork would in
water having the stream linesindicatedby the figure.
Thus, to get the curve that goes through (1,2),start from this
point and, guided by the directionlines, sketch in as accurately

for which the latter requirement is satisfied. This value is de-termin

ordina

48 CALCULUS as possible the curve to 'the right of this point. Do the same
48
CALCULUS
as possible the curve
to 'the right of this point. Do the same
thing to the left, noting that here itis necessary to go against the
stream linesinstead of with them.
In Fig. 25 it should be noted that all lines through points
having the same
abscissa are parallel. This fact is of great
^
^
^
y J? ^
Fig. 25.
assistance in drawing. The squares on the coordinatepaper can
be used to advantage in drawing lines when the slope isknown.
If the derivative which was given had been any other function
of X, a geometrical solutioncould have been obtained by the same
method.
The foregoing illustrationintroduces a new
type of problem,

["3?

"37] THE POWER FUNCTION 49 viz., that of finding a function wliose derivative is given.
"37]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
49
viz., that of finding a function wliose derivative is given. A
function whose derivativeis equal to a given function is called
an anti-derivative, or integral, of the given function. From the
illustrationitis clear that any given function which has one anti-
derivative,has an infinite number of anti-derivativeswhich differ
from each other only by an additive constant. This latterfact is
indicated in obtaining the anti-derivativeof a given function by
writing down the variablepart of the anti-derivativeand adding
to ita constant C which is undetermined or " arbitrary." In a given
application this constant will be determined by supplementary
conditions as in the illustration at the beginning of this section.
The process of findingthe anti-derivativeof a given function is
called integration.
If in Illustration1 the curve
through
is to pass
the point
have
Hence the
=
must
(3, -2) we
-2
3' -|- C, or C =
-29.
29.
equatioin of the curve
is j/ =
a;' "
Exercises
Integrate the following ten functions:
3x' + 2x -
6.
=
6. j^
50 CALCULUS Illv^trations. 6. ^ = 3{x^ + 2)i' 2x. The right-hand side is in
50
CALCULUS
Illv^trations.
6. ^ = 3{x^ + 2)i' 2x.
The right-hand side is in the form, nw'
' -5-, where n is 3, and u
is ""
C,
is (a;'+ 2). Since the integral of nw""'
+
-r-
=
{x^+ 2)3 + C.
y
7. ^ =
(a;2 -
5)' 2a; =
: i[4-(a;'-5)"2
i[4-(a;'
- 5)"2a;].
j/ = Ka;''-6)*-|-C.
8.
^ =
x(a;2- 1)" = -,M6(a;'' 1)^2x1.
-
-
1)"+ C.
y = iV(a;''
9.
3x^
%)}
-
I = .^(3 -
x^y I = - ^[6(3
.")"(-
C.
= -
1^(3 - "")" +
10.
g=(
-2.
+
3)-'(x-l)|
dxi
- i[- 2(x' - 2a; + 3)-"(??: -
2)g.
\ ^ "^ 4(0;" -
2a; + 3)2 "*" *^"
Exercises
Integrate:
11. ^ = a;VJ^'^n[- -Iras, y = i(x' - 1)*+ C.
12. ^ = (2a;'+ 3a;'')*(a:2+ a;). Ana. y = i(2x'+ 3a;')*+ C:
13. ^ =
(^ + l)i Ans. 2/ =
f(a;+ l)i+ C.
(2-a;=)"-.
= (a;"-3)'x.
""S =
16.g
16.
17. g =
." + 3x.
g = a;V4^".
18.
g =
(^"+ 7)"a;.
^'" S
"
(xi!+ 4)"' ^"*- 2/ = 4(a;2+ 4)" "^ ^'

