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Introduction to (3D) Seismic Interpretation

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

3D seismic an overview

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an acoustic image of the subsurface a volume made up by a series of seismic lines reflection time contains information on depth of subsurface interface reflected energy contains information on properties

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

Aspects of Seismic Interpretation


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Bridge between Geophysics and Geology (can we see a seismic section as a geological profile?) Tries to overcome the non-uniqueness problem Balance between Science and Art Young discipline with rapidly changing technology

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

History of Seismic Exploration


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1900

theory of reflected and refracted waves

1914-1918 (WW1) locating heavy guns by recording arrival times


1919 1920s 1953 1956 1975 1980s
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Mintrop: patent on the refraction method (salt dome discovery, Texas) reflection method (Oklahoma) magnetic tape: analog recording patent on CDP method first 3D surveys development of seismic workstation software
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The Old Way


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A refraction shot in West Texas. 2,000 pounds of dynamite shot by Humble Oil & Refining Company (now Exxon), 1930.
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(Geosource / Petty-Ray Geophysical)

Salt dome exploration (Texas, 1930)


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(Geosource / Petty-Ray Geophysical)

The seismic reflection technique


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Petroleum Handbook 1948 (Shell)

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Advantages of 3D over 2D Seismic


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Spatial continuity
(less correlation problems)

Correct positioning due to 3D migration


(no side-swipes)

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

From A. Brown
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2D vs. 3D Migration
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Dipping events are not focussed with 2D migration but are with Events with out-of-plane dip 3D are not focused with 2D
migration but are with 3D

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

Maps from 2D and 3D Seismic Interpretation


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closure shape updip of 15-B-4X

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2D 3D likely increases the number of faults in a subsurface description 3D but it also likely will increase the geological feasibility of a fault pattern From A. Brown 10

Reacquisition and/or Reprocessing: Getting the target imaged for the first time

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Reacquisition and/or Reprocessing: Improving Resolution


1994

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1983

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Improvements in Migration and Noise-Suppression


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1993

1998

1999/2000

1999/2000

Time Migration

Cluster PreSDM

Enhanced PreSDM

Post Migration
Structurally Oriented Filtering

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(Gerd Kleemeijer NAM TGS-S) 13

Influence of Workstation Technology on Interpretation


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Started new era by:

high accuracy of time picking


autotracking of seismic horizons immediate extraction of amplitudes in grids, next to time grids application to 3D seismic opens up new manipulations like:
creation of random lines interpretation of timeslices reservoir characterisation from continuous attributes

Terminology: TIS = Trace Interpretation System

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3D data cube in visualisation environment


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Detailed faults can be seen on the 3D cube. Hydrocarbons (gas) show as green.
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The Interpreter at work


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(Jaap van der Toorn, NAM TGS-S) 16

Virtual Reality
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Schlumberger Inside Reality VR system

(Schlumberger web site)17

Seismic Interpretation Positioning the Skill


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An inter-disciplinary skill
between geology, geophysics, petrophysics & reservoir engineering often homeless between geology and geophysics skill pools
strong presence in E&A and early development straddling prominent boundaries in Global Processes

Boundary towards quantitative interpretation (QI) not well defined Traditionally more involved in early modelling steps in the asset life cycle

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

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Skill Position of Seismic Interpretation


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Geophysicist: seismic (Re-) Processing

Bio-Stratigrapher: Markers and bio-facies from cores & cuttings

depth conversion
velocity model
Petrophysicist: physical properties from logs

sequence-stratigraphic interpretation
stratigraphic / facies architecture model

Seismic Interpretation

Geologist: marker depths from logs facies from logs and cores, depositional history

quantitative interpretation
property model

structural interpretation
structural model
Structural Geologist: faults & fracture prediction, tectonic history

Reservoir Engineer: volumetrics, simulations, development options, field development plan, well plans
C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S 19

Subsurface Modelling Stages as applied in the Oil&Gas Industry


Velocity Modelling/ Seismic Processing
Velocity Model

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Structural Framework Modelling


Struct.&Stratigr. Model

Reservoir Architecture Modelling


Layer/Object Model

Seismic Processing = impact of seismic data Velocity Model Structural Framework Modelling Framework of Structural & Large-Scale Stratigraphic Surfaces Reservoir Architecture Modelling Detailed Layer/Object Model of Reservoir