["37

"37] THE POWER FUNCTION 51 20. ^^ = (x'+ 2x + iy{x + 1). 23.
"37]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
51
20.
^^
=
(x'+ 2x + iy{x + 1).
23. f^
21.| =
^=^.
ax
dx
-y/a;2 -)- 4
22.
24. ^
=
^ = _^==.
26.
^ =
(3^2+ 2)' X.
Ans.
y
=
+
2)*+ C.
^,'1(31''
^e- J = (2 - 3^^v4r-
27. ^ =
(21 + 1)2. Ans. y =
|(2e + 1)"+ C.
^"-f = (3.-.2).J.
=
""-S
(3-4.)4^
30. ^ =
V^n.
Ans. y =
f(a:+ 1)*+ C.
31- g = V2^T5.
40. 2 =
V(2^ + 3r'.
42. Va;"+ at - 7 (x'+ 1).
g =
J =
43. (^ + 4)Vx" + 8^ + 9.
44. ^ =
(x -
X'.
3)V7 -Qx+
dy
1
5i
"
,.
46.
"
=
-r-
,
"*
V6
+
41 -
10x2
d?/
3a; -
2
^g
dx VSx' - 4i + 5
47. g = V^x.
' dx
dx ^4 -
3x2
49. Find the equation of the curve whose slope at any point is equal
to the square of the abscissa of that point and which passes through
the point (2,3).
60, Find the equation of the curve whose slope at any point is equal
52 CALCULUS ["38 to the square root of the abscissa of that point and which
52
CALCULUS
["38
to the square
root of the abscissa of that point and which passes
through the point (2,4).
61. Find the equation of the curve whose slope at any point is equal
to the negative reciprocalof the square of the abscissa of that point
and which passes through the point (1,1).
38. Acceleration. The velocityof a body moving in a straight
line may be eitheruniform or it may vary from instant to instant.
In the lattercase its motion is said to be accelerated,and this
applies both to the case where there is an increase in velocity
and the case where there is a decrease in velocity.
Thus it is a fact of common
knowledge that the velocity of a
body fallingto the ground from a height increases with the dis-tance
through which the body has fallen,or with the time since
the body started to fall. The time rate of change of the velocity
body is an
important concept in mechanics and
of a moving
physics.
If s denotes the distance passed over in time t,the velocity has
been defined as the rate of change of s with respect to t. The
notion of the velocityat a given instant was derived from that of
the average velocity for an intervalAt. The average velocity was
limiting value of this quotient as At approaches zero was defined
as the velocityat the beginning of the intervalA^
,
In the same
way ifthe velocity, v, changes by an amount Av in
the time At counted from a certain time t, the average rate
Av
of
change of v forthisintervalis -rr*
It isthe average linear accderor
tion^ for this interval. The accelerationat the time t isdefined as
It is
the limit of the average acceleration as At approaches zero.
Wy
then -jT' The acceleration is thetime rate of change of velocity. In
the case
of a fallingbody it is known experimentally that for
bodies fallingfrom heights that are not too great, the velocity
changes uniformly, due to the action of the force of gravity, i.e.,
1 We suppose here that the body is moving in a straight line. If the path is curved,
it will be seen later that the total acceleration is to be thought of as the resultant of
one of which produces a change in the direction of the velocityand
two components,
the other a change in the magnitude of the velocity.

obtained by dividing the change in s, As, in a time At by A* (i.e., by dividing the distance passed over in time At by At). The

53 THE POWER FUNCTION the time rate of change of the velocity isa constant. This
53
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
the time rate of change of the velocity isa constant. This con-
denoted by g. In F.P.S. (foot-pound-second)units it is equal
isthe change per second of a velocity of a certainnumber of
feet per second.
I I The differential equation of motion of the fallingbody can be
written
=
1}
9-
dt
From which on integrating,
V =
gt + C.
If it is given that the
body
starts fallingfrom rest, we have
as the condition for determin-ing
C, that V =
t =
0.
0 when
Equation (2) shows that C
must
Then, -
be equal to zero.
Time
(f)
Fig. 27.
The graph, Fig. 27, oi v = gt is a, straight line whose slope is g.

stant

is called the acceleration due to gravity and is usually

to 32.2 feet per second per second. That the unit of acceleration

is1 foot per secondper second is explained by thefactthat accelera-tion

(1)

(2)

If the body had had an initial speed of vo feet per second, i.e., ifithad been projected downward instead of being dropped, the constant C would have been determined from the condition that

54 CALCtJLUS ["38 V 0. It follows from = " (2) that C = Vo
54
CALCtJLUS
["38
V
0.
It follows from
=
"
(2) that C =
Vo when
=
"o, and the
equation for v would have been
V =
gt +
Vo.
(4)
The graph of this function is shown in Fig. 26.
It is again a
straight linebut it cuts the F-axis at the point (0, Wo).
The foregoing discussion evidently applies equally well to any
uniformly acceleratedmotion, i.e.,to any motion where the rate of
change of the velocity is constant. In allsuch cases the graph
of
v as a function of the time is a straight line.
Since v =
-n' equation
(4)gives
ds
^ 9t
=
+
f 0.
Integrating,
s = igt^+ """ + Ci.
(5)
If t is measured from the instant the body begins to move and s
from the position of the body at that instant,s = 0 when t = 0.
From this condition Cj = 0. Then the distance of the body from
itsinitial position is given by
s = ^gt^+ Vat-
If a body is thrown verticallyupward, itis convenient to count
distances measured upward, and upward velocities, as positive.
Then, since the acceleration due to gravity diminishes v, equation
(1) becomes
'
""')
ff =
-'"
The formulas (4)and (5) then become
v=
+
vo
(4')
-gt
s
=
hgt^+ vot.
-
(5')
If a body fallsfrom rest it is easy to express the speed as a
function of the distance traversed. In this case, Vo = 0. Then
(4) and (5) become,
V
==
gt
(4")
"i = igtK
(5")
"38] THE POWER FUNCTION 53 Elimination of t between these equations gives: V = V^-
"38]
THE
POWER
FUNCTION
53
Elimination of t between these equations gives:
V = V^-
(6)
Exercises
1. If a body fallsfrom rest how far will itfallin 10 seconds?
2. If a body is thrown vertically downward with a velocity of 10 feet
per second, how far wUl it have moved
by the end of 10 seconds?
What will its velocity be?
3. If a body is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 64.4
feet per second, what wUl
the velocity be at the end of 10 seconds?
What wiU be the position of the body? How far will ithave moved?
4. Find the laws of motion ifthe acceleration is equal to 2t and if
(1") a = 0 and i; =
t
t
0.
=
0 when
=
0; (2") " =
3 and w =
-2 when
6. If the acceleration is proportional to the time and if v = vo and
s =
t
So when
=
0, show that
a =
-^ + vtt + sd.
CHAPTER IV DIFFERENTIATION OF ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS 39. The Derivative of tiieProduct of a Constant and
CHAPTER
IV
DIFFERENTIATION
OF ALGEBRAIC
FUNCTIONS
39. The Derivative of tiieProduct of a Constant and a Variable.
Let
y
=
CM,
c is a constant and u and y are functions of x.
where
Let Au and
Ay be the increments
to
of u and y, respectively, .corresponding
the increment Ax. Then
or
The derivative of the 'product of a constant and a function is equal
to the constant times the derivative of the function.
Illustrations.
dx
dx
" d[Hx - 2)']
^ d{x -
2)
^-
_
dx
-^
3. d[-|(x'-5p
dx
-1 d{x^ - 5)
da;
(x2-6)2
56
"40] ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS 57 40. The Derivative of the Product of Two Functions. Let y
"40]
ALGEBRAIC
FUNCTIONS
57
40. The Derivative of the Product of Two Functions. Let
y
=
uv,
where u and v are functions of x.
y +Ay
=
(m + Au){v+ A")
y + Ay
uv + uAv + vAu + AuAv
=
Ay
=
uAv + vAu + AuAv
Ay
^
^
j_
"
Aa; ~
Aa;
^'^ I \
Aa;
'^ Aa;'
Since Am approaches zero as Aa; approaches zero,
dy
dv
du
_
~
dx
dx
dx
or
d(uv)
dv
du
.,.
,
(1)
-dr- = '*di +
^di'
the first.
Illustrations.
= (a;+ 2) + (a;+ 3) =
2a; +
5.
2. ^-(^^"M(^=^ = (,.+ 3.) ^^
+ (. - 2) ^(^
= (a;2+ 3a;)+ (a; -
2)(2a;+ 3)
= 3x2 + 2a; -
6.
3. If x^ +
10,
xy^ + y =
+
+
0,
2a; + 3a;2/2g g =
2/'
whence
dy
2x + 2/'
_
dx 3x2/2 + l'

The derivative of the product of two functions is equal to the first times thederivative of the second plus the second times the derivative of