Static Property Modelling


Property Model

Static Property Modelling 3D Model of Properties

Dynamic Reservoir Modelling


Fluid Movement Model

Dynamic Reservoir Modelling 4D Model of Fluid Movements

Field Development Planning


Development Plan

Field Development Planning HC Development Scenarios Facilities Planning HC Evacuation Scenarios


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Facilities Planning
Facility Design
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Velocity Modelling and Seismic Processing


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Pre-Stack Processing Well Data Preproc/Interpr Stacking & Migration Exploration / Appraisal / Production 2D and 3D Seismic

Velocities from Seismic Data Velocities from Well Data

Velocity Model Building

Processing Geophysicist Seismic Interpreter Petrophysicist


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Structural Framework Modelling


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Filtering & Interpret. Proc. Well Data Preproc/Interpr

Structural&Stratigraphic Segmentation Tops & Faults from Well Data Structural&Stratigraphic Model Building Depth Conversion Closure-Catchment Analysis Compartmentalisation Analysis Volumetric Analysis

Palinsp. Reconstruction Basin Modelling

Velocity Model
Exploration / Appraisal / Production 2D and 3D Seismic
Seismic Interpreter Quantitative Interpreter (GP) Petrophysicist Geologist
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Stratigraphic / Reservoir Architecture Modelling


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Interpretive Processing Well Data Preproc/Interpr Deposition Modelling Appraisal / Production 3D Seismic

Segmentation into Layers/Objects Genetic/Property Units from Well Data Layer/Object Model Building

Volumetric Analysis

Seismic Interpreter Petrophysicist Geologist


C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S 23

Static Property Modelling


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Seismic Preprocessing Well Data Preproc/Interpr Reservoir Simulation

Seismic Modelling/ Seismic Inversion Rock/Fluid Properties & Fractures from Well Data

Property Model Building Compartmentalisation Analysis

Appraisal / Production 2D and 3D Seismic


Quantitative Interpreter (GP) Petrophysicist Geologist Reservoir Engineer
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Volumetric Analysis

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Dynamic Reservoir Modelling


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Seismic Preprocessing

4D Seismic Analysis / Seismic Modelling Fluid Properties / Pressure / Production from Well Data Property Model Update Compartmentalisation Analysis Volumetric Analysis

Well Data Preproc/Interpr

Reservoir Simulation / History Matching Production 2D and 3D Seismic


Quantitative Interpreter (GP) Geologist Reservoir Engineer Production Technologist
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Amocos exploration balance, improvements mainly attributed to 3D seismic


1200 1000 $6.00 (MMBOE) 800 600 400 resources found 200 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
from Brown 1999

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cost of finding

$8.00 $7.00

$4.00 $3.00 $2.00 $1.00 $0.00

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($/BOE)

$5.00

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Seismic Interpretation in Integrated Reservoir Modelling


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Who are the customers of seismic interpretation results?

What do they want?


When do they want it?

Software portfolio recent movements

Where does the seismic interpretation task end?

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Integrated Field Study Methodology (1)


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Reservoir Structure

Integrated Field Model

Reservoir Architecture

Global Process #5: IRM (3DATWTM)


Production History Reservoir Properties

Optimised Field Development

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Integrated Field Study Methodology (2)


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Raw Data

Multiple Realisations Constructed Using Different Assumptions

Rock Model Property Model

Upscaled Simulation Model

Rule Sets

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Integrated Field Study Methodology (3)


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Simple

Complex

STUDY COMMENCES

STUDY CONCLUDES

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Integrated Field Study Methodology (4)


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STUDY COMMENCES

Detailed Full Field Model Simple Full Field Model

STUDY CONCLUDES

UR (MMm3)

Simple/ Conceptual Models Regional Seismic Logs Core SCAL PVT Well Data Production Data

Field Development Plan Economics Forecasting


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
No Prod.&Inj.Constr Sm.Comp+Opt W orkovers W .Injection H.well3 Lg.Comp+Opt Optim. Void

Low Case Median Case High Case

Scenario

Data Analysis

DATA

Model Complexity

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Iterative Cycles in Subsurface Interpretation


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Execution in iterative cycles:


parallel rather than sequential work in integrated teams
cycles of improving the model and assessing its behaviour in dynamic and economic modelling additional cycles increase detail and confidence of single instances or generate new instances / scenarios intermediate products should be complete at current level of maturity and detail interruption or abandonment of work due to changed priorities does not cause waste

Structure and organise your work such that intermediate products can be passed on to your customers or the activity be stopped at any time without the product being incomplete.

C. Hcker, SIEP, EPT-S

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