58 CALCULUS ["41 Exercises Differentiate the following: 1. (x + l){x - 1). 2. (x'+
58
CALCULUS
["41
Exercises
Differentiate the following:
1. (x + l){x -
1).
2. (x'+ 2x){x -
3).
9. J, =
10. 2/ =
(a;+ l)Vx^'-2.
(2 -
4.
x)\/x' -
6).
11. y
=
(2x+ 3)\/4 -
a;^.
3. x{x^ + 2x -
4. (a; -
l)2(a;2+ 1).
12. y =
a;\/l -
x'.
6. (a;2+ 2x -
3)(x+ ly.
7y =
IS
13. a;V + 3x -
1.
3xy' =
10.
6. aVa; -
14. x'y -
7. (a; -
1)V^.
3.
16. yVi + aj-y/^ =
1)*.
16. xy "
0.
8. x(x -
xhj -
41. The Derivative of the Quotientof Two Functions.
Let
u
where u and w are functions of x.
Then
2/w =
u.
Differentiatingby the rule of "40,
dv " dy
du
_
dx
dx
dx
du
dv
dy
dx
dx
_
dx
V
Replacing y by its value, -"
du
dv
_
,
,
,
'^'-' ^di-"di
'"
(1)
dx
v2
The derivative of the quotient of two functions is equal to the
denominator times the derivative of the nunierator minus the numeror
tor limes the derivative of the denominator, all divided by the square
of thedenominator.
"42] 59 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS Illustration. dx ~ dx {x-2Y {x - 2)(2a;) - (a'+ 1)
"42]
59
ALGEBRAIC
FUNCTIONS
Illustration.
dx
~
dx
{x-2Y
{x -
2)(2a;) - (a'+ 1)
_
{x-2y
ix "
1
x^
"
{x -
2Y
Exercises
Differentiate the following:
1-
1. ^.
4.
^^.
7.
"1+2
's- Vx'i -
1
X -\
2- ^^^2-
6. -^-
8. ^^^"
42. The
Derivative of u", n Negative.
In Chapter
III the
formula
dM"
"u
-
"
=
n'ur-~'-
dx -y-
dx
formula
was proved for n positive and commensurable. The
We
in a
was assumed for negative exponents.
are
now
position
to give a proof of the formula
Let
for this case.
y
=
u-',
Then
where s is a positive commensurable
constant.
1
"
=
"
!
or
1.
yw
=
Differentiateby the formula of "40,
, du
dy
,
ysu-^^^+u-^^^0,
^
dx u
dx
dx
60 CALCULUS ["43 This completes the proof that du" , du dx dx ifn is
60
CALCULUS
["43
This completes the proof that
du"
, du
dx
dx
ifn is a commensurable constant.'
We see from equation (1) that
du^
nc
un)
(2)
^
~
dx
dx
u^+i
Illustration.
d 3
6
d(,x^ -
1)
12a;
~
dx (a;2 - 1)2 ~
"^ (a;2 -
1)'
dx
(a;^ - 1)"'
Exercises
Differentiate the following :
2
"
1. 4-,-
4.
^r- 3
7. "
x'
+
l
X -1
8. " ^"
2. :pi-.
1
-
a;
B. -r^,-
(.X+
1)^
(a;24. i)*
2
3
3. "
" 6
.1
="
'
"
Vx
Vx -I
(1 - x^)^
43. Maximmn
and Minimum
Values of a Function.
In Chap-ter
I it was shown that the derivative of a function with respect to
its argument is equal to the slope of the tangent drawn to the
curve representing the function. The derivativeis positivewhere
the function is increasing and negative where the function is
decreasing. These facts enable us to determine the maximum
values of a function.
and minimum
Additional
exercises in finding maximum
and minimum values
of a function wiU be given in this section.
Illustration.Let
2a;' + 3x^ -
12a; -
10.
2/ =
^
6a;2 + 6a; -
12 =
=
6(a; + 2){x -
1).
be shown that the formula
1 It can
also holds for incommenBurable
exponents.
"43] ALGEBRAIC PUNCTIONS 61 If X isless than "2, both factors of the derivative are
"43]
ALGEBRAIC
PUNCTIONS
61
If X isless than "2, both factors of the derivative are negative.
Then for allvalues of x less than "2, the derivativeis positive
and the function is increasing. If x is greater than "2 and less
than 1, the firstfactor of the derivativeis positiveand the second
negative. Hence, if " 2 " a; " 1, the derivativeis negative and
the function isdecreasing. If x is greater than 1 the derivativeis
positiveand the function is again increasing.
The function changes from an increasing to a decreasingfunc-tion
when X passes through the value "2, and Changes from a
decreasing to an increasingfunction when x passes through the
value 1. Hence the function has a maximum
value when x equals
"2, and a minimum
value when x equals 1. These
values, 10 and
"
17, respectively, are obtained by substituting " 2 and 1 for
X
in the function. (See Fig. 28.) The more
important results
of the above discussion are put in tabular form below.
62 CALCULUS t"43 It is to be observed that "2 and +1 are the only
62
CALCULUS
t"43
It is to be observed that "2 and +1 are the only values of x
at which the derivative can change sign and that these are the
values that need to be examined in finding the maximum
and
values of the function.
minimum
Exercises
Find where each of the following functionsis increasing; decreas-ing.
Find the maximum
and minimum
values if there are
any.
Sketch the curve
representing each function.
1. y
6. 3/ =
7. V
(x + 2)(x -
3).
=
xK
2. y
2x' -
Ox" + 12x -
10
=
=
x'.
3. y
8. y
Zx + 7.
=
=
x'
-
-2x\
i. y
9. y
1.
^
x^
=
x'
+
-
X
-
x' + 3x -2.
5. y
3i' -
2x2 _
6.
10. y =
=
"^
11. A sheet of tin 24 inches square has equal squares
cut from
The rectangular projections are then turned up to form
each corner.
a tray with square base and rectangular verticalsides. Find the side
of the square that must be cut out from each comer in order that the
tray may have the greatest possiblevolume.
Hint.
Show that the function representing the volume of this tray
is 4x(12 " x)', where x is the side of the square cut out.
12. In a
triangle whose sides are 10, 6, and 8 feet isinscribeda rec-
the
base of which Ues in the longest side of the triangle. EIx-
press the area of the rectangle as a function of its altitude. Find
the dimensions of the rectangle of maximum area.
13. A ship A is 50 miles directly north of another ship B a,t bl
certain instant. Ship B sails due east at the rate of 5 miles per hour,
Show
and ship A sails due south at the rate of 10 miles per hour.
that the distance between the ships is expressed by the function
V 125t' " lOOOi + 2500, where t denotes the number of hours since the
in the
At
ships were
position stated in the first sentence.
what
time are the ships nearest together?
At what
rate are they sepa-rating
"
=
3?
When
t
5?
When
t
67
=
or approaching when
=
14. The stiffnessof a rectangular beam varies as itsbreadth and as
the cube of itsdepth.
Find the dimensions of the stiSest beam which
can be cut from a circular log 12 inches in diameter.

tangle

"63] ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS 63 Miscellaneous Exercises Differentiate phe following twenty-five functions with
"63]
ALGEBRAIC
FUNCTIONS
63
Miscellaneous Exercises
Differentiate phe following twenty-five functions with respect to x :
48. A
ladder 20 feet long leans against the vertical wall of a
64 CALCULUS ["43 building. If the lower end of the ladder is drawn out along
64
CALCULUS
["43
building. If the lower end of the ladder is drawn
out
along the
horizontal ground at the rate of 2 feet per second, at what
rate is
the lower
end is 10 feet from
its upper end moving
down when
the wall?
Hint.
Let AC, Fig. 29, be the wall and
let CB
be the ladder.
I,et AB
AC
Then
=
=x
and
y.
= V400 - x^
y
and
dy
dx
dt
dt'
"v/400"
dx
2,
But, since
=
-jr dt
dy
2x
dt
-\/400 - X'
The negative sign of the deriva-tive
indicates that the upper end
Yiq. 29.
of the ladder is moving down.
0; a; =
2; a; =
15;
49. Answer the question of Exercise 48, if x =
20.
X
=
of Exercise 48, find the rate
the
60. With the statement
at which
area of the triangle ABC,
Fig. 29, is increasing when the lower end
of the ladder is 5 feet from the wall.
51. With the statement of Exercise 48, find the position of the ladder
when the area
of the triangle ABC, Fig. 29, is a maximum.
Fig. 30.
62.
function of the time, ifthe altitude of the sun is 20".
Hint.
Let a;, Fig. 30, be the distance
of the falling body above
the earth. Let y be the di^ance of the shadow
from a point on the
earth directly imder the fallingbody.

A baU is dropped from a balloon at a height of 1000 feet. Ex-press the velocity of its shadow along the horizontal ground as a

Saaj AJLUEBRAIC FUNCTIONS 65 63. With the statement of Exercise 52, find the velocity of
Saaj
AJLUEBRAIC
FUNCTIONS
65
63. With the statement of Exercise 52, find the velocity of the
shadow when the ball leaves the balloon; when it ishalf way to the
earth; when
it reaches the
earth.
64. A man
standing on a dock isdrawing in a rope attached to a boat
If the
at the rate of 12 feet per minute.
point of attachment of the
rope is 15 feet below the man's
hands, how fast is the boat moving
when 13 feet from the dock?
66. The paths of two ships A and B, sailing due north and east,
respectively, cross at the point C. A is sailingat the rate of 8 miles
If A passed through
per hour, and B at the rate of 12 miles per hour.
C 2 hours before B, at what
rate are
the two ships approaching or
separating 1 hour after B passed through C? 3 hours after B passed
through C? When are the two ships nearest together?
66. Two
the
bodies are moving, one
on
the axis of x, the other on
axis of y, arid their distances from the origin are given by
3"2 -
3" +
1,
a; =
"
12,
y
=
-
the units of distance and time being feet and minutes, respectively.
At what rate are the bodies approaching or separating when " = 2?
When
J =
5?
When are they nearest together?
in 35 feet of water
67. A ship is anchored
and the anchor
cable
The
passes over
a sheave in the bow
15 feet above the water.
cable
is hauled in at the rate of 30 feet a minute.
How
fast is the ship
moving
when there are 80 feet of cable out?
68. A gas in a cylindricalvessel isbeing compressed by means
of a
C.
piston in accordance with Boyle's law, pv =
If the piston is
moving at a certain instant so that the volume is decreasing at the
rate of 1 cubic foot per second, at what rate isthe pressure changing if
foot and the
at this instant the pressure is 5000 pounds per square
volume is 10 cubic feet?
69. Water isflowing from an orifice in the side of a cylindrical tank
whose cross
section is 100 square feet. The velocity of the water in
the jet is equal to ""/2gh, where h is the height of the surface of the
water above the orifice. If the cross section of the jet is0.01 square
foot, how long will it take for the water to fallfrom a height of 100
feet to a height of 81 feet above the orifice?
60. At a certain instant the pressure in a vessel containing air is
is 10 cubic feet, and it is
3000 pounds per square foot; the volume
increasingin accordance with the adiabatic law, pv' * = c, at the rate
of 2 cubic feet per second. At what rate isthe pressure changing ?
B
66 CALCULUS i^-*-" 61. Water flows from a circularcylindricalvesselwhosa radius is 2 feet into one
66
CALCULUS
i^-*-"
61. Water flows from a circularcylindricalvesselwhosa radius is
2 feet into one in the shape of an inverted circular cone whose vertical
angle is 60". (a) If the level of the water in the cylinder is falling
uniformly at the rate of 0.5 foot a minute, at what rate isthe water
flowing?
(6) At this rate of flow, at what rate will the level of the
in the cone
is 4 inches? When
it is
water
be rising when the depth
20 inches?
62. A toboggan sUde on a hillsidehas a uniform inclinationto the
horizon of 30".
A
man
is standing 300 feet from the top of the slide
on a line at right angles to the sUde. How fastisthe toboggan moving
away from the mfin 3 seconds after leaving the top?
10 seconds after
leaving the top?
(Use formula for speed of a body sliding down an
inclined plane. Neglect friction.)
If the man
is approaching the,top of the slideat the rate of 10 feet
is
a second, answer
the same
questions, itbeing supposed that the man
300 feet away from the top of the sUde when the toboggan starts.
44. Derivative of a Function of a Function.
li y =
"l"{u) a,nd
u = f{x),2/ is a function of x. The derivative of y with respect
to X can be found without eliminating u.
For any set of corre-
increments,Ax, Ay, and Au,
Ay
Am_
~
_Ay
Ax
Am
Aa;
Hence
lim 4^ ^
lim 4^ lim 4?*.
Since Am approaches zero as Ax approaches
zero,
^
dy du
_
^^^
dx
du dx'
This isthe formula for the derivative of a function of a function.
Illustration.Let
5
2/ =
m'
+
and
u
-=
3x^ + 7x + 10.
dy
"
,
du
and
du
-
"
.

sponding

"46] ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS 67 Then = 3(3a;2 + 7x + 10)^(6a;+ 7). 45. Inverse Functions.
"46]
ALGEBRAIC